SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0289.v5
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; proton affinity; calcium oxalate; isoleucine; valine; glycine; prophylactic approach
Online: 14 June 2020 (17:43:37 CEST)
The current pneumonia epidemic could evolve into a pandemic on a global scale if not effectively contained. The COVID-19 virus possesses a 61-amino acid open reading frame resembling SARS-CoV virulence factor - ORF6 peptide. The isoleucine content is 15.9% in ORF6 of SARS-CoV versus 16.4% of that in SARS-CoV-2. Given the proton affinity in the carbonyl oxygen in isoleucine, augmented proton traffic can enhance proton-ion antiport and prompt cell swelling. Calorie restriction has been confirmed in animal studies to extend lifespan, and its underlying mechanism is not fully known. As the content of essential amino acids in the open reading frame of SARS-CoV-2 reaches 57.4%, a starch/vitamin diet served for short period of time does not give rise to essential amino acids and halts virion production, which could be adopted as prophylactic approach of many viral infections. Plant-based diet or fasting/boiled rice water can also minimize the intake of essential amino acids or all amino acids respectively. Furthermore, several proteins of SARS-CoV-2 possess high valine plus glycine content which is implicated in heart disease, justifying the aforementioned approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0580.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: herbivore-induced plant defense; signaling pathway; intraguild predation; jasmonoyl-isoleucine; abscisic acid
Online: 19 April 2023 (09:31:48 CEST)
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has become one of the most important pests on corn in China since it invaded in 2019. Although FAW has not been reported to cause widespread damage to rice plants in China, it has been sporadically found feeding in the field. If FAW infests rice in China, the fitness of other insect pests on rice may be influenced. However, how FAW and other insect pests on rice interact remains unknown. In this study, we found that the infestation of FAW larvae on rice plants prolonged the developmental duration of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) eggs, and plants damaged by gravid BPH females did not induce defenses that influenced the growth of FAW larvae. Moreover, co-infestation by FAW larvae on rice plants did not influence the attractiveness of volatiles emitted from BPH-infested plants to Anagrus nilaparvatae, an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers. FAW larvae were able to prey on BPH eggs laid on rice plants and grew faster compared to those larvae that lacked available eggs. Studies revealed that the delay in development of BPH eggs on FAW-infested plants was probably related to the increase in levels of jasmonoyl-isoleucine, abscisic acid and the defensive compounds in the rice leaf sheaths on which BPH eggs were laid. These findings indicate that if FAW invades rice plants in China, the population density of BPH may be decreased by intraguild predation and induced plant defenses, whereas the population density of FAW may be increased.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: fenugreek; medicinal plant; 4-hydroxy isoleucine; trigonelline; ecological condition; canonical correspondence analysis
Online: 15 August 2019 (08:15:09 CEST)
Trigonella foenum is one of the oldest medicinal plants that grow in many parts of Iran with the diverse ecological situation. Employing this plant for treating diabetes and high cholesterol has a long history, because of some metabolites. Due to the habitat of fenugreek is a wide range of climatic conditions, it may have power to cope with climate variation. The main intention of this inquiry was to understand the effect of the environmental variables on this therapeutic plant features. It was also interesting for us to understand which environment variables are more impressive for enhancing of trigonelline and 4-hydroxy isoleucine content as the most important metabolites of this plant. For achieving this goal, environmental information and vegetal data were analyzed to discover the role of nature on the seed part of fenugreek life in 50 different regions of Iran. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) displayed that high content of metabolites and some morphological characteristics happened in high temperature and solar irradiation. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and path analysis used to find the best predictors and direct and indirect effect of all variables on 4-hydroxy isoleucine and trigonelline. Ecological condition were the best predictors and had the highest direct and indirect impact on 4-hydroxy isoleucine. However, for trigonelline, the environment did not play a senior role. It seems that the reaction of components of fenugreek does not follow the same way. Studying on morphological, primary and secondary metabolites, and surrounding environment of fenugreek, helped us to have a more precise judgment about the life of this plant.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Jarin-1, root length, jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), jasmonic acid isoleucine (JA-Ile)
Online: 3 October 2023 (02:39:19 CEST)
Jasmonates (JAs), including jasmonic acid (JA) and its biologically active derivative JA-Ile, are lipid-derived plant signalling molecules. They govern plant responses to stresses, such as wounding and insect herbivory. Wounding elicits a rapid increase of JA and JA-Ile levels as well as the expression of JAR1, coding for the enzyme involved in JA-Ile biosynthesis. Endogenous increase and application of JAs, such as MeJA, a JA methylester, result in increased defence levels, often accompanied by diminished growth. The function of jarin-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was assessed. To investigate whether jarin-1 does function similarly in other plants, we tested this in Medicago truncatula, Solanum lycopersicum, and Brassica nigra seedlings in a root growth inhibition assay. Application of jarin-1 alleviated the inhibition of root growth after MeJA application in M. truncatula seedlings, proving that jarin-1 is biologically active in M. truncatula. Jarin-1 did not show, however, a similar effect in S. lycopersicum and B. nigra seedlings treated with MeJA. Even JA-Ile levels were not affected by application of jarin-1 in wounded leaf disks from S. lycopersicum. Based on these results, we conclude that the effect of jarin-1 is highly species-specific. Researchers intending to use jarin-1 for studying the function of JAR1 or JA-Ile in their model plants, must test its functionality before use.