ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1320.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: job crafting; work-life balance; job design; mature organization
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:03:51 CEST)
The study is focused on identifying areas of individualization in those mature organizations in which employees are free to make changes. In addition, factors affecting work-life balance and overlap between the jobs employees do and would like to do are determined. A critical review of the literature and a diagnostic survey, including interviews, questionnaires and observations, were used in the research process, together with the analysis of data concerning working conditions. Employees' opinions (n=300) on individualization areas, job crafting and overlap between performed and preferred jobs were analyzed. Calculations were done using IBM SPSS. According to the results, the maintenance of work-life balance (WLB) and the implementation of job crafting positively affect employee efficiency, counteracting professional burnout and a decrease in motivation. It turns out that employees of mature organizations are familiar with the areas of individualization and in some cases have freedom to implement job crafting. They like the work they do, which translates into well-maintained work-life balance. However, a big challenge for mature organizations is the constantly changing economic environment, the long-term nature of work-life balance programmes and their deferred effects. The results of the research can be an important starting point for extended studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0522.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: job crafting; meta-analysis; leadership; social factors
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:52:46 CEST)
Despite the considerable focus on job characteristics and individual differences in job crafting research, the influence of social factors on job crafting has not been well-acknowledged. This meta-analysis estimates the associations between social factors and job crafting, and how social factors contribute to employee outcomes through their job crafting. Based on a sample of 51 empirical studies that included 54 independent effect sizes (N = 17,863), we found that social factors of positive leadership styles (e.g., empowering and transformational) and coworker support were positively related to employee job crafting. Further, our study showed that employee job crafting positively mediate the relationships between social factors and work outcomes (e.g., job performance and well-being). Our study contributes to job crafting literature by integrating social factors into the job crafting model and demonstrating that the social context of work (in particular organizational-insiders) play a crucial role in shaping employees’ job crafting behavior. We also emphasize the critical role that job crafting plays in transmitting valuable social resources into improved work outcomes. Building on our results, we provide future direction for job crafting research and discuss how our results can imply practice in terms of job crafting training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Inclusive leadership; Job crafting; Innovative work behavior; Belongingness; Uniqueness
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:25:46 CET)
The study aims to examine the mediating role of job crafting between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The data were collected from 314 workers employed in China's small and medium-sized industries. The data collection was done through survey design. The data analysis was done through structural equation modeling using Spss 26 and Mplus 8. Inclusive leadership was found to be related to job crafting and innovative work behavior of the employees. Job crafting was found to be mediating between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The study delineated the link mechanism between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. Studying inclusive leadership in the context of Chinese culture is a powerful complement to inclusive leadership theory. This paper provides the managers of SMEs with significant managerial insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively motivate employees’ innovative work behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: JCQ; job crafting; construct validity; leisure sports instructor; valid scale
Online: 1 May 2018 (11:36:48 CEST)
In previous researches, Job Crafting questionnaire to develop is consists of 3 factors which are Task Crafting, Cognitive Crafting, and Relationship Crafting with 12 to 17 items. The purpose of study is to develop JCQ for leisure sports instructor of Korean. 274 valid samples are used for analysis. Data collecting is purposeful sampling. At result, for Korean Sports Instructor Job Crafting Scale is constructed 3 factors with 12 items is constructed by 3 step procedure. KSIJCQ is confirmed on convergent discriminant validity evidence. In conclusion, KSIJCQ is a valid scale of the measuring and distributes Job Crafting of generalization in sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0292.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: caring behavior; Covid-19 pandemic; nurse; job satisfaction; job stress
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:50:08 CEST)
Abstract: Introduction: Nurses, at the forefront of the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic, have a significant responsibility. Thus, it is substantial to examine the factors behind the job stress, job satisfaction, and the care nurses provide in this process. To examine the correlation between nurses' job stress, satisfaction, and caring behavior perceptions during the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: A descriptive and correlational study. It was conducted with 261 nurses working in a hospital between 2020-2021. Introductory information form, Job Satisfaction Scale for Nurses, Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire (Job Stress Scale) and Caring Behaviors Inventory-24 were used as data collection tools. Factors behind the perception of caring behaviors were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Results: Caring behavior was found negatively correlated with job stress and positively correlates with job satisfaction. The regression analysis showed that the evaluation of the pre-pandemic work environment and the sub-dimensions of the scales, job control, support from superiors, and perceived significance in the workplace affected the caring behavior. Conclusion: The nurses have low job stress, high job satisfaction, and a high perception of caring behavior in the fight against Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0899.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: job exhaustion; primary prevention; leader-member exchange theory; job demands-resourses model; work adjustment theory; turnover intention; job satisfaction
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:43:30 CET)
Combining the Job Demands-Resourses model and the Work Adjustment theory, this research aims to create a theoretical model that considers Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Work Adjustment as protective factors, capable of reducing job exhaustion and turnover intention. A convenience sample of 257 Italian employees filled an online self-report questionnaire. A sequential mediation model was tested, which showed that the relationship between LMX and turnover intention is mediated by Work Adjustment and Job Exhaustion. The results show that the higher the LMX, the higher the work adjustment of the workers and the less they will perceive job exhaustion and, consequently, intent to leave the organisation. With a view to primary prevention, the aim was to investigate possible protective factors at work and the risk factors to look out for in order to move in the direction of preventing a malaise phenomenon before it develops with the aim of promoting wellbeing in organisations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0153.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Career Development; Job Training; Employee
Online: 5 April 2021 (16:28:18 CEST)
Objective: This paper aims to test the effect employee job training has on employee career development in the company.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a quantitative approach with the process of finding the knowledge by using data in the form of numbers as a tool that can be generalized to prove hypotheses. The population in this study was 135 employees by sampling 100 employees using sampling method probability by using random sampling type samples to use slovin formula. Analysis techniques use multiple linear regressions.Findings: The results showed that job training influences the career development of employees in companies with a significant rate of 0.00 less than α=0.05.Practical Implications: The results of the study are recommended for company employees to conduct job training as a tool to improve career development.Originality: Previous research has been conducted to test job training on employee career development in large companies; the findings conclude that employee job training affects employee career development. This research researchers try to research medium-scale companies down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0742.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Police; Jamaica; Stress; Work Support; Job Demands; Job Satisfaction; Well-being; Physical Health; Mediation
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:18:07 CET)
Policing is considered a high-stress occupation due to the demanding nature of the job. Addressing police stress requires a detailed understanding of how psychosocial risk factors influence various aspects of their well-being. Moreover, an analysis of the direct effects of work conditions and the mediating effects of cognitive appraisals is also warranted. Using the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) model of work-related stress , this study investigated the direct effects of work conditions on well-being and also examined the intermediate role of perceived job stress and job satisfaction in the relationship between work conditions and well-being. Five hundred and seventy-eight police officers from the Jamaica Constabulary Force (J.C.F.) completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regressions and the Hayes Process tool for mediation analysis. Both perceived job stress and satisfaction mediated the relationship between work conditions and general physical health. Perceived job stress was an indirect pathway through which work conditions influenced psychological distress, whereas job satisfaction was not a significant mediator. In contrast, job satisfaction mediated the relationship between work conditions and positive well-being, but perceived job stress did not. These findings provide significant evidence for periodically monitoring and auditing perceptions of stress and job satisfaction as they are likely precursors to subsequent health problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0668.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: airlift; job performance; doctor; helicopter; RPISD
Online: 11 October 2023 (05:05:59 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a medical helicopter air transport training program for emergency medical personnel. The program was developed according to Rapid Prototyping Instructional System Design (RPISD) and finalized after content validity and usability evaluation. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated using a single-arm pre-post design to measure the performance of 11 convenience-sampled emergency medical technicians after the program was applied. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 26.0 Program and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, the developed doctor helicopter air transport training program applied RPISD, and the development stage was divided into analysis, design and usability evaluation, and development stages; the final program was derived. Secondly, the developed medical helicopter air transport training program is composed of a blended learning training program that combines online theory lectures and offline simulations for a total of 8 sessions. Third, as a result of applying the developed doctor helicopter air transport training program to 11 emergency medical workers, both pre- and post-air transport subjective job performance and objective job performance were statistically significantly increased. The Dr. Helicopter air transport training program developed in this study was found to be a program that can sufficiently evaluate the job performance of emergency medical personnel in air transport. Through this study, we hope that this training program can directly contribute to improving the survival rate of critically ill patients in the actual air transport field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0443.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: family business; primary psychopathy; job satisfaction
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:39:12 CEST)
This paper aims to explore differences in personality traits, focusing on the levels of primary psychopathy, between formal leaders of family and non-family companies as well as assessing differences in the job satisfaction levels of their employees. Moreover, we assess the relationship between the employees' perception of their formal leader’s primary psychopathy levels and their job satisfaction levels in family firms. The empirical evidence is provided by a sample of 95 Portuguese employees, who responded to a questionnaire that included their perception of their formal leader’s primary psychopathy level and job satisfaction measures. All respondents work in small and medium-sized private companies with no management responsibilities and under formal hieratical supervision. The initial idea that family firms’ employees perceive lower levels of primary psychopathy in their formal leaders than non-family firms’ employees was confirmed. However, employees of family and non-family firms did not differ in their job satisfaction levels. The results also support the notion that perceived levels of primary psychopathy in formal leaders are negatively associated with the employees’ job satisfaction levels. These findings contribute to the research literature by addressing two aspects under-addressed in the comparison between family and non-family firms, while offering insights on the relationship between primary psychopathy in formal leaders and job satisfaction levels of employees working in family firms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0193.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: artificial intelligence; job market; automation; economic impact
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:37:39 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands as an emerging technology poised to reshape various facets of our daily lives, with a particularly noteworthy influence on the labor market. In Morocco, AI adoption has commenced in diverse sectors, including finance, insurance, and telecommunications, opening up fresh avenues for employment. Nevertheless, this technological shift also ushers in challenges for Moroccan workers, necessitating training and upskilling to effectively engage with AI-driven systems. Within this article, we delve into the burgeoning impact of AI on the Moroccan economy and job landscape, delving into both the opportunities and obstacles that accompany its proliferation. Furthermore, we explore strategies that authorities and businesses can employ to harness the benefits of AI while mitigating its potential adverse effects on Morocco's workforce.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0533.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; teacher; Scoping review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:16:56 CEST)
Recent trends in assessing teachers' psychological aspects have led to considering emotional intelligence (EI) as one of the main factors determining teachers' job satisfaction. The present study aims to explore the different effects of emotional intelligence on teachers' job satisfaction. This study used the Scoping review method and focused specifically on studies conducted from January 2014 to February 2023, and 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the results indicated that emotional intelligence has both direct and indirect positive effects on teachers' job satisfaction. However, the results on the effects of various EI models on teachers' job satisfaction were inconsistent. The findings suggest that more research is needed to investigate the impact of the ability model of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction, as well as longitudinal studies to understand the long-term effects of this relationship. Finally, studies are also needed to determine whether demographic factors influence the effects of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction in different countries and contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1652.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: collaborative innovation team; team boundary-spanning activities; team job crafting; individual job crafting; team innovation performance; DID model
Online: 23 June 2023 (09:59:10 CEST)
In order to reveal the impact of boundary-spanning activities of cooperative innovation teams on team innovation performance, this paper takes the panel data of 71 cooperative innovation teams from January to November 2022 as the research sample. It introduces intermediary variables (teamwork crafting and individual work crafting) to analyze the impact mechanism of boundary-spanning activities of teams on innovation performance, 71 teams were divided into 41 experimental groups and 30 control groups, and a quasi-natural experiment was conducted on the innovation performance of team boundary-spanning activities using the Double Difference Model (DID).Research has shown that boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams can promote team innovation performance. Team job crafting has a mediating effect on team innovation performance in boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams. Team job crafting and individual job crafting mediate between the boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams and team innovation performance. Further analysis using the double difference model found that compared to teams without boundary-spanning activities, teams with boundary-spanning activities can directly improve team innovation performance. When team reflection is vital, and task interdependence is high, it will promote team innovation performance. This research enriches the research on the effects of boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams, explores solutions based on quasi-nature, and provides a reference for improving the team innovation performance of collaborative innovation teams.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1748.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurial enterprises; SME; economy; economic growth; job creation
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:10:40 CEST)
This article explores the Role and Contributions of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a globalized and innovative economy, looking specifically at the challenges and opportunities. The establishment and expansion of new firms provides a sizable amount of net new jobs. While high-expectation entrepreneurial enterprises and gazelles are usually found among innovative and technology-based new organizations, it is also essential that there be a sizable supply for them to play a significant part in economic growth. In other words, encouraging all forms of en-trepreneurship is likely to increase the number of innovative, fast-growing enterprises as well as entrepreneurship. In many European countries, entrepreneurship needs to be encouraged. Findings show the crucial role the SME sector plays in the South African economy in tackling sustainable development. About 90% of all official firms in South Africa are thought to be small, medium, or micro-enterprises. The study concluded that one of the major contributions to the South African economy is the SME sector. The SME is not just viewed as a source of new jobs, but also as a sector that absorbs laid-off workers from both the private and public sectors.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0346.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: dataset; NLP; Human Resource Management; classification; Job description
Online: 27 June 2022 (03:43:51 CEST)
We describe a dataset that contains job description published on a popular online website in the information and technology sector. As the website focus mainly on United Kingdom based jobs, the data have a specific focus on this country. It contains 11.501 job vacancies and 13 related meta data information. The dataset is suitable for HR analysis using machine learning techniques such as natural language processing and neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Hong Kong; coaching; education; job satisfaction; coaching behavior
Online: 26 October 2021 (16:06:06 CEST)
Coaches are vital stakeholders in sports development and player/team performances. However, how they perform as coaches is significantly anchored on their relationship with players as the coach-player relationship influences coach’s roles and responsibilities. This study aimed to establish an understanding of how coaching behavior positively influences job satisfaction in Hong Kong. This study sought to achieve the following objectives; to investigate coaching traits for coaching different sports, explore the factors contributing to a coaching behavior, identify effects of coaching behavior on job satisfaction, and describe how coaching behaviors influence the way coaches react to player behavior and competitions. The study used a quantitative research approach to collect and analyze data. A closed-ended questionnaire was used. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The main finding of this study is that career commitment positively influences coaches’ job satisfaction; however, their coaching behavior plays a substantial mediating role. This implies that coaches with high career commitment are positively satisfied with coaching when they focus on coaching behavior factors such as effective communication to have their players perform and achieve common goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1612.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: load balancing; job scheduling; cloud computing; harris hawk optimization
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:30:06 CEST)
The ultimate aim of dynamic load balancing in cloud computing systems is to maximise the efficiency with which resources are utilised and workloads are distributed. Given that load balancing is a multi-objective process and that response time is a priority, the Harris hawk optimisation (HHO) algorithm was developed as a unique solution for dynamic load balancing. Based on burden distribution and resource utilisation, the HHO algorithm is responsible for dynamically assigning workloads to virtual machines (VMs). Through iterative interactions and position updates, the hawks investigate the solution space, determine the optimal method for dividing the work, and adapt to the ever-changing conditions of the workload. The HHO algorithm has been demonstrated to be effective and efficient in the management of dynamic load balancing via a series of experimental evaluations and comparisons with other load-balancing approaches. These discoveries have led to quicker response times and more efficient resource utilisation. Utilising the collaborative search behaviour of hawks, this technique provides a solution that is both practicable and effective for addressing load balancing concerns in dynamic scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Well-being; Positive psychology; Organizational psychology; Job demands-resources
Online: 2 March 2023 (10:20:13 CET)
A The aim of this article is to present the results of studies investigating the relationship between trust in supervisor and in co-workers and trust in the organization as an institution on the one hand, and employee well-being on the other hand. The presented research project was carried out from the perspective of building a positive organization with employee well-being as one of the major goals. The research covered 1,113 individuals, employed with various organizations across Poland. The sample consisted of 48% women and 52% men. Trust was measured using the Trust in Supervisor Scale, Affect- and Cognition-Based Trust, concerning trust in co-workers, and the original Trust in the Workplace Questionnaire. The Eudemonic Well-Being in the Workplace Questionnaire was used to measure well-being. Canonical correlation analysis was used to assess simultaneous associations between sets of measured variables. The results prove that trust, including trust in co-workers, in supervisor and in the organization as an institution, promotes employee well-being in all its dimensions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teacher motivation; work motivation; job satisfaction; COVID-19; Ghana
Online: 22 December 2022 (09:10:30 CET)
Teachers, particularly in developing contexts, were vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. As natural parental figures for students, they had to reconcile the dual role of ensuring the safety and health of students and their own and family well-being. The external crisis of COVID-19 heightened the negative experiences of teachers in their work environments during both online and physical instruction. The qualitative phenomenological study involving thirty (30) secondary school teachers in Ghana took a comprehensive and fresh look at how COVID-19 impacted the work motivation of teachers. It was found that teachers suffered a great deal of stress in the wake of the pandemic and had face-mounting concerns about their working conditions. The low morale of teachers precipitated by COVID-19 made them develop attrition intentions. However, intrinsic and altruistic traits such as passion, the feeling of responsibility, and the desire to contribute to society and foster student development made teachers resilient towards the deleterious effects of the pandemic to promote optimal teaching. Future studies should investigate the installation of support structures that strengthen the motivation of teachers in unforeseen crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0297.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: internationalization; international faculty; higher education; job satisfaction; PLS-SEM
Online: 21 June 2022 (12:38:03 CEST)
Building sustainable campuses has become a priority for various higher education institutes (HEIs). Internalization is one of the important tasks in the progress. Therefore, attracting and maintaining international faculty has converted to action for various internationalized campuses. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has impacted most of the citizens’ life, while the international faculty members’ life might be tight during this period. The purpose of this study is to explore the perspectives of international faculty members on their life in higher education institutes by using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Using a self-compiled online survey, we invited 80 international faculty members of HEIs in Taiwan to investigate this issue. The survey covers career and professional status, teaching and research status, and demographics of the faculty. This study proposes a novel conceptual framework for addressing international faculty’s campus life, the design will examine the relationships among working conditions, views of institutions, views of government’s measures, and levels of satisfaction through PLS-SEM. The demographic profile of the participants revealed (a) most international faculty are employed full-time as lecturers or assistant professors in most public universities; (b) most international faculty members earned their first degree outside of Taiwan; however, 66% of them earned their post-doctoral degrees in Taiwan. The results of PLS-SEM suggest that the international faculty perspective of government is more directly related to their current work satisfaction and overall satisfaction. The designed model has shown work well to assess this issue. This can be extended to other higher education settings to tackle similar issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; military context; proactive personality; resilience
Online: 23 September 2019 (07:40:31 CEST)
Although prior research has extensively examined the association of emotional intelligence (EI) with various job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), the empirical and systematic investigation of this link within military institutions has captured considerably less research attention. The present research analyzed the relationship between EI, teamwork communication, and job satisfaction among Spanish military cadets. We tested the potential unique contribution of EI to job satisfaction over and above demographics (i.e., gender and age), proactive personality, and resilience. Moreover, we also examined whether EI indirectly affects job satisfaction via its relationship with teamwork communication. A sample of 363 cadet officers of the Spanish General Military Academy completed questionnaires assessing EI, teamwork communication, proactive personality, resilience, and job satisfaction. Our results revealed that EI exhibited incremental variance in predicting job satisfaction even after accounting for demographics, proactive personality, and resilience. Additionally, we found that the effect of EI on job satisfaction was partially driven by enhanced teamwork communication. This research provides empirical evidence suggesting a pathway (i.e., effective teamwork communication) through which EI helps military cadets to experience higher job satisfaction. Implications for future academic programs including EI and teamwork communication to promote positive job attitudes among military personnel are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: retention policy; emotional contribution; job retention and business growth
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:11:07 CEST)
This study investigates aspects of job retention and business growth in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It examines how employers think about retention policy in relation to business growth, in contrast to previous studies’ main focus on employee motivation, job retention, and turnover. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of Engineering and Informational Technology SMEs in South Korea. The results show that an important factor influencing job retention policies of SMEs is the motivation of employees to make voluntary effort, rather than offering them additional financial rewards or using other Human Resource Management (HRM) practices to improve individual performances. Interviewees believed that job retention and business growth are closely related and they discussed various ways of eliciting emotional contributions from employees. Unlike research on larger firms, these suggestions did not involve financial rewards. How employers think about the roles played by employees strongly influences their firm’s productivity and competitiveness. The SME CEOs examined in this study considered this issue central to their firm’s survival and growth. This study suggests SME employers adjust their retention policy correspondingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0108.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: peak demand minimization; job scheduling; approximation algorithms; smart grid
Online: 22 September 2017 (10:08:35 CEST)
This paper examines an important problem in smart grid energy scheduling; peaks in power demand are proportionally more expensive to generate and provision for. The issue is exacerbated in local microgrids that do not benefit from the aggregate smoothing experienced by large grids. Demand-side scheduling can reduce these peaks by taking advantage of the fact that there is often flexibility in job start times. We focus attention on the case where the jobs are non-preemptible, meaning once started, they run to completion. The associated optimization problem is called the Peak Demand Minimization problem and has been previously shown to be NP-hard. Our results include an optimal fixed-parameter tractable algorithm, a polynomial-time approximation algorithm, as well as an effective heuristic that can also be used in an online setting of the problem. Simulation results show these methods can reduce peak demand by up to 50% versus on-demand scheduling for household power jobs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1920.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: job recommendation; semantic keyword matching; reciprocity; social networks; college graduates
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:05:37 CET)
s: The lack of historical employment data for college graduates, the need to solve the system cold-start problem and the consideration of reciprocity of job recommendation in job recommendation, lead to low recommendation satisfaction and immature application of the existing job recommendation methods. The article presents a new approach to job recommendation using college graduates as the object of study. In the screening stage, a semantic keyword iterative algorithm is applied to compute the similarity between the resume and recruitment texts. This algorithm enhances the intersectionality of keywords in the calculation process, maximizing the utilization of resume information to enhance the accuracy of text similarity calculations. The ranking phase utilizes in-school data to build a social network between college graduates and graduated students, and solves the system's cold-start problem by using the social network to recommend jobs for college graduates where graduated students are employed. Building upon the amalgamation of the semantic keyword iterative algorithm and the social network job recommendation method outlined above, we introduce a dual-dimensional matching approach involving specialty and salary. This enhancement is designed to elevate the reciprocity of job recommendations. The analysis of the results indicates that the average satisfaction rate (AR) and normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) values for the newly proposed job recommendation method surpass those of other methods, demonstrating its superior effectiveness. The method caters to the preferences of graduate job seekers, aligns with job recruitment requirements, and offers extensive job search assistance to a broad spectrum of graduates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0156.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Burnout global; demand; internal marketing; job demand; perceived individual performance; resources
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:29:00 CEST)
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between IMO and burnout while assessing the contribution of job demands and resources on increasing internal orientation and worker well-being and, consequently, the levels of perceived performance; (2) Methods: Data were collected between April and December 2021 by completing an online questionnaire, developed in the Google Forms platform. The following descriptive statistics were analyzed: measures of central tendency (mean), dispersion (standard deviation), minimum value and maximum value. Next, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the relationship between the variables under study.; (3) Results: The results showed the mediating effect of IMO between performance feedback and perceived performance, while burnout mediates the relationship between emotional and technology demands and perceived performance. (4) Conclusions: These conclusions demonstrate that constructive feedback might help a more efficient performance through better internal communication and the positive effects of technology demands could be the result of the interaction between personal and organizational resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0545.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: perceptions of organizational justice; organizational citizenship behavior; job burnout; mediating effects
Online: 31 August 2022 (10:39:58 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' perception of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior and to reveal the mediating role of teacher job burnout between teachers' perception of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. This study used a questionnaire to collect data from 857 teachers in 21 secondary schools in Chongqing, China. Through a series of hierarchical regression analyses, mediating effects tests, structural equation modeling tests, and dominance analyses, the findings consistently indicated that procedural justice was a positive predictor of organizational citizenship behavior, while teacher’s job burnout was a negative predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. In addition, the study results also indicated that job burnout had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between teachers' perceptions of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors, particularly with the passion burnout and burnout of professional self-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: KTAS; simulation; clinical decision-making ability; job satisfaction; customer orientation; nurse
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:14:54 CET)
This study focused on the development and implementation of an educational simulation program based on Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) for nurses in emergency medical centers who completed KTAS training. We also examined its educational effects based on the evaluation of clinical decision-making ability, job satisfaction, and customer orientation. The study participants were 30 nurses in the emergency medical center of a general hospital. Data were collected from May 3 to 24, 2017, and analyzed using SPSS 22.0. There was a significant difference in the mean scores in clinical decision-making ability, job satisfaction, and customer orientation before and after simulation education. In other words, emergency nurses who received KTAS-based simulation education program improved their clinical decision making ability, job satisfaction, and customer orientation. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that it can be used for KTAS education, and it was found that simulation-based education is a useful learning method for triage nurses in emergency medical center.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0314.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: political skill; job satisfaction; turnover intention; popularity; positive affect; negative affect
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:16:31 CET)
From the perspective of individual resource and social capital, this paper aims to explain how employees’ political skill affect their job satisfaction and turnover intention, through the mediating role of popularity. Using a sample of 237 dyad surveys from supervisors and employees in the Yangtze River Delta of China, we found that: 1) political skill is positively correlated with job satisfaction and negatively correlated with turnover intention, and that these correlations are partially mediated by individual popularity; 2) positive affect (PA) moderates the relationship between political skill and job satisfaction, and negative affect (NA) moderates the relationship between political skill and turnover intention. The implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0611.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Autonomy; LOA; design; swarms; underwater vehicles; marine; Autonomous Job Analysis; canvas
Online: 25 October 2018 (15:33:12 CEST)
Several design methods and principles have been presented so far, in order to guide the design of autonomous operations. Putting the required efforts into learning and using the methods for designing autonomous operations is a daunting task. Experiences so far have shown that the use of methods meant to the help the design process are often ignored. One reason could be that the design guidelines are too complex and contain much information often not relevant for the project at hand, and therefore there is no easy way to distinguish what is important from what is not. This is an issue that needs to be solved with our approach. In this article, the Autonomous Job Analysis (AJA) method is presented. The proposed methodology is created in order to guide the design of autonomous operations in maritime systems by breaking them down in to sub-operations in order to reveal challenges, needs and limitations regarding autonomous behavior. The canvas contains the categories of the AJA method on a single page format -the canvas- and each category is supported with questions to be asked during the design procedure, as well as example answers. We will describe the AJA method and the AJA canvas in detail, and present a use case scenario of an autonomous operation in order to show how they can be applied. The particular use-case is the design of an autonomous operation for the detection, inspection and tracking of a waste water plume.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0123.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: work context; work conditions; work stress; job satisfaction; lifestyle; sonographers; ergonomics
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:53:13 CET)
Work context is essential to understand in relation to handle the stress at work that ultimately creates a feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among health professionals. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship of work context and work stress among sonographers (n=153) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Additionally, the study provided a gender-based comparison of both variables among sonographers. Work context was measured by administering subscale of work context derived from Work Design Questionnaire. Whereas, work stress was measured by Job Stress Scale. In addition, relationship of lifestyle was explored with work context and work stress. Data was collected through survey research forms. Results revealed the significant relationship of work context and work stress (r=.251, p=.002). Among lifestyle variables, perceived good health (r= .214, p=.008) and sleep (r=.242. p=.003) were found positively related with satisfaction toward work. Whereas, the strong positive correlation was found between work context and frequency of physical activity (r=.255, p=.005). No significant difference was found among male and female sonographers. The findings of this study contributed to evaluating the working condition of sonographers in relation to work stress. Effective strategies for better working settings as well as strategies for achieving satisfaction in work will be discussed to enhance the performance of sonographers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: conceptualization; methodology; job allocation; reinforcement learning; stocker; digital twin; simulation; Industry 4.0
Online: 7 August 2023 (03:03:04 CEST)
In this study, reinforcement learning (RL) was used in factory simulation to optimize storage devices for use in Industry 4.0 and digital twins. First, we defined an RL environment, modeled it, and validated its ability to simulate a real physical system. Subsequently, we introduced a method to calculate reward signals and apply them to the environment to ensure the alignment of the behavior of the RL agent with the task objective. The stocker simulation model was used to validate the effectiveness of RL. The model is a storage device that simulates logistics in a manufacturing production area. The results revealed that RL is a useful tool for automating and optimizing complex logistics systems and increase the applicability of RL in logistics. We proposed a novel method for creating an agent through learning using the proximal policy optimization algorithm, and the agent was optimized by configuring various learning options. The application of reinforcement learning resulted in an effectiveness of 30% to 100%, and methods can be expanded to other fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0025.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: work engagement; job satisfaction; quality of life; occupational health; nursing practitioners; nursing
Online: 8 July 2022 (04:20:10 CEST)
Objective: To investigate the correlation between engagement and quality of life at work in nursing professionals, from a public hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study, with nursing professionals, conducted between December 2020 and January 2021. We used the Brazilian versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Walton Model scale. Results: The nursing professionals obtained a strong and positive correlation (r≥0.70) between the social integration domain of QWL and vigor dimension of work engagement (r=0.88; p=<0.001); moderate positive correlation (r≥0.40≤0.69) between QWL working conditions and vigor (r=0.40; p=<0.001), dedication (r=0.40; p=<0.001) and overall score (r=0.41; p=<0.001) of the work engagement. The correlations were positive and weak (r≤0.39) for the other domains of QWL and dimensions of work engagement. Conclusion: Professionals with satisfactory levels of quality of life tended to have higher levels of engagement at work. Professionals were strongly engaged and satisfied with their quality of life at work at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0740.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: occupational noise; job; work; behavioral disorders; psychological disorders; annoyance; occupational medicine; prevention.
Online: 30 March 2021 (13:39:23 CEST)
Chronic exposure to noise can cause several extraordinary effects and involve all the systems of the human organism. In addition to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and immune effects, the data in the literature show alterations in behavioral disturbances, in memory capacity and cognitive performance. Through this systematic review, the authors try to find out which are the main neurobehavioral alterations, in case of occupational exposure to noise. Literature review included articles published in the major databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus), using a combina-tion of some relevant keywords. This online search yielded 4434 references; after selection, the authors analyzed 41 articles (4 narrative reviews and 37 original articles). From this analysis, it appears that main symptoms are related to psychological distress, annoyance, sleep disturbances, cognitive performance. Regarding tasks, the most frequent employments concern school staff, followed by employees from various industrial sectors and office workers. Although the causes are still widely debated, it is essential to protect these workers against chronic exposure to noise. In fact, in addition to a hearing loss, they can manifest many other related discomforts over time and compromise their full working capacity, as well as expose them to a greater risk of accidents or absences from work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0030.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational stress; job burden-capital model; structural equation model; depression; well-being
Online: 4 August 2016 (12:47:57 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF=5.37, AGFI=0.915, NNFI=0.945, IFI=0.952, RMSEA=0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0388.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: planned economy; distribution; market economy; convergence; Mises; Hayek; universal basic income; guaranteed job
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:04:21 CET)
Arguments of Mises and Hayek, who opposed the planned economy (PE), are used in the paper as a starting point for establishing the objective area of effective application of the PE. The abstract model of PE, based on the definitions of Mises and Hayek, leads to the conclusion that for the effective use of PE, it must be a part of mixed economy and it must produce a limited amount of essential goods of irreducible demand. These goods must be distributed among all members of society free of charge, evenly, without competition. Examples of a mixed economy are given that meet this requirement. Calculations of the personal benefit in the transition to a mixed model of the economy have been carried out. The positive and negative qualities of the planned and market methods of organization are considered. Mixed economy model combines these qualities in optimal construction. An analytical framework has been introduced for the construction of product characterization curves. Such curves provide criteria for determining the efficiency of manufacturing of this product in a planned economy. The general economic prerequisites for the usability of the PE are clarified. The applicability and advantages of the PE for the organization of the universal basic income (UBI) system are demonstrated. The possibility of using PE to solve the problem of guaranteed employment is mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0005.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: new ways of working; sector comparison; job goal clarity; red tape; autonomy; NWW-attribution
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:00:11 CEST)
The diffusion of New Ways of Working (NWW) is an important trend in contemporary organi-zations. Many related empirical studies have been produced, but none have focused on differences in employees’ perceptions of the opportunity to use NWW according to organization sector (pri-vate, semi-public, public). This study, based on neoinstituionalism and HR attributions theory, investigated these differences via a survey (n=2693) of employees at private (n=358), semi-public (n=204), and public (n=2131) organizations. The results show that public employees reported less opportunity to use NWW than their private and semi-public counterparts. Furthermore, private sector employees were more likely to attribute well-being and productivity benefits to NWW than their public sector and semi-public counterparts. We also show that institutional and organiza-tional variables specific to the characteristics of organizations in the three sectors partially ex-plain the degree of perceptions with respect to the opportunity to use NWW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0355.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Workplace spirituality; procedural justice; Work Locus of Control, Employee Job Satisfaction; Employee Organisational Commitment
Online: 18 September 2018 (14:32:10 CEST)
The present examination explored the impact of work spirituality and procedural justice on work locus of control, worker work fulfillment and representative authoritative duty among workers from private establishments of high learning in South Africa. Due to limited researches that have concentrated on the impact of workplace spirituality and procedural justice on work locus of control, employee job satisfaction and employee organisational commitment in developing countries especially in Southern Africa. A review was done and information was accumulated by methods for surveys on a sample of 150 academics and support staff in a private university setting in Gauteng, South Africa. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse data using the Smart Partial Least Squares (PLS) software. By means of a partial least squares structural equation modeling approach, this study validates that elements such as workplace spirituality, procedural justice and work locus of control are instrumental in stimulating the employee job satisfaction and employee job commitment. The present investigation offers suggestions for academicians in the field of resource management by upgrading their comprehension of the how workplace spirituality and procedural justice impacts work locus of control, employee job satisfaction and employee organisational commitment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: job satisfaction; physicians; turn-over intention; turnover intention; teamwork; skills shortage; interview study; repertory grids
Online: 8 December 2022 (04:18:02 CET)
Job satisfaction has a strong impact on the intention to stay which is an important aspect to counter skills shortage in academic medicine. In an interview study combining qualitative and quantitative methods we investigated how the mental representation of working conditions influences job satisfaction and its impact on the intention to stay. In a first study chief physicians participated in interviews about job satisfaction in academic hospitals. Answers were segmented into statements, ordered by topics and rated according to their valence. In a second study assistant physicians (residents) during and after their training period talked about strength, weaknesses and potential improvements of working conditions. Again, answers were segmented, ordered, rated and used to develop a ‘job satisfaction scale’. In a third study, assistant physicians participated in a computer-led repertory grid procedure composing ‘mental maps’ of job satisfaction factors, filled in the job satisfaction scale and rated if they would recommend work and training in their clinic as well as their intention to stay. Comparing the interview results with recommendation rates and intention to stay show that a negative attitude is linked to high workload and poor career perspectives. A positive attitude towards work environment and high intention to stay are linked to sufficient personnel and technical capacities, reliable duty scheduling and fair salaries. The third study using repertory grids showed that the perception of current teamwork and future developments concerning work environment were the main aspects to improve job satisfaction and the intention to stay. The results of the interview studies were used to develop an array of adaptive improvement measure. The results support prior findings that job dissatisfaction is mostly based on generally known “hygiene factors” and whereas job satisfaction is due to individual aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0419.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: job satisfaction (JS); work style (WS); leadership style (LS); organizational climate (OC); register office; Mongolia
Online: 18 October 2018 (11:49:18 CEST)
Purpose - The purpose of the study is to investigate the missing link between leadership style and job satisfaction among Mongolian public sector employees. This study reiterates the mediating role of organizational climate (OC) and work style (WS) in a new proposed model. Methodology - The questionnaire is designed by a synthesis of existing constructs in the current relevant literature. The research sample consisted of 143 officers who work in the primary and middle units of territory and administration of Mongolia. Factor analysis, reliability test, collinearity test, and correlation analyses confirm validity and reliability of the model. Multiple regression analysis, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), tests the hypotheses of the study. Practical implications - This study has several important implications for studies related to organizational behavior and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the implications of findings are beneficial to organizations aiming at improving policies and practices related to organizational behavior and human resource management. Regulators and supervisors of private or public organizations aiming to increase the level of their employees’ job satisfaction will also benefit from the findings. Therefore, this study’s new proposed model can be the basis of fundamental research to build a better human resource policy. Although leadership style is an influential factor for job satisfaction, this study identifies the mediating missing links between leadership style and employees’ job satisfaction. Findings: The findings of this research indicate that organizational climate and work style complement and fully mediate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. Appropriate leadership style is most effective when it matches organizational climate as well as employees’ work style. Furthermore, suitable organizational climate will increases the level of job satisfaction. If work style of employees is respected and taken into consideration, leadership style can find its way into job satisfaction. Originality/value - This study is the first to understand the motivators of job satisfaction in government sector of Mongolia. This study suggests valuable findings for executive officers, junior and primary unit’s officers of register sector of government in Mongolia. The findings of this study help managers and executives in their effort to develop and implement successful human resource strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0197.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: public health; occupational; Covid; SARS-CoV-2; work; job exposure matrix; JEM; compensation; predictivity; validity; accuracy
Online: 16 February 2022 (09:47:18 CET)
Background. We aimed to assess the validity of the Mat-O-Covid Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) on SARS-CoV2 using compensation data from the French National Health Insurance compensation system for occupational-related COVID-19. Methods. Deidentified compensation data for occupational COVID-19 in France were obtained between August 2020 and August 2021. The acceptance was considered as the reference. Mat-O-Covid is an expert based French JEM on workplace exposure to SARS-CoV2. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to study the association between the exposure assessed by Mat-O-Covid and the reference, as well as the Area Under Curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Results. In the 1140 cases included, there was a close association between the Mat-O-Covid index and the reference (p<0.0001). The overall predictivity was good, with an AUC of 0.78 and an optimal threshold at 13 per thousand. Using Youden’s J statistic resulted in 0.67 sensitivity and 0.87 specificity. Both positive and negative likelihood ratios were significant: respectively 4.9 [2.4-6.4] and 0.4 [0.3-0.4]. Discussion. It was possible to assess Mat-O-Covid’s validity using data from the national compensation system for occupational COVID-19. Though further studies are needed, Mat-O-Covid exposure assessment appears to be accurate enough to be used in research.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hotel housekeepers; stress; occupational health; job demands-resources model; qualitative research; work- life balance; gender perspective.
Online: 19 November 2020 (15:11:33 CET)
Tourism is the main economic sector in the Balearic Islands (Spain) and hotel housekeepers (HHs) are a large occupational group, in which stress is becoming a major issue. This study aims at exploring in-depth factors perceived as stressors by HHs and key-informants, and their effects on work-life balance (WLB). A qualitative design with phenomenological approach was used, conducting six focus groups with 34 HHs and 10 individual interviews with key-informants. Results were analyzed adopting the job demands-resources model and a gender perspective. High demands –e.g work overload, time pressure, physical burden...-, lack of enough resources and little control –derived from role conflict, unexpected events...- were the most important factors explaining HHs’ stress. Additionally, this imbalance was perceived as leading to health problems –mainly musculoskeletal disorders-. Working schedule was mentioned as a facilitator to WLB, whereas an imbalance between job demands and resources led to work-home conflict –preventing them from enjoying leisure time-. Multiple roles at work and at home increased their stress. HHs experienced their job as invisible and unrecognised. Regarding practical implications, our recommendations for hotel organization include reducing workload and increasing resources, which would improve the job demands-resource balance, diminish negative mental and physical outcomes and improve WLB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial internet of things; random job arrival time; information entropy theory; self-adaption; real-time scheduling
Online: 6 August 2020 (06:00:12 CEST)
In recent years, the individualized demand of customers brings small batches and diversification of orders towards enterprises. The application of enabling technologies in factory, such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Cloud Manufacturing (CMfg), enhances the ability of customer requirement automatic elicitation and the manufacturing process control. The job shop scheduling problem with random job arrival time dramatically increases the difficulty in process management. Thus, how to collaboratively schedule the production and logistics resources in the shop floor is very challenging, and it has a fundamental and practical significance of achieving the competitiveness for an enterprise. To address this issue, the real-time model of production and logistics resources is built firstly. Then, the task entropy model is built based on the task information. Finally, the real-time self-adaption collaboration of production and logistics resources is realized. The proposed algorithm is carried out based on a practical case to evaluate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms three existing algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: affective events; work engagement; sensitization-satiation effects; job demands-resources model; experience sampling; growth curve modeling
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:37:58 CEST)
Although work events can be regarded as pivotal elements of organizational life, only a few studies have examined how positive and negative events relate to and combine to affect work engagement over time. Theory suggests that to better understand how current events affect work engagement (WE), we have to account for recent events that have preceded these current events. We present competing theoretical views on how recent and current work events may affect employees (e.g., getting used to a high frequency of negative events or becoming more sensitive to negative events). Although the occurrence of events implies discrete changes in the experience of work, prior research has not considered whether work events actually accumulate to sustained mid-term changes in WE. To address these gaps in the literature, we conducted a week-level longitudinal study across a period of 15 consecutive weeks among 135 employees, which yielded 849 weekly observations. While positive events were associated with higher levels of WE within the same week, negative events were not. Our results support neither satiation nor sensitization processes. However, high frequencies of negative events in the preceding week amplified the beneficial effects of positive events on WE in the current week. Growth curve analyses show that the benefits of positive events accumulate to sustain high levels of WE. WE dissipates in the absence of continuous experience of positive events. Our study adds a temporal component and informs research that has taken a feature-oriented perspective on the dynamic interplay of job demands and resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1609.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: artificial intelligence; job-shop scheduling; flow-shop scheduling; neural networks; particle swarm optimization; reinforcement learning; machine learning
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:26:12 CEST)
This systematic literature review explores the burgeoning use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in manufacturing systems, in line with the principles of Industry 4.0 and the growth of smart factories. In this landscape, AI is crucial in addressing the complexity and dynamism of contemporary manufacturing processes, including machine breakdowns, fluctuating orders and unpredictable job arrivals. This systematic literature review, conducted using the Scopus database and bibliometric tools, pursues two primary objectives. First, it identifies the prevailing trends in solving scheduling problems with AI and identifies the most commonly used AI techniques in the literature. Secondly, it analyses how authors have successfully employed AI to address production scheduling challenges in real-world industrial settings and assesses the benefits obtained by companies. The dynamic nature of manufacturing systems requires adaptive scheduling paradigms. AI, including Particle Swarm Optimization, Neural Networks, and Reinforcement Learning, is applied to optimize production processes, predict machine failures, and achieve substantial benefits. In real-world applications, these AI-driven solutions have led to reduced production costs, enhanced energy efficiency, and more efficient scheduling processes. AI is increasingly recognized as an essential tool in addressing the evolving challenges of modern manufacturing environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0394.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: business relationships; B2B collaboration; time management; VBA automation; macro programming; job satisfaction; performance; sustainable human resources management
Online: 23 February 2023 (02:23:30 CET)
The best business relationships are built as relationships between people and organizations that work together to achieve common goals. In the current digital era, B2B collaboration relationships are essential for business success. The response time to customer requests can be a key factor in maintaining these relationships and obtaining a competitive advantage. The use of VBA automation for repetitive tasks can help speed up this process, but it is important that computer operators have medium knowledge about using VBA macros. This work deals with issues related to improving response times to requests received by email, using a macro program for repetitive tasks. The empirical study was conducted on an average of 50 daily emails for order confirmation, with an average writing time of 68 s per email, resulting in a potential reduction in working time for the operator of approximately 1 h/day, only for order confirmation. The results show a significant improvement in working time for computer operators, using VBA buttons for repetitive tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0041.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: employee turnover; perceived external prestige; organizational justice; job satisfaction; organizational commitment; extrinsic rewards; career advancement; constituent attachments
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:29:48 CET)
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has established itself as the medical device industry’s preferred regional center. Major multinational corporations either have a regional subsidiary or are planning to open up a principal office in the UAE to expand their business. Employees in the industry are in high demand as new opportunities open up frequently and that causes challenges to companies, namely employee turnover. This research helps bridge the gap found in the literature by investigating the factors that impact employee turnover in the medical device industry in the UAE. These factors were tested with their subsequent sub-factors. Using a quantitative approach, the study surveyed 230 participants from 47 medical device companies in the UAE. The result of one-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant relationship between employee salary and employee turnover. The linear regression analysis was statistically significant between perceived external prestige, location, flextime, organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, extrinsic rewards, career advancement, lack of alternatives, constituent attachments, and employee turnover. These findings indicate the need for a strategy utilizing these factors for existing and new medical device companies in the UAE to prevent high employee turnover or limit it at least.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: telemedicine; emergency medicine; emergency medical services; workload; work job satisfaction; technology acceptance; knowledge sharing; Dunning-Kruger effect
Online: 8 June 2022 (11:32:45 CEST)
Background: Tele-emergency physicians (TEPs) take an increasingly important role in the need-oriented provision of emergency patient care. To improve emergency medicine in rural areas, we set up the project Land|Rettung (English: Rural|Rescue), which uses TEPs to restructure professional rescue services using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in order to reduce the therapy-free interval. Successful implementation of ICTs relies on user acceptance and knowledge sharing behavior. Methods and findings: We conducted a factorial design with active knowledge transfer and technology acceptance as a function of work satisfaction (high vs. low), workload (high vs. low) and point in time (prior to vs. after digitalization). Data were collected via machine readable questionnaires issued to 755 persons (411 pre, 344 post), of which 304 or 40.3% of these persons responded (194 pre, 115 post).Technology acceptance was higher after the implementation of TEP for nurses but not for other professional groups, and it was higher when the workload was high. Regarding active communication and knowledge sharing, employees with low work satisfaction are more likely to share their digital knowledge as compared to employees with high work satisfaction. Additional and more detailed analyses reveal that this is an effect of previous knowledge concerning digitalization. After implementing the new technology, work satisfaction increased for the more experienced employees, but not for the less experienced ones. Results are discussed considering the Dunning-Kruger effect. The Dunning-Kruger effect describes a cognitive bias. People with high expertise often underestimate their actual skill level. They have a more critical attitude towards their performance and feel the urgent need to fill possible knowledge gaps they notice. Conclusions: Our research illustrates that employees’ workload has an impact on the intention of using digital applications. The higher the workload, the more people are willing to use TEPs. Regarding active knowledge sharing, we see that employees with low work satisfaction are more likely to share their digital knowledge compared to employees with high work satisfaction. This might be attributed to the Dunning-Kruger effect. Highly knowledgeable employees initially feel uncertain about the change, which translates into temporarily lower work satisfaction. They feel the urge to fill even small knowledge gaps, which in return leads to higher work satisfaction. Those responsible need to acknowledge that digital change affects their employees’ workflow and work satisfaction. During such times, employees need time and support to gather information and knowledge in order to cope with digitally changed tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian networks; directed acyclic graphs; employee loyalty; employment arrangements; flexi-time; job satisfaction; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 7 July 2016 (12:12:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between job satisfaction, employee loyalty and two types of flexible employment arrangements; teleworking and flexi-time. The analysis relies on data derived by the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in 2004 and 2011. A propensity score matching and least squares regressions are applied. Furthermore, Bayesian Networks (BN) and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are employed in order to confirm the causality between employment types explored and the outcomes of interest. Finally, an instrumental variables (IV) approach based on the BN framework is proposed and applied in this study. The results support that there is a positive causal effect from these employment arrangements on job satisfaction and employee loyalty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: psychological distress; COVID-19 pandemic; health care workers; perceived risks; workplace relationship; support; training; workplace hazards; perceived barriers; job tension
Online: 11 July 2022 (07:40:12 CEST)
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has been widely acknowledged to affect the mental health of health care workers (HCWs), attention to measures that protect those on the front lines of health outbreak response has been limited. In this cross-sectional study, we examine workplace contextual factors associated with how psychological distress was experienced in a South African setting where a severe first wave was being experienced with an objective of identifying factors that can protect against HCWs experiencing negative impacts. Consistent with mounting literature on mental health effects, we found a high degree of psychological distress (57.4% above General Health Questionnaire cut-off value) and a strong association between perceived risks associated with the presence of COVID-19 in the healthcare workplace and psychological distress (adjusted OR = 2.35, p <.01). Our research indicates that both training (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.81) and the reported presence of supportive workplace relationships (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27 – 0.97) were associated with positive outcomes. This evidence that workplace resilience can be reinforced to better prepare for the onset of similar outbreaks in the future suggests that pursuit of further research into specific interventions to improve resilience is well merited.