REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: ketamine; analgesia; anesthesia; clinical implications; abuse
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:03:22 CEST)
Ketamine as an old - new drug has variety of clinical implications. In the last 30 years, ketamine has become popular for acute use in humans. Ketamine at standard doses is principally utilized for the induction and maintenance in surgical procedures. Beside its use in anesthesia and analgesia, recently studies had shown that ketamine find the place in the treatment of asthma, epilepsy, depression, bipolar affective disorders, alcohol and heroin addiction. Its mechanism of action is complex, but it mostly acts as a noncompetitive antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Ketamine is generally considered relatively secure and does not result in serious adverse effects when used at low doses and for short periods- Also, ketamine is known as a powerful psychostimulant. During the past decade, ketamine has been one of the commonly abused drug.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: fibromyalgia; drugs; NMDA receptor; ketamine; memantine.
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:43:53 CEST)
Activation of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) results in increased sensitivity of spinal cord and brain pathways that process sensory information, particularly that which relates pain. The NMDAR shows increased activity in fibromyalgia and hence modulation of the NMDAR is a target for therapeutic intervention. A literature review of interventions impacting on the NMDAR shows a number of drugs to be active on the NMDAR mechanism in fibromyalgia patients, with variable clinical effects. Low-dose intravenous ketamine and oral memantine both show clinically useful benefit in fibromyalgia. However, consideration of side-effects, logistics and cost need to be factored into management decisions regarding use of these drugs in this clinical setting. Overall benefits with current NMDAR antagonists appear modest and there is a need for better strategy trials to clarify optimal dose schedules and to delineate potential longer –term adverse events. Further investigation of the role of the NMDAR in fibromyalgia and the effect of other molecules that modulate this receptor appear important to enhance treatment targets in fibromyalgia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0156.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: esketamine; ketamine; ketamine assisted psychotherapy; eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder; pharmacology; psychedelics; treatment
Online: 7 March 2022 (08:34:11 CET)
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious, life-threatening psychiatric conditions associated with physical and psychosocial impairments, as well as high morbidity and mortality. Given the chronic refractory nature of EDs and the paucity of evidence-based treatments, there is a pressing need to identify novel approaches for this population. The noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ketamine, has recently been approved for treatment-resistant depression, exerting rapid and robust antidepressant effects. It is now being investigated for several new indications, including obsessive-compulsive, post-traumatic, and substance use disorder; and shows transdiagnostic potential for EDs, particularly among clinical non-responders. As such, the aim of this review is to examine contemporary findings on the treatment of EDs with ketamine, whether used as a primary, adjunctive, or combination psychopharmacotherapy. Avenues for future research are also discussed. Overall, results are encouraging and point to therapeutic value, yet are limited to case series and reports on anorexia nervosa. Further empirical work is thus needed to explore ketamine efficacy across ED subgroups; establish safety profiles and optimize dosing; and develop theory-driven, targeted treatment strategies at the individual patient level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: erectile dysfunction; social stress; ketamine; sexual dysfunction
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:41:13 CEST)
We aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying social stress (SS)-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluate the effects of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine on SS-related ED. Male FVB mice were exposed to retired male C57BL/6 mice for 60 minutes daily over a 4-week period. In the third week, SS mice received intraperitoneal injections of either saline (SSS group) or ketamine (SSK group). Erectile function was assessed by measuring intra-cavernosal pressure (ICP) during electrical stimulation at the major pelvic ganglia. Corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were utilized for wire myography to assess their reactivity. Both SSS and SSK mice exhibited significantly lower ICP in response to electrical stimulation than control. SS mice showed increased contractility of CC induced by phenylephrine. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in SSS and SSK mice. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was higher in SSS mice compared to control and SSK mice. Nicotine-induced neurogenic and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in both SSS and SSK mice. Immunohistochemically analysis revealed co-localization of tyrosine hydroxylase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactive fibers in the CC. These findings highlight the complex nature of SS-related ED and suggest the limited efficacy of ketamine as a therapeutic intervention in this condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Ketamine; Paravertebral block; Posterolateral thoracotomy; Thoracotomy; Visual analog scale
Online: 7 February 2020 (09:28:16 CET)
Severe postoperative pain affects most patients after thoracotomy and is a risk factor for post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS). This randomized controlled trial compared preemptively administered ketamine versus paravertebral block (PVB) versus control in patients undergoing posterolateral thoracotomy. The primary outcome was acute pain intensity on the visual analog scale (VAS) on the first postoperative day. Secondary outcomes included morphine consumption, patient satisfaction, and PTPS assessment with Neuropathic Pain Syndrome Inventory (NPSI). Acute pain intensity was significantly lower with PVB compared to other groups at four out of six time points. Patients in the PVB group used significantly less morphine via a patient-controlled analgesia pump than participants in other groups. Moreover, patients were more satisfied with postoperative pain management after PVB. PVB, but not ketamine, decreased PTPS intensity at 1, 3, and 6 months after posterolateral thoracotomy. Acute pain intensity at hour 8 and PTPS intensity at month 3 correlated positively with PTPS at month 6. Bodyweight was negatively associated with chronic pain at month 6. Thus, PVB but not preemptively administered ketamine decreases both acute and chronic pain intensity following posterolateral thoracotomies. The trial was prospectively registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (https://www.anzctr.org.au/; ACTRN12616000900415; 07 July 2016).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: hair; solar light; photodegradation; amphetamines; MDMA; ketamine; photoproduct; photostability; solar simulator
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:11:57 CEST)
Background: Drug incorporated in hair are exposed to the environment and to cosmetic and chemical treatments, with possible decrease of their content. Knowledge concerning the effect of sun light on drug content in hair can be helpful to the forensic toxicologist, in particular when investigating on drug concentrations above or below pre-determined cut-offs. Materials and Methods: Twenty authentic positive hair samples were selected that had previously tested positive for amphetamines and/or ketamine. Washed hairs were divided into two identical strands: the former was exposed at 765 W/m2 (310–800 nm spectrum of irradiance) for 48 hours in a solar simulator, the latter was kept in the dark. Hair samples were extracted and analyzed by LC-HRMS detection. The percent photodegradation was calculated for each analyte (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamine methylendioxymethamphetamine, ketamine, norketamine). In parallel, photodegradation processes of standard molecules dissolved in aqueous and organic solutions were studied. Results: In 20 hair samples positive for the targeted analytes, exposure to artificial sun light induced an appreciable decrease of drug concentrations. The concentration ranges in the non-irradiated hair samples were 0.01–24 ng/mg; 65% of samples exhibited a decrease in post-irradiation samples, with reduction from 3% to 100%. When more drugs were present in the same hair sample (e.g, MDMA and ketamine) the degradation yields were compound dependent. A degradation product induced by irradiation of ketamine in aqueous and methanol solutions was identified; it was also found to be present in a true positive hair sample after irradiation. Conclusions: Ketamine, amphetamines and their metabolites incorporated in hair of drug users undergo degradation when irradiated by artificial sunlight. Only for ketamine a photoproduct was identified in irradiated standard solutions and in true positive irradiated hair. When decisional cut-offs are applied to hair analysis, photodegradation must be taken into account since sunlight may produce false negative results. Moreover, new markers could be investigated as evidence of illicit drug use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: suicide; social pain; psychache; endogenous opioid system; oxytocin; serotonin; endocannabinoids; buprenorphine; psilocybin; ketamine
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:43:48 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour is a public health problem whose magnitude is both substantial and increasing. Since many individuals seek medical treatment following a suicide attempt, strategies aimed at reducing further attempts in this population are a valid and feasible secondary prevention approach. An evaluation of the available evidence suggests that existing treatment approaches have limited efficacy in this setting, highlighting the need for innovative approaches to suicide prevention. Existing research on the neurobiology of social pain has highlighted the importance of this phenomenon as a risk factor for suicide, and has also yielded several attractive targets for pharmacological preventive strategies. In this paper, the available evidence related to these targets is synthesized and critically evaluated. The way in which social pain is related to the “anti-suicidal” properties of recently approved treatments, such as ketamine and psilocybin, is also examined. Such strategies may be effective for the short-term reduction of suicidal ideation and behaviour in individuals who have made a suicide attempt suicide prevention, particularly in cases where social pain is identified as a contributory factor. These pharmacological approaches may be effective regardless of the presence or absence of a specific psychiatric diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cytochrome P450; formaldehyde; demethylation; high-throughput assay; human liver microsomes; ketamine; CYP2C19; CYP3A; CYP2D6; CYP2B6
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:26:43 CEST)
In a search for a reliable, inexpensive, and versatile technique for high-throughput kinetic assays of drug metabolism, we elected to rehire an old-school approach based on the determination of formaldehyde (FA) formed in cytochrome P450-dependent demethylation reactions. After evaluating several fluorometric techniques of FA detection, we choose the method based on the Hantzsch reaction with acetoacetanilide as the most sensitive, robust, and adaptable to high-throughput implementation. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the use of our new technique for automatized assays of cytochrome P450-dependent drug demethylations and discuss its applicability for high-throughput scanning of the pathways of drug metabolism in the human liver. To probe our method further, we applied it to re-evaluating the pathways of metabolism of ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, and potent antidepressant increasingly used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Probing the kinetic parameters of ketamine demethylation by 11 major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, we demonstrate that besides CYP2B6 and CYP3A enzymes, which were initially recognized as the primary metabolizers of ketamine, an important role is also played by CYP2C19, and CYP2D6, while the involvement of CYP2C9 suggested in the previous reports deemed insignificant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cannabidiol; S-Ketamine; Sex; Mice strain; Flinders Sensitive Line rats; Tail suspension test; Forced Swim Test.
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:32:45 CEST)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating compound extracted from Cannabis sativa, showing antidepressant-like effects in different rodent models. However, inconsistent results have been described depending on the species and the strain used to assess depressive-like behaviour. Moreover, only a few studies have investigated the effect of CBD in female rodents. Therefore, we aimed to i) investigate the effects of CBD in two different strains of mice (Swiss and C57BL/6) and in a rat model of depression based on selective breeding (Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Lines, FSL and FRL) subjected to tests predictive of antidepressant-like effects; and ii) investigate the influence of sex in the effects of CBD in both mice and rats. CBD induced an antidepressant-like effect in male Swiss but not in female Swiss or C57BL/6 mice in the tail suspension test (TST). In male FSL rats, CBD produced an antidepressant-like effect one-hour post-injection. However, in female FSL, CBD induced a bimodal effect, increasing the immobility time at one hour and decreasing it at two hours. Ketamine produced an antidepressant-like effect in male and female FSL rats at different doses. In conclusion, strain, sex, and administration time affect CBD's behavioural response to rodents exposed to tests predictive of antidepressant effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1816.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: intranasal administration; emergency department; migraine; primary headache disorder; analgesics; acute pain management; pain; ketamine; fentanyl; paracetamol; ketorolac; nsaid
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:22:31 CEST)
In the Emergency Department (ED), pain is one of the symptoms that is most frequently reported, making it one of the most significant issues for the emergency physician, but is frequently under treated. Intravenous (IV), oral (PO), and intramuscular (IM) delivery are the standard methods for administering acute pain relief. Firstly, we compared the safety and efficacy of IN analgesia to other conventional routes of analgesia to assess if IN analgesia may be an alternative for the management of acute pain in ED. Secondary, we analyzed the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) and rescue analgesia required. We performed a systematic review-based keywords in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Controlled Trials Register finding only twenty randomized Clinical trials eligible in the timeline 1992-2022. A total of 2098 patients were analyzed and compared to intravenous analgesia showing no statistical difference in adverse effects. In addition, intranasal analgesia also has a rapid onset and quick absorption. Fentanyl and ketamine are two intranasal drugs that appear promising and may be taken simply and safely while providing effective pain relief. IN is simple to administer, non-invasive, rapid onset and quick absorption; it might be a viable choice in a variety of situations to reduce patient suffering or delays in pain management. Analgesia needs to be tailored to each patient's features and type of pain: IN Fentanyl and Ketamine look promising and may be administered easily and safely while providing effective pain relief.