ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Migraine; Headache; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Saudi Arabia
Online: 18 August 2021 (11:21:40 CEST)
Migraine is a primary headache disorder with a prevalence of 11.6% globally and 27% in Saudi Arabia. Irritable bowel syndrome has a prevalence of 9.2% worldwide. The prevalence of IBS has not been established nationally. However, provincial studies for both migraine and IBS have been conducted across the nation. There is a significant link between migraines and IBS globally. This identifies an association that needs to be investigated in a nationwide manner. This study aims to observe the association and the relationship between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2021 to June 2021 among the general population of Saudi Arabia, whose ages are 15 years old or greater. The data collection tools included MS-Q for migraine symptoms, MIGSEV scale for severity of migraine, and The IBS module of the Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire (R4DQ) for IBS symptoms and its subtype. With a total of 2802 participants, the majority of the study sample were males, who constituted 52.5%. Among the study's sample, the prevalence of migraine consisted of 27.4%, and the prevalence of IBS was 16.4%. The odds of having IBS in migraineurs were much higher than in those without migraines (OR 4.127; 95% CI 3.325-5.121), and the association was statistically significant (P<0.001). In conclusion, there is a strong association between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome; children; fibers; peppermint oil; herbal remedies
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:48:50 CEST)
The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome in children involves multiple factors. Thus, treatment options are variable, targeting diet and the child’s and parents’ behav-ior, involving pharmacological and psychological interventions or neuromodulation. Parents are increasingly interested in complementary and alternative therapies for children with irritable bowel syndrome, especially when other treatments have been tried without relieving the child’s symptoms. This paper looks into current evidence for the benefits and side effects of herbal remedies and spices in pediatric patients with IBS. The benefits of peppermint oil, STW5, Psyllium fiber, Curcuma, ginger, and other herbal medicines are discussed based on findings in the current literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0706.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: fecal incontinence; unconscious elderly; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal symptoms; constipation; diarrhea
Online: 28 December 2020 (13:24:54 CET)
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is functional gastrointestinal tract disease, include abnormal defecation and abdominal pain. The Rome IV criteria define fecal incontinence as "recurrent and uncontrolled stool leakage that lasts more than 3 months." Fecal incontinence is common in patients with IBS and can have a significant negative impact on daily life and reduce the patient's quality of life. Diet and lifestyle guidance are needed to prevent fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence can be reduced by ingesting dietary fiber, which can improve stool properties, and avoiding foods with stool-softening properties. Additionally, defecation habit guidance is important for preventing fecal incontinence. If rectal sensation is normal, it is recommended to go to the bathroom as soon as there is a desire to defecate. In elderly people, if there is stool in the rectum due to decreased rectal sensation and it continues to accumulate in the rectum without triggering the urge to defecate, overflowing leaky fecal incontinence may occur. For such patients, defecation habit training teaching them to defecate even if they do not have the desire to defecate may be effective. Education and advice on defecation reduces fecal incontinence and is beneficial to caregivers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); maternal separation (MS); neurotransmitters; pain; psychosocial stress; visceral hyperalgesia; water avoidance stress (WAS); wrap restrain stress (WRS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:39:49 CET)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animals models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease. The study of these models has led to the production of drugs potentially useful for IBS treatment. This review intends to give an overview on the results obtained with the animal models; to emphasize the role of the enteric nervous system in IBS appearance and evolution and as a possible target of drug therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: causal effects; irritable bowel syndrome; Mendelian randomization; calcium; vitamin D; parathy-roid hormone
Online: 26 October 2022 (07:56:35 CEST)
Several observational studies have indicated the potential associations between calcium, vitamin D(Vit-D) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the causal relationship deduced from these studies is subjected to residual confounding factors and reverse causation. Therefore, we aim to explore the bidirectional causal effects between serum calcium, Vit-D, PTH and IBS at the genetic level by a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness. The estimates were presented as odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results of the inverse-variance-weighted method did not re-veal any causal relationship shared between genetically predisposed calcium (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.80-1.06, P = 0.25) and Vit-D (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83-1.19, P = 0.94) level and the risk of IBS. The bidirectional analysis demonstrated that genetic predisposition to IBS was associated with a de-creased level of PTH (beta: -0.19, 95%CI: -0.34 to -0.04, P = 0.01). In conclusion, the present study indicates no causal relationship between the serum calcium and Vit-D concentrations and the risk of IBS. The potential mechanisms by which IBS affects serum PTH need to be further investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Marfan; connective tissue disease; irritable bowel syndrome; hernia
Online: 14 November 2017 (04:08:45 CET)
Symptoms attributed to the gastrointestinal manifestations of multi-system disorders play an important role in the long-term management of these conditions. Gastrointestinal complications of a variety of connective tissue disorders have been studied and there is an increased interest in the incidence and prevalence of these symptoms. Descriptions of the occurrence of gastrointestinal complications in Marfan syndrome have appeared infrequently in the medical literature. In this review article we focus on both structural and functional gastrointestinal pathology that may occur in patients with Marfan syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: DISH; Gut microbiota; Skeletal Hyperostosis; Spondylitis; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:28:17 CEST)
The interplay between Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) and the gut microbiota represents a compelling area of research, offering insights into the relationship between spinal degenerative diseases and the gut's microbial inhabitants. This comprehensive review seeks to unravel the complex connection, shedding light on its implications for human health and potential therapeutic avenues. A crucial section dives into the world of gut microbiota (GM), exploring its impact on human health, featuring its defining characteristics, and highlighting its role in metabolism, immunomodulation, host interaction, and how its composition changes over time. The subsequent portion delves into the relationship between microbiome composition and pathological bone development, including the link between Intervertebral Disc Degeneration (IDD) and gut inflammation, emphasizing how gut inflammation and GM dysbiosis play pivotal roles. Further dissecting the interconnections, various axes of influence, including the gut-spine axis, gut-bone axis, gut-joint axis, gut-disc axis (specific to DISH), gut-ligament axis, and gut-muscle axis, are discussed. Of particular interest is the section on the impact of GM on DISH-derived pain, addressing a critical aspect of the condition's manifestation. The review discusses the potential of GM modulation as a treatment for DISH, providing hope for therapeutic advancements. Additionally, it highlights the positive impact of lifestyle interventions, such as dietary modifications, sleep optimization, and exercise regimens, in mitigating GM dysbiosis and potentially improving DISH outcomes. Lastly, the intriguing prospect of fecal microbiome transplant and its implications for DISH management is examined, opening new avenues for research and therapeutic interventions. In conclusion, this comprehensive review underscores the intricate interplay between DISH and the gut microbiota, offering a fresh perspective on the impact of GM on spinal degenerative diseases. It emphasizes the potential for innovative treatments, such as GM modulation and lifestyle interventions, and presents fecal microbiome transplant as an exciting area for future exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: gastrointestinal cramps; gastrointestinal pain; irritable bowel syndrome; hyoscine butyl bromide; peppermint oil; over-the-counter treatment; pharmacy-based patient survey
Online: 22 September 2022 (14:15:32 CEST)
Functional gastro-intestinal disorders (FGID) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are frequently handled by self-management with over the counter (OTC) products such as hyoscine butylbromide (HBB), alone or in combination with paracetamol, and natural products such as peppermint oil. To obtain real-world information, we have performed an anonymous pharmacy-based patient survey among 1686 users of HBB, HBB + paracetamol and peppermint oil. Based on the distinct but overlapping indications for the three OTC products, multiple logistic regression was applied to compare them in users reporting gastrointestinal cramps and pain, bloating, flatulence, or IBS as cardinal symptom. All three treatments reduced symptoms and associated impairments of work/daily chores, leisure activities, and sleep by approximately 50%. Based on the four cardinal symptoms and the four dependent continuous variables of interest (change of intensity of symptoms and of the three impairment domains) a total of 16 logistic regression models were applied. HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil had similar reported overall effectiveness in those models. Gender, age, baseline symptom severity and impairment in one of three domains had small and inconsistent effects on perceived treatment success. We provide evidence that HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil have comparable effectiveness in their approved indications under real-world conditions in an OTC setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0593.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: gut inflammation; neuroinflammation; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; irritable bowel syndrome; Celiac disease; functional dyspepsia; anterior cingulate cortex; microglia; sympathetic nervous system; mood disorders; depression; anxiety; cognition
Online: 25 September 2020 (03:45:08 CEST)
The brain reciprocally communicates with the rest of the body via neural, endocrine, immune, and other systems. This is crucial for coordinating the complex behavioral and physiological responses needed to cope with the many challenges of life. The Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) is a key brain structure involved in assessing rewards and threats, as well as activating appropriate responses. This is a dynamic process that depends on evolving needs and challenges. Important challenges include illness or injury. These typically involve inflammation and pain, which evoke neuroinflammatory processes in the brain to drive sickness behaviours. In the short term, sickness behaviours are considered adaptive, as they promote convalescence (e.g. low mood; lethargy, fatigue, social withdrawal), and enhanced threat appraisal (e.g. anxiety) to combat increased risk/vulnerability associated with sickness. Chronic inflammation, however, appears to remodel the system to inappropriately activate threat-coping responses, resulting in depressive and/or anxious phenotypes. These mood disorders are particularly pronounced in diseases and disorders associated with gut dysfunction, which feature chronic inflammation and altered ACC function. We propose that chronic inflammation remodels ACC physiology such that it errantly predicts heightened danger based on a mental model (a.k.a ‘schema’) of the world. This evokes chronic activation of threat-coping systems, including endocrine signaling (e.g. adrenaline), and anxiety. Inflammation can be driven by brain systems involving ACC, leading to a feedback-cycle that self-reinforces pathological states. This theory accounts for a wealth of clinical and preclinical data that implicate the ACC in disorders of mood and gastrointestinal function, and reveals a key player in the gut-brain axis that may represent a novel therapeutic target.