ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0446.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); island communities; point-of-care testing; spatial care paths
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:30:44 CEST)
Abstract: Our goal is to create point-of-care (POC) strategies that accelerate decision making, increase efficiency, improve outcomes, and enhance standards of care in island communities faced with global warming, rising oceans, population migration, and intensifying weather disasters. We assessed needs in the Bantayan Archipelago and mainland Cebu Province, Visayas Islands, Philippines, to map POC diagnostics, rescue times, and spatial care paths. Significant deficiencies were lack of cardiac troponin testing for rapid diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, absence of blood gas and pH testing for support of critically ill patients, and geographic gaps prolonging patient transfers and delaying treatment. Strengths comprised primary care that can be facilitated by POC testing, logical inter-island transfers for which decision making and triage could be accelerated with onboard diagnostic testing, and healthcare small-world networks amenable to POC advances, such as pre-hospital testing, that avoid overloading emergency rooms. Healthcare resources must be distributed to archipelago islands, not concentrated in large metropolitan areas inaccessible for emergency interventions. We conclude that a point-of-need focus will help improve public health, decrease disparities in mortality among rural islanders versus urban dwellers, and pave the way for heightened resilience in anticipation of the adverse impact of global warming on vulnerable coastal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Island nations, Tourism, Small Island Nations, economic development, tropical islands
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:29:52 CET)
In the past few decades, the tourism sector has emerged as a significant economic activity in island nations, particularly in tropical regions. However, most of the tropical islands face similar constraints. National and international tourists visit the SIDS including A & N Islands and contribute to the GDP to significant share. The Covid-19 outbreaks in SIDs including A & N islands shows that number of people infected were less as compared to metros or big cities. However, tourism activities completely stopped due to lockdown resulting in decreasing tourist’s arrival, declined GDP and per capita income of SIDs to greater extent. The information gathered from various sources, mass media and net analysed and interpreted in this chapter. Due to Covid-19 tourist’s arrival declined which has serious consequences on the livelihood of islander. Our analysis revealed A&N Islands deficit in energy available at from different sources by 18.26%. However, they are surplus in protein. The burden of high expenditure coupled with poor infrastructure makes them more vulnerable in the circumstance of pandemic outbreaks. This outbreak has created the question of survival due to loss of jobs, halted economic activates, psychological, health unrest and livelihood threats among the depending people of these Island nations. Therefore, government interventions and subsidized package is very much essential to revive the tourism industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2194.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Hainan Island; Changhua River; Hydrogeochemistry; Controlling factors
Online: 31 August 2023 (15:05:14 CEST)
The lower reaches of the Changhua River are located in the northwest of Hainan Island, and the shallow groundwater in this area is the main water source for residents living at both sides of the river. In order to sustain the exploitation and use of water resources in this area, it is essential to clarify the chemical characteristics and the formation mechanism of the groundwater. We collected 100 sets of shallow groundwater samples from the lower reaches of the Changhua River, and analyzed the chemical characteristics of the groundwater in shallow aquifers as well as its controlling factors by means of the methods including descriptive statistical analysis, Piper diagram, Gibbs diagram, and ion ratio. The results show that the overall characteristics of groundwater in the study area are near-neutral to weakly alkaline nature, indicating a generally oxidized environment. The groundwater involves in 56 chemical types, and the most predominant types are Ca•Na-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3, respectively. NO- 3 has become a macro component exceeding SO2- 4in most of the sampling groundwater, suggesting a significant impact of human activities in this area. At the same time, the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the study area are mainly affected by the water-rock interaction, while the water-rock interaction is mostly affected by the dissolution of silicate rocks and less by the dissolution of carbonate rocks and evaporite rocks. According to the ion ratio results, Na+ and K+ in the study area are mainly from the leaching of silicate rocks, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are mainly from the dissolution of carbonate rocks, in addition to a certain degree of cationic exchange. NO- 3 is mainly related to human activities, and the human activities are more affected by agricultural activities and domestic sewage than by industrial and mining activities. This study can provide a reference for the development and protection of shallow groundwater in the lower reaches of the Changhua River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Microsatellite; CpG island; sex chromosomes; DNA markers
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:41:59 CEST)
DNA markers have high occurrence and mutation rates and are generally located around the controlling regions of some tissue-specific genes and housekeeping genes that can change the expression pattern. Microsatellites and CpG islands are stretches of DNA with repeats and are known to influence gene expression. Microsatellites are more prone to mutations than the rest of the genomic DNA which allows the straightforward genomic nucleotide evolutionary transformation rate in different species. In the present study, these DNA markers are mined and an in-silico comparison was carried out to understand their occurrence pattern and distribution frequency in sex chromosomes (X and Y) of 12 different animal species using Perl and R programming pipelines. It was found that female-dominant X chromosomes had higher occurrence and distribution frequencies for these DNA markers than that of male-dominant sex chromosome i.e. Y which means that the former has a higher number of the evolutionary sites. The density of DNA markers however, showed remarkable variation for different animal species The results obtained need validation through wet-lab experimentation. Tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats are more abundant in exons, whereas other repeats are more abundant in non-coding regions.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0059.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Astola Island; plastic pollution; Zeolite catalyst; recycling
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:34:11 CET)
Astola Island is the first marine protected area of Pakistan acknowledged 2017, June 15. It is a rich biodiversity hotspot, Ramsar site inhabiting endangered species like Green turtle, Hawksbill turtle, and Arabian Humpback whale. A saw-scaled Russell’s viper is endemic to Island. Marine ecology of Astola Island is affected by plastic pollution resulting in coral destruction, ocean acidification, global warming, fishing nets blockage, water pollution, and coastal erosion. Zeolite catalyst synthesized from environmentally friendly way by coal fly ash to degrade collected plastic waste from Island into useful products in pyrolysis reactor. The synthesized catalyst functionalized further with three type of organosilane(1) Octyltriethoxysilane(OS),(2)Phenyltriethoxysilane(PS)(3)Vinyltriethoxysilane(VS).Zeolite functionalize with octyltriethoxy silane (ZO) shows the highest performance in plastic pyrolysis, resulting in lower degradation temperature, low residue and more product formation may be due to having long chain hydrocarbon and acidic sites. Plastic recycling is the promising solution to tackle plastic blooming issue. Which is negatively impacting all the compartments of ecosystem especially marine environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0249.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Geoarchaeology; Urban Geomorphology; Failaka Island; GIS; RS.
Online: 11 August 2020 (04:13:37 CEST)
Failaka Island is located 20 kilometers east of the Kuwait mainland. The island includes archaeological sites dating back to the Bronze, Hellenistic, Christian, and Islamic ages. To develop the island as a tourist attraction the state is pursuing a new urban plan based on the island's environmental potential. This study is the basis of the urban plan depends on environmental criteria from the view of Geoarchaeology. The study analysis the land-use and land-cover changes of Failaka Island between 1958- 2018. It provides a topographic survey of the island's coastline and a classification of its geomorphological features and a state of the art identification of its archaeological sites by using a drone to make a terrain model. The study used a medium to high-resolution image analysis of the land-use and land-cover changes: WorldView2-50cm 2010 and 2018; Landsat 8; aerial photography; Drone images and a digital elevation model (DEM), to analysis the expected sea level changes by the end of this century. This study also created a geodatabase of the island that can be adapted for future studies. The results emphasize the importance of preserving the historical and ecological features of the island while developing its infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0184.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: gas hydrate; BSR; Mocha island; gas-phases
Online: 9 August 2018 (09:46:14 CEST)
Recent studies have reported shallow and deep seep areas offshore Mocha island. Gas hydrate occurrences along the Chilean margin could explain seeps presence. Gas phases (gas hydrate and free gas) and geothermal gradients were estimated analysing two seismic sections. Close to Mocha island (up to 20 km) were detected high (up to 1900 m/s) and low (1260 m/s) velocities associated with high gas hydrate (up to 20 % of total volume) and free gas (up to 1.1% of total volume) concentrations respectively. These values are in agreement with a variable and high geothermal gradient (65 to 110 °C/km) related to high supply deep fluids canalised by faults and fractures. Faraway from Mocha island (more than 60 km), free gas concentrations decrease to 0.3 % of total volume and low geothermal gradient (from 35 to 60 °C/km) are associated with low fluids supply. Finally, we propose gas hydrate dissociation processes as the main supply source for seeps in the vicinity of Mocha island. These processes can be triggered by ancient sliding reported in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0603.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: the landscape structure; the river island; the Venetsiansky (Hydropark) Island; the genetic landscape study; the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP).
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:27:56 CEST)
The article studies the Venetsiansky (Hydropark) Island (the Dnipro River, Kyiv, Ukraine) landscape structure applying the genetic landscape science method and the European landscape classification (LANMAP) approach. The aim of the article is to determine the best way to study the river islands landscapes analyzing the Venetsiansky Island landscape structure by the both methods. Methodology. The genetic landscape science method consists in the next steps: 1) the island’s territory information collecting; 2) the preliminary landscape map creating; 3) field study; 4) the final landscape map creating. The LANMAP method consists on: 1) the climate study; 2) the altitude study; 3) the parent material study; 4) the land cover study. The results. The genetic landscape science method demonstrates that the Venetsiansky Island is not a landscape, but a structural part of the landscape – the tract. The LANMAP study reveals that the Venetsiansky Island is naturally homogeneous, but land cover differs. The conclusion. The both methods’ study shows that the river island cannot be the entire landscape by the natural criteria, but only the part of it. The genetic landscape science explores the landscape forming while the LANMAP reveals the current state of the landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; DNN; parallel inverters; island mode; power quality
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:13:15 CEST)
The microgrid is a small-scale, autonomous decentralized power plant with its own distributed generation, storage capacity and multiple loads, with the capacity to function in grid interconnected and an island mode. The decentralized control of microgrids with parallel operated voltage source converters (VSCs) is proposed in this paper to improve power quality using a machine learning approach. The DNN based MPPT controller is proposed and its best performance is presented. The SRF-PLL is utilized for AC side synchronization in VSC control. The proposed microgrid involves two PV arrays fed to two voltage source converters along with their independent controls, connected in parallel through LC filters and line coupling transformers and serves the loads at PCC. The proposed model is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The dq-framed inner loop control is employed to individually regulate the real and reactive power at the point of common coupling. Furthermore, the proposed model is analyzed and compared by employing a mathematical model of AC system dynamics, inner loop control, output voltage quality, AC harmonic spectrum analysis, and total harmonic distortion (THD) in both grid interconnected and island mode. In island mode, AC harmonic spectrum and THD are accomplished within the permissible range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: allelopathy; biochar; invasive species; island ecosystems; Psidium cattleianum
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:37:04 CET)
Many tropical invasive species have allelopathic effects that contribute to their success in native plant communities. Pyrolyzed biomass (“biochar”) can sorb toxic compounds, including allelochemicals produced by invasive plants, potentially reducing their inhibitory effects on native species. Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is among the most important allelopathic invasive species in tropical islands and recognized as the most serious invasive species threat in the global biodiversity hotspot of Mauritius. We investigated the effects of additions of locally produced biochar on native tree species in a field experiment conducted in areas invaded by strawberry guava within Mauritius’ largest national park. Growth and survivorship of native tree species were monitored over 2 ½ years in plots subjected to four treatments: non-weeded, weeded, weeded + 25 t/ha biochar and weeded + 50 t/ha biochar. Native tree growth and survivorship were strongly suppressed by strawberry guava. Biochar treatments dramatically increased native tree performance, with more than a doubling in growth, and substantially increased native tree survivorship and species diversity, while suppressing strawberry guava regeneration, consistent with growth-promoting properties and sorption of allelochemicals. We conclude that biochars, including “sustainable biochars” produced from locally accessible biomass using low-tech pyrolysis systems, have considerable potential to counteract effects of allelopathic invaders and increase the capacity for native species regeneration in tropical island ecosystems.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: SWG; SWGRG; SWM; WDNs; Living lab; YeongJong Island
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:31:47 CEST)
In South Korea, in line with the increasing need for a reliable water supply following the continuous increase in water demand, the Smart Water Grid Research Group (SWGRG) was officially launched in 2012. With the vision of providing water welfare at a national level, SWGRG incorporated information and communications technology in its water resource management, aiming at the development of core technologies for a Smart Water Grid consisting of intelligent microgrids and a demonstration and tests of the developed technologies through a field operation in a living lab. The living lab was built in Block 112 of YeongJong Island, Incheon, South Korea (area of 17.4 km2, population of 8,000), where Incheon International Airport, a hub of Northeast Asia, is located. In this location, water is supplied through a single submarine pipeline, making the place optimal for responses to water crises and the construction of a water supply system during emergencies. From 2017 to 2019, ultrasonic wave type smart water meters and IEEE 802.15.4g advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) networks were installed at 527 sites of 958 consumer areas in the living lab, and core element technologies (intelligent water source management and distribution system, smart water distribution network planning/control/operation strategy establishment, AMI network and device development, integrated management of bi-directional smart water information), and operation solutions (smart water statistics information, real-time demand-supply analysis, decision support system, real-time hydraulic pipeline network analysis, smart DB management, and water information mobile application) were developed through a field operation and testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0047.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: cancer risk; risk assessment; volcanic soils; Santiago Island
Online: 14 August 2017 (09:11:20 CEST)
The hazard and the carcinogenic risks due to the exposure to some potentially toxic elements by the Santiago Island (Cape Verde) population where calculated, considering soil ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact as exposure pathways. The topsoil of Santiago Island is enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Mn and Cd to upper crust values. Hazard indices (HI) were calculated for these metals and As exposures, of Santiago Island population and the calculations were performed for children and adults. For children HI are higher than 1 for Co, Cr and Mn. So there is indication of potential non-carcinogenic risk for children, due to the high Co (HI=2.995), Cr (HI=1.329) and Mn (HI=1.126), values in soils. For the other elements and for adults there is no potential non-carcinogenic risk. Cancer risk was calculated for As, Cd, Cr and Ni exposures, for adults and children and the results are always lower than the carcinogenic target risk of 1x10-6, for As, Cd, and Ni. However, cancer risk are higher than the carcinogenic target risk for Cr, for adults. Regarding As, for children the fraction due to Riskingestion represents 51.6%, while Riskinhalation represents 48.0% and Riskdermalcontact represents only 0.4% of total risk. For adults Riskinhalation represents 81.3%, Riskingestion represents 16.6% and Riskdermal contact represents 2.1%. These results reflect the higher daily ingestion dose for children and the higher inhalation rate and higher dermal contact surface for adults. For the other elements and for adults the cancer risk due to Cr, Ni and Cd inhalation is always higher than for children, reflecting the higher inhalation rate for adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0966.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Blue carbon; Mangrove; Tidal flat; Fringe mangroves; Riverine mangroves; Ishigaki Island; Iriomote Island; Okinawa; Japan; CO2; DIC; TA; CaCO₃ dissolution
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:22:22 CEST)
Mangrove creeks adjoining typical riverine mangrove forests is known to be a net source of CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the ocean due to the decomposition of rich organic carbon in the soil; such information is limited in fringe mangroves. This study aims to clarify the difference in carbonate processes between the two types of mangrove forests. We conducted continuous monitoring of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and measured carbonate chemistry parameters (total alkalinity (TA) and DIC) in two types of mangrove areas located in Okinawa, Japan. The result showed that the maximum pCO2 reached 5242 µatm in the Fukido River estuary (a riverine mangrove), whereas it was only 765 µatm on the Yubu coast (a fringe mangrove). The measured maximum TA and DIC values were 3285 µM and 3283 µM in the Fukido River estuary and 3162 µM and 2977 µM on the Yubu coast. These indicate that pCO2 on the Yubu coast was maintained at low values by the carbonate buffering capacity even when TA and DIC increased rapidly. The mangroves on the Yubu coast grow on dead corals and coral soils. It was suggested that the DIC/TA ratio was constantly kept at approximately 0.9 due to TA production by the dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which resulted in lower pCO2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: porcine endogenous retroviruses; Auckland Island pigs; islet cell xenotransplantation
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:41:24 CET)
Auckland Island pigs represent an inbred population of feral pigs isolated on the subantarctic island for over 100 years. The animals have been maintained under pathogen-free conditions in New Zealand, they are well characterized virologically and have been used as donor sources in first clinical trials of porcine neonatal islet cell transplantation for the treatment of human diabetes patients. The animals do not carry any of the xenotransplantation-relevant viruses and in the first clinical trials no porcine viruses including porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) have been transmitted to the human recipients. PERVs pose a special risk in xenotransplantation since they are part of the pig genome. When the copy number of PERVs in these animals was analyzed using droplet digital PCR and primers binding to a conserved region of the polymerase gene (PERVpol), a copy number typical for Western pigs was found, confirming previous phylogenetic analyses of microsatellites and mitochondrial analyses showing a closer relationship to European pigs than to Chinese pigs. When kidney cells from very young piglets were analyzed, only around 20 PERVpol copies were detected. Using these cells as donors in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), animals were born showing a PERVpol copy numbers between 35 and 56. This data indicates that Auckland Is-land pigs have a similar copy number in comparison with other Western pig breeds and that the copy number is higher in adult animals compared with cells from young piglets. Most im-portantly, PERV-C free animals were selected and the absence of additional eight porcine viruses was demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0910.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: porcine endogenous retroviruses; Auckland Island pigs; islet cell xenotransplantation
Online: 13 September 2023 (14:11:45 CEST)
Auckland Island pigs represent an inbred population of feral pigs isolated on the subantarctic island for over 100 years. The animals have been maintained under pathogen-free conditions in New Zealand, they are well characterized virologically and have been used as donor sources in first clinical trials of porcine neonatal islet cell transplantation for the treatment of human dia-betes patients. The animals do not carry any of the xenotransplantation-relevant viruses and in the first clinical trials no porcine viruses including porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) have been transmitted to the human recipients. PERVs pose a special risk in xenotransplantation since they are part of the pig genome. When the copy number of PERVs in these animals was analyzed using droplet digital PCR, a copy number typical for Western pigs was found, confirming previous phylogenetic analyses of microsatellites and mitochondrial analyses showing a closer relationship to European pigs than to Chinese pigs. When kidney cells from very young piglets were analyzed, only around 20 PERVpol copies were detected. Using these cells as nuclear donors in a somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), animals were born showing PERVpol copy numbers between 35 and 56. This data indicates that Auckland Island pigs have a lower copy number in comparison with other Western pig breeds and that the copy number is higher in adult animals compared with cells from young piglets. Most importantly, PERV-C free animals were selected and the absence of additional eight porcine viruses was demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0055.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Aquifer, Ternate Island, Regional geology, Groundwater potential, Hydrogeochemistry zone.
Online: 2 November 2022 (11:02:30 CET)
Ternate Island is a volcanic island resulting from the activity of the Gamalama Volcano which is located in the northern Maluku archipelago, Indonesia. Ternate Island is famous as the only island that produces special spices and is the zero point of the world's spice route because the main producer of cloves is here. As a small island, Ternate Island has several limitations including the availability of water resources. Given the scarcity of surface water on the island of Ternate, groundwater in shallow aquifers and deep aquifers is the main source of fresh water which is important for irrigation activities, tourism, services and supporting urban and industrial infrastructure, as well as drinking water needs for people who live densely and are concentrated in the east. and the southern part of the island which is now the city of Ternate. The phenomenon of groundwater utilization in Ternate City is generally massively carried out to support economic activities in the city of Ternate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential and quality of groundwater resources which are an important part of water management on the island of Ternate by microzoning the quality of groundwater for the sustainability of the city which is famous as the world's spice city based on its groundwater potential. Determination of groundwater samples as many as 67 wells distributed on the island of Ternate, 58 well sample points were categorized as free aquifers (MA-SG) and 7 points of depressed aquifers (SB). Ternate island area of 102 km2 with volcanic geology in 3 rock categories. Geological distribution also affects the hydrogeological potential and groundwater quality on the island of Ternate. Piper's trilinear diagram and stiff diagram methods were adopted for the assessment of the main ion quality of groundwater and the distribution of groundwater potential was interpolated with cubic splines to obtain correlations between sample points based on basic parameters of volcanic hydrogeology. The total potential for groundwater recharge is 1,291 million m3/year, there are 5 groundwater quality zones spread among 67 sample points with 76% distribution of elements Calcium Bicarbonate (CaCO3), Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO₂), magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 and widely distributed on the island of ternate, while 25% magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and potassium chloride (KCL) are scattered locally on the island of ternate. On an ongoing basis the bicarbonate facies micro-zonation is hydrogeochemical with local flow interactions in volcanic deposits, where infiltration tends to be close to the groundwater sample point, while the chloride facies is a groundwater zone that is correlated with flow patterns from upstream to downstream and has interacted with magma or was intruded. seawater is characterized by high Ca and TDS.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: island-type city; city park; waterfront area; space syntax
Online: 12 September 2020 (11:45:01 CEST)
The bay is a space barrier for the development of island-type cities and a high-quality waterfront landscape resource. This study takes Xiamen a typical island city in China as an example. First, It use the method of satellite telemetry technology combined with GIS software and spatial syntax, respectively, from the material space level and social space level, to summarize the rapid urbanization process of this city since 1990-2018, focusing on the construction process of three large-scale waterfront park systems in the transition period of inter-island development in it, and comparing the similarities and differences of their spatial forms. Further, from the choice of the axis model and the integrated analysis results, we discuss the spatial efficiency changes. The construction of the three major bay waterfront park systems in this city reflects a huge change in development pattern from lagging construction, synchronous planning, to advanced layout, providing a continuous and variable spatial form for the development of the bay region and improving space efficiency, which one of the important ways to develop and transform island-type cities. We hope to provide the reference for the development including sustainable development of other island cities around the world
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urbanization; land surface phenology; urban heat island; Northeast China
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:30:26 CET)
The urbanization effects on land surface phenology (LSP) have been investigated by many studies, but few studies focused on the temporal variations of urbanization effects on LSP. In this study, we used the MODIS EVI, MODIS LST data and China’s Land Use/Cover Datasets (CLUDs) to investigate the temporal variations of urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP in Northeast China during 2001–2015. Land surface temperature (LST) and phenology differences between urban and rural areas represented the urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP, respectively. Mann-kendall nonparametric test and Sen's slope were used to evaluating the trends of urbanization effects on LSP and urban heat island intensity. The results indicated that the average land surface phenology (LSP) during 2001–2015 was characterized by high spatial heterogeneity. The start of the growing season (SOS) in old urban area had become earlier and earlier than rural area and the differences of SOS between urbanized area and the rural area changed greatly during 2001–2015 (−0.79 days/year, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the length of the growing season (LOS) in urban and adjacent areas had become increasingly longer than rural area especially in urbanized area (0.92 days/year, p < 0.01), but the differences of the end of the growing season (EOS) between urban and adjacent areas did not change significantly. Next, the UHII increased in spring and autumn during the whole study period. Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that the increasing urban heat island intensity in spring contributed greatly to the increases of urbanization effects on SOS, but the increasing urban heat island intensity in autumn did not lead to the increases of urbanization effects on EOS in Northeast China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: SWAN wave model; Nearshore wave energy resource assessment; Ocean renewable energy; Wave energy model simulation; Off-grid island electrification; Cuyo Island; Palawan
Online: 19 October 2022 (14:30:04 CEST)
Electrifying off-grid and isolated islands in the Philippines remains one of the challenges that hinders community development. One of the solutions seen to ensure energy security, expand energy access and promote a low carbon future in this isolated islands is the use of renewable energy sources. This study wishes to determine the nearshore wave energy resource during monsoon seasons in Cuyo Island using a 40-year wave hindcast and 9-year on-site wind speed data to develop high resolution wave energy model using SWAN wave model, and assessed its annual energy production through matching with wave energy devices. Results shows that average significant wave height (Hs), peak period (Tp) and wave power density (Pd) during northeast monsoon are Hs = 1.35 m, Tp = 4.79 s and Pd = 4.05 kW/m respectively, while southwest monsoon which is sheltered by the mainland resulted to a lesser outcome, Hs = 0.52 m, Tp = 3.37 s and Pd = 0.34 kW/m. While the simulated model was observed to overestimate the wave energy resource (Bias = 0.398, RMSE = 0.54 and SI = 1.34), it has a strong relationship with the observed values (average r = 0.9). Its annual energy production is highest at Station 5, with AEPWaveBouy = 43.761 MWh, AEP-Pelamis = 216.786 MWh and AEPWave Dragon = 2462.66 MWh. At present, the minimum requirement for a wave energy development to be feasible is 5 kW/m, which in this case, Cuyo Island falls short, but with the continuous evolution of wave energy converters, applications on milder re-sources will soon materialized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2094.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: PV; Shading Factor; Heat Island; Agrivoltaic System; Surface Energy Budget
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:25:11 CEST)
Solar energy is a rapidly growing sector, and solar farms are playing an increasingly important role in meeting the world's energy needs. However, as the size and complexity of these farms increase, so do the challenges associated with managing them efficiently. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the fundamental parameters that underpin solar energy systems. Focusing on the latest research, we examine the challenges and opportunities intrinsic to the implementation of solar energy systems, paying particular attention to the various parameters that contribute to their performance. These parameters encompass a range of factors such as thermal performance, atmospheric boundary layer, solar energy meteorology, heat islands, cloud influences, agrivoltaic systems, shading factors, and surface energy budget. The review underscores the importance of considering a diverse array of parameters when developing solar energy systems to optimize their efficiency and effectiveness. Ultimately, by unraveling these challenges and opportunities, we can work towards creating more sustainable and reliable renewable energy sources and reducing our dependence on non-renewable alternatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0305.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Geosite; geotourism; Syros island; metamorphic rocks; subduction zone; sustainable development
Online: 18 January 2021 (09:08:12 CET)
Syros Island, Cyclades complex, central Aegean Sea, Greece, is a prime locality for the study of processes active in deep levels of orogens and is world famous for its exceptionally well preserved glaucophane schist-to eclogite-facies lithologies. Glaucophane schists and eclogites are witnesses of one of the fundamental tectonic processes operating on planet Earth. Results of geological research on Syros have contributed a lot to our present understanding of why and how these processes work that make oceans disappear, how mountain ranges can start to form, how magma chambers form to feed volcanoes, how subduction mechanisms can trigger earthquakes and lead to tsunamis, and a series of other spectacular or very impressive phenomena which have been observed and studied throughout the earth s window offered in that particular place of the world. The description, interpretation and evaluation of the important geological heritage of Syros, in combination with a preliminary SWOT analysis, showed the geotourism potential of the region. The results of this paper are intended to constitute a valuable tool for enhancing and raising awareness of the geological heritage of the island of Syros, with regard to the added value activities to be developed on a sustainable basis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Resource-based view, regional competitiveness, renewable energy, wind power, island
Online: 20 February 2019 (10:59:22 CET)
This paper aims to propose a new approach of territorial competitiveness assessment revisited from the resource-based view, as the combination of location-specific resources and capabilities can improve the territorial socio-economic development. A territorial competitiveness index is calculated in order to assess the potential of renewable energy sources to improve the sustainable development in islands. Different sources of information and methodologies have been employed to measure the variables included in the model, thus ensuring a rigorous process in the index calculation. In order to quantify the basic resources, for example, a methodology based on a multicriteria analysis (MCA) with geographic information system (GIS) is suggested, with the objective of obtaining an indicator called index of available territorial resources. This index synthesizes the map information through a numerical value that allows integrating the territorial resource with other indicators of the model. The results of the study show that capability development is a key factor to better exploit the territorial resource endowment in order to achieve a competitive advantage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2040.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Shrub patch; Alpine shrub plant; Fertility Island; Relative interaction intensity (RII)
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:16:23 CET)
. Shrub patches influence soil fertility and vegetation, impacting species composition and diversity. The Eastern Qilian Mountains' unique context provides insights into alpine ecosystems' response to environmental challenges. This study aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics and soil nutrient contents of shrub patches for four different shrub species. Four alpine shrub species (Salix oritrepha, Spiraea alpina, Rhododendron capitatum, and Potentilla fruticose) were studied, assessing their patch characteristics and soil nutrients at different depths within three patch microsites. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate differences among shrub species and locations within the shrub patches. Our results showed that the shrub species exhibited variations in patch characteristics and soil nutrient distribution. Soil nutrient content varied by depth and location within the shrub patches, with higher concentrations at the center. The relative interaction intensity (RII) showed nutrient aggregation or dispersion trends. The study highlighted the complex interactions between shrub characteristics and soil nutrients, emphasizing their influence on nutrient cycling, vegetation dynamics, and soil properties. These findings contribute to our understanding of alpine ecosystem dynamics and inform conservation and management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0911.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Strong vortex confinement; superconductivity; Ginzburg-Landau theory; superconducting island; free energy
Online: 13 June 2023 (09:17:48 CEST)
In this work we report recent theoretical calculations of a superconducting island in a strong vortex confinement regime. The obtained results reveal the evolution of superconducting condensate as a function of electron mean-free path (l) with the evolution of an applied magnetic field H0. The results of this study provide an insight about the emergent superconducting properties under such conditions, using the Ginzburg-Landau numerical simulations where spatial variation of thickness d on island, omnipresent in these kind of structures grown on Si (111), is taken into account. These results offer a new route to tailor superconducting circuits by using the controlled bombardment, in order to explore the impact on vortex distribution, phase of order parameter, number of vortices, free energy and the first H1 and second critical field H2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0275.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: intertropical cities; physiologically equivalent temperature; thermal comfort indices; urban heat island
Online: 20 June 2022 (16:20:47 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) is mostly due to urbanization. This phenomenon in concert with the high temperatures caused by global climate change may profoundly affect human thermal comfort, which can influence human productivity and morbidity especially in spring/summer period. The main objective of this investigation was to determine changes in degree of thermal comfort of Mexico City’s inhabitants and compare it with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) to evaluate whether PET and its categorization are adequate to be applied in Mexico City. A series of microclimatological measurements to estimate PET were made in four sites including the city´s center. Concomitantly, a series of surveys of thermal perception were applied to 1300 passersby. The results show that PET has increased from 1990 to 2020 from 0.1208 °C/year to 0.1498 °C/year in the study sites, besides overestimating the degree of thermal comfort of people according to the stablished categories or classes. It is concluded that it is necessary to adjust thermal stress categories. Knowing the percentage of people without thermal comfort will lead us to determine different ranges in environmental parameters to define an acceptable environment for most people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0399.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Building Footprint; Remote Sensing; ASTER; New York City
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:35:33 CEST)
Urban areas have very complex spatial structures. These spatial structures are primarily composed of a complex network of built environments, which evolve rapidly as the cities expand to meet the growing population’s demand and economic development. Therefore, studying the impact of spatial structures on urban heat patterns is extremely important for sustainable urban planning and growth. We investigated the relationship between surface temperature obtained by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, at 90 m spatial resolution) on the current EOS-Terra platform and different urban components based on the classification of high-resolution QuickBird imagery. We further investigated the relationships between surface temperature and building footprint and land use information acquired from the New York City (NYC) Department of City Planning. The ASTER image reveals fine-scale urban heat patterns in the NYC metropolitan region. The dark and medium-dark impervious surfaces, along with bright surfaces, generate higher surface temperatures. Even with highly reflective urban materials, the presence of impervious materials leads to an increased surface temperature. At the same time, trees and shadows are effective in reducing urban heat. The data aggregated to the census tract reveals high-temperature clusters in Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx region of NYC. These clusters are associated with industrial and manufacturing areas and multi-family walk-up buildings as dominant land use. The census tracts with more trees and higher building height variability generate lower surface temperatures, consistent with shadow cast by high-rise buildings and trees. The results of this study can be valuable for urban heat island modeling on the effects of building heights variability and tree shadows on small-scale surface temperature patterns. It can also help identify the risk areas during extreme heat events to protect public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0061.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: limits; adaptation; small island developing states; impacts; sustainable development; policy-making
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:26:11 CET)
Small Island States (SIDS) are among the nations most exposed to climate change (CC) and are characterised by a high degree of vulnerability. Their special nature means there is a need for more studies focused on the limits to CC adaptation on such fragile nations, particularly in respect of their problems and constraints. This paper addressed a perceived need for research into the limitations of adaptation on SIDS, focusing on the many restrictions which are unique to them. The main research question raised by this study was that how and to what extent the challenges by human activities (e.g., agriculture and tourism) posed to coastlines of SIDS could be addressed. This paper identified and described the adaptation limits they have, by using a review of the literature and an analysis of case studies from a sample of five SIDS in the Caribbean and Pacific regions (Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Cook Islands, Fiji, Solomon Islands, and Tonga). The findings of this research showed that an adaptable SIDS is characterised by awareness of various values, appreciation and understanding of a diversity of impacts and vulnerabilities, and acceptance of certain losses through change. The implications of this paper are two-fold. It explains why island nations continue to suffer from the impacts of CC, and suggest some of the means via which adequate policies may support SIDS in their efforts to cope with the threats associated with a changing climate. This study concluded that, despite the technological and ecological limits (hard limits) affecting natural systems, adaptation to CC is not only limited by such complex forces, but also by societal factors (soft limits) that could potentially be overcome by more adequate adaptation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Island; Minimum spanning tree; Load forecasting; Controllable switches; Distributed generations
Online: 24 December 2020 (12:35:42 CET)
The power system vulnerability leads to faults and the severity of the fault may lead to prolonged load-shedding. The power system needs to be configured in extreme failure scenarios for protecting the network from further contingencies and prolonged load-shedding. Distributed generation resources (DGs) can be useful to form intentional islands after faults to maintain the continuity of power supply to loads based on their weightage during faulty periods and to reduce overall load shedding duration. Power system is bound to collapses and secondary collapse in the formed island is possible. This research represents a novel method of impedance based path finding for intentional islanding, which adapts itself with the changes in the demands, DGs outputs or further severities during restoration period. In this adaptive islanding approach, network adjusts itself with the changes in either the load demands or renewable DGs outputs and rearranges the restoration plan by curtailing or adding some of the loads through controllable switches. Further a secondary collapse in the existing island is studied by injecting multiple faults at various positions of the network to validate the system resilience to cope with severities. A short-term load forecasting approach is used to predict changes in load demands and variations in DG outputs during the islanding scheme. During the restoration period, these variations are tracked and the islands are modified accordingly. In order to minimize the overall generation cost by using less fuel, an economical approach is used in the selection of controllable DGs. The proposed approach is formulated as a multi-objective, that incorporates several operational constraints and simulation is carried out using the modified IEEE 69-bus distribution system to assess the efficacy of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0415.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: seagrass; anthropogenic disturbance; boat anchoring; meadow traits; habitat loss; island ecosystem
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:03:57 CEST)
Seagrass ecosystems are lost due to habitat disturbance, coastal development and human pressure. We assessed the impact of boat anchors from traditional fishing and recreational activities on the seagrass Halophila ovalis from the Andaman and Nicobar Isalnds of India. The plant density, biomass, morphometrics, canopy height and percentage cover were estimated from two sites of Govind Nagar beach of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The shoot density of H. ovalis was reduced by physical damage caused by boat anchors. The morphometrics of H. ovalis, such as number of leaves per ramet, leaf length, width and horizontal rhizome length were significantly reduced when impacted by boat anchors. Seagrass canopy height and percentage cover were reduced by 41% and 47% respectively. Though the impact of boat anchors reported here is on small-scale, it may impact feeding grounds of locally endangered dugongs. Therefore, proper management and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the loss of dugong grass habitats from tourism, recreational and fishing activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: nutrient loading; geospatial model; dissolved inorganic nitrogen; water quality; island management
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:23:41 CET)
Excessive nutrient discharge to tropical island coastlines drives eutrophication and algal blooms with significant implications for reef ecosystem condition and provision of ecosystem services. Management actions to address nutrient pollution in coastal ecosystems include setting water quality standards for discharging surface waters. However, these standards do not account for the effects of groundwater discharge, variability in flow, or dilution, all of which may influence assessment of true nutrient impacts on nearshore reef habitats. We developed a method to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loads to coastal zones by integrating commonly available datasets within a geospatial modeling framework for Tutuila, American Samoa. The DIN loading model integrated an open-source water budget model, water sampling results, and publically available streamflow data to predict watershed-scale DIN loading to the island’s entire coastline. When compared to surface water pathways, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was determined to be the most important coastal delivery mechanism of terrigenous DIN, which supports findings from other tropical islands. Onsite wastewater disposal systems were also found to be the primary anthropogenic sources DIN to coastal waters. Our island-wide DIN loading model provides a simple and robust metric to define spatially-explicit sources and delivery mechanisms of nutrient pollution to nearshore reef habitats. Understanding the sources and primary transport modes of inorganic nitrogen to nearshore reef ecosystems can have significant implications for place-based management interventions aimed at increasing the adaptive capacity of unique island ecosystems to environmental variation and disturbances.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0199.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Ecotourism; Sustainability; Island Tourism; Penghu National Scenic Area; Tourist Service System
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:45:47 CET)
In order to increase the number of tourism in ecotourism, enhance the ecotourism attractions. It is essential to construct the ecotourism service system for the Penghu National Scenic Area because the ecology system is sensitive and frangible. This study adopts the Fuzzy Delphi method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to establish an index framework of ecotourism service system of Penghu National Scenic Area. The results indicated that there are 4 dimensions which include 21 factors service attributes are identified as the service system for traveling. The findings are concluded as follows:(1)the security management capability is the main principle for ecotourism service system;(2)the ecological diversity is fundamental for the marine environment and the core resource for ecotourism;(3)the transportation capacity and environmental quality need to improve; (4)the marine environmental resources is the most important item for sound ecotourism development; (5)the enhancement of the operation willingness of local communities can promote ecotourism development;(6)the natural resources should be protected to provide an ideal recreational environment for ecotourism;(7)the development of ecotourism needs to support local conservation to achieve sustainability. The perspectives of sustainability and service system are involved to support the value of this study, which can continuously sustain Penghu archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: decapod assemblage; Zostera marina; Namhae Island; seagrass vegetation; day/night change
Online: 22 December 2019 (14:08:16 CET)
Decapod assemblages in Zostera marina beds from two bays adjacent to unvegetated habitats were investigated to assess their influence on decapod assemblages. Thirty-eight decapod species belonging to 4 taxa were collected using a small beam trawl at four habitat types from two different locations off the coast of Namhae Island, southern Korea. Dominant decapod taxon at all habitats was the caridean shrimps, with Eualus leptognathus, Heptacarpus pandaloides, Latreutes anoplonyx, La. laminirostris and Palaemon macrodactylus being the most abundant caridean species. Crabs were characterized by the highest biomass, but moderate species richness and abundance. Penaeoids and sergestoids shrimps only accounted for <1% of the total decapod abundance. The number of species, their abundance, and the diversity of decapod assemblages varied greatly by habitat type, season, and diel patterns. Species number and abundance peaked in seagrass beds of southern exposed bays during the autumn, and were lowest in unvegetated habitats during the summer months. Diel decapod species and catch rates were higher at night. Dense seagrass vegetation and nighttime supported greater decapod species richness and higher mean densities, but not diversity. Multivariate analyses revealed that habitat type and season significantly affected the structure of decapod assemblages, but diel patterns had a minor influence. Among decapod species, Pa. macrodactylus and Pugettia quadridens characterized the decapod assemblages in seagrass beds at the northern semi-closed bay, while Telmessus acutidens, Crangon affinis, Cr. hakodatei, Charybdis japonica and Portunus sanguinolentus were significantly associated with both vegetated and unvegetated habitats at the southern exposed bay, with the former two species more abundant during winter and spring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0385.v2
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: low carbon island; electric motorcycles; green transport; battery exchange; carbon emissions
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:23:53 CEST)
Global warming and climate change have led to extreme changes in climatic conditions in recent years. The Taiwan government designates the construction of the Kinmen County as low carbon islands, to promote the operation of 100 electric motorcycles and battery demonstration. This study combined with island tourism, after boarding the island, visitors can rent electric motorcycles from the passenger service center and coordinate with the island tour map to show the location of the battery exchange points, so as to facilitate the search. During the operation, the amount of electric motorcycle lease is 15,551 times, the total mileage of motor vehicle is 284,404 km, the number of battery exchange is 622 times, the lease income is about NT$900,000. To reduce carbon and economic benefits of the assessment, compared to the motorcycles (50 c.c), electric motorcycles (EM 100) can reduce the carbon emissions by 8,726 kg, reducing energy costs of NT$422,594.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0694.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Salt Marsh; Coastal Protection; Long Island Sound; Connecticut; Green Structures; Ecosystem based
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:36:40 CEST)
Coastal areas are influenced by natural coastal hazards such as hurricanes, storm surges and tsunamis. For centuries coastal structures such as seawalls, detached breakwaters, groins, and revetments have been constructed to protect coastal properties. However, their effectiveness diminishes with time, and they are not adaptable to changing coastal conditions. Ecosystem-based approaches offer protection against erosion and the creation or restoration of coastal habitats. However, the protection properties and the sustainability provided by these systems are not well understood. Salt marshes have been known as one of the ecosystem-based protection systems. They protect coasts and lands by dissipating energy, stabilizing sediments and producing organic matter through blow ground production. Stems of plants dissipate waves propagating over salt marsh and plant roots stabilize soils and sediments. The dissipation rate varies with wave frequency; the low-frequency swell wave is dissipated less on the edge of the marsh than wind-sea waves. Salt and wetlands can also be used for reducing coastal flooding and storm surges, but a wetland is required to successfully attenuate storm surges. A salt marsh can be resilient to sea-level rise in certain conditions. Large sediment supply and gentle upland slope increase salt marsh resiliency to relative sea-level rise. Connecticut marshes, like other marshes in the world, are vulnerable to anthropogenic and climate change effects. However, an assessment of current sea level rise and average marsh accretion rates in Connecticut demonstrates sea level rise is not the main vulnerable factor for salt marshes loss. The study on the feasibility of developing an ecosystem based on two coastlines in Connecticut, Guilford and Stratford, shows that both coastlines, like other coastlines in Connecticut, have limited wave energy, which is a positive factor for marsh growth. The available data assessment represents that sediment supply is the most important parameter to guarantee the resilience and sustainability of a newly developed salt marsh system in Connecticut. In Stratford, conditions for establishing a new ecosystem seem to be better, as the fetch length is pretty small, and there is some sediment supply for the ecosystem. In Guilford, wave energy is limited, but it is more than in Stratford case. In addition, sediment availability is low and the coastline experienced a large erosion during Hurricane Sandy and has not recovered yet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0778.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental justice; urban heat island; extreme heat; heat vulnerability; public transportation infrastructure
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:05:42 CEST)
Extreme heat is a climate, public health, and environmental justice issue. This case study examined public transit exposure and vulnerability to extreme heat by investigating the microenvironment, land cover characteristics, and social vulnerability of heat-vulnerable bus stops in Knoxville, Tennessee. The community’s temperature and Heat Index information, bus stop point data, land cover characteristics data, and the microenvironment of bus stops (i.e., trees and shelters) were processed and mapped with ArcGIS Pro. The pictures of the microenvironment of the bus stop were collected from Google Maps, and the social vulnerability of the area where the bus stops are located was investigated by analyzing the Center for Disease and Prevention's Social Vulnerability Index. Results found that the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in West Knoxville, South, North, Northeast, and Northwest Knoxville. In addition, the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in commercial complexes and areas a large number of systematically marginalized populations reside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0473.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Sado Island; divide migration; tilting uplift; stream capture; geomorphic indexes; topographic analysis
Online: 26 December 2022 (06:41:43 CET)
Drainage divide is a dynamic feature that migrates in response to tectonic activity. The asymmetric uplift between two adjacent basins causes the divide migration from a slower to faster uplift area. Sado Island, Japan, has been affected by southeastward tilting uplift since ca. 300k years. Despite the faster uplift on the northwest, the main divides have existed on the southeast side of the geometric center of the island, with no other feature suggesting tectonic inversion of the tilting direction. In this study, we conducted a DEM-based investigation that focused on divide migration. A spectrum from very inactive to active divide migration in the northwest. Regardless of their position, actively migrating divides are comprehensible, but inactive divides located in a relatively slow uplift area remain unclear. We concluded that some divides slowed down owing to the local balance of erosion rates across the divides, not implying the balance between uplift and river erosion at the basin scale, reflecting disequilibrium in river longitudinal profiles. The main divides of Sado have presumably continued to slowly migrate toward the faster uplift area; however, they are most likely to have never overcome the moving geometric center owing to land expansion at the seacoast due to asymmetric uplift.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: green infrastructure; urban heat island; human thermal comfort, modelling tools; ENVI-met.
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:19:13 CEST)
Research on urban heat mitigation has been growing in recent years with many of the studies focusing on green infrastructure (GI) as a strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of Urban Heat Island (UHI). This paper aims at presenting a review of the range of findings from GI research for urban heat mitigation through a review of scientific articles published during the years 2009-2019. This research includes a review of the different types of GI and its contribution for urban heat mitigation and human thermal comfort. In addition to analyzing different mitigation strategies, numerical simulation tools that are commonly used are also reviewed. It is seen that ENVI-met is one of the modelling tools that is considered as a reliable tool to simulate different mitigation strategies and hence has been widely used in the recent past. Considering its popularity in urban microclimate studies, this article also provides a review of ENVI-met simulation results that were reported in the reviewed papers. It was observed that the majority of the research was conducted on a limited spatial scale and focused on temperature and human thermal comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0010.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Land surface temperature; Surface urban heat island, Local climate zone; Retrieval algorithms
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:02:15 CEST)
Surface urban heat island (SUHI) depicts the deteriorating thermal environment in high-density cities and local climate zone (LCZ) classification provides a universal protocol for SUHI identification. In this study, taking the central urbanized area of Guangzhou in the humid subtropical region of China as the study area, the maps or images of LCZ, land surface temperature (LST), SUHI and urban design factors were achieved by using Landsat satellite data, GIS database and a series of retrieval and classification algorithms, and the urban design factors influencing SUHI were investigated based on 625 samples of LCZs. The results show that in the summer daytime under the clear sky condition, the LST varied greatly from 26 °C to 40 °C and the SUHI changed in a wide range of -6 °C to 8 °C in the LCZs of the study area. Seven and five urban design factors influencing the summer daytime SUHI were identified for the two dominant LCZ of LCZs 1-5 (LCZ 1 to LCZ 5) and the mixed LCZ (containing at least three types of LCZs), respectively. The summer daytime SUHI prediction models were obtained by using the step-wise multiple linear regression, with the performance of R2 of 0.697, RMSE of 1.21 °C, and the d value of 0.81 for the model of LCZs 1-5, and the values of 0.666, 1.66 °C, and 0.76 for the model of the mixed LCZ, indicating that the models can predict the changes of SUHI with LCZs to a large and satisfactory extent. This study presents a methodology to efficiently achieve a large sample of SUHI and urban design factors of LCZs in the largely urbanized cities, and provides information beneficial to the urban designs and regenerations in the humid subtropical region.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: islands, discovery, settlement, colonization, Easter Island, Rapa Nui, Pacific Ocean, Polynesians, Amerindians
Online: 28 March 2019 (11:22:33 CET)
The discovery and settlement of the tiny and remote Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been a classical controversy for decades. Present-day aboriginal people and their culture are undoubtedly of Polynesian origin but it has been debated whether Native Americans discovered the island before the Polynesian settlement. Until recently, the paradigm was that Easter Island was discovered and settled just once by Polynesians in their millennial-scale eastward migration across the Pacific. However, the evidence for cultivation and consumption of an American plant, the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), on the island before the European contact (1722 CE), even prior to the Europe-America contact (1492 CE), revived the controversy. This paper reviews the classical archaeological, ethnological and paleoecological literature on the subject and summarizes the information into four main hypotheses to explain the sweet potato enigma: the long-distance-dispersal hypothesis, the back-and-forth hypothesis, the Heyerdahl hypothesis and the newcomer’s hypothesis. These hypotheses are evaluated in light of the more recent evidence (last decade), including molecular DNA phylogeny and phylogeography of humans and associated plants and animals, physical anthropology (craniometry, dietary analysis) and new paleoecological findings. It is concluded that, with the available evidence, none of the former hypotheses may be rejected and, therefore, all possibilities remain open. For future work, it is recommended to use the multiple-working-hypothesis framework and the strong inference method of hypothesis testing, rather than the ruling theory approach, very common in Easter Island’s research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1871.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban climate; Copernicus dataset; urban heat island; weather types; urban overheating; synoptic classification
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:06:17 CEST)
In this study we investigated the association between weather types (WTs) and the Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) in the region of Attica (Greece). The application of the methodology results in ten WTs over Attica region. The UHII was calculated for every hour of the day from 2008 to 2017, using a new air temperature dataset produced by Copernicus Climate Change Service. To have more clear results concerning the association between WTs and UHII, we have used also the upper 5% of UHII (Urban Overheating-UO). The UO have been estimated for two-time intervals (daytime and nighttime) and for the warm period (June-September). The UHII frequency distribution as well as the spatial characteristics of the UO were also investigated. It was found that UO was amplified under WT2 during the night while, WT10 was mainly responsible for exacerbated UO magnitude at daytime, in all months. Furthermore, analysis results revealed that the UO effect is more pronounced in Athens during the night, especially at Athens center. The daytime hot-spots identified mainly in sub-urban and rural areas. Therefore, this methodology may help for heat mitigation strategies and climate adaptation measures, in urban environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Surface Urban heat island; Northeastern region; Sentinel 3; Eco-environmental spaces; Thermal comfort
Online: 4 April 2023 (12:37:09 CEST)
The Surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) is caused by the difference in temperature between the urban and its surrounding areas. However, in the scientific literature, there is no solid methodology defining urban and non-urban areas, which is essential to estimate the SUHI with greater accuracy. This study uses the official national urban areas limit, to obtain the SUHI more accurately on the nine northeastern Brazilian capitals. The land surface temperature was obtained using the Sentinel 3 satellite data for the years 2019 and 2020. Afterward, the maximum and average SUHI, and the complementary indexes were calculated, such as the Urban Thermal Field Variation Index (UTFVI) and the Thermal Discomfort Index (TDI) for the urban areas and their surrounding areas. The Maximum and Average SUHI, obtained values between 1.85 and 8.25 and -4.92 and 2.59 degree difference, respectively, proving the SUHI existence in the study areas. The UTFVI, with values between 0.010 and 0.040, expresses how bad the eco-environmental spaces of urban are. The TDI, with values between 24.61 and 28.89 ºC, expresses the population’s thermal comfort. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding of the surface UHI pioneeringly for the Brazilian Northeast Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0328.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: groundwater; rainwater harvesting; climate variability; small island developing states; water planning; community participation.
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:38:05 CEST)
UN 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 6 presents difficulties for small island developing states such as the Kingdom of Tonga, which relies on rainwater and groundwater lenses for freshwater supply. Planning and managing water resources to supply demands in dispersed small islands under variable climate and frequent extreme events is challenging. Tensions between water planning using top-down versus bottom-up processes have long been recognized. Tonga’s overarching national planning instrument is the Tonga Strategic Development Framework, 2015-2025 (TSDFII). This identifies desired national outcomes and is used to direct and resource Ministries and address international and regional commitments. Water supply was a low priority in the three-month consultations that led to TSDFII. Community Development Plans (CDPs), developed by rural villages throughout Tonga’s five Island Groups over nine years, involved participation from 80% of each village population who ranked local priorities. Analysis of priorities in 117 available village CDPs reveals improvements to village water supply was the highest overall priority in all five Island Groups and ranked within the top three priorities by 76% of all villages, with women, youth and men returning figures of 83%, 66% and 80% respectively. The mismatch between top-down and bottom-up priorities appears to result from an urban/rural divide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0107.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Urban Geomorphology; geoarchaeology; suitability Model-GIS; Environmental Analytical Hierarchical process (EAHP); Failaka Island
Online: 5 August 2020 (04:24:17 CEST)
Failaka Island, located in the far east of Kuwait Bay, is about 20 km from the State of Kuwait’s coast, and represents a focal point for regional geography and history, with pristine beaches and archaeological sites dating to the Bronze, Iron, Hellenistic, Christian and Islamic periods. According to environmental data and in coordination with local authorities to develop an urban plan, the island is set to become the first tourist destination for the State of Kuwait. To achieve the Vision of Kuwait 2035, one of the planning objectives focuses around Urban Planning for the Establishment of Environmental Cities that Achieve (UPEECA) environmental sustainability criteria. The paper then, aims to propose the environmental urban plan for Failaka Island. Based around Environmental Analytical Hierarchical Processes (EAHP), and using the Field Calculator and ModelBuilder functions in ArcGIS, this research centres on the feasibility of carrying out an urban plan using suitability modelling that includes four factors and 13 criteria covering the island’s ecological and human composition. This study utilizes both remote sensing (UAVs for 3D imaging) and field study (ground truthing) to identify changes in land use and land cover – such as using sample analysis of the historical sites and soils for tracing evidence and creating/updating a soil map – and create the first GIS database for the island that can lead to generating a suitability model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0059.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: landuse change; climate change; garden city model; green vegetation; Landsat; urban heat island
Online: 4 September 2018 (06:28:33 CEST)
The key anthropogenic effects on climate include the changes in land use and emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Depletion of vegetation poses serious threat that speeds the process of climate change and reduces carbon sequestration by the environment. Thus, the preservation of natural environment in urban areas is an essential component of the garden city model, proposed by Sir Ebenezer Howard in 1898, to ensure ecological balance. Recent Landsat images showed that Kumasi does not have the required percentage of green vegetation as was stipulated in the garden city model on which the city was built. It was observed that most parts of Kumasi's green vegetation have been lost to built environments. This study was conducted to assess the impact of urbanization on the garden city status and its effect on the micro-climate of the city. Significant changes in the vegetation cover of the city was evaluated from Landsat-TM imagery and analysis of a long term climatic data of Kumasi carried out over a 55-year period (1960 to 2015). It was observed that, climatic conditions have slightly changed, as mean surface temperature of has increased by 1.2 °C/ 55 years, due to the significant landuse changes from development of non-transpiring, reduced evaporative urban surfaces. However, the impact is not greatly felt due to the geographical location of the city on the globe despite the evidence of a considerable temperature change. Green vegetation conservation for the city is recommended as a top priority in future for city authorities and planners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0129.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emissivity; land cover; land surface temperature; surface urban heat island; thermal environment; mitigation
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:38:44 CET)
In urban area, one of the great problem is the rise of temperature, which leads to form the urban heat island effect. This paper refers to the trend of the urban surface temperature extracted from the Landsat images from which to consider changes in the formation of surface urban heat island for the north of Ho Chi Minh city in period 1995-2015. Research has identified land surface temperature from thermal infrared band, according to the ability of the surface emission based on characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. The results showed that temperature fluctuated over the city with a growing trend and the gradual expansion of the area of the high-temperature zone towards the suburbs. Within 20 years, the trend of the formation of surface urban heat island with two typical locations showed a clear difference between the surface temperature of urban areas and rural areas with space expansion of heat island in 4 times in 2015 compared to 1995. An extreme heat island located in the inner city has an area of approximately 18% compared to the total area of the region. Since then, the solution to reduce the impact of urban heat island has been proposed, in order to protect the urban environment and the lives of residents in Ho Chi Minh City becoming better
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: adaptation measure; urban heat island; outdoor human thermal environment; mist spray; sunshade; watering road
Online: 28 September 2023 (13:38:40 CEST)
In recent years, in order to serve as effective solutions to outdoor human thermal environments under the influence of urban heat islands, adaptation measures such as awnings, louvers, directional reflective materials, mist sprays, and evaporative materials have been developed. In this study, a simplified evaluation framework for adaptation measures to urban heat islands is examined. Adaptation measures to urban heat islands are classified into the following three categories; measures to reduce solar radiation incident on the human body, measures to control and cool ground and wall surface temperature, and measures to control and cool air temperature and human body. Case studies are conducted to evaluate the effects of the implementation of cool water circulation sunshade and to examine the adverse effects of cool pavements on the human thermal environment, in addition to the effects of mist sprays on the human body. The effect of the sunshade, watering road, and mist spray, which are typical adaptation measures to urban heat islands, on the human thermal environment was estimated using Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) as an indicator for heat stroke prevention and Standard New Effective Temperature (SET*) as an indicator for thermal comfort assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy subsidy policy; CO2 emission; Urban Heat Island Effect; Persian Gulf; Energy consumption prices.
Online: 4 September 2023 (11:30:41 CEST)
Ever since oil was discovered in the Persian Gulf Region in the 1920s, the oil and gas industries have been dominant in the area. These countries are responsible for generating approximately 35 percent of the world's natural gas and 25 percent of its crude oil, making them the largest crude oil producers globally. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere is directly linked to the use of fossil fuels. CO2 accounts for 58.8 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities and has a detrimental impact on urban residents through the urban heat island effect. A significant portion of these emissions can be attributed to residential buildings. Some nations exacerbate the problem by relying excessively on fossil fuels. Oil-rich countries provide energy subsidies to the public in order to lower energy costs for their citizens. However, this policy can have negative consequences, including wasteful energy usage in countries like Iran.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Rapa Nui; Easter Island; Azores Islands; human settlement; anthropization; deforestation; ladnscape; vegetation; paleoecology; palynology
Online: 29 April 2023 (03:07:56 CEST)
The flora and vegetation of oceanic islands have been deeply affected by human settlement and further landscape modifications during prehistoric and historical times. The study of these transformations is of interest not only for understanding how current island biotas and ecological communities have been shaped but also for informing biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. This paper compares two oceanic insular entities of disparate geographical, environmental, biological, historical and cultural characteristics – Rapa Nui (Pacific Ocean) and the Azores Islands (Atlantic Ocean) – in terms of human settlement and further landscape anthropization. The similarities and differences between these islands/archipelagos are discussed considering their permanent colonization, the possibility of earlier settlements, the removal of the original forests and the further landscape transformations leading to either full floristic/vegetational degradation (Rapa Nui) or major replacement (Azores). This comparison uses evidence from varied disciplines, notably paleoecology, archaeology, anthropology and history, to obtain a holistic view of the development of the respective socioeconomic systems from a human ecodynamic perspective. The most relevant issues still to be resolved are identified and some prospects for future research are suggested. The cases of Rapa Nui and Azores Islands may help set a conceptual basis for ocean-wide global comparisons among oceanic islands/archipelagos.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0539.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Au/α-Fe2O3 heterostructure; island-type growth; epitaxial growth; surface functionalization; gas sensor activity
Online: 22 June 2021 (10:45:38 CEST)
In this work epitaxial Au islands have been grown on epitaxial α-Fe2O3 thin film by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3(111) substrate. Both Au and α-Fe2O3 layer show an island-type growth with an average particle size of 40 and 62 nm, respectively. The crystallographic coupling of lattices is confirmed with a rotation of 30º between the in-plane crystallographic axes of α-Fe2O3(0001) structure and those of SrTiO3(111) substrate and between the in-plane crystallographic axes of Au(111) and those of α-Fe2O3(0001) structure. α-Fe2O3 is the only phase of iron oxide identified before and after its functionalization with Au nanoparticles. In addition, its structural character-istics are also preserved after Au deposition, with minor changes at short-range order. The func-tional character of the complex systems as gas sensor has been proven at room temperature. Con-ductance measurements of Au(111)/α-Fe2O3(0001)/ SrTiO3(111) system show that the incorpora-tion of Au islands on top of the α-Fe2O3(0001) layer induces an enhancement of the gas-sensing ac-tivity for CO and CH4 gas in comparison to a bare α-Fe2O3(0001) layer grown on SrTiO3(111).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0370.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: building materials; rural architecture; Ischia Island; radiological characterization; radon; radiological risk assessment; sustainable buildings
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:16:06 CEST)
Radiological risk affect the quality of the environment in buildings since population and workers can be potentially exposed to high level of dose. Radon gas emanated from both subsoil and building materials represents the most important source of radiation exposure for people. This study investigates the sustainability concept of a small rural village of Ischia Island, named Ciglio, in relation to the radiological risk. Radon activity concentration was measured in typical green tuff dwellings and in water samples collected from a local spring using E-Perm devices. Moreover, for green-tuff as building material, the radon emanation coefficient was calculated by gamma spectroscopy. The results highlight the importance to perform environmental radon monitoring and to investigate the radon content of building materials, especially in geographical areas characterized by traditional use of typical stones for constructions. In conclusion, the sustainability development of rural buildings is possible if the radiological risk for inhabitants and workers was assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mucilaginibacer rubeus；Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis; genomic island; evolution; heavy metal resistance; draft genome sequence; CTnDOT
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:21:18 CEST)
Heavy metals are compounds that can be hazardous and impair growth of living organisms. Bacteria have evolved the capability not only to cope with heavy metals but also to detoxify polluted environments. Three heavy metal-resistant strains of Mucilaginibacer rubeus and one of Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis were isolated from the gold/copper Zijin mining site, Longyan, Fujian, China. These strains were shown to exhibit high resistance to heavy metals with minimal inhibitory concentration reaching up to 3.5 mM Cu(II), 21 mM Zn(II), 1.2 mM Cd(II), and 10.0 mM As(III). Genomes of the four strains were sequenced by Illumina. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of a high abundance of heavy metal resistance (HMR) determinants. One of the strain, M. rubeus P2, carried genes encoding 6 putative P1B-1-ATPase, 5 putative P1B-3-ATPase and 4 putative Zn(II)/Cd(II) P1B-4 type ATPase, and 16 putative RND-type metal transporter systems. Moreover, the four genomes carry a high abundance of genes coding for putative metal binding chaperones. Analysis of the close vicinity of these HMR determinants uncovered the presence of clusters of genes potentially associated with mobile genetic elements. These loci include genes coding for tyrosine recombinases (integrases) and subunits of mating pore (type 4 secretion system) respectively allowing integration/excision and conjugative transfer of numerous genomic islands. Further in silico analyses revealed that their genetic organization and gene products resemble the Bacteroides integrative and conjugative element CTnDOT. These results highlight the pivotal role of genomic islands in the acquisition and dissemination of adaptive traits, allowing for rapid adaption of bacteria and colonization of hostile environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: turbo roundabout; elliptical turbo roundabout; central island; truck apron; swept path; design vehicles; traffic organization
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:20:10 CEST)
Turbo-roundabouts are one of the most frequently recommended road junction design options when it comes to increasing traffic capacity and traffic safety. This is in particular true of suburban areas, with dominant traffic flow on the main road and moderate traffic flow on the side road. Other intersections handling local traffic and considerably constricting the availability of space are usually located in the vicinity of such intersections. Another factor contributing to less availability of land for construction in these locations is the presence of surrounding residential housing. Then choosing the suitable turbo-roundabout type becomes the main issue. The article presents a case study for the selection of a type of turbo roundabout under the conditions of considerably constricted land availability, based on analyses of provision of swepth path for the chosen design vehicles. The article considers the typical Egg type turbo roundabouts, "flattened" turbo roundabouts and ellipse based roundabouts, with unconventional geometries of the truck apron and central island. For each of the analysed roundabout types setting out methods were described in detail, which enable designers to quickly select a type of roundabout suitable for specific constrained site conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0408.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban heat island; non-constructible parcels; cool surfaces; urban vegetation; envi met; mitigation measures; beirut
Online: 28 May 2018 (13:21:28 CEST)
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is one of the more serious consequences of urbanization resulting in impacts on thermal comfort levels, heat stress, and even mortality. For Municipal Beirut, implementation of “cool” surface materials and green spaces have been recommended to counterbalance the UHI. This paper builds on previous findings on the topic of non-constructible parcels within the district of Bachoura in Municipal Beirut and examines the possibility of implementing “cool” surface or paving materials and urban vegetation which can improve thermal conditions especially during the summer period and with the viewto project the positive findings of this case study to the entire Municipal Beirut area. A numerical analysis using ENVI-met 4.0 investigates the thermal performance of these non-constructibles further to implementation of high reflective surfaces and urban vegetation within a broad neighborhood scale in Bachoura. Results show reductions in ambient temperatures up to 1K on a summer day.. Within the framework of an integrated approach to planning, this form of urban acupuncture aims for substantial UHI reduction. Energy performance of buildings further to implementation of these mitigation measures is also recommended for future studies and to validate the findings in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2078.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; remote island; family with older adults; Concentric Sphere Family Environment Theory; family ethnographic research
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:07:07 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected not only individuals but also families. The purpose of this study was to clarify the temporal changes in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on entire families with older adults susceptible to infection living on small islands in Japan over the duration of the pandemic. Family ethnographic research was conducted from 2021 to 2023, using the Concentric Sphere Family Environment Theory as the theoretical framework. Formal interviews were conducted with 20 families. In addition, data from informal interviews, participant observation and other sources were compiled into field notes. All data on the impact on the entire family were extracted and content analysis was conducted. Five categories and a total of 85 subcategories were extracted. The results show that COVID-19 exerted not only negative but also positive impacts on the entire family, and their temporal changes are clarified. The impact on families is believed to have been influenced by the family external environment, such as increases and decreases of infection cases or events that occurred outside the family. The knowledge acquired from these studies will help healthcare professionals in providing appropriate family support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1031.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Agroforestry; Climate-Smart Agriculture; Climate Change Adaptation; Australia; Pacific Island Countries; Climate Variables; Crop Production; Sustainability
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:37:21 CEST)
This academic paper explores the synergistic potential of Agroforestry systems and Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) in enhancing climate change adaptation strategies. Focusing on Australia and Pacific Island Countries, the study delves into the pivotal role of these approaches in mitigating the impacts of changing climate variables on agricultural production. By analysing important climate variables, their potential alterations, and their subsequent effects on crop production, the paper advocates for a holistic and forward-thinking approach to sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0284.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Park cooling effect; Urban Heat Island; Thermal comfort; Perceived Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature; Cognitive Maps
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:32:18 CEST)
The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park’s cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0555.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gastric Cancer; Helicobacter pylori; cag Pathogenicity Island; Cytotoxin-Associated Gene A; Oncoprotein; Vacuolating Toxin A; Immune Evasion
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:14:39 CEST)
Gastric cancer is a challenging public health concern worldwide and remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The primary risk factor implicated in gastric cancer development is infection with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori induces chronic inflammation affecting the gastric epithelium, which can lead to DNA damage and promotion of precancerous lesions. Disease manifestations associated with H. pylori are attributed to virulence factors with multiple activities and its capacity to subvert host immunity. One of the most significant H. pylori virulence determinants is the cagPAI gene cluster, which encodes a type IV secretion system and the CagA toxin. This secretion system allows H. pylori to inject the CagA oncoprotein into host cells, causing multiple cellular perturbations. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection, only a small percentage of affected individuals develop significant clinical outcomes, while most remain asymptomatic. Therefore, understanding how H. pylori triggers carcinogenesis and its immune evasion mechanisms is critical in preventing gastric cancer and miti-gating the burden of this life-threatening disease. This review aims to provide an overview of our current under-standing of H. pylori infection, its association with gastric cancer and other gastric diseases, and how it subverts the host immune system to establish persistent infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0365.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: surface urban heat island; racial disparity; thermal exposure; environmental justice; social justice; climate justice; Bayesian spatial temporal modelling
Online: 19 August 2022 (13:34:09 CEST)
Previous studies have shown, in the United States (U.S.), that non-White communities are exposed to significantly higher temperatures in urban environments than complementary White populations. Studies highlighting this disparity have usually been cross-sectional and are therefore “snapshots” in time. Using surface urban heat island (SUHI) intensity data, U.S. Census 2020 population counts, and a measure of residential segregation, this study performs a comparative analysis between census tracts identified as prevalent for White, Black, Hispanic and Asian populations and their thermal exposure from 2003 – 2018. The analysis concentrates on the top 200 most populous U.S. cities. SUHI intensity is shown to be increasing through time for all examined tracts. However, the increase is only statistically significant for White and Black prevalent zones. There is a 1.25K to ~2.00K higher degree of thermal exposure on average for non-White relative to White prevalent areas. When examined on an inter-city basis, White and Black prevalent tracts had the largest disparity, as measured by SUHI intensity, in New Orleans, LA, USA by < 6.00K. Hispanic (>7.00K) and Asian (<6.75K) prevalent tracts were greatest in intensity in San Jose, CA, USA. To further explore temporal patterns, two models were developed using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial temporal framework. One models the effect of varying the percentages of each population group relative to SUHI intensity within all examined tracts. Increases in percentages of Black, Hispanic, and Asian populations contributed to statistically significant increases in SUHI intensity. White increases in population percentage lowered SUHI temperature intensity. Throughout all modeled tracts, there is a statistically significant 0.01K per year average increase in SUHI intensity. A second model tests the effect of residential segregation on thermal inequity across all examined cities. Residential segregation, indeed, has a statistically significant positive association with SUHI intensity from this portion of the analysis. Similarly, there is a statistically significant 0.01K increase in average SUHI intensity per year for all cities. Results from this study can be used to guide and prioritize intervention strategies and furthers urgency related to social, climatic, and environmental justice concerns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: buildings energy efficiency; climate change; energy efficiency; feedback effects; passive solar energy; renewable energy; transport energy efficiency; urban heat island
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:32:41 CEST)
Energy efficiency is, in principle, a simple idea: an output of human value, for example, vehicle-km traveled, divided by the needed input energy. Efficiency improvements are regarded by many as an important means of mitigating not only climate change, but also other environmental problems. Accordingly, many countries have efficiency ratings for appliances and efficiency standards for road vehicles. Despite the vast number of articles published on energy efficiency, few question whether it is a useful or accurate measure in its present form. This review addresses this lack, by a critical review of the literature, not only in energy efficiency, but in other areas of research, such as ‘energy services’, that can help broaden the scope of this idea, both geographically and conceptually. These shortcomings are illustrated in case studies of road passenger transport and buildings. The main findings are that energy efficiency inevitably has an ethical dimension, that feedbacks are more widespread than generally considered, and that conventional efficiency measures omit important energy input items, particularly those concerned with mining of the materials needed for renewable energy plants. Finally, the key results of this review are summarized, and its limitations are discussed, as is the future research needed to overcome these shortcomings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: environmental conservation agriculture; Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems; climate change mitigation; Tokimai brand; Sado island; Japan; biodiversity conservation; sustainable agriculture
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:33:39 CEST)
Sado Island in Niigata prefecture, Japan is one of the first Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) among developed countries and has since been involved in environmental conservation agriculture (ECA). While ECA is still in its early stage in Japan, it has proven to be effective in mitigating climate change in the agricultural sector; hence, this study analyzed the factors which could contribute to the ECA continuation among Sado Island farmers. The data revealed the prevalence of farmers’ cognitive dissonance between ECA and its mitigating effects on climate change. Exploratory factor analysis and ordinal regression confirmed the importance of perceived GIAHS involvement in the continuation of ECA. In addition, other identified factors affecting ECA continuation fall either on a macro-level (i.e., farmers’ awareness of their role in improving their environment) or micro-level (i.e., farmers’ differing farm optimizations). These perspectives highlighted the altruistic nature of the Sado Island ECA farmers by valuing the improvement of their local and global environment as their main reason to continue ECA, whereas their various farm management optimizations support this observed farmer altruism by providing avenues to increase yield with only a moderate paddy land area. This study thereby highlights the need to continuously develop sustainable strategies to maintain and improve a positive farmer mindset towards ECA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Mediterranean flora; endemic plants; IUCN assessments; island biogeography; plant conservation; Tyrrhenian islands; biological forms; plant evolution and distribution; plant diversity
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:06:51 CET)
The vascular flora of Sardinia has been investigated for more than 250 years, with particular attention to the endemic component, due to their phylogeographic and conservation interest. However, continuous changes in the floristic composition through natural processes, anthropogenic drivers or modified taxonomical attributions require constant updating. We checked all available literature, web sources, field and unpublished data from authors and acknowledged external experts to compile an updated checklist of vascular plants endemic to Sardinia. Life and chorological forms, and the conservation status of the updated taxa list were reported. Sardinia hosts 340 taxa (15% of the total native flora) endemic to the Tyrrhenian islands and other limited continental territories; 195 of these are exclusive to Sardinia. Asteraceae (50 taxa) and Plumbaginaceae (42 taxa) are the most representative families, while the most frequent life forms are hemicryptophytes (118 taxa) and chamaephytes (105 taxa). The global conservation status, available for 200 taxa, indicates that most endemics are under the ‘Critically Endangered’ (25 taxa), ‘Endangered’ (31 taxa) or ‘Least Concern’ (90 taxa) IUCN categories. This research provides an updated basis for future biosystematics, taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological studies, and for supporting more integrated and efficient policy tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: conceptual modeling; cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical gap; Object-Process Methodology; model-based systems engineering; Three Mile Island 2 Accident
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:59:29 CEST)
: The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is an inevitable issue in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment. We propose CPG-Aware Modeling & Engineering (CPGAME), a conceptual model-based approach for capturing, explaining, and mitigating the CPG, on top of and in sync with the conventional system model, and as an inherent systems engineering activity. This approach enhances the systems engineer’s ability to cope with CPGs, mitigate them by design, and prevent erroneous decisions, actions, and hazardous implications. CPGAME is a generic, conceptual approach, specified and demonstrated with Object Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm for multidisciplinary, complex, dynamic systems, which is also ISO-19450. We analyze the 1979 Three Miles Island 2 nuclear accident as a prime example of the disastrous consequences of unmitigated CPGs in complex systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2099.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ibu Kota Nusantara (IKN); urban heat island (UHI); land surface temperature (LST); seasonal; Terra-MODIS; Google Earth Engine (GEE); buffer cities
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:39:42 CEST)
The relocation of the Indonesian capital from Jakarta to Ibu Kota Nusantara (IKN) East Kalimantan IKN will affect several sectors. The change in land use from vegetated to developed land will lead to local climate changes, including the emergence of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, which is reflected in a higher land surface temperature (LST) than the surrounding area. In this study, an analysis of UHI propagation was conducted on a seasonal (DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON), with 5 yearly periods from 2001 to 2020, study area in IKN and its buffer cities (Balikpapan, Samarinda, and Bontang). Terra-MODIS satellite data are processed using Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform and output is done using GrADS. UHI (high LST) is found in urban areas/buffer cities both spatially and temporally in every season, while UHI has not yet occurred in IKN (low LST) and suburban, rural, hilly areas, vegetated areas, and water bodies (lakes, rivers). The cross-sectional latitudinal and longitudinal analysis showed that the LST DJF2015-2020 from highest to lowest temperature are in Balikpapan City (36.84 OC), Samarinda City (36.13 OC), Bontang City (32.3 OC); and IKN zero point (28.82 OC). The UHI propagation was observed in 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015, and most during 2016-2020. Seasonally, the UHI was most pronounced in the SON season, while on lowest UHI was observed in the MAM season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Koseze area; Mostec residential neighborhood (MRN); terraced residential neighborhood (TRN); urban heat island (UHI); urban cover; urban fabric; urban structure; urban metabolism
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:50:54 CET)
The study conducted in this paper is focused on a predominantly residential area of the City of Ljubljana – Koseze, which is characterized by generally favorable (bio)climatic conditions. Nonetheless, thermal satellite imaging showed that residential neighborhoods within the Koseze district display unexpected variations in summer temperatures. This observation called into question the benefits of existing bioclimatic features and indicated the need to investigate and compare two neighborhoods with similar urban parameters, with the aim to identify morphological differential characteristics impacting urban heat island (UHI) intensity. By applying the study methodology based on a literature review, surveys of key precedents, detailed mapping in two Koseze locations, in situ measurements, observations and recordings, thermal imaging and the analyses of statistical data, as well as by defining the four main categories of morphological urban parameters – structure, cover, fabric and metabolism, it was concluded that both neighborhoods have common morphological elements mitigating the UHI effect. Additionally, it was found that the neighborhood with higher UHI intensity has several less favorable features, such as busier roads, larger surface of parking corridors, and the existence of underground parking space. The traffic as an element of urban morphology hence represents the main cause of differences among UHI levels in the two Koseze neighborhoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0388.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Satellite Image Fusion, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Permeability, Landuse and Landcover, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Urban Heat Island, Fast Growing City, Remote sensing
Online: 21 August 2018 (16:58:09 CEST)
Rapid and extensive urbanization has adversely impacted humans and ecological entities in the recent decades through a decrease in surface permeability and the emergence of urban heat islands (UHI). While detailed and continuous assessments of surface permeability and UHI are crucial for urban planning and management of landuse zones, they have mostly involved time consuming and expensive field studies, and single sensor derived large scale aerial and satellite imageries. We demonstrated the advantage of fusing imageries from multiple sensors for landuse and landcover (LULC) change assessments as well as for assessing surface permeability and UHI emergence in Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India. Cartosat-2 and Landsat-7 ETM+ imageries from 2007 and 2017 were fused and classified using a Rotation Forest (RF), while surface permeability and temperature were quantified using Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) index, respectively. Fused images exhibited higher classification accuracies than non-fused images, i.e. overall kappa coefficient values 0.83 and 0.75, respectively. We observed an overall increase of 20 km2 (45%) in the coverage of urban (dry, real estate plots and built-up) areas, while a decrease of 27 km2 (37%) for vegetated (cropland and forest) areas in Tirunelveli between 2007 and 2017. The SAVI values indicated an extensive decrease in surface permeability for Tirunelveli overall (0.4) and also for almost all LULC zones. The LST values exhibited an associated overall increase (1.30C) of surface temperature in Tirunelveli with the highest increase (2.40C) for urban built-up areas between 2007 and 2017. The SAVI-LST combined metric depicted the Southeastern built-up areas in Tirunelveli as a potential UHI hotspot, while a caution for the Western riparian zone for UHI emergence in 2017. Our results provide important metrics for surface permeability and UHI monitoring, and inform urban and zonal planning authorities about the advantages of satellite image fusion.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Heat-Related Health Risk (HRHR); Urban Landscape Metrics (ULM); Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA); Spatial Error (SE) Regression; NCT-Delhi.
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:53:03 CET)
Urbanization induced land use land cover (LULC) changes intensify the urban heat island effects. It magnifies the risk of urban dwellers and sometimes causes the loss of human life, defined as heat-related health risk (HRHR). Hence, urban LULC planning plays a crucial role. Present study analyses the impact of composition and configuration of urban LULC defined as urban landscape metric (ULM) on HRHR in Delhi at the ward level. Firstly, the HRHR is measured by using satellite thermal and other digital data. Then, measured HRHR is validated by conducting a rapid field survey. Thirdly, ULM measured at ward level using Fragstat 4 software. Finally, both, HRHR and ULM linked with bi-variate Moran's I and impacts of ULM are assessed using ordinary least square (OLS) and spatial error (SE) regression. The result indicates the high risk is found as clustered in north-east, central and middle of south-west Delhi. Built-up density intensifies HRHR and abundance of vegetation reduce it; however, it is not similar for all vegetation patches. Larger vegetation patches surrounded by dense built-up might not able to reduce the risk as much as a large vegetation patch could in other regions. Findings can be helpful for heat resilient city planning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1540.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Built environment; Climate adaptation and mitigation; Carbon footprint; Eco-design; Nature-based solutions; Resilient living spaces; Solar energy technologies; Sustainable urban developments; Urban heat island; Urban planning
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:30:47 CEST)
The need to address climate change and establish sustainable urban environments has driven increased efforts in Europe to develop climate-neutral cities. This study highlights the importance of integrating solar energy technologies and nature-based solutions as key strategies to achieve climate neutrality. By examining current practices, emerging trends, and case examples, it explores the benefits, challenges, and prospects associated with the integration of solar energy and nature-based solutions in urban contexts. The study presents a pioneering approach to assess the urban heat and climate change mitigation benefits of combining building-integrated photovoltaics and nature-based solutions specifically within the European context. The results emphasize the synergistic relationship between nature-based components and solar conversion technology, identifying effective combinations for different climatic zones. In warmer regions of Southern Europe, strategies like rooftop photovoltaics on cool roofs, photovoltaics shadings, green walls, and urban trees have demonstrated effectiveness. Conversely, mid- and high-latitude European cities have seen positive impacts through the integration of rooftop photovoltaics and photovoltaics facades with green roofs and green spaces. As solar cell conversion efficiency improves, the environmental impact of photovoltaics is expected to decrease, facilitating their integration into urban environments. The study emphasizes the importance of incorporating water bodies, cool pavements, spaces with high sky-view factors, and effective planning in urban design to maximize resilience benefits. It also highlights the significance of prioritizing mitigation actions in low-income regions and engaging citizens in the development of social photovoltaics positive energy houses, resilient neighbourhoods, and green spaces. By adopting these recommendations, European cities can lead the way in creating climate-neutral urban environments that prioritize clean energy, nature-based solutions, and the overall well-being of residents. The findings underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach that combines technological innovation, urban planning strategies, and policy frameworks to effectively achieve climate neutrality in European cities.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sustainable development strategies; community development plans; small island developing states; governance; sanitation; water supply; hygiene; WASH; census results; top-down versus bottom-up; gender and age; SDG6
Online: 23 October 2020 (12:13:02 CEST)
Sanitation, water supply and their governance remain major challenges in many Pacific Island Countries. National sustainable development strategies (NSDSs) are promoted throughout the Pacific as overarching improved governance instruments to identify priorities, plan solutions and fulfill commitments to sustainable development. Their relevance to local village-level development priorities is uncertain. The Kingdom of Tonga provides opportunities to compare both. Tonga’s Strategic Development Frameworks (TSDFI 2011-2014 and TSDFII 2015-2025) were developed to focus government and its agencies on national outcomes. From 2007 to 2016, 136 villages throughout Tonga’s five Island Divisions (IDs) formulated Community Development Plans (CDPs) involving separately 80% of women, youth and men in each village. Censuses in 2006 and 2016 show linked improvements in water supply and sanitation systems but reveal IDs with continuing challenges. Sanitation and water are prominent in TSDFI but absent from the current TSDFII. In contrast, CDPs show in one ID, 53% of villages ranked sanitation as a priority with marked differences between IDs and between women, youth and men. CDPs’ sanitation priorities in IDs mostly correspond to sanitation and water metrics in the Censuses, but some reflect impacts of natural disasters. Explanations for differences in sanitation priorities between national and local development plans, as well as suggestions for improving NSDS processes in island countries, are advanced.