SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0289.v5
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; proton affinity; calcium oxalate; isoleucine; valine; glycine; prophylactic approach
Online: 14 June 2020 (17:43:37 CEST)
The current pneumonia epidemic could evolve into a pandemic on a global scale if not effectively contained. The COVID-19 virus possesses a 61-amino acid open reading frame resembling SARS-CoV virulence factor - ORF6 peptide. The isoleucine content is 15.9% in ORF6 of SARS-CoV versus 16.4% of that in SARS-CoV-2. Given the proton affinity in the carbonyl oxygen in isoleucine, augmented proton traffic can enhance proton-ion antiport and prompt cell swelling. Calorie restriction has been confirmed in animal studies to extend lifespan, and its underlying mechanism is not fully known. As the content of essential amino acids in the open reading frame of SARS-CoV-2 reaches 57.4%, a starch/vitamin diet served for short period of time does not give rise to essential amino acids and halts virion production, which could be adopted as prophylactic approach of many viral infections. Plant-based diet or fasting/boiled rice water can also minimize the intake of essential amino acids or all amino acids respectively. Furthermore, several proteins of SARS-CoV-2 possess high valine plus glycine content which is implicated in heart disease, justifying the aforementioned approaches.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: fenugreek; medicinal plant; 4-hydroxy isoleucine; trigonelline; ecological condition; canonical correspondence analysis
Online: 15 August 2019 (08:15:09 CEST)
Trigonella foenum is one of the oldest medicinal plants that grow in many parts of Iran with the diverse ecological situation. Employing this plant for treating diabetes and high cholesterol has a long history, because of some metabolites. Due to the habitat of fenugreek is a wide range of climatic conditions, it may have power to cope with climate variation. The main intention of this inquiry was to understand the effect of the environmental variables on this therapeutic plant features. It was also interesting for us to understand which environment variables are more impressive for enhancing of trigonelline and 4-hydroxy isoleucine content as the most important metabolites of this plant. For achieving this goal, environmental information and vegetal data were analyzed to discover the role of nature on the seed part of fenugreek life in 50 different regions of Iran. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) displayed that high content of metabolites and some morphological characteristics happened in high temperature and solar irradiation. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and path analysis used to find the best predictors and direct and indirect effect of all variables on 4-hydroxy isoleucine and trigonelline. Ecological condition were the best predictors and had the highest direct and indirect impact on 4-hydroxy isoleucine. However, for trigonelline, the environment did not play a senior role. It seems that the reaction of components of fenugreek does not follow the same way. Studying on morphological, primary and secondary metabolites, and surrounding environment of fenugreek, helped us to have a more precise judgment about the life of this plant.