ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0480.v2
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: invasive species; thermal imaging; habitat identification; deep learning
Online: 21 September 2020 (06:01:38 CEST)
Invasive species are significant threats to global agriculture and food security being the major causes of crop loss. An operative biosecurity policy requires full automation of detection and habitat identification of the potential pests and pathogens. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) mounted thermal imaging cameras can observe and detect pest animals and their habitats, and estimate their population size around the clock. However, their effectiveness becomes limited due to manual detection of cryptic species in hours of captured flight videos, failure in habitat disclosure and the requirement of expensive high-resolution cameras. Therefore, the cost and efficiency trade-off often restricts the use of these systems. In this paper, we present an invasive animal species detection system that uses cost-effectiveness of consumer-level cameras while harnessing the power of transfer learning and an optimised small object detection algorithm. Our proposed optimised object detection algorithm named Optimised YOLO (OYOLO) enhances YOLO (You Only Look Once) by improving its training and structure for remote detection of elusive targets. Our system, trained on the massive data collected from New South Wales and Western Australia, can detect invasive species (rabbits, Kangaroos and pigs) in real-time with a higher probability of detection (85–100 %), compared to the manual detection. This work will enhance the visual analysis of pest species while performing well on low, medium and high-resolution thermal imagery, and equally accessible to all stakeholders and end-users in Australia via a public cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: fall armyworm; integrated pest management; invasive pest; Spodoptera frugiperda
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:01:54 CEST)
Spodoptera frugiperda is a relatively new invasive polyphagous insect pest in Indonesia. So far, S. frugiperda infestation has only been reported in corn, however in other countries S. frugiperda has been known to attack many commercial crops. To date, information on biological parameters of S. frugiperda is limited in Indonesian ecologies. Since host plants are a critical factor for insect life-history and has the potential to be used for pest control strategies, it is important to study the biology and survival of S. frugiperda on different host plants. This research was aimed to study the survival, life cycle, and fecundity of S. frugiperda on different host plants and how it affects pest management. The study was conducted by rearing S. frugiperda on 14 common cultivated host plant species in Indonesia. Survival rate, development time, fecundity, and potential attack rate of S. frugiperda on various tested host plants were analyzed in this study. The findings re-vealed that corn was the main host for S. frugiperda. The ability of S. frugiperda to survive on pa-paya, water spinach, banana, spinach, cucumber, and coco grass indicates that these plants are potential alternate host for S. frugiperda. Long beans, bok choy, choy sum, and beans might be in-dicated as a shelter for S. frugiperda. Meanwhile, inappropriate hosts for S. frugiperda include cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower due to their low survival rate on these plants. This research implies that these plants have the potential to be used as a hedge, trap, or bunker plant in S. frugi-perda management strategies. However, to prevent a detrimental damage, control methods are needed in integrated manner, including monitoring pest populations, environmental engineering, and conservation of natural enemies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0672.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: breakthrough invasive fungal infections; invasive candidiasis; invasive mold infections; endemic mycoses; diagnostics
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:13:51 CEST)
Breakthrough invasive fungal infections (bIFI) cause significant morbidity and mortality. Their diagnosis can be challenging due to reduced sensitivity of conventional culture techniques, serologic tests, and PCR-based assays in patients on antifungal therapy, and their diagnosis can be delayed contributing to poor patient outcomes. In this review, we provide consensus recommendations on behalf of the European Confederation for Medical Mycology (ECMM) for the diagnosis of bIFI caused by invasive yeasts, molds, and endemic mycoses, to guide diagnostic efforts in patients receiving antifungals and support the design of future clinical trials in the field of clinical mycology. The cornerstone of lab-based diagnosis of breakthrough infections for yeast and endemic mycoses remain conventional culture, to accurately identify the causative pathogen and allow for antifungal susceptibility testing. The impact of non-culture-based methods are not well-studied for the definite diagnosis of breakthrough invasive yeast infections. Non-culture-based methods have an important role for the diagnosis of breakthrough invasive mold infections, in particular invasive aspergillosis, and a combination of testing involving conventional culture, antigen-based assays, and PCR-based assays should be considered. Multiple diagnostic modalities, including histopathology, culture, antibody and/or antigen tests and occasionally PCR-based assays may be required to diagnose breakthrough endemic mycoses. A need exists for diagnostic tests that are effective, simple, cheap, and rapid to enable the diagnosis of bIFI in patients taking antifungals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biological invasions; invasive species, status, ecological niche, invasive niche, Ulex europaeus
Online: 29 June 2019 (10:38:29 CEST)
This study analyzes the natural and social factors influencing the emergence and publicization of the invasive status of a fast growing bush, gorse (Ulex europaeus), by comparison between countries on a global scale. We used documents collected on the web in a standardized way. The results show that in all the countries studied, there are several public statuses attributed to gorse. The invasive status is the one that is most shared. The other most frequently encountered status are those of noxious weed, and of economically useful. The invasive status is publicized in nearly all countries, including those where gorse is almost absent. We quantified the publicization of the invasive gorse status of gorse by an indicator with 5 levels, and then performed a multivariate analysis that combines natural and social explanatory variables. The results lead us to propose the concept of invasive niche: the set of natural and social parameters that allow a species to be considered invasive in a given socio-ecosystem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0868.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: minimally invasive; aortic valve; surgery
Online: 11 May 2023 (14:00:03 CEST)
Minimally invasive approaches to the aortic valve have been described since 1993, with great hopes that they would become universal and facilitate day-case cardiac surgery. The literature has shown that these procedures can be undertaken with equivalent mortality, similar operative time, comparative cost and some benefits in hospital length of stay. The competing efforts of the transcatheter aortic valve implantation for these same outcomes have provided an excellent range of treatment options for patients from the Heart Team. We describe the current state of the art, including technical considerations, caveats and complications of minimal access aortic surgery and predict future directions in this space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1532.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: invasive breast cancer; histological grade; microRNA
Online: 23 November 2023 (14:29:39 CET)
This study aimed to identify microRNAs associated with histological grade using comprehensive microRNA analysis data obtained by next-generation sequencing in early-stage invasive breast cancer. RNA-seq data from normal breast and breast cancer samples were compared to identify candidate microRNAs with different expressions using bioinformatics. A total of 108 microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between normal breast and breast cancer tissues. Using clinicopathological information and microRNA sequencing data of 430 patients with breast cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the differences in candidate microRNAs between low- and high-grade cases were compared. Comparing the expression of the 108 microRNAs between low- and high-grade cases, 25 and 18 microRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in high-grade cases. Clustering analysis of the TCGA cohort using these 43 microRNAs identified two groups strongly predictive of histological grade. miR-3677 is a microRNA upregulated in high-grade breast cancer. The outcome analysis revealed that patients with high miR-3677 expression had a significantly worse prognosis than those with low miR-3677 expression. This study showed that microRNAs were associated with histological grade in early-stage invasive breast cancer. These findings contribute to the elucidation of a new mechanism of breast cancer growth regulated by specific microRNAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: birds; molecular sexing; minimally invasive methods
Online: 6 October 2023 (09:06:40 CEST)
Birds are highly social and need pairing in order to increase their welfare. Most bird species are monomorphic, therefore, molecular sexing helps to provide appropriate welfare for birds. Moreover, early sex determination can be of great value for bird owners. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that sex identification in birds by molecular methods, using samples collected by minimally invasive methods is fast, efficient and accurate. A total of 100 samples (29 paired samples of feathers - oral swab and 14 tripled samples of feathers - oral swab - blood) from 43 birds were taken into study, as follows: wild birds (Falconiformes, Accipitriformes, landfowl – Galliformes, waterfowl– Anseriformes), companion birds (Passeriformes, Psittaciformes – large, medium and small size parrots). Amplification of CHD1-Z and CHD1-W genes was performed by conventional PCR. The results obtained from feathers were compared to those obtained from oral swabs and with those obtained from blood samples, where was the case. The obtained results show that all types of samples can be used for molecular sexing of all studied species of birds. According to our knowledge, the present study reports for the first time the molecular sex identification in: Red Siskin (Carduelis cucullata) and Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis major). For higher accuracy, our recommendation is to use minimally invasive samples (swab-feathers) and to test both types of samples, for each bird, instead of blood samples.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0789.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: sacroiliac; fusion; intra-articular; minimally invasive
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:03:17 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: Minimally-invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion is the preferred surgical intervention to treat chronically severe pain associated with SIJ degeneration and dysfunction. (2) Methods: This paper details the ten-step surgical procedure associated with the postero-inferior approach using the PsiF™DNA Sacroiliac Joint Fusion System. (3) Results: The posterior surgical approach with an inferior operative trajectory (postero-inferior) utilizes easily identifiable landmarks to provide the safest, most direct access to the articular joint space for transfixing device placement. Implanting the device through the subchondral bone, provides maximum fixation and stabilization of the joint by utilizing an optimal amount of cortical bone-implant interface. Approaching the joint from the inferior trajectory also places the implant perpendicular to the S1 endplate at a “pivot point” near the sacral axis of rotation, which addresses the most significant motion of the joint. (4) Conclusions: Further observational data from real-world clinical use are encouraged to further validate this procedure as the surgical preference for minimally-invasive SIJ fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1852.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: big leaf mahogany; distribution map; invasive species management; invasive alien plant species; Mt. Banahaw de Nagcarlan
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:59:39 CEST)
Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) pose one of the most significant threats to native biodiversity. Swietenia macrophylla, or big leaf mahogany, is among the most threatening invasive plants in the Philippines. This article aimed to formally document the presence of S. macrophylla along the edges of Mt. Banahaw de Nagcarlan, a protected area on Luzon Island, Philippines. The study also sought to identify the management strategies being implemented by various government institutions for addressing big leaf mahogany and other invasive plants. A total of 1591 individuals of S. macrophylla were documented in mixed land-use areas and roadsides. These were found to have been introduced by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in 1991 as a reforestation species. Fortunately, no individuals were observed beyond the buffer zone towards the protected area. The identification of management strategies for big leaf mahogany and other IAPS revealed that there is no established approach specifically addressing the presence of S. macrophylla at the site. However, some institutions advocate for the conservation of native plants through tree planting activities and educational campaigns. Furthermore, no collaborative efforts were observed among stakeholders and institutions. The results of this study highlight the urgent need for managing the S. macrophylla population. Planning and enforcement of strategies require collaborative efforts among stakeholders to prevent its entry into the protected area and ensure the preservation of native biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0941.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Biological control agents; Effectiveness; Parasitoid; Invasive pest
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:03:52 CEST)
Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an invasive pest that is very detrimental to cassava cultivation in Indonesia. Control efforts by utilizing natural enemies of the parasitoid have succeeded in overcoming the cassava mealybug in 25 countries such as in Africa and Thailand. The purpose of this study was to specifically evaluate the potential for parasitoid species associated with the mealybug P. manihoti by (1) determining the level of parasitization against mealybugs on various varieties of cassava, (2) determining parasitoid preference for P. manihoti instars, and (3) determining the type of parasitoid. This study was undertaken in the field to re-evaluate the kinds of parasitoids associated with cassava pests, and in the laboratory to assess the amount of parasitization, predilection, and functional response of parasitoids to P. manihoti population density. The findings revealed three of parasitoids linked with P. manihoti in the field: Anagyrus lopezi, Acerophagus sp., and Blepyrus sp. The parasitoid A. lopezi had the greatest parasitization rate in the field, which was 18.67 %. Furthermore, the parasitoids A. lopezi and Blepyrus sp. preferred 3rd instar nymphs, but Acerophagus sp. preferred 2nd instar nymphs. The parasitoid A. lopezi demonstrated a type-III functional response, while Acerophagus sp. and Blepyrus sp. demonstrated a type-II functional response. The handling capacity (Th) of A. lopezi is the shortest at 3.42 minutes. This work is a comprehensive study of the parasitoid A. lopezi's potential as a biological agent, highlighting how it effectively suppresses P. manihoti on various cassava varieties in Bali, providing an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and applicable control in tropical countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0948.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Haemophilus influenzae; Serotype; Genomic; Invasive disease; Bacteria
Online: 13 June 2023 (14:52:36 CEST)
Haemophilus influenzae is one of causative agent of invasive bacterial pathogen that affects both children and adults. Haemophilus influenzae is a pleomorphic gram-negative coccobacillus and it is a common commensal of the upper respiratory tract. It is a human-only pathogen that can cause severe invasive diseases. These bacterial infections can range from mild, such as ear infections, to severe, such as bloodstream infections. The infections typically affect children younger than 5 years old and old age person older than 65 years. They also affect people who are immunocompromised, such as those with certain medical conditions. The highest incidence rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease have recently been discovered in various nations, including North America, Canada, and parts of Europe. In order to monitor the evolving nature of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease critically reviewed data is required to capture the true status of invasiveness of the Haemophilus influenza diseases. Developing new vaccines against Haemilus influenzae is a potential solution to protect some vulnerable populations against the invasive disease due to this bacterial species. This review article thoroughly investigate recent and up-to-date biomedical science perspective development, innovation, findings, publications and current areas of scientific interest and gap including pathogenicity, diagnosis, multidrug-resistance, Molecular characterization and genetic evolution, epidemiology and immunological characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae, including specific current issues that are affecting the research and development of vaccines to treat Haemophilus influenzae non serotype b diseases and providing insight into how these problems may be overcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Invasive weeds; Organic Fertilizers; Vermicomposting Technology; Ethiopia.
Online: 21 October 2021 (22:53:58 CEST)
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian and a key sector of its economy. However, Lack of productive and environmentally friendly technology is not widely applicable elsewhere. Likewise, the vermicomposting technology is a recently emerging science which not effectively transferred to the users across the country. Thus, this review is aimed to shine the importance, unexploited opportunities and the challenges hindered for further expansions in Ethiopian context. Vermicompost is among the powerful organic fertilizers which enhance soil Fertility and productivity. As agrarian society; there are plenty of raw byproducts and weed species which are not center of focus (i.e cattle waste, crop residues and invasive weeds like P.Juliflora, P.hysterophorus and E.crassipes respectively). However, there are many constraints there like policy issue, handling problems and sensitivity of the worms for different environmental factors which hindered to invest on a wide range. Generally, the number and weight of vermiculture as well as amount of produced casts are promised and every possible ways were recommended to entertain on the large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0837.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: wall painting; restoration; enzymatic cleaning; non-invasive diagnostics
Online: 13 November 2023 (15:58:04 CET)
A 17th century wall painting representing a Virgin between two Saints in a noble Italian renaissance palace, Palazzo Gallo in Bagnaia (Viterbo, Italy), was restored in 2021 in the context of a wider restoration campaign interesting the main room of the palace built by cardinal Sansoni Riario. Diagnostic analyses done with traditional characterization techniques (optical microscopy on micro-stratigraphic sections, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) provided the identification of both original painting and restoration materials, while imaging investigations as ultraviolet fluorescence photography, false color images and multispectral mapping provided by hypercolorimetric multispectral imaging (HMI) technique enabled the evaluation of the state of conservation, locating restoration interventions and supporting the monitoring of the cleaning procedure. An altered protective Paraloid-based coating dating from early 2000s had to be removed due to the unpleasant glossy finishing given to the painted surface, making the scene barely readable. To pursue a restoration protocol based on environmental sustainability and green chemistry, enzyme-based gels marketed by Nasier-Brenta© and CTS© companies were tested in different protocols for the cleaning of the mash covering the painting. Although some interesting results were observed, the enzymatic cleaning had a scarce effectiveness with timing beyond a reasonable interval. Traditional chemical solvents as Dowanol PM (methoxy-propanol) and benzyl alcohol were necessary to complete the cleaning of the painting surface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MET alterations; cancer progression; invasive growth; therapeutic targeting.
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:03:30 CEST)
The MET proto-oncogene encodes a pivotal tyrosine kinase receptor, binding the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, also known as scatter factor, SF) and governing essential biological processes such as organogenesis, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. The pleiotropic physiological functions of MET explain its diverse role in cancer progression in a broad range of tumors; genetic/epigenetic alterations of MET drive tumor cell dissemination, metastasis, and acquired resistance to conventional and targeted therapies. Therefore, targeting MET emerged as a promising strategy, and many efforts were devoted to identifying the optimal way of hampering MET signaling. Despite encouraging results, however, the complexity of MET's functions in oncogenesis yields intriguing observations, fostering a humbler stance on our comprehension. This review explores recent discoveries concerning MET alterations in cancer, elucidating their biological repercussions, discussing therapeutic avenues, and outlining future directions. By contextualizing the research question and articulating the study's purpose, this work navigates MET biology's intricacies in cancer, offering a comprehensive perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0749.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; serotype; Jordan; invasive pneumococcal disease; pediatrics
Online: 12 July 2023 (21:23:36 CEST)
Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In Jordan, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are not included in the national vaccination program. Due to the current availability of several PCVs including PCV-10, PCV-13 and PCV-15, along with PCV-20, currently undergoing pediatric approvals globally, the decision to introduce PCVs and their selection should be based on valid local data on the common serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the frequency of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children aged below 5 years hospitalized with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) including pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis during the study’s duration in representative areas of Jordan. Serotyping for culture-positive cases was based on the capsular reaction test, known as the Quellung reaction. qPCR was conducted on blood samples of patients with lobar pneumonia identified via X-ray or on cerebrospinal fluid for those with a positive latex agglutination test for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results. This study was based on the analysis of the serotypes of 1015 Streptococcus pneumoniae cases among children younger than the age of 5; 1006 cases with pneumonia, 6 cases with meningitis, and 3 cases with septicemia. Only 23 culture-positive cases were identified, in comparison to 992 lobar pneumonia cases which were PCR-positive but culture-negative, with a PCR positivity rate of 92%. Serotypes 6B, 6A, 14 and 19F were the most common serotypes identified in the study, with prevalence rates of 16.45%, 13.60%, 12.12% and 8.18%, respectively. PCV-10, PCV-13, PCV-15 and PCV-20 coverage rates were 45.32%, 61.87%, 64.14% and 68.47%, respectively. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is largest prospective study from the Middle East and one of the largest studies worldwide showing the serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It reveals the urgency for the introduction of PCV vaccination in Jordan, utilizing recently developed vaccines with broader serotype coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: allelopathy; biochar; invasive species; island ecosystems; Psidium cattleianum
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:37:04 CET)
Many tropical invasive species have allelopathic effects that contribute to their success in native plant communities. Pyrolyzed biomass (“biochar”) can sorb toxic compounds, including allelochemicals produced by invasive plants, potentially reducing their inhibitory effects on native species. Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is among the most important allelopathic invasive species in tropical islands and recognized as the most serious invasive species threat in the global biodiversity hotspot of Mauritius. We investigated the effects of additions of locally produced biochar on native tree species in a field experiment conducted in areas invaded by strawberry guava within Mauritius’ largest national park. Growth and survivorship of native tree species were monitored over 2 ½ years in plots subjected to four treatments: non-weeded, weeded, weeded + 25 t/ha biochar and weeded + 50 t/ha biochar. Native tree growth and survivorship were strongly suppressed by strawberry guava. Biochar treatments dramatically increased native tree performance, with more than a doubling in growth, and substantially increased native tree survivorship and species diversity, while suppressing strawberry guava regeneration, consistent with growth-promoting properties and sorption of allelochemicals. We conclude that biochars, including “sustainable biochars” produced from locally accessible biomass using low-tech pyrolysis systems, have considerable potential to counteract effects of allelopathic invaders and increase the capacity for native species regeneration in tropical island ecosystems.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: non-ionizing radiation; millimeter waves; novel biomedical applications; yeast; non-invasive devices
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:08:47 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) are reported to interact with cells in a variety of ways. Possible mechanisms of the inhibited cell division effect were investigated using 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation within the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) non-thermal 20 mW/cm2 safety standards. ~1.0 mW/cm2 exposure over 5-6 hours treatment on 50 cells/μl samples of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organism, resulted in 62% growth rate reduction compared to control (sham). The effect was specific for 85-105 GHz range and energy dose and cell density dependent. Irradiation of wild type and Δrad52 (DNA damage repair gene) deletion cells presented no differences of colony growth profiles indicating non-thermal MMW treatment does not cause genetic alterations. Dose versus response relations studied using a standard horn antenna (~1.0 mW/cm2) and compared to that of a compact waveguide (17.17 mW/cm2) for increased power delivery resulted in complete termination of cell division via non-thermal processes supported by temperature rise measurements. Combinations of MMW mediated Structure Resonant Energy Transfer (SRET), membrane modulations eliciting signaling effects, and energetic resonance with biomolecules were indicated to be responsible for the observations reported. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights enabling innovative applications of nonionizing radiation procedures for eliciting targeted biomedical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: non-invasive apoptosis detection sensor; breast cancer; HDACi
Online: 1 December 2017 (12:08:13 CET)
Breast cancer is the most common malignancies in women and the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype is a breast cancer subset without ER, PR and HER2 expression, limiting treatment options and presenting a poorer survival rate. Thus, we investigated whether HDACi would be used as potential anti-cancer therapy on breast cancer cells. In this study, we found TNBC and HER2-enrich breast cancers are extremely sensitive to Panobinostat, Belinostat of HDACi via experiments of cell viability assay, apoptotic marker identification and flow cytometry measurement. On the other hand, we developed a bioluminescence based live cell non-invasive apoptosis detection sensor (IADS) detection system to evaluate the quantitative and kinetic analyses of apoptotic cell death by HDAC treatment on breast cancer cells. In addition, the use of HDACi may also be accompanied with chemotherapeutic agent such as doxorubicin to synergic drug sensitivity on TNBC cell (MDA-MB-231), but not in breast normal epithelia cells (MCF-10A), providing therapeutic benefits against breast tumor in clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0985.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Forest resilience; invasive species; impacts; silvopastoral systems; sustainable management
Online: 15 November 2023 (09:35:35 CET)
Forest management aims to preserve ecosystem integrity, maintaining resilience thresholds. For this, conservation and invasion patterns must be determined in managed landscapes. The objective was to identify proxies (landscape and environmental patterns) that allowed the plant species invasion and define thresholds of human impacts to improve management practices. We also want to identify indicator species for the different kinds of impacts and environments. 165 plots were measured in Nothofagus antarctica forests and associated open-lands (dry and wet grasslands) in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). We found differences in the studied variables across landscape and among different uses and impact types. Human impacts influenced over land types, emphasizing the importance of managing intensities. Indicator plant species allowed to identify potential ecological thresholds related to human impacts and the establishment of species linked to ecological and economic degradation, e.g. Bolax gummifera and Azorella trifurcata were associated with high grazing pressure in grasslands and fire in forested areas, while Rumex acetosella and Achillea millefolium, typically associated with forested areas, were related to high harvesting pressure and fire impacts. These findings contribute to understanding the long-term effects of some impacts, and allow us to define variables of monitoring and indicator species for each impact type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Minimally invasive surgery, Type II endometrial cancer, overall survival
Online: 18 October 2023 (03:05:50 CEST)
Objective: To compare the overall survival (OS) and surgical outcomes between open and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in a large cohort of women with Type II endometrial cancer. Methods: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified a cohort of women who underwent hysterectomy for type II endometrial cancer (serous, clear cell, carcinosarcoma) between January 2010 and December 2014. Primary outcome was the comparison of OS between MIS and the open approach. Secondary outcomes included the length of hospital stay, readmission rate, 30- and 90-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression and inverse propensity weighting analyses were performed. Results: A total of 12,905 patients with Type II, Stage I-III endometrial cancer who underwent hysterectomy were identified. Among these patients, 7,123 (55.2%) underwent MIS. The utilization of MIS increased from 39% to 64% over the four-year period. In propensity-score-weighted analysis, MIS was associated with superior OS (101.7 vs. 86.7 months, p=0.0003 by the log-rank test), with a hazard ratio of 0.9 (CI 0.857-0.954, p=0.0002). MIS was also associated with improved perioperative outcomes, including a shorter length of stay (1 vs. 4 days, p<0.001), lower 30-day readmission rate (2.5% vs. 5%), and lower 30- and 90-day postoperative mortality (0.5% vs. 1.3% and 1.5% vs. 3.6%, respectively; p<0.001). The time interval between surgery and initiation of chemotherapy was shorter in the MIS group (38 vs. 41 days, p<0.001).The increase in MIS adoption correlated with a decrease in 90-day postoperative mortality (2.8% to 2.2%, r=-0.89; p=0.003) and 12-month overall mortality (51% to 38%, r=-0.95, p=0.006). Conclusions: In an epidemiologic study, MIS is associated with improved overall survival and superior perioperative outcomes compared to open surgery in women with Type II endometrial cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0865.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; critically ill; cytomegalovirus; ards
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:36:47 CEST)
Introduction and Aims: COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is common and is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. This prospective observational study aimed to explore the association between CAPA development and the incidence and prognosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: We included all consecutive critically ill adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to three COVID-19 intensive care units (ICUs) in an Italian hospital from February 25, 2020, to May 8, 2022. A standardized procedure was employed for early detection of CAPA. Risk factors associated with CAPA and CMV reactivation and the association between CMV recurrence and mortality were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: CAPA occurred in 96 patients (16,6%) of the 579 patients analyzed. Among the CAPA population 40 (41,7%) patients developed CMV blood reactivation with a median time of 18 days (IQR 7-27). The CAPA+CMV group did not exhibit a significantly higher 90-day mortality rate (62.5% vs. 48.2%) than the CAPA alone group (p=0.166). The CAPA+CMV group had a longer ICU stay, fewer ventilation-free days, and a higher rate of secondary bacterial infections than the control group of CAPA alone. In the CAPA population, prior immunosuppression was the only independent risk factor for CMV reactivation (HR 2.33, 95% C.I. 1.21-4.48, p=0.011). Conclusions: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, CMV reactivation is common in those with a previous CAPA diagnosis. Basal immunosuppression before COVID-19 appeared to be the primary independent variable affecting CMV reactivation in patients with CAPA. Furthermore, the association of CAPA+CMV versus CAPA alone appears to impact ICU length of stay and secondary bacterial infections but not mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0958.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Robotic; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; tactile feedback; Minamily invasive; Cost effectiveness;
Online: 14 September 2023 (10:58:56 CEST)
Robotic surgery is a rapidly developing and evolving surgical technique. This literature review evaluates the advantages and disadvantages in the context of gallbladder disease comparing robotic Cholecystectomy to the well-established laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Significant advantages are reduced operative blood loss, hospital stays and post operative pain, alongside increased patient satisfaction and improved visualization and precision compared to the laparoscopic approach. Disadvantages include lack of tactile feedback, significant cost attributed to equipment, training requirements and increased procedural time due to the set-up sequences. The implementation of robotic surgery also poses significant changes for the training of future surgeons. Whilst it can standardize training and increases opportunity for simulation, the concern is the loss of traditional skills. Currently the evidence base remains mixed however the use of robotics in the right setting, with suitably trained operatives and appropriate patients can enable improved outcomes for patients with gallbladder disease. There is a lot of scope for development including the implementation of tactile feedback to aid operative technique and artificial intelligence to aid patient safety. Likely broadening the use and potential benefit of robotic surgery not only for cholecystectomy but many surgical specialties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: synthetic generation; wearables health data; non-invasive diabetes prediction
Online: 21 August 2023 (11:39:55 CEST)
Continuous glucose monitoring devices allow diabetes condition management. However, when limited data is available, one option is to increase their size by generating synthetic samples. From a homemade wearable prototype was created a real dataset with 18 instances and 53 attributes that capture characteristics of capillary and venous blood glucose, oxygen concentration, pulse rate, skin temperature, and 24 modules and 24 phases related to bio-impedance. The objective of this article is to generate synthetic datasets, and also it investigates the ideal features subset and optimal model for non-invasive diabetes prediction. Gaussian-Copulas (GC), conditional generative adversarial networks (CG), variational autoencoders, and Copula-GAN techniques' were used to generate five synthetic datasets. Experiments show that GC1 and GC2 datasets follow min/max boundaries and are not copies of the original data. Multilayer perceptron regressor outperformed (train and test) with 2.17, 2.51 in MAE; 9.29, 13.59 in MSE; 3.05, 3.69 in RMSE, and 0.95, 0.92 in R2 in GC1, and 2.64, 3.02 in MAE; 11.43, 15.11 in MSE; 3.38, 3.89 in RMSE, and 0.94, 0.92 in R2 in GC2 with eight features. Future work is necessary to explore autoencoder and generative architectures, datasets with diverse characteristics, and the effect of the number of features.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1884.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Partial pulpotomy; Minimal invasive endodontics; Caries; Molar Incisor Hypomineralization
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:53:25 CEST)
Introduction: The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic success of partial pulpotomies in deep caries processes or post-eruptive defects in young, vital permanent teeth. Methods: Electronic databases, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase, were searched, followed by a manual search. Randomized controlled trials evaluating partial pulpo-tomy with a follow-up period of ≥12 months were included. Meta-analyses using a random effect model were performed. Results: A total of 3.127 articles were retrieved, and after duplicate re-moval, 2.642 were screened by title and abstract; 1 additional article was found during the manual search in the reference lists, and 79 were identified. Finally, 6 papers were included in the review. Regardless of the partial pulpotomy modalities or material used, there were no signifi-cant differences between clinical and radiographic success rates (cumulative success rate 91,8%-92,3%, respectively). Five studies were included in the meta-analysis that did not indicate any statistically significant differences in success rates when Mineral Trioxide Aggregate was compared to other materials (95% CI 0,239 to 1,016 p=0.055). Conclusion: This research system-atically evaluates the evidence and summarises the available data on partial pulpotomy in young permanent teeth. Given its high clinical and radiographic success rate, partial pulpotomy should be considered when vital pulpal therapy needs to be performed in highly damaged young per-manent teeth, as this procedure provides a biological benefit and allows more invasive endodon-tic treatments to be postponed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Invasive species; eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I
Online: 4 April 2023 (14:31:38 CEST)
The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis has been reported worldwide, however, some basic questions remain unanswered about the presence of A. cantonensis in Ecua-dor: 1) Was the invasion of A. cantonensis in Ecuador unique, or did it occur in different waves? 2) Was this invasion as recent as historical records suggest? 3) Did this inva-sion come from other regions of South America or elsewhere? To address these issues, we assessed the genetic diversity of MT-CO1 gene sequences from isolates obtained in eleven of Ecuador's 24 provinces. Our Bayesian inference phylogenetic tree recovered A. cantonensis as a well-supported monophyletic group. All eleven sequences from Ec-uador were identical and identified as AC17a. The haplotype AC17a, found in Ecuador and the USA, formed a cluster with AC17b (USA); AC13 (Thailand); and AC12a-b (Cambodia). It is notable that all the samples, obtained in different geographic and climatic regions of different Ecuadorian provinces, had no genetic difference between them. Despite the lack of genetic information on A. cantonensis in Latin America, ex-cept in Brazil, our finding differs from previous studies by its absence of genetic diver-sity in Ecuador. We concluded that the invasion of A. cantonensis in Ecuador may have occurred: 1) as a one-time event, 2) recently, and 3) from Asia via the USA. Further re-search should include samples from countries neighboring Ecuador to delve deeper in-to this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: aesthetics; gingiva; hyaluronic acid; injections; surgical procedures; minimally invasive
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:08:28 CEST)
The absence of interdental papillae leads to the appearance of black triangle. For most patients, the appearance of these triangles is an important reason for concern and affects their social relationships. Multiple reconstruction techniques have been developed with different degrees of success and predictability. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of hyaluronic acid (HA) injected into interproximal papillae six months after injection and to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. After a systematic review, five articles were selected: a clinical randomised controlled trial and four clinical trials. In total, eighty-five patients with a deficiency in upper papillae in the front of the maxilla and jaw were included in the study. The height variable was evaluated (mm) six months after HA injection. In total, one hundred and four interproximal papillae were studied. Three articles showed an important difference in favour of intervention. The total result regarding in the injection of AH was favourable with an approximate average filling of 0.7 mm in the height of the interdental papilla. The injection of HA for the reconstruction of deficient papillae in the region of the upper and lower maxilla was a possible option treatment strategy.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Amphipoda; invasive species; population genetics; miogenome; Ponto-Caspian; SNP
Online: 7 September 2021 (10:56:34 CEST)
The Ponto-Caspian region is the main donor of invasive amphipods to freshwater ecosystems, with at least 13 species successfully established in European inland waters. Dikerogammarus spp. and Pontogammarus robustoides are among the most successful, due to their strong invasive impact on local biota. However, genomic knowledge on these invaders is scarce, while phylogeography and population genetics have been based on short fragments of mitochondrial markers or nuclear mi-crosatellites. In this study, we provide: (i) reconstruction of four mitogenomes for four invasive gammarids; (ii) comparison between the structure of the newly obtained mitogenomes and to those from literature; (iii) SNP calling rates for individual D. villosus and D. haemobaphes from different invasion sites across Europe; and (iv) the first time-calibrated full mitogenome reconstruction of several Ponto-Caspian taxa. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated four mitogenomes, each from D. villosus, D. hae-mobaphes, D. bispinosus and Pontogammarus robustoides. We found that, in comparison to other gammarids, the mitogenomes of Ponto-Caspian species show a translocation between the tRNA-E and tRNA-R positions. Phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitogenomes identified that Ponto-Caspian gammarids form a well-supported group that originated in the Miocene. Our study supports paraphyly in the family Gammaridae. These mitogenomes serve as vital genetic resources for the development of new markers for PCR-based identification methods and demographic studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; test; alternative; non-invasive; CRC; review
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:01:58 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death in the world. Since the 70s, many countries have adopted different CRC screening programs which has resulted in a decrease in mortality. However, current screening test options still present downsides. The commercialized stool-based tests present high false-positive rates and low sensitivity, which negatively affects the detection of early stage carcinogenesis. The gold standard colonoscopy has low uptake due to its invasiveness and the perception of discomfort and embarrassment that the procedure may bring.In this review, we collected and described the latest data about alternative CRC screening techniques that can overcome these disadvantages. Web of Science and PubMed were employed as search engines for studies reporting on CRC screening tests and future perspectives. The searches generated 555 articles, of which 93 titles were selected. Finally, a total of 50 studies, describing 14 different CRC alternative tests, were included. Among the investigated techniques the main feature that could have an impact on CRC screening perception and uptake was the ease of sample collection. Urine, exhaled breath and blood-based tests promise to achieve good diagnostic performance (sensitivity of 63-100%, 90-95%, 47-97%, respectively) while minimizing stress and discomfort for the patient.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Case report; Covid-19; Critically ill; Pregnant; Invasive care
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:11:13 CEST)
In this retrospective report we present five cases of critically ill pregnant or newly delivered women positive for Covid-19 admitted to our obstetrical departments at Karolinska University Hospital. They compose 6% of eighty-three pregnant women that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the period March 25 to May 4, 2020. Three patients were at the time of admission in gestational week between 21+4 to 22+5 and treated during their antenatal period, meanwhile the other two were admitted within 1 week postpartum. All of them were in a need of intensive care, one was treated with high flow oxygen therapy, the other four with invasive mechanical ventilation (three with endotracheal intubation and one with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation). Age above thirty, overweight and gestational diabetes are notable factors in the cases presented. At the time of admission, they all presented with symptoms as fever, cough and dyspnea. Chest imaging with computer tomography scan was performed in each case and demonstrated multifocal pneumonic infiltrates in all of them but no pulmonary embolism was confirmed in any. Neither did the echocardiogram indicates any cardiomyopathy. Four of the patients have been discharged from the hospital, with an average of 20 hospital days. One antenatal pregnant woman needed prolonged ECMO therapy, in gestational week 27+3 she went into cardiac arrest, resulting in an urgent c-section on maternal indication. At the time of writing she is still hospitalized. In coherence with other published reports our cases indicate that critically ill pregnant women infected by SARS-Cov-2 may develop severe respiratory distress syndrome requiring prolonged intensive care. The material is limited for conclusions to be taken, more detailed information on symptoms, treatment, and outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women managed in intensive care is therefore needed.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Invasive Alien Species; Guadeloupe; Geoplanidae; Platydemus manokwari; Citizen Science
Online: 2 May 2020 (16:44:46 CEST)
The land flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) is recorded for the first time from the island of Guadeloupe (French West Indies) in the Caribbean arc. Photographs and records were obtained from citizen science and ranged from the end of 2018 to 2020; specimens were deposited in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France. This is the first record in Guadeloupe and the second for an island in the Caribbean, after Porto Rico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0303.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitin; Vespa velutina; Asian hornet; polymer; invasive species; insects
Online: 25 November 2019 (03:44:34 CET)
The isolation and characterization of chitin (CHI) obtained from Vespa velutina (CHIVV) is described. Moreover, a trapping procedure is presented to selectively catch the invasive species. The chitin contents of dry Vespa velutina was observed to be 11.7 %. The physicochemical properties of CHIVV was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state NMR (ssNMR), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Obtained CHIVV is close to pure (43, 47% C, 6.94% H, and 6.85% N) and full acetylated with a value of 95.44%. Also, lifetime and kinetic parameters such as activation E and the frequency factor A using model-free and model-fitting methods, were determined. For CHIVV the solid state mechanism that follows the thermodegradation is of type F2 (Random nucleation around two nuclei). Vespa velutina chitin should not be used at temperatures above 60ºC, since its half-life would be only one year, and from an industrial point of view it would not be profitable. Based on certain factors such as the current and probable continued abundance of Vespa velutina and the quality of the product obtained, the invasive Asian hornet is a promising alternative source of chitin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: biotrophic interactions; invasive species; colour polymorphism; harlequin ladybird; harmonine
Online: 21 May 2018 (11:41:07 CEST)
Harmonia axyridis is an invasive ladybird (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) with the potential to outcompete native ladybird species in its invasive distribution area. It was introduced as a biological control agent in many countries but has also spread unintentionally in many others. Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is a minute (200–400 µm in size) biotrophic fungus that infects over 30 species of ladybirds. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elytral colour pattern, size, and sex of Ha. axyridis affect infection by H. virescens. Colouration in Ha. axyridis has been linked to the presence of an antimicrobial alkaloid (harmonine). In fall 2016, we collected 763 Ha. axyridis individuals in Cambridge, Massaschusetts, of which 119 (16%) bore H. virescens fruiting bodies. We analysed 160 individuals concerning prevalence and intensity of infection by H. virescens. Elytral sizes and colouration patterns were quantified using digital photography and analytical methods. Smaller ladybirds had a higher prevalence and higher intensity of parasitism. Additionally, male ladybirds bore more thalli compared to female ladybirds. Elytral colour patterns had an effect on neither prevalence nor intensity of infection by Laboulbeniales in our dataset. This suggests that development of Laboulbeniales may be unaffected by certain insect alkaloids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: antipodal vivaldi antenna; food inspection; microwave imaging; non-invasive diagnostic
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:53:12 CET)
In food industry, there is a growing demand for cost-effective methods for inline inspection of food items able to non-invasively detect small foreign bodies which may have contaminated the product during the production process. Microwave imaging may be a valid alternative to the existing technologies, thanks to its inherently low-cost and its capability of sensing low-density contaminants. In this paper, a low-complexity microwave imaging system specifically designed to enable the inspection of a large variety of food products is presented. The system consists of two Circularly Loaded Antipodal Vivaldi Antennas, having a very large operative band, from 1 to 15 GHz, thus allowing a suitable spatial resolution for different food products from mostly fatty to high water-content ones. The antennas are arranged in such a way to collect the signal useful to exploit a recently proposed real-time microwave imaging strategy, leveraging the inherent symmetries usually characterizing food items. The system is experimentally characterized, and the achieved results compare favorably with the design specifications and the numerical simulations. Relying on these positive results, a first experimental proof of the effectiveness of the whole system is presented, which confirms its efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1428.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: CT-guided localization; OSCT; TSCT; pulmonary lesions; minimal invasive VATS
Online: 21 July 2023 (02:31:11 CEST)
(1) Background: This retrospective study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of one-stage computed tomography (OSCT)- to that of two-stage computed tomography (TSCT)-guided localization for the surgical removal of small lung nodules. (2) Methods: We collected data from patients with ipsilateral pulmonary nodules who underwent localization before surgical removal at Veteran General Hospital Kaohsiung between October 2017 and January 2022. The patients were divided into the OSCT and TSCT groups. (3) Results: We found that OSCT significantly reduced the localization time and risky time compared to TSCT, and the success rate of localization and incidence of pneumothorax were similar in both groups. However, the time spent under general anesthesia was longer in the OSCT group than in the TSCT group. (4) Conclusions: The OSCT-guided approach to localize pulmonary nodules in hybrid operation room is a safe and effective technique for the surgical removal of small lung nodules.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: magnetic compression anastomosis; magnamosis; minimally invasive surgery; pediatric surgery; children
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:44:59 CEST)
Originating in the 1970s, Magnetic Compression Anastomosis (MCA) has lately been revisited with a focus on minimal invasive surgery (MIS). The aim of this report is to reappraise our earlier experience with MCA with the intention of facilitating future MCA advancement. A retrospective review was conducted regarding preclinical experiments and clinical trials at a single institution from 1980 through 1995. The reviewed information was compiled and appraised to generate proposals for future MCA use. The experimental studies, including 250 MCA cases in gastrointestinal and urinary tract animal models, demonstrated the technical versatility of MCA as well as the superior biomechanical characteristics in comparison to hand-sewn anastomoses. Clinical trials encompassed 87 MCA procedures in 86 children, 2 to 10 years of age, involving the following techniques: non-operative esophageal recanalization (n=15), non-operative ileostomy undiversion (n=46), Swenson pull-through (n=10), non-operative urethral recanalization (n=5), and extravesical ureterocystoneostomy (n=11). Clinical MCA was found to be successful in over 87% of cases. MCA limitations concerning anastomotic failure and scarring were thought to be mostly due to inadequate magnetic compression. Based on our historic experience, we propose further research on the technical aspects of MCA, along with the biologic aspects of anastomotic tissue remodeling. Magnets should be designed and manufactured for a wide spectrum of pediatric surgical indications, particularly in combination with novel MIS techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1740.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Retrosigmoid approach; Parasterional; Burr-hole; Trigeminal neuralgia; Surgery; Minimal invasive
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:26:42 CEST)
Background: Trigeminal neuralgia associated to vascular compression, by aberrant or ectopic arterial or venous vessels, is a frequent condition in clinical practice. Management with microvascular decompression through a Minimal invasive retrosigmoidal has shown high rates of pain control, with low complication rates and excellent therapeutic results. Objective: To describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes in terms of pain relief after microvascular decompression for trigeminal nerve, through a minimal invasive retrosigmoidal parasterional burr-hole technique. Methods: A group of patients with trigeminal neuralgia refractory to medical management who underwent microvascular decompression considering outcomes based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Scale (BNIPS). Added to a technical note of the surgical technique for a minimal invasive retrosigmoidal parasterional burr-hole. Results: Twenty-two patients were evaluated, clinical assessment after surgical intervention showed a decrease pain according to VAS, resulting from an average preoperative state of 9.5 ± 0.37 to a postoperative condition of 1.32 ± 1.28, exhibiting statistically significant changes (p < 0.0001, d = 9.356). On the other hand, in relation to the BNIPS scale, a decrease from an average preoperative status of 4.55 ± 0.25, to a postoperative status at 12 months of 1.73 ± 0.54 was also demonstrated, showing significant changes (p < 0.0001, d = 3.960). Conclusion: Microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve through a minimal invasive retrosigmoidal parasterional burr-hole is feasible and can be a safe and effective technique for the management of pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Invasive species; alien; cryptogenic; impacts; CIMPAL; biodiversity; mapping; Aegean; management
Online: 4 May 2023 (07:41:56 CEST)
Biological invasions are a human-induced environmental disturbance that can cause major changes in ecosystem structure and functioning. Located in the northeastern Mediterranean basin, the Aegean Sea is a hotspot of biological invasions. Although the presence of alien species in the Aegean has been studied and monitored, no assessment has been conducted on their cumulative impacts on native biodiversity. To address this gap and identify the most highly impacted areas and habitats and the most impactful invasive species in the Aegean, we applied the CIMPAL index, a framework developed for mapping the cumulative impacts of invasive species. Coastal habitats showed stronger impacts than the open sea. The highest CIMPAL scores were four times more frequent in the South than in the North Aegean. Shallow (0-60 m) hard substrate was the most heavily impacted habitat type, followed by soft substrates and seagrass meadows. We identified Caulerpa cylindracea, Lophocladia lallemandii, Siganus spp. and Womersleyella setacea as the most im-pactful species across their range of occurrence in the Aegean but, ranking varied depending on the habitat and impact indicator applied. Our assessment can support marine managers in prioritizing decisions and actions to control biological invasions and mitigate their impacts in the Aegean Sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: invasive species; ecological niche models; species distribution models; vector surveillance
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:50:19 CET)
Aedes scapularis is a neotropical mosquito known to transmit pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Its recent establishment in southeastern Florida has potential public health implications. We used an ecological niche modeling approach to predict the abiotic environmental suitability for Ae. scapularis across much of the Americas and Caribbean Islands. Georeferenced occurrence data obtained from the Global Biodiversity Inventory Facility and recent collection records of Ae. scapularis from southern Florida served as input for model calibration. Environmental layers included bioclimatic variables provided in 2000 to 2010 average Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications climatic (MERRAclim) data. Models were run in the software program Maxent. Isothermality values found often in costal environments contributed strongest to model performance. Model projections suggested areas predicted suitable for Ae. scapularis across portions of the Amazon Basin, the Yucatán Peninsula, the Florida Peninsula, and multiple Caribbean Islands. Additionally, model predictions suggested connectivity of highly suitable or relatively suitable environments spanning the United States Gulf Coast, which may facilitate geographic expansion of this species. At least sixteen Florida counties were predicted highly suitable for Ae. scapularis, suggesting vigilance is needed by vector control and public health agencies to recognize further spread of this vector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant Growth; Magnetic field; Triticum aestivum; Non-invasive protein silencing
Online: 26 August 2020 (08:51:59 CEST)
The present study provides an observation and documentation on the effect of static magnetic field on the growth of Triticum aestivum. The seeds are allowed to germinate and the seedlings are grown in an environment of the controlled static magnetic field while other physical factors such as temperature, light exposure, soil pH, etc. are held constant. Also, a comparison of influence on the average height between both the poles of the magnet is estimated and north pole oriented magnet is found to imply a significant difference. Finally some of the potential applications of the study in non-invasive protein silencing, GMO production, Vertical farming and Terraforming are briefly discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Behaviour; Ecotoxicology; Invasive Species; Gibbula Umbilicalis; Palaemon Elegans; Tidal Pools
Online: 10 August 2020 (05:02:51 CEST)
The marine red algae Asparagopsis armata is an invasive species which competitive advantage arises from the production and release of large amounts of toxic compounds to the surrounding invaded area, reducing the abundance of native species. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of this invasive seaweed on marine invertebrates by exposing the common prawn Palaemon elegans and the marine snail Gibbula umbilicalis to the exudate of this macroalgae. The seaweed was collected and placed in tanks, for 12 hours, in the dark in a 1:10 ratio. Afterwards the media containing its secondary metabolites was collected for further testing. Lethal and sublethal effects of A. armata were investigated. Biochemical biomarkers responses associated with energy metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH; electron transport system activity, ETS; content in lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) were analysed. The biomarker responses showed invertebrates’ physiological status impairment after exposure to low concentrations of this algae exudate. Highest concentrations of exudate significantly increased lipid content in both organisms. In the shrimp, protein content, ETS, and LDH were also significantly increased. On the contrary, these parameters were significantly decreased in G. umbilicalis. A behavioural impairment was also observed in G. umbilicalis exposed to A. armata exudate, with reduction in feeding consumption. These results represent an important step in the research of natural toxic exudates released to the environment and prospective effects of this seaweed in invaded communities under increasing global change scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fatty infiltration; main pancreatic duct dilatation; pancreatic invasive ductal adenocaricinoma
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:19:10 CET)
Background: Pancreatic invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in Japan. The early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, which will increase the number of patients with resectable tumors, is urgently needed. The purpose of the present study was to examine the earliest signs of pancreatic abnormalities on CT in order to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of PDAC. Methods: Forty-one patients with pancreatic cancer and their 154 CTs were selected for the present study. We used the images that were acquired prior to the diagnosis and examined the pancreas in these images to observe serial changes in the morphology of the pancreas after selecting CT images in which PDAC was suspected. We also confirmed whether the main pancreatic duct was observed around that area of the pancreas. Four thousand two hundred seventy-seven patients without pancreato-biliary disease with 4630 CTs were selected for the control group. Results: Two pancreas shapes were detected: localized constriction of the pancreatic parenchyma referred to as the K-shaped sign, and localized fatty changes. Twenty-four (58.5%) of 41 patients showed the K-shaped sign. The main pancreatic duct without dilatation was noted around the K-shaped sign in 9 of the 24 patients. Eight of 41 patients (19.5%) showed localized fatty changes. Nine of 41 patients (21.9%) showed no abnormality. In the control group, only seven of 4277 patients (0.16%) showed the K-shaped sign. Conclusions: The K-shaped sign including localized fatty changes is the earliest CT sign that presents with pancreatic abnormalities. The K-shaped sign does not indicate PDAC itself but may predict its future development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: non-invasive respiratory monitoring; diaphragm motion monitoring; breathing disorder; ultrasound
Online: 3 July 2018 (06:16:35 CEST)
This paper introduces a novel respiratory detection system based on diaphragm wall motion tracking using an embedded ultrasound sensory system. We assess the utility and accuracy of this method in evaluating diaphragmatic function and its contribution to respiratory workload. The developed system is able to monitor the diaphragm wall activities when the sensor is placed in the zone of apposition (ZOA). This system allows the direct measurements with only one ultrasound PZT5 piezo transducer. The system both generates pulsed ultrasound waves at 2.2 MHz and amplifies reflected echoes. According to the diaphragmatic motions, the respiratory signals of the proposed system is insensitive to human motion artifacts. Promising results were obtained from six subjects on six different tests with an average sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 93% of respiration detection, respectively. Measurements are referenced to a SPR-BTA commercial spirometer. In this study, we also evaluated inertial and photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors as other conventional methods in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Invasive lobular cancer; pleomorphic invasive lobular cancer; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; programmed cell death 1; programmed cell death ligand 1; 22C3 assay; SP142 assay; survival
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:22:03 CEST)
Background: The prognostic and predictive role of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) is undetermined in pleomorphic invasive lobular cancer (pILC). The same applies for the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in this rare breast cancer subtype. Here, we aimed to investigate the expression of sTILs, and analyze the PD-L1 expression levels in pILC. Methods: Archival tissues from sixty-six patients with pILC were collected. The sTIL density was scored as a percentage of tumor area, using the following cut-offs: 0%; <5%; 5-9%; and 10-50%. PD-L1 expression was analyzed using IHC on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, using the SP142 and 22C3 antibodies. Results: 82% of the sixty-six patients were hormone receptor-positive; 8% of cases were triple negative (TN), while 10% showed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification. sTILs were present in 64% (1%) of the study population. Using the SP142 antibody, 36% of tumors demonstrated a positive PD-L1 score of 1%, and 28% had a positive PD-L1 score of 1 using the 22C3 antibody. There was no correlation of sTILs or PD-L1 expression with tumor size, tumor grade, nodal status, expression of estrogen receptor (ER) or amplification of HER2. Our data did not show any difference in survival between the three molecular subtypes of pILC with respect to sTILs and PD-L1 expression. Conclusion: This study shows that pILCs show some degree of sTILs and PD-L1 expression, however this was not associated with survival benefit. Additional large trials are needed to understand the immune infiltration in lobular cancer, even more in the pleomorphic subtype.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0779.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Galapagos, One Health, Planetary Health, wildlife, conservation, endemic species, invasive species
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:35:35 CET)
The Galápagos archipelago is a vast reservoir of terrestrial and marine biodiversity and is particularly susceptible to human, animal, and environmental impacts. Climate change, globalization, and the blurring of human-domestic animal-wildlife interfaces are poised to bring new threats and challenges to the region. A One Health perspective that simultaneously considers human, animal, and environmental health is imperative in assessing and mitigating the challenges facing the Galápagos Islands. Many challenges facing biodiversity in the Galápagos Islands can ultimately be linked to anthropogenic factors. In Part I of this review, we reviewed the impacts of invasive species and identified infectious diseases of importance. In Part II of this review, we discuss the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification, and highlight the effects of several direct human activities, including tourism, overfishing, pollution, land use, and human-wildlife conflict. We also review the socioeconomic and political context of the Galápagos Islands, including current challenges in water and energy use, sanitation, and economic stability. We examine the importance of investment in local development for building resiliency and sustainability in the archipelago. Finally, we discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the region. Throughout this two-part review, we build a cohesive picture of One Health in the Galápagos Islands by integrating past work, current needs, and emerging threats. We also consider overarching goals for conservation, ecosystem management, and socioeconomic sustainability that have been previously defined by both governmental and non-governmental stakeholders, and identify discrete, implementable, and interdisciplinary recommendations that will facilitate achievement of those goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0775.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Galapagos; one health; planetary health; wildlife; conservation; endemic species; invasive species
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:54:46 CET)
The Galápagos archipelago is a vast reservoir of terrestrial and marine biodiversity, owing in large part to its relatively recent volcanic genesis and colonization by humans. This unique ecological system is particularly susceptible to human, animal, and environmental impacts. Climate change, globalization, and the blurring of human-domestic animal-wildlife interfaces are poised to bring new threats and challenges to the region. A One Health perspective that simultaneously considers human, animal, and environmental health is imperative in assessing and mitigating the challenges facing the Galápagos Islands.In Part I of this review, we provide the historical context for biodiversity in the archipelago; discuss the role of invasive species in habitat destruction, fragmentation, and competition with endemic species; and summarize the established and emerging infectious disease threats. We also discuss the imperative to implement research, surveillance, and preventative measures to identify and manage future threats from a One Health perspective, with a specific emphasis on implications for wildlife health. In Part II, we outline the socioeconomic context of life in the Galápagos Islands, evaluate the current and predicted effects of climate change, and discuss direct anthropogenic factors affecting Galápagos biodiversity, such as tourism, fishing, pollution, and the illegal wildlife trade. We also examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the region. Throughout this two-part review, we build a cohesive picture of One Health in the Galápagos Islands by integrating past work, current needs, and emerging threats. We also consider overarching goals for conservation, ecosystem management, and socioeconomic sustainability that have been previously defined by both governmental and non-governmental stakeholders, and we identify discrete, implementable, and interdisciplinary recommendations that will facilitate achievement of those goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Physiotherapy; neurorehabilitation; gait; transcranial electrical stimulation; stroke; non-invasive stimulation techniques
Online: 19 October 2023 (20:18:19 CEST)
Introduction: The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique for brain modulation after cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This treatment modality has been previously studied in the recovery of patients. The aim of this review is to analyze the evidence in the ap-plication of tDCS in the recovery of gait disturbance in stroke patients. Methods: This review was conducted according to the recommendations of the PRISMA statement. Three different elec-tronic databases were searched for relevant results: PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane. We included reviews and meta-analyses that only considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that inves-tigated the effects of transcranial direct electrical stimulation, in combination or not with other physiotherapy treatment, on gait recovery. Results: Thirteen studies with a total of 195 RCTs were included. Data on population, outcome measures, protocols and outcomes were extracted. The Amstar-2 scale and the GRADE system of certainty of evidence were used. Only one study re-ceived high certainty of evidence, 5 received low certainty of evidence and 7 received critically low certainty of evidence. Conclusions: Although the tDCS produces positive changes in gait recovery in spatio-temporal parameters, mobility, endurance, strength and motor function, there is insuf-ficient evidence to recommend this treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0774.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: animal release; invasive species management; South Korea; traditional markets; Trachemys scripta
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:43:04 CEST)
The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) was designated as an invasive alien species in South Korea in 2001. Although the prevention and control of invasive species have received considerable atten-tion worldwide, studies on the current status and effective management of T. scripta in South Korea are lacking. This study aimed to elucidate the status of domestic reuse of T. scripta and provide effective management suggestions. Analysis of the National Institute of Ecology's “Na-tionwide Survey of Non-native Species in Korea” conducted from 2015 to 2022 confirmed the habitats of 1,440 T. scripta individuals at 295 sites. T. scripta is the most frequently observed among invasive turtles identified in the Korean Peninsula. To determine the reuse of T. scripta, 13 tradi-tional markets were surveyed; five markets were confirmed to have T. scripta. Although the exact distribution route is unknown, individuals living or abandoned in the region might be resold in the market. T. scripta is mostly sold for ritual purposes. Moreover, T. scripta accounted for 31% of freshwater turtles abandoned between 2019 and 2022. Their continuous reuse has been confirmed 22 years after their designation as an invasive alien species. Therefore, effective and fundamental management measures for T. scripta are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Pterois miles; lionfish; diet; Gobiidae; Scorpaenidae; Scyllaridae; invasive species; Aegean Sea
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:04:45 CEST)
The diet of the lionfish (Pterois miles), an invasive species in the Aegean Sea, was examined by collecting stomach content data from fish collected in three study sites in the Aegean Sea (southern Crete, Kastellorizo and Nysiros islands). Prey composition in terms of numerical abundance and frequency of occurence was used to compare lionfish’s diet between these sites. Lionfish largely preyed upon teleosts (5% to 83% numerical abundance and 16% to 59% frequency of occurrence depending on the site) and crustaceans (12% to 95% numerical abundance and 15% to 91% frequency of occurrence). The most important teleost families in lionfish’s diet were Gobiidae, Labridae, and Scorpaenidae, while decapods and especially the family Scyllaridae and the genus Plesionika were the dominant crustacean prey items. The lionfish was found to be an especially successful generalist across the study sites, an opportunistic, predatory species overall, and at the same time, at a local level, it seems to be an equally successful specialist that could increase the predation mortality of already stressed prey populations, and can be a serious threat to endemic, critically endangered, and/or commercially important species.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: nonodontogenic cysts; posttraumatic; skull base; infratemporal fossa; minimally invasive surgical procedures
Online: 28 April 2023 (05:03:39 CEST)
Surgical ciliated cysts occur primarily in the maxilla after radical maxillary sinus surgery. We report a first case of a surgical ciliated cyst that developed in the infratemporal fossa 25 years after the patient sustained severe facial trauma. The patient complained of mandibular pain and limited mouth opening. The patient’s condition was completely resolved 5 months after marsupialization via Le Fort I osteotomy. Surgical morbidities can be minimized by proper diagnosis and less invasive surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Oak lace bug; invasive alien species; Corythucha arcuata; Sibiu County; Romania
Online: 19 April 2023 (09:53:38 CEST)
This scientific paper examines the impact of climate change on the spread and survival of the invasive species Corythucha arcuata (Oak Lace Bug, or OLB) in Romania. The OLB is native to the Eastern USA and Canada, and in its native habitat, it coexists with minimal impact to the preferred host plant species Quercus. However, in Europe, the OLB in high-density causes early defoliation, slowing tree growth and it leads to the death of trees. As Quercus is a keystone species, the impact of the OLB on European forests is significant. This paper aims to address several gaps in knowledge about the OLB by presenting findings from a study conducted by the Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu (ULBS) in Romania. The study identified the species ‘chronology of spread, ecology, ethology, and biology of the species, in addition to foliage classification to determine the extent of attack. The study found a direct link between temperature and speed of the generational lifecycle. The findings support the thesis that climate change is enabling the healthy, rapid density growth of OLB, which is a danger to the Quercus sp. Further research is needed in the area of the thermal tolerance of the OLB, and the research conducted by the ULBS represents the first documented research into the thermal constant of the insect. The paper concludes that further research must be in the direction to understand how and where these insects survive during winter to find future management measures and identify chemical or biological methods as solutions to eradicate and stop the expansion of the invasion of the OLB, and the potential consequences for the Quercus sp.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0448.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: non-invasive brain stimulation; sequence learning; statistical learning; repetitive TMS; DLPFC
Online: 9 February 2023 (02:41:04 CET)
Predictive processes and numerous cognitive, motor, and social skills depend heavily on sequence and statistical learning. The visuomotor Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) can measure these fundamental cognitive processes. In this review, we sought to answer whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is suitable for modulating visuomotor sequence learning and which factors mediate its efficacy. We systematically analyzed the eligible records (n = 17) that attempted to modulate the performance of the SRTT with rTMS. The purpose of the analysis was to determine how the following factors affected SRTT performance: (1) stimulated brain areas, (2) rTMS protocols, (3) stimulated hemisphere, (4) timing of the stimulation, (5) SRTT sequence properties, and (6) other methodological features. The primary motor cortex (M1) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were found to be the most promising stimulation targets. Low-frequency protocols over the M1 usually weaken performance, but the results are less consistent for the DLPFC. These inconsistencies (at least in part) may be due to the current frequency-based heuristics of rTMS effects developed for explaining local stimulation effects in the motor cortex. Although this review cannot provide an ultimate answer about the optimal stimulation and task parameters, it comprehensively discusses the behavioral effects of six factors that are crucial for designing future studies to modulate sequence learning with rTMS. Moreover, we conclude that synergistically combining functional neuroimaging with rTMS could adequately link the rTMS-induced network effects with the behavioral findings that are crucial to develop a unified cognitive model of visuomotor sequence learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: The Fall Armyworm; Spodoptera frugiperda; invasive species; mapping distribution; DNA-barcoding
Online: 4 October 2022 (11:02:51 CEST)
Spodoptera frugiperda is an invasive pest that has spread in various parts of the world. These pests have the ability to spread and adapt highly to new habitats. Until now, it is not known with certainty the distribution of these invasive pests in Eastern Indonesia, especially Bali and Nusa Tenggara. This study aims to map the spatial distribution and genetic distribution of S. frugiperda which damages maize in the areas of Bali and Nusa Tenggara. This research was conducted using a survey method from May to September 2022 covering the islands of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, and Timor. The results showed that S. frugiperda had spread evenly in Bali and Nusa Tenggara. The results of PCR amplification in the COI gene from 9 sample isolates from all research locations showed the similarity of DNA bands leading to the Spodoptera frugiperda species with a banding pattern length of 683 – 697. These results indicated that the distribution of genetic variants of corn caterpillars in Bali, NTB, and NTT was confirmed as S. frugiperda species. However, the isolated gene S. frugiferda, which was shown by the alignment results of the sequences from Lombok, was confirmed as a different strain from strains from Bali, Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores, and Timor. This incident can be seen from the difference in the protein base composition of S. frugiperda from Bali, Sumba, Sumbawa, Timor, and Flores. The results of phylogenetic analysis in this study confirmed 3 clusters of the genetic closeness of S. frugiperda. Cluster-1 comes from the results of the search for specimens of JB FAW and KB FAW from Bali, SB FAW and SB FAW Sorghum from Sumba, SW FAW from Sumbawa, KP FAW from Timor, and FL FAW from Flores. Cluster-2 is an isolate outside of our species. Cluster-3 comes from the search for LT and LS FAW specimens from Lombok. The genetic distance between cluster-1 and cluster-3 is quite far, which is 0.20 mu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Asian hornet; Vespa velutina; Venom; Electrical; Stimulation; Allergy; Stings; Invasive species
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:38:04 CET)
The yellow-legged Asian hornet (Vespa velutina Lepeletier 1836 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)) is naturally distributed in China, Southeast Asia and India; however it has since detected outside of its native area, confirmed as being established in South Korea, Europe and Japan. Health risks and deaths caused by the invasive Vespa velutina stings have become a public health concern, being the most common cause of anaphylaxis due to hymenopterans in some European regions. This in turn has led to increased demand from medical practitioners and researchers for Vespa velutina venom for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this study, a straightforward, quick and inexpensive method for obtaining Vespa velutina venom by electric stimulation is described. The venom extracts were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), confirming the composition of the obtained material. The availability of Vespa velutina venom will lead to improved diagnostic and therapeutic methods, mainly by venom immunotherapy (VIT), in patients allergic to this invasive species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: invasive species; Noctuidae; host plants; polyphagous insects; host-strain; pest management
Online: 5 January 2021 (17:12:12 CET)
The alien invasive insect pest Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), commonly referred to as Fall Armyworm (FAW), is a polyphagous insect feeding on more than 350 host plants in addition to maize in its native habitat. Due to the voracious nature of FAW, significant yield losses on maize production were reported across the African continent since its detection in 2016. Despite being a polyphagous insect, little is known about its alternative host plants in the new habitat including Mozambique. This study aimed to assess the host range of FAW in the central province of Manica, Mozambique. A field survey was conducted from May to August 2019 (dry season of 2018/2019 cropping season) and in December 2019 and January 2020 (rainy season of 2019/2020 cropping season) in maize fields and crops often mixed with maize or located in the vicinity of maize fields. A total of 1291 fields were surveyed. In each field, 20 plants were selected in a “W” pattern and checked for the presence of FAW egg masses and/or larvae. At the time of the sampling, no evidence was found suggesting that in Manica province FAW feeds in crops other than maize because out of 35 different crops surveyed, FAW was only recorded on maize. Results from this study suggest that the strain of FAW occurring in Manica province might be the one specialized in maize or the continuous availability of maize fields throughout the year is influencing the choices of the host plants of this invasive insect pest.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: KIT assay; chronic kidney disease; biomarker; non-invasive; urine; eGFR; cfDNA
Online: 20 March 2019 (02:12:19 CET)
The standard of care measures for kidney function, proteinuria, and serum creatinine (SCr) are poor predictors of early stage kidney disease. Measures that can detect chronic kidney disease in its earlier stages are needed to enable therapeutic intervention and reduce adverse outcomes of chronic kidney disease. We have developed the Kidney Injury Test (KIT) and a novel KIT Score based on the composite measurement and validation of multiple biomarkers across a unique set of 397 urine samples. The test is performed on urine samples that require no processing at the site of collection and without target sequencing or amplification. We sought to verify that the pre-defined KIT test, KIT Score, and clinical thresholds correlate with established chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may provide predictive information of early kidney injury status above and beyond proteinuria and renal function measurements alone. Statistical analyses across six DNA, protein, and metabolite markers were performed on a subset of residual spot urine samples with CKD that met assay performance quality controls from patients attending the clinical labs at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) as part of an ongoing IRB approved prospective study. Inclusion criteria included selection of patients with confirmed CKD and normal healthy controls; exclusion criteria included incomplete or missing information for sample classification, logistical delays in transport/processing of urine samples or low sample volume, and acute kidney injury. Multivariate logistic regression of kidney injury status and likelihood ratio statistics were used to assess the contribution of the KIT Score for prediction of kidney injury status and stage of CKD as well as assess the potential contribution of the KIT Score for detection of early stage CKD above and beyond traditional measures of renal function. Urine samples were processed by a proprietary immunoprobe for measuring cfDNA, methylated cfDNA, clusterin, CXCL10, total protein, and creatinine. The KIT Score and stratified KIT Score Risk Group (High versus Low) had a sensitivity and specificity for detection of kidney injury status (healthy or CKD) of 97.3% (95% CI: 94.6%–99.3%) and 94.1% (95% CI: 82.3%–100%). In addition, in patients with normal renal function [eGFR ≥ 90], the KIT Score clearly identifies those with predisposing risk factors for CKD, which could not be picked up by eGFR or proteinuria (p < 0.001). The KIT Score uncovers a burden of kidney injury that may yet be incompletely recognized, opening the door for earlier detection, intervention and preservation of renal function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1555.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: crayfish; Procambarus clarkii; alien species; invasive species; alien species adaptation; salinity tolerance
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:39:03 CEST)
Background: The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), native to the United States and northern Mexico, has been introduced in many countries worldwide. The species has a remarkable invasiveness, due to its high reproductive rate and to its ability to tolerate broad ranges of water parameters like salinity. Nevertheless, no consistent observations of P. clarkii have been reported in the marine environment until now. Methods: Through the observations of a personal acquaintance and of two volunteers who published photos of the species on Facebook marine biology and fishing groups, we collected data showing the presence of the crayfish within marine ecosystems. Results: P. clarkii has been spotted in three different localities, in two of which observations are recurrent. The species can live miles from the nearest freshwater stream, and can colonise the depths up to 20 meters. Conclusions: The multiple observations of P. clarkii collected in our study uncover a persistent presence of the species within some marine areas, rather than its mere sporadic occurrence. As resistance to increasing salinities is influenced by multiple genes, genetic admixture between genetically-differentiated individuals coming from distinct geographical origins could have brought together different salinity-resistance genes, leading to the formation of these resilient phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Forced Vital Capacity; At-Home Telespirometry; Non-Invasive Ventilation; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Online: 3 July 2023 (10:23:14 CEST)
Respiratory therapist(RT)internet-supervised At-Home Telespirometry(AHT)was validated in pilot 22/95=23% ALS Clinic population. Erect, supine Vital Capacity(eFVC, sFVC)were measured longitudinally using ZephyRx smartphone interface and database recording in-clinic-conventional(Viaire-Vyasis-)and at-home-portable(MIR-Spirobank-Smart-)spirometers. Bland-Altman(BA)analysis supported content validity-precision and 7-day-test-re-test-validity [mean difference=0.15L(conventional–portable;95%CI -0.40L, 0.70L); = 2.7% predicted (conventional-portable;95%CI -12.1%, 17.5%) ]meeting ATS-ERS performance standards. RT Internet-supervised AHT measured sFVC was more frequently obtained[35/52=67.3 %]in-home-vs-in-clinic sFVC[9/21=42.9 %](Chi-Square;P=0.0533). Monthly mean eFVC slope decline for the eFVC > 60 % predicted baseline cohort was – 1.24% predicted per month[95% CI -2.15 ,-0.33% predicted]statistically significantly(P=0.015)less compared with the – 5.86% predicted per month[95% CI -9.44, -2.29 % predicted]decline for the eFVC < 60 % predicted baseline cohort and in this cohort was associated with statistically significant decreased survival(P=0.0219). RT Internet-supervised AHT facilitated initiation of non-invasive ventilation(NIV)in 5/22[23%]patients including 3/4[75%] homebound subjects. RT Internet-supervised AHT can be deployed for ALS patients stratified according to baseline eFVC for earlier detection of eFVC and sFVC decreases between clinic visits. A prospective research study[NCT05106569]is ongoing to further define the capability of online deployment of Respiratory therapist(RT)internet-supervised AHT in the timely initiation of NIV use to improve ALS respiratory care in larger numbers of ALS subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Piezoelectric; Piezocapacitive; Pulse transit time; Non-invasive hemodynamics; Intraoperative blood pressure; Anesthesiology
Online: 20 February 2023 (09:43:32 CET)
Abstract: Background: Non-invasive acquistion of beat-to-beat pulse transit time (PTT) via piezoelectric/piezocapacitive sensors (PES/PCS) may expand perioperative hemodynamic monitoring. This study evaluated the ability for PTT via PES/PCS to correlate with systolic, diastolic, and mean invasive blood pressure (SBPIBP, DBPIBP, and MAPIBP) and to detect SBPIBP fluctuations. Methods: PES/PCS and IBP measurements were performed in 20 patients undergoing abdominal, urological, and cardiac surgery. A Pearson’s correlation analysis (r) between 1/PTT and IBP was performed. The predictive ability of 1/PTT with changes in SBPIBP was determined by area under the curve (reported as AUC, sensitivity, specificity). Results: Significant correlations between 1/PTT and SBPIBP were found for PES (r=0.64) and PCS (r=0.55) (p<0.01), as well as MAPIBP/DBPIBP for PES (r=0.6/0.55) and PCS (r=0.5/0.45) (p<0.05). A 7% decrease in 1/PTTPES predicted a 30% SBPIBP decrease(0.82, 0.76, 0.76), while a 5.6% increase predicted a 30% SBPIBP increase (0.75, 0.7, 0.68). A 6.6% decrease in 1/PTTPCS detected a 30% SBPIBP decrease (0.81, 0.72, 0.8), while a 4.8% 1/PTTPCS increase detected a 30% SBPIBP increase (0.73, 0.64, 0.68). Conclusions: Non-invasive beat-to-beat PTT via PES/PCS demonstrated significant correlations with IBP and detected significant changes in SBPIBP. Thus PES/PCS as a novel sensor technology may augment intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring during major surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0384.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Controlling system; human machine interface; machine learning; non-invasive sensor; prosthesis, sonomyography.
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:43:05 CET)
This paper presents a critical review and comparison of the results of recently published studies in the fields of human-machine interface and the use of sonomyography (SMG) for the control of upper limb prothesis. For this review paper, a combination of the keywords "Human Machine Interface", "Sonomyography", "Ultrasound", "Upper Limb Prosthesis", "Artificial Intelligence" and "Non-Invasive Sensors" was used to search for articles on Google Scholar and PubMed. Sixty-one articles were found, of which 59 were used in this review. For a comparison of the different ultrasound modes, feature extraction methods, and machine learning algorithms, 16 articles were used. It was found that various modes of ultrasound devices for prosthetic control, various machine learning algorithms for classifying different hand gestures, as well as various feature extraction methods for increasing the accuracy of artificial intelligence used in their controlling systems are reviewed in this article. The results of the review article show that ultrasound sensing has the potential to be used as a viable human-machine interface in order to control bionic hands with multiple degrees of freedom. Moreover, different hand gestures can be classified by different machine learning algorithms trained with extracted features from collected data with an accuracy of around 95%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0315.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: climate change; exotic invasive species; extinction; islands; land snails; Seychelles; sighting record
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:33:32 CET)
Several extinctions have already been attributed, at least in part, to global warming, as climate change constitutes a serious threat for species living in isolated ecosystems and thus unable to track habitat changes. However, in all these cases extinction was due to human impacts, often directly but generally also through exotic invasive species. For two arboreal land snails in Indian Ocean islands a link has been proposed with decreasing rainfall. The decline (but probably not extinction) of Pachnodus velutinus, a specialist of moist forests on the summits of northwestern Mahé, was most likely caused instead by invasive plants altering its habitat and alien predators decimating the population in the small remaining moist forests. An alternative explanation assuming genetic swamping through hybridization with a species from lower elevations has no basis, as the presumed hybrid constitutes a distinct species able to survive in the altered, dryer habitat. On Aldabra Atoll, the endemic Rhachistia aldabrae was claimed to have been the first extinction due to climate change, but is still extant. No relationship can be detected between number of sightings and annual rainfall, although a weighted measure that takes into account rainfall in previous years suggests a limited impact of weather. Analysis of the sighting record in various ways yields a probability of survival over time that never dropped below 0.3. The decline was caused instead by intense impacts of exotic invasive species. Alternative shortcuts to evaluate extinction rates among poorly known species are shown to be unreliable. Although no contemporary extinction can still be attributed to climate change, indirect and synergistic impacts on biodiversity are expected, especially through promoting biological invasions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0032.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Non-ionizing Radiation; Millimeter waves; Novel biomedical applications; Yeast; Non-invasive devices
Online: 16 April 2021 (14:52:04 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) interact with cells in a variety of ways. Here the inhibited cell division effect was investigated using 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation within the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) non-thermal 20 mW/cm2 safety standards. Irradiation using a power density of about 1.0 mW/cm2 , SAR over 5-6 hours on 50 cells/μl samples of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organism resulted in 62% growth rate reduction compared to the control (sham). The effect was specific for 85-105 GHz range, and was energy and cell density dependent. Irradiation of wild type and Δrad52 (DNA damage repair gene) deleted cells presented no differences of colony growth profiles indicating non-thermal MMW treatment does not cause permanent genetic alterations. Dose versus response relations studied using a standard horn antenna (~1.0 mW/cm2) and compared to that of a compact waveguide (17.17 mW/cm2) for increased power delivery resulted in complete termination of cell division via non-thermal processes supported by temperature rise measurements. We have shown that non-thermal MMW radiation has potential for future use in treatment of yeast related diseases and other targeted biomedical outcomes.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; virulence heterogeneity; hypervirulent clones; prolonged in vivo survival; invasive listeriosis
Online: 8 November 2020 (14:49:05 CET)
Although all isolates of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes are considered to be pathogenic, epidemiological evidence indicates that certain serovar 4b lineages are more likely to cause severe invasive (neuromeningeal, maternal-fetal) listeriosis. Recently described as L. monocytogenes “hypervirulent” clones, no distinctive bacterial trait has been identified so far that could account for the differential pathogenicity of these strains. Here we discuss some preliminary observations in experimentally infected mice suggesting that serovar 4b hypervirulent strains may have a hitherto unrecognized capacity for prolonged in vivo survival. We propose the hypothesis that protracted survivability in primary infection foci in liver and spleen –first target organs after intestinal translocation– may cause L. monocytogenes serovar 4b hypervirulent clones to have a higher probability of secondary dissemination to brain and placenta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19; Breast Cancer; Breast Cancer (Suspected); Mammogram Images and Invasive Cancer
Online: 5 July 2020 (07:40:57 CEST)
Breast cancer develops from cells lining the milk ducts and slowly grows into a lump or a tumour. Breast cancer may be invasive or non-invasive. Invasive cancer spreads from the milk duct or lobule to other tissues in the breast, whereas, non-invasive ones lack the ability to invade other breast tissues. Non-invasive breast cancer is called in situ and may remain inactive for entire lifetime. Due to heterogeneity nature of breast, density as well as masses is variable in size and shape. A dataset of 18056 patients are collected from 20 Government Hospitals and 50 Private Hospitals in West Bengal before COVID-19 and after COVID-19. The classification of patients are made on three classes- Normal, Sign of Abnormality and Abnormality. The reports of MRIs of patients in January 2020 and February 2020 are collected from different hospitals. It is treated as dataset before COVID-19 . MRIS of patients in April 2020 and May 2020 are dataset during COVID-19. The entire datasets are accumulated for testing of any change in patients MRIS after the official announcement of new virus COVID-19 in March 2020. The aim of the paper is to make a comparison of any change in size and shape of masses of MRIs of patients before and after COVId-19. All collected MRIs reports are diagnosed by radiologists of hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: blue-green infrastracture; nature-based solutions; urban green spaces; invasive trees; trampling
Online: 11 August 2019 (11:24:47 CEST)
Public access to high quality green environments has become a key issue for city managers and a matter of environmental justice. Remnants of natural ecosystems allow citizens a direct contact with nature, but conversely the presence of people contributes further to the existing disturbances. Urban pressures on ecosystem remnants may act to favour the expansion of some invasive species in cities. Whilst the negative impacts of invasive species on ecosystem function is well documented little is known how invasive species influence the use of green spaces by people. Here, we examined one of the few remnants of urban riparian forests in Europe, the Vistula river valley in Warsaw which has recently become an attractive recreation site. Despite their high ecological value, the poplar and willow forests have been increasingly taken over by the invasive tree species Acer negundo. We examined the status of the invasion process and the relationship between recreational ecosystem services and the characteristics of the tree stands – tree species, tree density and age and NDVI values. We found the willow forest to be more susceptible to invasion by A. negundo than the poplar forest, which was revealed in significantly higher share of the maple individuals and their greater volume per unit area. Presence of A. negundo affected biodiversity resulting in decreased undergrowth density and number of species. The use intensity by the public, assessed on the basis of trampling intensity and the density of existing informal tracks, were negatively correlated to the presence of A. negundo. This study highlights the need to integrate invasive species management into green infrastructure planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0229.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality; invasive species; water hyacinth; estuaries; temperature; dissolved oxygen; turbidity; herbicide
Online: 16 July 2019 (08:28:04 CEST)
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive species that has modified ecosystem functioning in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta), California, USA. Studies in lakes and rivers have shown that water hyacinth alters water quality. In tidal systems, such as the Delta, water moves back and forth through the water hyacinth patch so water quality directly outside the patch in either direction is likely to be impacted. In this study, we asked whether the presence or treatment of water hyacinth with herbicides resulted in changes in water quality in this tidal system. We combined existing datasets that were originally collected for permit compliance and long-term regional monitoring into a dataset that we analyzed with a before-after control-impact (BACI) framework. This approach allowed us to describe effects of presence and treatment of water hyacinth, while accounting for seasonal patterns in water quality. We found that although effects of treatment were not detectable when compared with water immediately upstream, dissolved oxygen and turbidity became more similar to regional water quality averages after treatment. Temperature became less similar to the regional average after treatment, but the magnitude of the change was small. Taken together, these results suggest that tidal hydrology exports the effects of water hyacinth upstream, just as river flow is known to transport the effects downstream, creating a buffer of altered water chemistry around patches. It also suggests that although water hyacinth has an effect on dissolved oxygen and turbidity, these parameters recover to regional averages after treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: ethology; anthrozoology; semiotics; animal sanctuaries; captivity; anthropization; animal ethics; non invasive observation
Online: 16 October 2017 (05:42:33 CEST)
The present essay illustrates the methodological and theoretical premises of an emerging research area carrying out both ethological and (bio)ethical implications: the ethology of the freed animal (EFA). Unlike existing ethological fields, EFA focuses neither on non human (NH) animals in natural conditions of freedom in their own environment, nor on NH animals kept in conditions of “captivity”. Rather, EFA consists of a comparative study of NH animals that are released from a condition of more or less abusive captivity and instead relocated in an environment more appropriate to their species-specific and individual characteristics and inclinations. Ideal places for this study are contexts like “Animal sanctuaries” and parks/reserves provided with a camp or station for researchers, where a previously-captive NH animal can be reintroduced in his/her natural habitat. Even though EFA exists already, as a de facto practice of the specialized and/or volunteer personnel running sanctuaries and parks, the field still lacks a recognizable scholarly paradigm, and it is yet to be acknowledged at institutional/academic level. By consequence, one important aim for creating a field like this lies in the establishment of an active interaction between the two parties involved (researchers and sanctuaries/parks operators).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0894.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: invasive fungal infection; fungus; candida; aspergillus; spondylodiscitis; osteomyelitis; mortality; chang gung research database
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:24:43 CET)
Objectives. Invasive fungal spondylodiscitis (IFSD) is rare and could be lethal in certain circumstances. Previous literature revealed limited data concerning the outcomes. This study aimed to establish a risk-scoring system. Methods. A total of 53 patients were included in the study from a multi-centered database in Taiwan. All the clinicopathological and laboratory data were retrospectively analyzed. Variables strongly related to 1-year mortality were identified using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to express the performance of our IFSD scoring model. Results. Five strong predictors were included in the IFSD score: predisposing immunocompromised state, the initial presentation of either radiculopathy or myelopathy, initial laboratory findings of WBC > 12.0 or < 0.4 103/uL, hemoglobin < 8 g/dL, and evidence of candidemia. 1-year mortality rates for patients with IFSD Scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0%, 16.7%, 56.3%, 72.7%, and 100%, respectively. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.823. Conclusions. We developed a practical scoring model with easily obtained demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters to predict the probability of 1-year mortality in patients with IFSD. However, more large-scale and international validations would be necessary before this scoring model is commonly used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1728.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Mammalian herbivory; Vegetation dynamics; Ground cover vegetation; Invasive Plants; Hell’s Gate National Park
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:12:44 CEST)
The status of vegetation and the impacts of mammalian herbivores on rangelands are complex, and such studies in Kenya are scanty. We investigated the dynamics of ground cover vegetation in Hell’s Gate National Park in relation to mammalian herbivory. Removal of palatable vegetation is postulated to enhance the development of invasive plant species. We investigated the influence of mammalian herbivores on vegetation diversity and dynamics in this rangeland. Three sampling blocks approximately 3 Km apart measuring 100 m x 50 m were established, each divided into three belt-transects (100 m x 10 m), and separated by a 10 m buffer zone. 2 m by 2 m quadrats at 20 m intervals were established in each transect. We measured composition the richness of plant and mammal species, and herbivory levels four times for six months (September 2018 to February 2019). Plant cover (P< 0.001) and species diversity (P< 0.001) differed significantly among sampling blocks and between seasons (P< 0.001). Non-metric multidimensional scaling of plant species and herbivores showed co-occurrence of Zebras with Sida tenuicarpa and giraffes with Solanum incunum. We conclude that the removal of preferred plants through herbivory may be giving an edge to invasive species in the park.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); invasive breast carcinoma; breast; biopsy; overtreatment; active surveillance.
Online: 17 November 2021 (11:03:55 CET)
Background: We aimed to create a model of radiological and pathological criteria able to predict the upgrade rate of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma, in patients undergoing vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) and subsequent surgical excision. Methods: 3100 VABBs were retrospectively reviewed among which we reported 295 low-grade DCIS who subsequently underwent surgery. The association between patients’ features and the upgrade rate to invasive breast cancer (IBC) was evaluated by univariate analysis. Finally, we developed a predictive multivariable model based on the features which were significantly associated with the univariate analysis outcome. Results: the upgrade rate to invasive carcinoma was 10.8 %. At univariate analysis, the risk of upgrade was significantly lower in the absence of post- biopsy residual lesion (p<0.001), age > 50 (p=0.029), and in presence of low-grade DCIS only in specimens with microcalcifications (p=0.002). According to the final multivariable model, the predicted probability of diagnostic underestimation for a patient with all the three favourable features selected at univariate analysis was 1% (95% CI: 0.3%-4%). Conclusions: An easy to use predictive model of radiological and pathological criteria is able to identify patients with low-grade carcinoma in situ with low risk of upstaging to infiltrating carcinomas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Asparagopsis armata; Biodiversity; Intertidal assemblages; Invasive exotics; Marine invasion; Non-indigenous species (NIS)
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:28:46 CEST)
Biological invasions represent a threat to ecosystems, through competition and habitat destruction, which may result in significant changes of the invaded community. Asparagopsis armata is a red macroalgae (Rodophyta) globally recognized as an invasive species. It is found from the intertidal to shallow subtidal areas, on rock or epiphytic, forming natural vegetation belts on exposed coasts. This study evaluated the variations on native intertidal seaweed and macroinvertebrate assemblages inhabiting rock pools with and without the presence of the invasive macroalgae A. armata. To achieve this, manipulation experiments on Atlantic (Portugal) rock pools were done. Three rock pools were maintained without A. armata by manual removal of macroalgae, and three others were not experimentally manipulated during the study period and A. armata was freely present. In this study the variations between different rock pools were assessed. Results showed different patterns in the macroalgae composition of assemblages but not for the macrobenthic communities. Ellisolandia elongata was the main algal species affected by the invasion of A. armata. Invaded pools tended to show less species richness, showing a more constant and conservative structure, with lower variation of its taxonomic composition than the pools not containing A. armata, where the variability between samples was always higher. Despite the importance of the achieved results, further data based on observation of long-term series are needed, in order to further understand more severe effects of the invader A. armata on native macroalgal assemblage.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19; invasive ventilation; cancer; ICU; ONCOVID-ICU; Milano Policlinico; SOFA score; ARDS
Online: 16 July 2020 (04:17:32 CEST)
Over the last two months, as oncology specialists, we have frequently been contacted for estimating prognosis for cancer patients affected by COVID-19 infection. Until now, there have been no clear markers to guide decision making regarding the appropriateness of invasive ventilation in cancer patients affected by COVID-19 infection. Therefore, we developed a practical tool encompassing a prognostic score. We aimed at identifying a subgroup of patients likely to have a better outcome and therefore may be potential candidates for invasive ventilation, "The Milano Policlinico ONCOVID-ICU score". The score is composed by three groups of variables: patient’s characteristics such as sex, age, BMI and comorbidities; oncological variables (treatment intent, life expectancy, on or off-treatment status) and clinical parameters in association with laboratory values (SOFA score and D-dimer). The SOFA score includes six different clinical parameters and during the first few days of ICU admissions has an important prognostic role. The oncological history should never represent, per se, a contraindication to intensive care and must be considered together with other variables, such as laboratory values, clinical parameters and patient characteristics, in order to make the hardest but best possible choice. The Milano Policlinico ONCOVID-ICU score, to our knowledge, is the first prognostic score proposed in this setting of patients and may be a useful tool to assess the prognosis of cancer patients being in this critical condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Chalara fraxinea; Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus; ash dieback; Narnaviridae; evolution; invasive species; horizontal virus transmission
Online: 25 October 2018 (05:36:25 CEST)
Hymenoscyphus albidus is a native fungus in Europe where it behaves as a harmless decomposer of leaves of common ash. Its close relative Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was introduced into Europe from Asia and currently threatens ash (Fraxinus sp.) stands all across the continent causing ash dieback. H. fraxineus isolates from Europe were previously shown to harbor a mycovirus named Hymenoscyphus fraxineus Mitovirus 1 (HfMV1). In the present study, we describe a conspecific mycovirus that we detected in H. albidus. HfMV1 was consistently identified in H. albidus isolates (mean prevalence: 49.3%) which were collected in the sampling areas before the arrival of ash dieback. HfMV1 strains in both fungal hosts contain a single ORF of identical length (717 AA) for which a mean pairwise identity of 94.5% was revealed. The occurrence of a conspecific mitovirus in H. albidus and H. fraxineus is most likely the result of parallel virus evolution in the two fungal hosts. HfMV1 sequences from H. albidus showed a higher nucleotide diversity and a higher number of mutations compared to those from H. fraxineus, probably due to a bottleneck caused by the introduction of H. fraxineus in Europe. Our data also points to multiple interspecific virus transfers from H. albidus to H. fraxineus, which could have contributed to the intraspecific virus diversity found in H. fraxineus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma; ab interno trabeculectomy; goniotome; trabectome; Kahook Dual Blade; MIGS; minimally invasive surgery
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:50:14 CET)
Objective: To evaluate three different microincisional ab interno trabeculectomy procedures in a porcine eye perfusion model. Methods: In perfused porcine anterior segments, 90 degrees of trabecular meshwork (TM) were ablated using the Trabectome (T; n = 8), Goniotome (G; n = 8), or Kahook device (K; n = 8). After 24 hours, additional 90 degrees of TM were removed. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and outflow facility were measured at 5 µL/min and 10 µL/min perfusion to simulate an elevated IOP. Structure and function were assessed with canalograms and histology. Results: At 5 µL/min infusion rate, T resulted in a greater IOP reduction than G or K from baseline (76.12% decrease versus 48.19% and 47.96%, P = 0.013). IOP reduction between G and K was similar (P = 0.420). Removing another 90 degrees of TM caused an additional IOP reduction only in T and G but not in K. Similarly, T resulted in the largest increase in outflow facility at 5 µL/min compared with G and K (first ablation: 3.41 times increase versus 1.95 and 1.87; second ablation: 4.60 versus 2.50 and 1.74) with similar results at 10 µL/min (first ablation: 3.28 versus 2.29 and 1.90 (P = 0.001); second ablation: 4.10 versus 3.01 and 2.01 (P = 0.001)). Canalograms indicated circumferential flow beyond the ablation endpoints. Conclusions: T, G and K significantly increased the outflow facility. In this model, T had a larger effect than G and K.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Ectoparasite; Taxon cycle; relict; Great speciator; Invasive species; Supertramp; Endangered species; Conservation; Taxonomy; Phylogeny
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:30:42 CEST)
This overview of extant Siphonaptera lists 19 families with major hosts and general distribution, estimated numbers of genera, species, and subspecies, with a brief taxonomic and phylogenetic review. With around 10 new species described annually, global flea fauna has an estimated extant 249 genera, 2215 species, and 714 subspecies, mostly mammal parasites but 5% of species are on birds. Host specificity varies from euryxenous (i.e. infesting two or more host orders)(e.g. cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis) to monoxenous (e.g. rabbit fleas, Spilopsyllus cuniculi) . The largest family is the paraphyletic Hystrichopsyllidae, making up a third of all flea species. The largest monophyletic family, Ceratophyllidae (rodent and bird fleas), comprise another 20%, and has dispersed to every continent including Antarctica. Fleas descend from scorpionflies (Mecoptera), possibly snow scorpionflies (Boreidae) or Nannochoristidae, and even giant fossils found from the Mesozoic could be Siphonaptera. Flea diversification shows evidence of taxon cycles: "Relict" families such as helmet fleas (Stephanocircidae) have a disjunct distribution reflecting the breakup of Gondwanaland, 70 million years ago. "Niche specialists" include nest fleas (Anomiopsyllus), bat fleas (Ischnopsyllidae), and burrowing fleas, the chigoes (Tungidae). By contrast, Ceratophyllidae fleas could be considered "great speciators". Cat fleas and several other synanthropic flea species are invasive "supertramps". Although those species are intensively studied, many flea species and their hosts require urgent surveys and conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0029.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: hunting invasive locusts; food security; entomophagy; pest; entry of toxins into the food chain
Online: 2 February 2023 (04:35:05 CET)
Locust is a pest that attacks human and animal food and endangers national security by threatening food security. Spraying is the easiest and fastest way to deal with them. But the easiest way is not always the best way. With chemical resistance, not only will permanent immunity from locust attacks not arise, but they will also become resistant to poisons. While we have to pay billions of dollars annually for this strategy, we will also cause water and soil pollution. Therefore, the research results of other researchers were used and modeled to measure the possibility of hunting invasive locusts to investigate the possibility and benefits of this action. So, this study was conducted in the field method. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to hunt invasive locusts. If traps are placed on time and in the right place, the possibility of preserving crops after the pest attack increases by 2.3 times more in protected fields than in unprotected fields. By hunting locusts, fields and even pastures are preserved, poisons are prevented from entering the food chain and ecosystem, part of the economic loss of farmers affected by the invasion of locusts will be compensated, and by providing animal feed through hunting locusts, water consumption will be reduced, soil erosion and energy consumption are saved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0587.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: dioecious; landscape connectivity; plant-insect interactions; metacommunity assembly; Mount St. Helens; willow; invasive species
Online: 31 December 2022 (08:21:02 CET)
Major disturbances fundamentally alter ecosystems through the transformation of both biotic and abiotic factors. The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 resulted in a cataclysmic restructuring of its surrounding landscapes. The Pumice Plain is one of these landscapes, where tree species such as Sitka willow (Salix sitchensis) and their dependent communities have established along newly-formed streams. Thus, the study of these dependent communities provides a unique opportunity to investigate factors influencing metacommunity assembly during true primary succession. We analyzed the influence of landscape connectivity on metacommunity assembly through a novel application of circuit theory, alongside the effects of other factors such as stream locations, willow leaf chemistry, and leaf area. We found that landscape connectivity structures community composition on willows across the Pumice Plain, while our other factors had varied effects. Most importantly, multiple levels of spatial habitat structure linked via landscape connectivity can predict the presence of organisms lacking high rates of dispersal, such as the invasive stem-boring poplar weevil (Cryptorhynchus lapathi). This is critical for management as we show that the maintenance of a heterogeneous mixture of landscape connectivities and resource locations can facilitate meta-community dynamics to promote ecosystem function and mitigate the influences of invasive species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0752.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Candida albicans; invasive candidiasis; secretome; secreted proteins; hypha; diagnosis; biomarkers; immunoproteomics; SERPA; serologic response.
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:40:35 CEST)
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients if not diagnosed early. Long-term use of central venous catheters is a predisposing factor for IC. Hyphal forms of Candida albicans (the major etiological agent of IC) are related to invasion of host tissues. The secreted proteins of hyphae are involved in virulence, host interaction, immune response, and immune evasion. To identify IC diagnostic biomarker candidates, we characterized the C. albicans hyphal secretome by gel-free proteomic analysis, and further assessed the antibody-reactivity patterns to this subproteome in serum pools from 12 patients with non-catheter-associated IC (ncIC), 11 patients with catheter-associated IC (cIC), and 11 non-IC patients. We identified 301 secreted hyphal proteins stratified to stem from the extracellular region, cell wall, cell surface, or intracellular compartments. ncIC and cIC patients had higher antibody levels to the hyphal secretome than non-IC patients. Seven secreted hyphal proteins were identified to be immunogenic (Bgl2, Eno1, Pgk1, Glx3, Sap5, Pra1 and Tdh3). Antibody-reactivity patterns to Bgl2, Eno1, Pgk1 and Glx3 discriminated IC patients from non-IC patients, while those to Sap5, Pra1 and Tdh3 differentiated between cIC and non-IC patients. These proteins may be useful for development of future IC diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0662.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Aesculus hippocastanum; insect pest; fungal disease; invasive species; leaf damage; model; competition; urban environment
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:13:43 CEST)
The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is an invasive pest of horse chestnut and has spread through Europe since 1985. The horse chestnut leaf blotch Guignardia aesculi (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) is a fungal disease that also seriously damages horse chestnut trees in Europe. The interaction between the leaf miner and the fungus has not yet been sufficiently described. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess leaf damage inflicted to horse chestnut by both C. ohridella and G. aesculi during the vegetation season and to model their interaction. The damage to leaf area was measured monthly from May to September 2013 in České Budějovice, the Czech Republic. A simple phenomenological model describing the expected dynamics of the two species was developed. The study revealed a significant effect of sampling site and sampling period on the damage caused by both the pest and the fungus. The mathematical model indicates that infestation by C. ohridella is more affected by G. aesculi than vice versa. The possible mechanisms affecting the relationship between G. aesculi and C. ohridella are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0032.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Erasmoneura vulnerata; augmentative biological control; invasive pests; grapevine; Chrysoperla carnea; Orius majusculus; generalist predators
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:29:56 CET)
Outbreaks of the Nearctic leafhopper Erasmoneura vulnerata represent a recent issue for winegrowers in Southern Europe, in particular in North-eastern Italy. Problems are frequent in organic vineyards because insecticides labeled for organic viticulture show limited effectiveness towards leafhoppers. On the other hand, the response by naturally occurring predators and parasitoids to E. vulnerata populations in vineyards is often unable to keep leafhopper densities under levels that are acceptable for winegrowers. Here we evaluated the potential of two generalist predators, i.e., Chrysoperla carnea and Orius majusculus, in controlling E. vulnerata populations. Laboratory and semi-field experiments were carried out to evaluate both species' predation capacity on E. vulnerata nymphs. Then, predators were released in vineyards colonized by large E. vulnerata populations. Both predator species exhibited a remarkable voracity in the laboratory and significantly reduced leafhopper densities in semi-field experiments. Predator releases in vineyards reduced leafhopper densities by about 30%. Results obtained in laboratory, semi-field, and field experiments are discussed to implement these biocontrol agents' use in pest control tactics.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Emerald Ash Borer; EAB; Ukraine; Europe; Fraxinus pennsylvanica; ash trees; invasive pest; plant quarantine
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:53:04 CEST)
Agrilus planipennis is a devastating invasive pest of ash trees. This wood-boring insect native to Asia and established in European Russia about 20 years ago poses a serious threat to ash trees all over Europe. In 2019 we first detected Agrilus planipennis in Ukraine. More than 20 larvae have been collected from under the bark of Fraxinus pennsylvanica trees on 5 September 2019 in Markivka District of Luhansk Region. Coordinates of the localities of collection: 49.614991 N, 39.559743 E; 49.614160 N, 39.572402 E and 49.597043 N, 39.561811 E. The photos of damaged trees with larval galleries, exit holes and larvae are presented. There is no doubt that the pest is established in Ukraine. This fact is important for development of quarantine protocols to prevent or at least slow the further spread of this invasive pest in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Eagle Syndrome; Stylalgia; Minimally Invasive Styloidectomy; MICS; Styloidectomy; Carotid Artery Syndrome; Stylohyoid Chain; Styloid Process
Online: 3 October 2023 (09:26:43 CEST)
(1) Background: The stylohyoid syndrome, known as classical Eagle Syndrome (cES), is characterized by calcificatication of the stylohyoid chain with numerous nonspecific symptoms, mainly pain. This study introduces Minimally Invasive Cervical Styloidectomy (MICS). (2) Methods: MICS was performed on sixty-five patients diagnosed with classical Eagle syndrome. Patients underwent meticulous differential diagnosis. Surgical plans were established based on the findings from neck angioCT. (3) Results: The healing process was uneventful without significant complications. The overall success rate was 97.0%, with a follow-up of a minimum of six months. In one case, the surgery did not yield the desired improvement. In one case, a partial relapse of symptoms was observed. (4) Conclusions: MICS is a straightforward and efficient surgical treatment technique for stylohyoid syndrome.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: rapidly growing ulcerated breast cancer; intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy; skin ulceration; invasive ductal carcinoma; doxorubicin; cyclophosphamide.
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:00:18 CEST)
(1) Background: This case report focuses on a 46-year-old female patient diagnosed with a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer known as rapidly growing, ulcerated breast cancer. The patient exhibited rapid progression of the disease, experiencing discomfort and noticeable changes in the size and texture of the affected breast over a short period of time; (2) Methods: An intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen was employed as the primary treatment approach. The patient's response to this treatment was closely monitored and assessed. Various diagnostic tests and imaging techniques were utilized to evaluate the extent of the disease and track its response to the chemotherapy; (3) Results: The patient's response to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen was remarkable, resulting in a complete pathologic response. This outcome, although unusual in rapidly growing, ulcerated breast cancers, highlights the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in managing large, locally advanced breast cancers; (4) Conclusions: The multidisciplinary approach employed in managing this complex breast cancer case proved to be crucial to the patient's favorable outcome. Despite the aggressive nature of the disease and the challenges posed by the rapid growth and ulceration, the patient achieved a positive result. This case contributes to the limited clinical literature on such unusual and aggressive breast cancer cases, providing valuable insights for future clinical practice.8
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0046.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Lumbar spinal stenosis; Spinal decompression; Minimally invasive surgery; Mini-open; Disc herniation; Post-decompression; Instability
Online: 19 June 2023 (15:17:06 CEST)
BackgroundIndex level disc herniation following lumbar spinal decompression is somewhat overlooked as postoperative complication, resulting in return of symptoms. It is proposed that the combination of local instability and degenerated disc is more likely to result in disc herniation. There is no literature comparing post-decompression disc herniation rates between different techniques. This study compares the postoperative disc herniation rates of the "mini-open" laminectomy versus the tubular system decompression.MethodsIn a retrospective comparative study, 563 patient files who underwent primary lumbar spinal decompression, were reviewed and divided into two groups, distinguished by surgical technique. Demographic, clinical, and postoperative data were collected and compared using independent two-tailed t-test and Fisher's exact test with significance set at p<0.05. Primary outcome: comparison of post-decompression surgery, index level, disc herniation occurrence between two surgical techniques.ResultsPostoperative index level disc herniation was significantly lower in the minimally invasive surgery group with 2 cases (0.8%) versus 19 cases (5.8%) in the "mini-open" group [p=0.002]. Disc herniation following single level and multi-level operations were also significantly lower in the minimally invasive group compared with the "mini-open" group (2 versus 11 and 0 versus 8 respectively; p<0.05).ConclusionPostoperative index level disc herniation following lumbar spinal decompression occurs in 3.7% of surgeries. Minimally invasive surgery is found to result in less herniations then "mini-open".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0320.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: non-invasive; point-of-care testing; blood values; Radial arterial blood; blood gas; transcutaneous; algorithm
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:07:48 CEST)
The purpose of this work was to evaluate a novel methodology developed by Digital Blood Corporation (DBC) to calculate critical blood values using four non-invasive measured values as input. The values obtained using a point-of-care testing (POCT) device were utilized for comparison and reference. Radial arterial blood was collected for the POCT comparator analysis using the Abbott i-STAT® device. The non-invasive methodology from DBC requires four parameters to be directly measured: temperature, hemoglobin, pO2, and pCO2. Subsequently, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, total carbon dioxide, pH, bicarbonate, and oxygen saturation are calculated using an algorithm. The agreement between the POCT and DBC’s methodology was analyzed using Bland-Altman difference plots. For a second data set, pO2 and pCO2 values collected with the POCT were used as input for DBC’s algorithm to test its robustness. Data from 37 healthy ambulatory individuals, mean age: 42.4 + 13 years; range: 18-64 years, were included in the primary analysis. In the case of the non-invasive gained four input values the greatest variation between POCT and DBC’s approach was observed for pO2 and consequently for algorithm values that depend upon pO2 precision. Replacing transcutaneous pO2 and pCO2 with POCT values demonstrates the principal ability of DBC’s algorithm to predict the additional 8 blood values in sufficient agreement with a standard POCT device in healthy patients. The algorithm developed by DBC appears to be robust in the case of healthy patients but does need the four measured input values with preciseness comparable to a POCT device to give reliable and clinically relevant results. The present study thus serves as a proof of concept to facilitate future study and further development of this methodology into a non-invasive device.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0497.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fatty acids; lipid content; invasive species; Kjeldahl; Gas chromatography; Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture; Pagasitikos Gulf
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:24:14 CET)
The total lipid and protein content of the invasive caprellid amphipod Caprella scaura, from the biofouling communities of fish farm cages in the Pagasitikos Gulf were analyzed and compared among seasons. Proteins were the most abundant component (48.5 – 49.3%). Lipid content was relatively lower, with a wider range (6.7 – 34%) and showed a distinct seasonal fluctuation with high values in the winter population and a gradual decrease in spring and summer, with the lowest values in Autumn. Composition of the fatty acids profile was consistent among the seasons, with palmitic (16:0), Oleic (18:1n-9), Eicosapentanoic (20:5n-3)(EPA) and Docosahexanoic acid (22:6n-3 )(DHA) being the most abundant fatty acids. The presence of high levels of EPA and DHA fatty acids makes the species a potential candidate for use of these organisms in aquaculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: primary open-angle glaucoma; minimally invasive glaucoma surgery; ab interno trabeculectomy; intraocular pressure; success rate
Online: 11 January 2018 (04:01:57 CET)
To evaluate the 2-year efficacy and safety of ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome in Chinese primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective study and included POAG patients with or without visually-significant cataracts. The primary outcome was intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Secondary outcomes included reduction of glaucoma medications, surgical complications, and success at 2-years. Success was defined as: 1) IOP < 21 mmHg and at least 20% IOP reduction from baseline after 3 months at any two consecutive visits, and 2) no additional glaucoma surgery required. A total of 42 patients were enrolled; thirteen had a history of failed glaucoma surgery. Twelve patients underwent Trabectome surgery combined with phacoemulsification while the remainder underwent Trabectome surgery alone. Overall, the mean preoperative IOP was 21.4±1.23 mmHg. The Trabectome lowered IOP to 18.5± 0.94 mmHg at 2 years (P<0.05). The number of glaucoma medications also decreased from a baseline of 2.0±0.9 to 1.2± 0.21 at 2 years (P=0.04). The overall success was 78%, with patients undergoing combined surgery having a higher success than those with Trabectome surgery alone (100% vs. 76%). No major complications were seen. The Trabectome appears to be an efficient and safe procedure in Chinese POAG patients in the long-term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1793.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurodegenerative disorders; blood-brain barrier; non-invasive delivery; device-related delivery; Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s; ALS; Down Syndrome
Online: 27 September 2023 (04:19:06 CEST)
Device-mediated, non-invasive drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a significant advancement in treating neurological diseases. The BBB is a tightly packed layer of endothelial cells that shields the brain from harmful substances in the blood, allowing necessary nutrients to pass through. It is a highly selective barrier, which poses a challenge to delivering therapeutic agents into the brain. Several non-invasive techniques and devices have been proposed or investigated to enhance drug delivery across the BBB. This paper presents the current state of the art and case studies that address the pharmacology, technology, delivery systems, regulatory approval, ethical concerns, and future possibilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; food-born pathogen; invasive listeriosis; cgMLST; whole genome sequencing; prophages; virulence factors; COVID-19.
Online: 14 September 2023 (14:51:01 CEST)
Listerias of the phylogenetic lineage II (PLII) are common in the European environment, and are hypovirulent. Despite this, they caused more than a third of sporadic cases of listeriosis, and multi-country foodborne outbreaks. L. monocytogenes ST37 is one of them. During the COVID-19 pandemic ST37 appeared in the clinical cases and ranked second in occurrence among food isolates in the Moscow region. The aim of this study was to describe the genomic features of ST37 isolates from different sources. All clinical cases of ST37 were in the cohort of male patients (age, 48-81 years) with meningitis-septicemia manifestation, and COVID-19 or Influenza in the anamnesis. The core genomes of the fish isolates were closely related. The clinical and meat isolates revealed a large diversity. Prophages (2-4/genome) were the source of the unique genes. Two clinical isolates displayed the pseudolysogeny, and excided prophages were A006-like. Absence of the plasmids, the assortment of virulence factors and resistance determinants in chromosome corresponded to the hypovirulent characteristics. However, all clinical isolates caused severe disease with deaths in four cases. Thus, these studies allow us to speculate that a previous viral infection increases a human susceptibility to listeriosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0391.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Global amphibian decline; climate change; drought; invasive alien species; Procambarus clarkii; EU Habitat Directive; amphibian conservation
Online: 4 August 2023 (12:37:06 CEST)
Detecting the trends of species and populations is fundamental to identify taxa with high conservation priority. Unfortunately, long-term monitoring programs are challenging and often lacking. The Italian agile frog Rana latastei is endemic to Northern Italy and adjacent countries, is considered vulnerable by the IUCN, and is protected at the European level. However, quantitative estimates of its decline are extremely scarce. In this study, we document the trends in abundance and distribution of Rana latastei within the Monza Park, which currently represents the area closer to the type locality of the species. Wetlands within the park were monitored from 2000 to 2023; counts of egg clutches were taken as a measure of reproductive output and of the abundance of breeding females. In 2000, the species occurred over a significant proportion of the park. Total abundance showed strong yearly variation but remained rather constant from 2000 to 2019. However, Rana latastei disappeared from the park around 2021 and was never detected in 2022-23. The decline is probably related to the joint effect of multiple factors, including the conversion of breeding sites for farming, inappropriate water management, invasive alien species, and severe drought. The local extinction of Rana latastei occurred despite legal protection, highlighting the need for more effective and stringent tools for the conservation of European biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Non-invasive respiratory support 1; SARS-CoV-2 2; Hospitalization 3; CPAP 4; HFNO 5; Bilevel 6
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:41:45 CEST)
Introduction: The objective of the study is to assess the failure of therapies with HFNO (High-Flow Nasal Oxygen), CPAP, Bilevel or combined therapy in patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 during their hospitalization. Methods: Retrospective and observational study of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who required non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS), at the Reina Sofía General University Hospital of Murcia between March 2020 and May 2021. Results: Of 7355 patients, 197 (11,8%) were included. 95 of them failed this therapy (48,3%). We objectivated that during hospitalization in the ward the combined therapy with HFNO and CPAP had a lower failure rate overall and the highest treatment purely with Bilevel (p = 0,005). In the comparison of failure in therapy without two levels of airway pressure, HFNO, CPAP and combined therapy of HFNO with CPAP, (35,6% of patients) presented a 24,2% failure compared to those who did have two levels of pressure with Bilevel and combined therapy of HFNO with Bilevel (64,4% of patients) with 75,8% associated failure (OR: 0, 374; CI 95%: 0,203-0,688. p=0,001).Conclusions: The use of NIRS in conventional hospitalization is safe and effective in patients with respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The therapeutic strategy with Bilevel increases the probability of failure, with the combined therapy strategy with CPAP and HFNO being the most promising option.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: arrhythmic sudden cardiac death; risk stratification; non-invasive risk factors; NIRFs; electrophysiology study; two-step approach; cardiomyopathy
Online: 1 September 2023 (03:36:09 CEST)
Arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) has an annual prevalence of 1 per 1000 while 75% of the victims suffer from ischemic and 10% from non-ischemic or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Altogether, these three entities account for more than 80% of the total SCD victims. Guidelines for implantable cardiac defibrillators are still dominated by LVEF<30% from the MADIT II study. In terms of arrhythmic risk stratification, the PRESERVE-EF study restored in clinical practice the two-step arrhythmic risk stratification approach based on Electrocardiographic non-invasive risk factors (NIRFs) guiding to electrophysiological study. In our times with the multiple cardiac imaging methods and artificial intelligence applications availability, this two-step approach based on integrated arrhythmia mechanisms detection, emerges as an efficient SCD risk stratification paradigm for these three entities but also for the patients with congenital heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Emerald ash borer; Fraxinus spp.; forest pests; invasive populations; north-west Russia; Saint Pe-tersburg; urban pests
Online: 15 September 2021 (09:46:17 CEST)
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle of East Asian origin that in North America and Russia killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). In September 2020, EAB was de-tected in Saint Petersburg, becoming resonant event for the metropolitan city. The aim of the present study was to investigate occurrence and ecology of EAB in Saint Petersburg. The presence of two distinct enclave populations of EAB was revealed, each of which has (very likely) been established by separate events of “hitchhiking” transport vehicles. Following the invasion, further spread of EAB in Saint Petersburg was slow and locally restricted, main explanation for which is climatic factor. Due to spread by “hitchhiking”, the possibility of EAB further long-distance ge-ographic spread of EAB in the Baltic Sea region (EU) is high, and not only by ground transport (120–130 km distance from EU borders), but also by ferries transporting cars (traditional means of transportation across the Baltic Sea). In certain cases, development of EAB on F. excelsior was more successful (stem portion colonized, larval densities, number of galleries, exit holes, viable larvae, emerged beetles) than in (adjacent) F. pennsylvanica trees. Observed relatively high EAB-sensitivity of F. excelsior therefore questions the efficacy and benefits of the currently ongoing selection and breeding projects against ash dieback (ADB), caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Inventory, mapping, and monitoring of surviving F. excelsior trees in areas infested by both ADB and EAB are necessary to acquire genetic resource for work on strategic long-term restoration of F. excelsior, tackling (inevitable) invasion of EAB to the EU.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: bladder cancer; non-muscle-invasive cancer; local intravesical drug delivery; colloidal drug delivery systems; indwelling devices; sustained delivery
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:26:53 CET)
Treatment of bladder cancer remains a critical unmet need and requires advanced approaches, particularly the development of local drug delivery systems. The physiology of the urinary bladder causes the main difficulties in the local treatment of bladder cancer: regular voiding prevents the maintenance of optimal concentration of the instilled drugs, while poor permeability of the urothelium limits the penetration of the drugs into the bladder wall. Therefore, much research effort is spent to overcome these hurdles, thereby improving the efficacy of available therapies. The explosive development of nanotechnology, polymer science and related fields has contributed to the emergence of a number of nanostructured vehicles (nano- and micro scale) applicable for intravesical drug delivery. Moreover, the engineering approach has facilitated the design of several macro-sized depot systems (centimeter scale) capable of remaining in the bladder for weeks and months. In this article, the main rationales and strategies for improved intravesical delivery are reviewed. Here, we focused on analysis of colloidal nano- and micro-sized drug carriers, and indwelling macro-scale devices which were evaluated for applicability in local therapy of bladder cancer in vivo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: C-arm free; minimally invasive spine surgery; adult spinal deformity; lateral access spine surgery; oblique lumbar interbody fusion
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:51:02 CEST)
Background and Objectives: C-arm free MIS techniques can offer significantly reduced rates of postoperative complications such as blood loss and hospitalization time. Another advantageous long-term aspect is the notably diminished exposure to radiation which is known to cause ma-lignant changes. This study emphasizes that, in some cases of spinal conditions which require a procedural intervention, C-arm free MIS techniques hold stronger indications than open surgeries guided by image intensifier. Materials and Methods: In this research, a retrospective analysis and review of various cervical and thoracic spinal procedures, performed in our hospital, by applying C-arm free techniques. The course of the study explains the basic steps of the procedures and demonstrating postoperative or intra-operative results. For anterior cervical surgery, we performed OPLL resection, while for posterior cervical surgery, we performed posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation, minimally invasive cervi-cal pedicle screw fixation (MICEPS) and modified Goel technique with C1 lateral mass screw for atlantoaxial subluxation. Re-garding the thoracic spine, we performed anterior correction for Lenke type 5 scoliosis, and transdiscal screw fixation for DISH fractures. Results: C-arm free techniques are safe procedures that offer precise and high-quality postoperative results by offering sufficient spine alignment and adequate decompression depending on the case. Blood loss, postoperative pain and wound infection are other important aspects of spine surgery that must be always taken into consideration. Conclusions: Navigated C-arm free techniques are safe and precise procedures implemented in the treatment of surgically demanding conditions. They can significantly increase accuracy while decreasing the operative time. They represent the advancement in the field spine surgery and are hailed as the future of the same
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Candida; Candidemia; invasive candidiasis; Candida auris; non-albicans candida; COVID-19; antifungal susceptibility; Lebanon; Arab world; EQUAL score
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:37:02 CEST)
Invasive fungal infections, notably candidemia, have been associated with COVID-19. The epidemiology of candidemia has significantly changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to identify the microbiological profile, resistance rates, and outcomes of COVID-19 associated candidemia (CAC) compared to patients with candidemia not associated with COVID-19. We retrospectively collected data on patients with candidemia admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 2004 and 2022. We compared the epidemiology of candidemia during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we compared the outcomes of critically ill patients with CAC to those with candidemia without COVID-19 from March 2020 till March 2022. Among 245 candidemia episodes, 156 occurred prior to the pandemic and 89 during the pandemic. Of the latter, 39 (43.8%) were CAC, most of which (82%) were reported from intensive care units (ICU). Non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. were predominant throughout the study period (67.7%). Candida auris infection was the most common cause of NAC spp. in CAC. C. glabrata had decreased susceptibility rates to fluconazole and caspofungin during the pandemic period (46.1% and 38.4% respectively). Mortality rate in the overall ICU population during the pandemic was 76.6%, much higher than the previously reported mortality of candidemia from previous studies at our center. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality between CAC and non-CAC (75.0% vs 78.1%; P =0.76). Performing ophthalmic examination (P = 0.002), CVC removal during the 48 hours following the candidemia (P = 0.008) and identifying the Candida spp. (P = 0.028) were significantly associated with a lower case-fatality rate. The epidemiology of candidemia has been significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic at our center. Rigorous infection control measures and proper antifungal stewardship are essential to combat highly resistant species like C. auris.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Bladder cancer; Hispanics; Mexicans population; Mutations; Cancer genomics; non-muscle inva-sive bladder cancer; muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Online: 31 October 2022 (02:27:54 CET)
Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm of the urinary tract, which originates in the epithelium that covers the inner surface of the bladder. The molecular BC profile has led to the development of different classifications of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive (MIBC). However, the genomic BC landscape profile of the Mexican population, including NMIBC and MIBC, is unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in Mexican patients with BC and their associations with clinical and pathological characteristics. We retrospectively evaluated 37 patients treated between 2012 and 2021 at the National Cancer Institute - Mexico (INCan). DNA samples were obtained from paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and ran exome sequencing. Strelka2 and Lancet packages were used to identify SNVs and insertions or deletions. FACETS was used to determine CNVs. We found a high frequency of mutations in TP53 and KMT2D, gains in 11q15.5 and 19p13.11-q12, and losses in 7q11.23. STAG2 mutations and 1q11.23 deletions were also associated with NMIBC and low histologic grade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma surgery; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; minimally invasive glaucoma surgery; glaucoma surgery patterns; COVID-19; trabeculectomy; canaloplasty; iStent
Online: 30 December 2021 (17:09:06 CET)
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma aims to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) and preserve visual function. The severe acute res-piratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has placed a strain on the healthcare system. We aimed to compare the quantity, type of anti-glaucoma surgeries, and the disease stage before and during the coronavirus disease pandemic. We analyzed 362 eyes of 306 patients and 172 eyes of 149 patients from the pre-pandemic and pandemic groups, respectively. The number of an-ti-glaucoma surgeries was halved during the pandemic compared to a similar pre-pandemic pe-riod, with a significant difference in the procedural structures between the two groups (p<0.001). The most common procedures in the pre-pandemic group were Ex-Press implantation (33.7%) and trabeculectomy (31.5%). Within the pandemic group, half of the eyes underwent tra-beculectomy (50.0%), followed by Preserflo microshunt (11.6%). A significant difference in the average IOPs was revealed among patients who qualified for surgery 22.21 ± 7.83 mmHg in the pre-pandemic group and 25.16 ± 9.48 mmHg in the pandemic group; p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the best corrected visual acuity between the groups (p=0.263). Glaucoma treatment remained relatively accessible during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1754.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: digital health devices; diabetes test; bio-markers; blood glucose monitoring; diabetes; exhaled breath analysis; non-invasive; volatile organic compounds
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:29:07 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread chronic metabolic disorder demanding regular blood glucose level surveillance (BGLs). Current invasive techniques, such as finger-prick tests, often result in discomfort for patients, leading to infrequent monitoring and potential health complications. The primary objective of this study was to design a novel, portable, non-invasive system for diabetes detection using breath samples, named as DiabeticSense, an affordable digital health device for early detection, encouraging immediate intervention. The device employed MOSFET-based electrochemical sensors to assess volatile organic compounds in breath samples, whose concentrations differ between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The system merged body vital signs with sensor voltages obtained by processing breath sample data to predict diabetic conditions. Our research used readings from 100 patients at a nationally recognised hospital to form the dataset. Data was then processed 10 using a Gradient Boosting Classifier model, and performance was cross-validated. The proposed system attained a promising accuracy of 86.6%, marking an improvement of 20.72% over an existing regression technique. The developed device introduces a non-invasive, cost-effective, and user-friendly solution for preliminary diabetes detection. It has the potential to increase patient adherence to regular monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Genetic algorithm; voltage sensitivity indices; loss sensitivity indices; voltage profiles; reactive power; active power; Differential evolution invasive weed optimization
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:32:45 CEST)
FACTS devices provide significance to enhance the functioning of both static and dynamic power systems. The type, size, and location of FACTS devices determine how well they achieve the goals of enhancing voltage stability, loadability, and loss minimization simultaneously. The aim of the function in this study includes voltage stability, line loadings, and loss minimization, which are expected to obtain the most benefits from their installation and other weights allocated to them. It has been determined how installing TCSC, and SVC will improve loadability under situations of continuously increasing load. In this study, a novel optimization technique known as differential evolution invasive weed optimization (DEIWO) is utilized to locate the optimal location for FACTS devices within the IEEE 14 bus system by considering valve point effects. DEIWO was a recently developed, dominant, and simple metaheuristic algorithm for genuine parameter optimization. DEIWO was inspired by the natural process of weed colonization and dissemination, and it is highly effective at addressing broad multi-dimensional, linear and nonlinear optimization problems. The proposed method was implemented in the IEEE 14 bus testing system. Different methods from the research papers have been used to compare and analyze the results. The results demonstrate the DEIWO algorithm's capability and show how it may be used in practice to locate FACTS devices in deregulated electricity networks in the most advantageous place. A comparison of the proposed process to existing algorithms found in the literature and implemented using traditional techniques reveals that it performs better in terms of precision and convergence
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Non-invasive direct current stimulation; Cortical, Suboccipital and Spinal stimulation; Quantitative sensory testing, Pain outcome measures, Endogenous pain modulation.
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:44:44 CET)
Background: Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of direct current stimulation (DCS) applied at the transcranial, suboccipital and spinal level on experimental sensory modalities and pain outcome measures in healthy subjects. The hypothesis of this study was that systematic analysis of the efficacy of DCS on modulating evoked thermal and mechanical pain modalities and mechanisms such as endogenous pain modulation in healthy individuals would reveal sensitive outcome measures help develop this technique for the control of chronic pain. Materials and Methods. Database searches were conducted up to December 2019 for randomized controlled trials that performed sham-controlled DCS of experimental sensory modalities and pain outcomes following transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations in healthy participants. Standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for sensory modalities, including random-effect metanalysis. Results: Thirty-one studies were included for analysis (647 participants). A significant decrease in pain intensity for active vs sham transcranial stimulation was identified for pain intensity (n=158; SMD=0.79; 95% CI=0.56 to 1.02), a significant increase in heat pain threshold (n=222; SMD=1.16; 95% CI=0.95 to 1.37), and a significant increase in cold pain threshold (n = 155; SMD = 0.77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.01). No significant modulation of pressure pain threshold was identified with DCS and only a limited number of studies focused on experimental pain modulation following neuromodulation at the suboccipital or spinal level. Conclusions: These results show significant transcranial DCS neuromodulation of pain intensity and on thermal pain modalities. Future studies should focus on endogenous pain and sensory modality modulation with sham-controlled DCS applied at transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations.