ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1334.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: victimizing and perpetrating violence; interpersonal and intimate violence; harmful alcohol and drug use; mental health symptoms; paths of violence; gender
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:46:13 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic may have increased interpersonal and intimate violence, harmful use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and mental health problems. The present study uses a valid path model to describe relationships between these conditions of young Mexicans during the second year of the pandemic. A sample of 7,420 young Mexicans ages 18 to 24—two-thirds of whom were women—completed the Life Events Checklist, the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test, the Major-Depressive-Episode Checklist, the Generalized Anxiety Scale, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist. Young Mexicans reported higher rates of victimization and perpetration of interpersonal and intimate violence and mental health symptomatology than those noted pre-pandemic and in the first year of the pandemic. Harmful use of AOD rates were like those reported by adolescents before. Findings suggested asymmetric victimization and perpetration of intimate violence by gender (with women being at a higher risk than men, p≤.05). More men than women engaged in the harmful use of AOD (except for sedatives, which more women abuse). In contrast, more women than men were at risk of all mental health conditions. The path model indicates that being a victim of intimate violence predicts harmful use of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and sedatives, depression, anxiety, and specific PTSD symptoms (such as re-experimentation and avoidance symptoms). Being a victim of interpersonal violence resulted in severe PTSD symptoms (including avoidance, negative alterations in cognition-mood, and hyperarousal signs). Harmful use of sedatives predicted depressive symptoms. Men´s victimizing intimate violence model contrasted with that of women, which also included being the victim of interpersonal violence and severe PTSD symptoms. The high school youth model had three paths -victimizing-intimate violence, victimizing-interpersonal abuse, and sedative use, which predicted depression. The findings of this study could serve as the basis for future studies exploring mechanisms that predict violence patterns to develop the most cost-effective preventive programs and public policies and to address mental health conditions during community emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0454.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Interpersonal relationship; Interpersonal schema; Elderly; Structured interview
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:25:06 CET)
As a growing public interest in social health of elderly, studies focusing on social networks and interpersonal relationships of the elderly are needed. The present study was conducted to de-velop a structured interview to evaluate the interpersonal schema based on Self-Defining Memory of elderly. First, the word cues that the elderly often report on interpersonal events were con-firmed. Next, the indices and scoring rules were prepared, including Relationship frequency (RF), Conflict frequency (CF), Dominance mean (Dm), and Warmth mean (Wm). Healthy elderly peo-ple living alone (mean age = 71.81, SD = 3.95) were interviewed. Finally, the correlation between each index and Short form of Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (KIIP-SC) was analyzed for criterion validity. The inter-rater reliability was substantial (Kappa = .61 ~ .66). Based on the analysis of criterion validity, the indices of CF, Dm, and Wm indices showed an appropriate level of criterion validity. This study developed a structural interview based on a novel system of reporting autobiographical memory and established indices with appropriate validity to evaluate interpersonal relationships. The interview is expected to identify the characteristics of interpersonal relationships of the elderly and contribute to the establishment of the elderly community, accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: interpersonal trust; sustainable organizations; competences; relations; cooperation
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:00:45 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to examine if there are links between interpersonal trust and competences, relations and cooperation in Polish telecom companies. It examines what factors affect trust in coworkers and managers in sustainable organizations. The paper surveys a sample of 175 employees of telecom companies in Poland by means of a questionnaire. The results indicate that the competences, relations and cooperation are related to interpersonal trust. Regression analysis showed that the competences and relations predict a significant variance in trust amongst coworkers. Additionally, cooperation contributes to prediction of trust in mangers. Given the importance of trust in sustainable organizations, a better comprehension of what factors are related to team confidence provides valuable information for stakeholders. The results provide valuable clues how to improve interpersonal trust in sustainable organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0316.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: ; Social interaction; Self-organization; Imitation; Coordination dynamics; Group normalization; Interpersonal symmetry
Online: 13 September 2022 (15:59:57 CEST)
I present an experimental paradigm to explore the interpersonal dynamics generating a collective mind. I hypothesized that collective organization is based on dual interpersonal modes: (1) symmetrical and (2) anti‑symmetrical. I specified the geometric topology of these modes by detecting the spatiotemporal patterns that embed cooperative agents in a three‑dimensional matrix. I found that the symmetrical mode is executed automatically and without guidance. Conversely, the anti‑symmetrical mode required explicit direction and recruited attention for execution. I demonstrate that self‑other mirror‑symmetry stabilized group dynamics, enabled fast and efficient symmetrical imitation that optimized information transmission, whereas anti‑symmetrical imitation was comparatively slow, inefficient, and unstable. I determined that the anti‑symmetrical mode spontaneously transitioned to the symmetrical mode under perturbations. Crucially, this renormalization mechanism never transitioned from symmetrical to anti‑symmetrical. These self-organizing dynamics speak to interpersonal symmetry‑breaking. In the present work, spontaneous group choice mandated that agents synchronize cooperative cycles in symmetrical space under internal or external perturbations. I provide examples to illustrate that this self-regulating pullback attractor manifests in invertebrates and vertebrates alike. I conclude by suggesting that inter‑agent symmetry provides the social stability manifold through which attention-driven interactions enable intrapersonal and interpersonal change.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Area Estimation, Crowd Management, COVID-19, Edge Camera, Interpersonal Distance, Social Distancing.
Online: 1 October 2021 (15:37:26 CEST)
For public safety and physical security, currently more than a billion closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras are deployed around the world. Proliferation of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies has gained significant applications including crowd surveillance. The state-of-the-art distance and area estimation algorithms either need multiple cameras or a reference scale as a ground truth. It is an open question to obtain an estimation using a single camera without a scale reference. In this paper, we propose a novel solution called E-SEC, which estimates interpersonal distance between a pair of dynamic human objects, area occupied by a dynamic crowd, and density using a single edge camera. The E-SEC framework comprises edge CCTV cameras responsible for capture a crowd on video frames leveraging a customized YOLOv3 model for human detection. E-SEC contributes an interpersonal distance estimation algorithm vital for monitoring the social distancing of a crowd, and an area estimation algorithm for dynamically determining an area occupied by a crowd with changing size and position. A unified output module generates the crowd size, interpersonal distances, social distancing violations, area, and density per every frame. Experimental results validate the accuracy and efficiency of E-SEC with a range of different video datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Online Fake News; Interpersonal influence; Self-evaluation; Motivation for Change; Food Consumption.
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:39:34 CET)
In the Italian context, the diffusion of online fake news about food is becoming increasingly fast-paced and widespread, making it more difficult for the public to recognize reliable information. Moreover, this phenomenon is deteriorating the relation with public institutions and industries. The purpose of this article is to provide a more advanced understanding of the individual psychological factors and the social influence contribute to the belief in food-related online fake news and the aspects that can increase or mitigate this risk. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire between February and March 2019. We obtained 1004 valid questionnaires filled out by a representative sample of Italian population, extracted by stratified sampling. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and the multi-group analyses to test our hypothesis. The results show that self-evaluation negatively affects the social-influence, which in turn positively affects the belief in online fake news. Moreover, this latter relationship is moderated by the readiness to change. Our results suggest that individual psychological characteristics and social influence are important to explain the belief in online fake news in the food sector; however, a pivotal role is played by the motivation of change lifestyle. This should be considered to engage people in clear and effective communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0311.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Wearable Sensors; Interpersonal Movement; Pervasive Technology; Social Computing; Public Space
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:23:37 CEST)
Within the field of movement sensing and sound interaction research, multi-user systems have gradually gained interest as a means to facilitate an expressive non-verbal dialogue. When tied with studies grounded in psychology and choreographic theory, we consider the qualities of interaction that foster an elevated sense of social connectedness, non-contingent to occupying one’s personal space. In reflection of the newly adopted social distancing concept, we orchestrate a technological intervention, starting with interpersonal distance and sound at the core of interaction. Materialised as a set of sensory face-masks, a novel wearable system was developed and tested in the context of a live public performance from which we obtain the user’s individual perspectives and correlate this with patterns identified in the recorded data. We identify and discuss traits of the user’s behaviour that were accredited to the system’s influence and construct 4 fundamental design considerations for physically distanced sound interaction. The study concludes with essential technical reflections, accompanied by an adaptation for a pervasive sensory intervention that’s finally deployed in an open public space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: belief in a just world; organizational citizenship behavior; interpersonal intelligence; moderating effect model
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:20:46 CET)
To both survive and develop continuously, enterprises must overcome many kinds of competition and challenges. Cultivating employees' active and sustainable organizational citizenship behavior is important for enterprises to successfully cope with turbulence and uncertain events during their development. In this study, we investigated the development level of and factors influencing employees' organizational citizenship behavior in current organizations. By using the Belief in a Just World Scale, Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, and Interpersonal Intelligence Scale, we investigated 230 employees from 15 different enterprises. The results showed that belief in a just world, interpersonal intelligence, and organizational citizenship behavior were significantly positively correlated. Interpersonal intelligence played a moderating role between belief in a just world and organizational citizenship behavior; the organizational citizenship behavior of individuals with high interpersonal intelligence increased with the strengthening of the belief in a just world, and this increase was larger than that experienced by individuals with low interpersonal intelligence. This meant that under a certain level of belief in a just world, a high level of interpersonal intelligence was more conducive to promoting employees' sustainable organizational citizenship behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0079.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: interpersonal coordination; competition; dynamical systems; discrete dynamics; continuous dynamics; sporting activity
Online: 5 November 2018 (03:30:07 CET)
Complex human behavior, including interlimb and interpersonal coordination, has been studied from a dynamical system perspective. We review the applications of a dynamical system approach to a sporting activity, which includes continuous, discrete, and switching dynamics. Continuous dynamics identified switching between in- and anti-phase synchronization, controlled by an interpersonal distance of 0.1 m during expert kendo matches, using a relative phase analysis. As discrete dynamics, return map analysis was applied to the time series of movements during kendo matches, and six coordination patterns were classified. Furthermore, state transition probabilities were calculated based on the two states, which clarified the coordination patterns and switching behavior. We introduced switching dynamics with temporal inputs to clarify the simple rules underlying the complex behavior corresponding to switching inputs in a striking action as a non-autonomous system. As a result, we determined that the time evolution of the striking action was characterized as fractal-like movement patterns generated by a simple Cantor set rule with rotation. Finally, we propose a switching hybrid dynamics to understand both court-net sports, as strongly coupled interpersonal competition, and weakly coupled sports, such as martial arts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: embodiment; CBT; interpersonal synchrony; therapeutic alliance; emotional regulation; emotional field; emotional mastery
Online: 15 September 2017 (11:37:32 CEST)
The Embodied Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ECBT) approach for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings is presented. The model integrates cognitive behavioral theory, neuroscience and embodied cognition. ECBT draws from evidence of bidirectional effects between modes of bottom up (sensori-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes in psychotherapy. The paper first describes the dominance of the traditional mentalistic view of cognition and its limitations. Evidence for the embodied model of cognition and emotion is reviewed whilst highlighting its advantages as a complimentary process model to deepen and broaden talking therapies. An overview is given of the switch (e.g., the technique of balancing) between top-down and bottom-up orientation in the ECBT model as well as a clear description of the method for emotional regulation, acceptance of unwanted emotions and emotional mastery. ECBT builds on and extends the unconscious processes of the ‘Interpersonal Synchrony’ (IS) model identified by Koole and Tschacher , to enhance the therapeutic alliance for emotional co-regulation. A new idea is proposed that both embraces and extends the IS model: embodiment techniques of imitation and movement synchronization in the Emotional Field of our method be used in a conscious way to speed up the calming effects of co-regulation and the client’s self-regulatory capacity. The paper ends with an outline of the criteria needed to become an embodied therapist. A case study is given highlighting these aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0436.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: registered nurses; social skills; interpersonal relations; communicative competences; postgraduate education; empathy; working environment
Online: 17 December 2020 (15:58:11 CET)
The aim of study was to assess empirical model of factors determining the attitude towards learning communicative competences among nurses participating in the program of speciality training courses. A research by method a cross-sectional study. A representative group of the 1,010 Polish registered nurses that took part in the postgraduate education course answered self-report survey (three instruments: NEO-PI-R questionnaire, Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and Empathy Understanding Questionnaire of other people (KRE II)) between beginning of March to the end of May 2018, which was evaluated using path analysis. The research results conducted confirmed the soundness of the created theoretical model (χ2 = 0.278, P = 0.598, RMSEA <0.05). It was proved that learning communicative competences in nurses is determined with factors such as professional experience, emphatic tendencies and the intensity of agreeableness, whereby these factors are bound with each other creating a homogeneous network. The developed model demonstrated that the skills can be shaped most effectively on an individual attitude based on positive mentoring in work environment..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pharmacy; patient communication; pharmacy communications; interpersonal communications; automated telemarketing telephone calls; telephone messages; automated messages; communication theory; customer relation management; CRM; pharmacy practice
Online: 16 April 2018 (04:31:24 CEST)
Pharmacy personnel often answer telephones to respond to pharmacy customers (subjects) who received messages from automated systems. This research examines the communication process in terms of how users interact and engage with pharmacies after receiving automated messages. No study has directly addressed automated telephone calls and subjects’ interactions. The purpose of this study is to test the interpersonal communication (IC) process of uncertainty in subjects in receipt of automated telephone calls from pharmacies. Subjects completed a survey of validated scales for Satisfaction (S); Relevance (R); Quality (Q); Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC). Relationships between S, R, Q, NFC, and subject preference to an automated telephone call (ATC) were analyzed to determine whether subjects contacting pharmacies display information seeking behavior. This research demonstrates that seeking information occurs if subjects: are dissatisfied with the content of the ATC; perceive that the Q of the ATC is high; perceive that the Q of ATC is high, and like receiving the ATC or with high NFC, and do not like receiving ATCs. Other interactions presented complexities amongst uncertainty and tolerance of NFC within the IC process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: extreme weather; heat waves; anvironment and public healt; aged; older adults; social behaviour; interpersonal relation; social isolation; mortality; lonelliness
Online: 11 October 2021 (08:59:11 CEST)
Background: Heat waves are correlated with increased mortality in the aged population. Social isolation is known as a vulnerability factor. This study aims at evaluating the correlation between an intervention to reduce social isolation and the increase in mortality in the population over 80 during heat waves. Methods: The study adopts a retrospective ecologic design. We compared the excess mortality rate (EMR) in the over 80 population during heat waves in urban areas of Rome (Italy), where a program to reduce social isolation was implemented compared to others where it was not implemented. We measured mortality of the summer periods from 2015 to 2019 compared with 2014 (a year without heat waves). Winter mortality, cadastral income and proportion of over 90 were included in the multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The EMR in the intervention and controls was 2.70% and 3.81%, respectively. Rate ratio 0.70 (c.i. 0.54 - 0.92, p-value 0.01). The Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) of the interventions with respect to the controls is 0.76 (c.i. 0.59 - 0.98). After adjusting for other variables, the IRR was 0.44 (c.i. 0.32 - 0.60). Conclusions: Reducing social isolation could limit the impact of heat waves on the mortality of the elderly population.