ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: anorexia; aged; intensive care; depression
Online: 14 January 2022 (13:52:25 CET)
Abstract: Appetite loss is common in older patients and an independent risk factor for sarcopenia, which is associated with high mortality. However, few studies have explored the phenomenon of appetite loss after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of appetite loss and the relationship between appetite loss and depression in patients living at home 12 months after intensive care. We conducted a post hoc analysis, which was a published ambidirectional study examining post-intensive care syndrome at 12 months after discharge. We included patients aged > 65 years. The Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics and a multilevel generalized linear model were used to clarify the relationship between appetite loss and depression. Data from 468 patients were analyzed. The defined appetite loss was 25.4% (95%CI, 21.5–29.4). High severity of depression was an independent factor for high probability of appetite loss (OR, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.14–1.28; p=0.00). Poor appetite is common 12 months after intensive care and is associated with the severity of depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0187.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nurse; workload; staff workload; nursing intensive care; nursing activities score
Online: 10 February 2023 (07:53:12 CET)
Introduction. The main task of the study was to measure the workload of nurses in the care of a patient with a developmental defect–congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)–in the neonatal intensive care unit, which was evaluated on the basis of standardized tools Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS–28), Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower use Score (NEMS) and Nursing activities Score (NAS). Methods. Retrospective study. The workload was measured using TISS–28, NEMS and NAS tools. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, and a single-sample test was used to verify the research hypotheses. Results. The sample consisted of medical records of 33 patients; 592 observations were analyzed. Studies prove the need for research on the workload of nurses in neonatal intensive care units. A patient with CDH should receive nursing care as required. Conclusion. It is necessary to implement a model for measuring the workload of nurses in neonatal intensive care units, taking into account the evaluation of work and its optimization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0230.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: patient empowerment; patient education; patient information; intensive care unit discharge; intensive care unit transition; nursing interventions, systematic review.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:05:11 CEST)
Intensive care unit discharge is an important transition which impacts on patient wellbeing. Nurses can play an essential role in this scenario, potentiating patient empowerment. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were evaluated in May 2021. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Quality of the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of the 273 articles initially identified, eight randomized controlled trials reported nursing interventions mainly focused on patients’ ICU discharge preparation through information and education. The creation of ICU Nurse-Led and nurses’ involvement in critical care multidisciplinary teams also aimed to support patients during ICU discharge. This systematic review provides an update on clinical practice aimed at improving the patient experience during ICU discharge. The main nursing interventions were based on information and education, as well as the development of new nursing roles. Understanding transitional needs and patient empowerment are key to making the transition easier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0588.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Noise; Noise Levels; Noise Measurement; Medical Intensive Care Units; Nursing
Online: 30 July 2018 (12:05:35 CEST)
This study was undertaken to investigate and analyze noise pollution in a large Chinese governmental hospital’s medical intensive care unit and compare to the WHO guidelines.This cross-sectional study was conducted in a MICU at a public governmental teaching hospital in Fujian province between July and August of 2017. A WENSN® WS1361 Integrated Sound Level Meter (China) was used for continuous every five seconds one week noise levels recording. After this measurement, the decibel meter was used for recording different location of isolation rooms and open bays, including occupied and unoccupied patient, and recording sound events occurs in the ICU to identify sources of noise. Peak and average noise levels were obtained from the meter, and data were downloaded from the WS1361 into a laptop computer. The measured mean equivalent sound pressure levels (L) and standard Aeq deviation over one week period were 66.64±7.57 dB(A), with acute spikes reaching 119.7 dB(A), the average sound level for a 24 hour period in a work day was 68.03±5.07 dB(A). These are higher than the current daytime environmental noise limit of 40-45 decibels in China and WHO. Mean work day noise was significantly louder than weekend time, there was a significant difference in work days and weekend (t=16.85;P=0.000).There was a statistical difference between the day time and night time shifts (t=34.67;P=0.000). The isolation rooms were significantly quieter than the open-bay rooms(t=46.15; p=0.00), sound levels in the occupied and unoccupied rooms also had significant difference(t=17.26; P=0.000).Two types of noise resources, including twenty kinds sources were identified and measured, mean noise levels ranged from of 61.33 to 79.21 dB(A). This study shows noise levels in intensive care units were exceeded the recommended. The study of the influence of noise on patient and staff is needed, and noise reduction strategies must be conduct in ICU.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0497.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; intensive care unit; policy; resource use; vaccination
Online: 18 April 2023 (11:02:35 CEST)
Given that population COVID-19 vaccination does not appreciably reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, instead, the potential to reduce hospitalization has been used to justify coercive vaccine passports. We aim to use a recently published research study as an example in order to demonstrate how data can be misinterpreted and result in deriving misleading ethical and policy implications. Bagshaw et al wrote that unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 in Alberta, Canada “had substantially greater rates of ICU admissions, ICU bed days, and ICU related costs than vaccinated patients did. This increased resource use would have been potentially avoidable had these unvaccinated patients been vaccinated.” The authors in Bagshaw et al then concluded that their findings “have important implications for discourse on the relative balance of increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies, and the sustainability and function of health system infrastructure and capacity during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.” Here we show the following. First, the effect of vaccination on intensive care admissions were grossly over-estimated due to several limitations of this and almost all other vaccine studies. Second, an effect of vaccination on access to acute care and on all-cause excess deaths was grossly over-stated due to several more likely causes being omitted from discussion and from the common narrative. Third, policy implications were overstated and at best unclear due to missing consideration of more relevant aspects required to inform policy. Overall, the data cannot support what Bagshaw et al called “increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0147.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Intensive care unit, early cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, mortality, readmission
Online: 7 August 2018 (15:33:49 CEST)
Background: This study aims to compare the impact of early and late post-discharge cardiopulmonary rehabilitation on the outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Methods: The retrospective, cohort study used a sub-database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) that contains information of all patients had ICU admission between 2000 and 2012. Early group was defined if patients had received cardiopulmonary rehabilitation within 30 days after ICU discharge, and late group was define as if patients had received cardiopulmonary rehabilitation between 30 days and one year after ICU discharge. The end points were mortality and re-admission during the 3-year follow-up. Results: Among 2136 patients received cardiopulmonary rehabilitation after ICU discharge, 994 was classified early group and other 1142 patients were classified as late group. Overall, early group had a lower mortality rate (6.64% vs 10.86%, p = 0.0006), and a lower ICU readmission rate (47.8% vs 57.97%, p < 0.0001) than late group after 3-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that early group had significantly lower mortality (p=0.0009) and readmission rate (p<0.0001) than late group. In multivariate analysis, the risk of ICU readmission was found to be independently associated with late group (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.47). Conclusions: Early post-discharge cardiopulmonary rehabilitation among ICU survivors has the long-term survival benefit and significantly decreases the readmission rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Aminoglycosides, population pharmacokinetic modeling, intensive care unit, critically ill
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:10:47 CEST)
Background Although aminoglycosides are often used as treatment for Gram-Negative infections, optimal dosing regimens remains unclear, especially in ICU patients. This is due to a large between- and within-subject variability in the aminoglycosides’ pharmacokinetics in this population. Objective The review provides comprehensive data on the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in patients hospitalized in ICU by summarizing all published PopPK models in ICU patients for amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. The objective was to determine the presence of a consensus on the structural model used, significant covariates included, and therapeutic targets considered during dosing regimen simulations. Methods A literature search was conducted from the Medline/PubMed database, using the terms: ‘amikacin’, ’gentamicin’, ’tobramycin’, ‘pharmacokinetic(s)’, nonlinear mixed effect’, population’, ‘intensive care’ and ‘critically ill’. Results Nineteen articles were retained where amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin pharmacokinetics were described in six, eleven and five models, respectively. Two-compartment model best described amikacin and tobramycin pharmacokinetics, whereas one-compartment model majorly described gentamicin pharmacokinetics. The most recurrent significant covariates were renal clearance and bodyweight. Across all aminoglycosides, mean interindividual variability in clearance and volume of distribution were 41.6% and 22.0%, respectively. A common consensus for an optimal dosing regimen for each aminoglycoside was not reached. Conclusion This review showed models developed for amikacin, from 2015 until now and for gentamicin and tobramycin from the past decades. Despite growing challenges of external evaluation, the latter should be more considered during model development. Further research including new covariates, additional simulated dosing regimens and external validation should be considered to better understand aminoglycosides pharmacokinetics in ICU patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Intensive Care Units; Workforce; Mechanical Ventilation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:34:14 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the number of nurses who independently care for pa-tients with severe respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) or veno-venous ex-tracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Additionally, the study analyzed the actual role of nurses in the treatment of patients with MV and VV-ECMO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using postal surveys. The study included 725 Japanese intensive care units (ICUs). Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Among the 725 ICUs, we obtained 302 re-sponses (41.7%) and analyzed 282 responses. The median number of nurses per bed was 3.25. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with MV was 60% [IQR: 42.3-77.3]. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with VV-ECMO was 46.9 (35.7-63.3%) in the ICU experiencing VV-ECMO use. Concerning task-sharing, 33.8% of ICUs and nurses did not facilitate weaning from MV. Nurses always ti-trated sedatives in 44.5% of ICUs. Conclusion: Nurse staffing might be inadequate in all ICUs, es-pecially for severe respiratory failure. The proportion of competent nurses for caring for severe respiratory failure in ICUs should be considered when determining the work force of nurses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0267.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; intensive care; trends; United Kingdom; mortality; mechanical ventilation
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:28:49 CEST)
Rationale: Examining trends in patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes, across an epidemic, provides important opportunities for learning. Objectives: To report and explore changes in admission rates, patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes for all patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Methods: Population cohort of 10,287 patients with COVID-19 in the Case Mix Programme national clinical audit from 1 February to 2 July, 2020. Analyses were stratified by time period (pre-peak, peak, post-peak) and geographical region. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate differences in 28-day mortality, adjusting for patient characteristics over time. Main results: Admissions to ICU peaked simultaneously across regions on 1 April, with ongoing admissions peaking ten days later. Compared with pre- and post-peak periods, patients admitted during the peak were slightly younger but had greater respiratory and renal dysfunction. Use of invasive ventilation and renal replacement reduced over time. Twenty-eight-day mortality reduced from 43.5% (95% CI 41.6% to 45.5%) pre-peak to 34.3% (95% CI 32.3% to 36.2%) post-peak; a difference of −8.8% (95% CI: −5.2%, −12.3%) after adjusting for patient characteristics. London experienced the highest admission rate and had higher mortality during the peak period but a greater reduction in post-peak mortality. Conclusion: This study highlights changes in patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes, during the UK COVID-19 epidemic. After adjusting for the changes in patient characteristics and first 24-hour physiology, there was substantial improvement in 28-day mortality over the course of the epidemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0755.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: titin; muscle; diaphragm; atrophy; physical dysfunction, biomarker; urine; post-intensive care syndrome; nutrition; rehabilitation
Online: 30 December 2020 (14:15:47 CET)
Titin is a giant protein that functions as a molecular spring in sarcomeres. Titin interplays the contraction of actin-containing thin filaments and myosin-containing thick filaments. The breakdown product of titin has been measurable in urine as urinary titin N-fragments. Urinary titin N-fragment was originally reported to be a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of muscle dystrophy. Recently, the urinary titin N-fragment has been increasingly gaining attention as a novel biomarker of muscle atrophy and intensive care unit-acquired weakness in critically ill patients, in whom titin loss is a possible pathophysiology. Furthermore, several studies reported that the urinary titin N-fragment also reflected muscle atrophy and weakness in patients with chronic illnesses. It may be used to predict the risk of post-intensive care syndrome or to monitor patients’ condition after hospital discharge for better nutritional and rehabilitation management. We provide several tips on the use of this promising biomarker in post-intensive care syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: music therapy; preterm infants; family-centered care; parents; self-care; wellbeing; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
Online: 19 November 2018 (08:49:11 CET)
Background: Parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infant’s care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their babies’, a music therapy (MT) self-care group was implemented as part of clinical practice at the hospital Clínica de la Mujer in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The group is provided for both parents twice a week in the NICU. Music guided relaxations, breathing techniques, and self-expression are at the center of the MT group sessions. Parents complete a pre/post self-administered Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) including anxiety levels, stress levels, mood and motivation. Results: Parents highly value the MT self-care group at the NICU. On average there is a 37% improvement in anxiety levels, 28% in stress levels, and 12% in mood, restfulness and motivation. Being able to relax, to distract themselves from their worries and having time for themselves are amongst the most frequently mentioned benefits. Conclusions: Addressing parents’ needs separately form their babies’ treatment with culturally sensitive interventions aimed to improve parental mental health, is essential for continuing the development of family-centered music therapy interventions in the NICU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0029.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: blood stream health care associated infections; neonates; risk factors, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance; neonatal intensive care unit; India
Online: 30 January 2018 (08:03:04 CET)
Very little is known about laboratory confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm) were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.23), duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75), chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18), premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32), neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32), malpresentation (RR 3.05), endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41), umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17). The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22). The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%). The results of the present study can be used to design antibiotic interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Patient safety; Safety I; Safety II; Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU); Nurse
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:37:36 CEST)
The intensive care unit is characterized by the critical care of the infants and children who access it, as well as the high complexity of care. This implies and requires optimal integration among the various professionals working there and their ability to work as a team. The purpose of the study was to describe how nurses perceive clinical risk and how they relate to it and to identify adverse events and related risk factors. Nine nurses, two moderators and one external observer partici-pated in the focus group. In the qualitative analysis, 9 themes describing the perception of clinical risk in PICU were identified, including teamwork, specific training, time management, team communication, management, individual errors, structural criticality, patient fac-tors/characteristics, and standardization. Safety culture can be fostered by hospital management to involve PICU nurses in promoting patient safety, which could improve breaking down barriers that prevent nurses from fulfilling their roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; Intensive Care Unit; cardiovascular diseases, multidrug resistant bacteria
Online: 18 October 2023 (18:26:38 CEST)
Nowadays, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent a major global public health problem and the burden of these infections is high. In order to reduce the incidence of HAIs and to prevent the spread antibi-otics resistant organisms is mandatory to develop surveillance systems. We undertook a retrospective case-control study of all patients presenting HAIs admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in order to assess risk factors associated with death among patients with HAIs. Patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit who died were more likely to present an infection with a multidrug resistant bacteria, an infection with Acineto-bacter baumannii, and to suffer from acute myocardial infarction. Among the patients enrolled in the study, a higher probability of death was also observed in association with certain gram-negative pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The longer the patient remains admitted in ICU, the higher the risk of getting an infection that can often become fatal. Acquiring a noso-comial infection also increases the length of hospitalization which will lead to increased financial damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Intensive care unit; percutaneous tracheostomy; COVID-19; early tracheostomy; late tracheostomy; ICU length of stay; health care workers; mechanical ventilation.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:04:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high risk procedure for transmission of SARS CoV-2 to health care workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed optimal timing of PDT, clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PDT and safety of HCWs performing PDT. (2) Methods: 133 COVID-19 patients underwent PDT in our ICU from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021, 23 patients were excluded and 110 patients were enrolled. A trained medical team was dedicated to the PDT procedure. Demographic, clinical history and outcome data were collected. Patients who underwent PDT were stratified into two groups: early group, PDT ≤ 12 days from orotracheal-intubation (OTI) and late group, >12 days from OTI; HCW surveillance program was performed. (3) Results: Early group included 57 patients and late group included 53 patients. Early group patients showed shorter ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation than the late group (p<0.001). At day 7 after tracheostomy, early group patients required fewer intravenous anesthetic drugs and experienced an improvement of ventilation parameters, PaO2/FiO2-Ratio, PEEP and FiO2 (p<0.001). No difference in case fatality ratio between the two groups was reported. No SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in HCWs performing PDT. (4) Conclusions: PDT was safe and effective for COVID-19 patients, since it improved respiratory support parameters, reduced ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation, and optimized the weaning process. The procedure was safe for all HCWs involved in the dedicated medical team. The development of standardized early PDT protocols should be implemented and PDT procedure could be considered as first line approach in ICU COVID-19 requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1677.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: family members of terminally ill patients in intensive care units; feeling experience when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:30:27 CEST)
All humans will experience the process of birth, old age, illness, and death. However, when faced with life-sustaining decisions, the families of patients are often faced with medical decisions as surrogates. In recent years, the families of patients have started to value the importance of the right to palliative care, although this often requires lengthy discussions. Therefore, this study explored the predictability of factors that affect the feeling experienced by patients’ families when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent. This study used a cross-sectional study and interviewed 90 family members using a structural questionnaire. The study hypotheses were tested using a t-test, one-way analysis of variance, product–moment correlation, and hierarchical regression analysis. Attribute variables of family members, such as gender and whether they live with the patient, are predictors that affect the family member’s feeling experience when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent. The emotional support from medical professionals to family members helps the family member to express their negative feelings on signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent; more informational support information provided to family members by medical professionals can alleviate negative feelings felt by family members when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent. This study identified that family members’ knowledge about Do-Not-Resuscitate acquired from medical professionals is relatively low. It is suggested that critical care units regularly conduct training on hospice palliative care, implement standard care procedures of hospice palliative care at critical care units, and provide detailed medical information about advanced decisions to family members so as to reduce their emotional stress. This will ensure that intensive care units can also achieve the goal of critically ill hospice palliative care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0248.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Adaptive capacity; COVID-19; Grounded theory; Healthcare; Intensive care; Resilience; Resilient performance; Surge response; Unexpected crises
Online: 4 July 2023 (14:10:09 CEST)
To ensure high-quality care, operationalize resilience and fill the knowledge gap regarding how to improve the prerequisites for resilient performance, it is necessary to understand how adaptive capacity unfolds in practice. Coronavirus 2019 stress-tested complex healthcare systems, and intensive care was driven to an unprecedented escalation. The main aim of this research was to explain the escalation process of intensive care from a microlevel perspective, including expressions of resilient performance, intervening conditions at the micro-meso-macrolevels and short- and long-term consequences. A secondary aim was to provide clinical recommendations regarding how to optimize the prerequisites for resilient performance in intensive care. A grounded theory methodology was used. First-person stories from different healthcare professionals (n70) in two Swedish regions were analyzed using the constant comparative method. A novel conceptual model of the escalation process of intensive care emerged, and 41 clinical recommendations concerning the optimal prerequisites for resilient performance were identified. Escalation was conceptualized as a transition from threatening chaos to temporary order through a complex process of adaptation. To prepare for the future, the components space, stuff, staff, system and science with associated continuity plans must be implemented, anchored and communicated to actors at all levels of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: chronic pain; intensive care units; critical care; critical illness; post-intensive care syndrome; emergency medicine
Online: 20 December 2022 (07:45:51 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, location, and characteristics of new-onset chronic pain by using a new definition in long-term survivors after discharge from a tertiary emergency center. We conducted a single-center ambidirectional cohort study from January to May 2022. A survey of patients was conducted by postal mail 2-2.5 years since their discharge from a tertiary emergency center. We used the Brief Pain Inventory to investigate chronic pain parameters, and the painDETECT questionnaire to investigate neuropathic pain. Patient information during hospitalization was collected retrospectively from medical records. The survey was sent to 78 patients, 63 (81%) of whom responded and were included in the analysis. Nine of the 63 patients (14%) had new-onset chronic pain. Of these, six (67%) had chronic pain of moderate or severe intensity which interfered with daily life. The most frequent location of chronic pain was the ankle/foot (n=4, 44%). Neuropathic pain was present in four (44%) patients with new-onset chronic pain. New-onset chronic pain may occur for up to 2-2.5 years after discharge from a tertiary emergency center, and this may interfere with daily life. Therefore, a follow-up system for chronic pain is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0489.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ciherang; agronomics; genetics; breeding; intensive cultivation
Online: 28 November 2022 (03:13:26 CET)
Ciherang rice variety was released in year 2000 and become a superior variety in Indonesia. In a decade, due to the excellent agronomic characteristics and high productivity, Ciherang gradually replace the mega-variety IR-64 and widely cultivate in almost 40% rice production area in Indonesia. In addition to its high grain yield, short straw, early maturity, and high productive tiller number, it had superior grain quality, such as long and slender grain shape, clean yellow color, aromatic, and high milled rice percentage with excellent eating quality, matching with farmers and rice consumers demands. It has intermediate glycemic index and delicious taste. It is intolerance to flooding condition and susceptible to several diseases and pests, including rice blast, bacterial blight, brown planthopper, and yellow stem borer. Because of Ciherang has been well-characterized genetically, many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and candidate genes which associated with certain traits have been identified. It has also been used as a parent in rice breeding program to develop mapping populations for genetic analysis. In order to increase the flooding tolerant and disease resistant in Ciherang, many valuable genes have been introduced into Ciherang through backcrossing breeding technique and transgenic approach. The optimal rice productivity in Ciherang also supported by the application of intensification system in Ciherang cultivation. Unravelling the complex genetic control of agronomic characteristics, grain yield traits, and other desirable traits which valuable for rice farmers and consumers are very important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Central venous pressure; intensive care units; questionnaire; reliability; validity
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:27:04 CEST)
Although, central venous pressure (CVP) is among the most frequent estimated hemodynamic parameters in the critically ill setting, extremely little is known on how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses use this index in their decision-making process. The purpose of the study was to develop a new questionnaire for accessing how ICU nurses use CVP measurements to address patients’ he-modynamics investigating its validity and reliability. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 ICU nurses from four ICUs of Greece. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the evaluation of a five-experts panel a new questionnaire, named “CVP-Score”, was created having 8 items. The construct validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were examined. The half of the study participants’ (51.7%) was working at a specialized ICU, and they had a mean [±Standard Deviation (SD)] ICU experience of 13(±7.1) years. The estimated construct validity of the new-developed tool was acceptable, while the internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach alpha was excellent (0.901). CVP Score had acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.996, p<0.001) and split-half reliability (0.855). CVP Score is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring how critical care nurses use CVP measurements in their decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0235.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Characteristics; water quality; coastal areas; intensive technology; Litopenaeus vannamei
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:14:47 CET)
Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia is one of the centres for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei production that applies intensive technology. However, no information has been obtained regarding the characteristics and status of water quality in coastal areas with environmentally friendly concepts and the potential to receive a waste load. The study aimed to determine the performance of whiteleg shrimp culture in relation to temporal and spatial aspects and characteristic and water quality status. Measurement and sampling of water were carried out before stocking/initial of culture whiteleg shrimp (rainy season) and end of culture/after harvesting of whiteleg shrimp (dry season) at two locations in the coastal area of Bulukumba Regency, namely Bonto Bahari Subdistrict (BB) and Gantarang Subdistrict (GT). Variables measured and analyzed included temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, total suspended solids, and total organic matter. Data analysis with descriptive statistics, multivariate statistics, and non-parametric statistics. The Storet (Storage and Retrieval) method was used to determine the water quality status. The results showed that the culture of whiteleg shrimp was technology-intensive with a stocking density of 110 - 220 ind/m2 with productivity between 13.9 - 44.4 tons/ha/cycle. The predicted waste load of N is 28.00 tons/cycle and P reaches 6.61 tons/cycle. Another result was that changes in water quality status during the rainy season were classified as moderately polluted at the BB location and complying quality standards at the GT location, while in the dry season, both locations were categorized as heavily polluted. Variables of water quality that caused the decrease in water quality status in both locations (BB and GT) were observed to increase salinity, nitrate concentration, and ammonia concentration. However, there was a decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration in the dry season.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza; intensive care unit; vaccine effectiveness; length of stay
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:02:34 CEST)
Seasonal influenza is a common cause of hospital admission, especially in older people and those with comorbidities. The objective of this study was to determine influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing intensive care admissions and shortening the length of stay (LOS) in hospitalized laboratory-confirmed influenza cases (HLCI) in Catalonia (Spain).A retrospective cohort study was carried out during the 2017-2018 season in HLCI aged ≥ 18 years from 14 public hospitals. Differences in means and proportions were assessed using a t-test or a chi-square test as necessary and the differences were quantified using standardized effect measures; Cohen’s d for quantitative and Cohen’s w for categorical variables. Adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing severity was estimated by multivariate logistic regression where the adjusted VE = (1-adjusted odds ratio) ·100%; adjustment was also made using the propensity score.We analyzed 1414 HLCI aged ≥ 18 years; 465 (33%) were vaccinated, of whom 437 (94%) were aged ≥ 60 years, 269 (57.8%) were male and 295 (63.4%) were positive for influenza type B. ICU admission was required in 214 (15.1%) cases. There were 141/1118 (12.6%) ICU admissions in patients aged ≥ 60 years and 73/296 (24.7%) in those aged < 60 years (p<0.001). The mean LOS and ICU LOS did not differ significantly between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. There were 52/465 (11.2%) in vaccinated cases) ICU admissions in vaccinated cases vs. 162/949 (17.1%) in unvaccinated cases. Patients admitted to the ICU had a longer hospital LOS (mean: 22.4 [SD 20.3] days) than those who were not (mean: 11.1 [SD14.4] days); p<0.001. Overall, vaccination was associated with a lower risk of ICU admission. Taking virus types A and B together, the estimated adjusted VE in preventing ICU admission was 31% (95% CI 1-52; p=0.04). When stratified by viral type, the aVE was 40% for type A (95% CI -11-68; p = 0.09) and 25% for type B (95% CI -18-52; p = 0.21). Annual influenza vaccination may prevent ICU admission in cases of HLCI. A non-significantly shorter mean hospital stay was observed in vaccinated cases. Our results support the need to increase vaccination uptake and public perception of the benefits of influenza vaccination in groups at a higher risk of hospitalization and severe outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: assessment; awareness; diagnosis; dysphagia; intensive care; management; screening; treatment; practices
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:39:36 CEST)
Post-extubation dysphagia (PED) can lead to serious health problems in critical ill patients, yet routine bedside screening may be lacking in many Intensive Care Units (ICUs), possibly due to limited awareness for this condition. This study aimed to establish baseline data on the current approaches, the status of perceived best practices to PED screening and treatment, as well as to assess awareness of PED. A nationwide cross-sectional, online survey was conducted of all adult ICUs in the Republic of Cyprus in June 2018. More than 85% of ICUs reported that there was no standard protocol indicating which patients should be screened for PED. Cough reflex testing and water swallow test were the most reported assessment methods used to confirm the presence of PED. Muscle strengthening exercises without swallowing and swallowing exercises were mostly used to treat dysphagia. Overall, 28.6% of the ICUs agreed that PED was common in their unit. We identified gaps in Greek Cypriot ICUs awareness and knowledge regarding PED screening and treatment. Comprehensive unit-based dysphagia education programs must be urgently im-plemented and interdisciplinary and collaborative work between nurses, intensivists and speech and language therapists is needed to address the situation and improve the quality of care pro-vided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0470.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: non-pharmacological interventions; COVID 19; health policy; mortality; economic; intensive care unit
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:38:52 CEST)
Non-pharmacological interventions in the fight against COVID 19 include: a) suppression, which facilitates its extinction; and b) mitigation, which reduces its speed of spread. Left unmitigated, the intensive care unit bed capacity (ICU) is exceeded over its maximum supply, resulting in increased deaths. Suppression has shown in simulation models the potential for decreasing ICU occupation below its surge limit, effectively decreasing mortality. However, for avoiding a rebound in transmission, suppression must be maintained intermittently until a vaccine is available (which may take up to 2 years). The objective of this paper was to describe the mortality patterns observed in Spain, Italy and South Korea for discussing a hypothetical combined public health policy and socioeconomic model that could potentially reduce mortality while reducing the economic impact of this pandemic in Spain. The plan is based on a progressive-voluntary reinstatement to work of the population exposed to the lowest risks (healthy non-immune family units <50 y/o and immune population) and it depends on having sufficiently available ICU beds for providing adequate support. This model, if proven correct for Spain, could eventually be followed by other countries facing a similar impact of the present pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: acute kidney injury; continuous renal replacement therapy; intensive care unit; cox regression; prediction model
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:53:38 CET)
Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common comorbidity in the intensive care unit (ICU), with higher mortality rate among those who receive continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This study aimed to investigate the association of white blood cell (WBC) levels with all-cause mortality in AKI patients undergoing CRRT. Method We conducted a post hoc analysis of ICU patient data from multiple centers in Korea. First, the levels of WBCs were classified into four groups based on quartiles. Second, the relationship between different WBC levels and mortality was investigated with the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) survival curves, Cox proportional hazards model, and generalized additivity model (GAM). Finally, we used multiple imputation to avoid bias caused by non-randomized missing data. The endpoints were short-term (28 days) and long-term (90 days) mortality. Result In our analysis, a total of 1,100 ICU patients were included. Among them, 670 (60.90%) and 781 (71.00%) died within 28 and 90 days, respectively. K-M survival curves showed that patients with the lowest WBC levels had the highest risk of mortality for both outcomes. Adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that compared with the reference level (quartile 2), low WBC levels increased the risk of both 28-day mortality (quartile 1, HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.13–1.83, P = 0.004) and 90-day mortality (quartile 1: HR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05-1.66, P = 0.016). GAM analysis showed a non-linear, U-shaped relationship between pre-CRRT WBC levels and all-cause mortality (non-linear P < 0.05). Conclusion The baseline WBC level is an independent predictor of prognosis for ICU patients receiving CRRT. Patients in the lowest WBC quartile had the highest risk of all-cause mortality. These results provide further evidence that early observation and intervention may have a prognostic value for these high-risk patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1717.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder; trauma; depression; physical disabilities; intensive care unit; coronavirus disease 2019
Online: 25 June 2023 (05:15:40 CEST)
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a major impact on the mental and physical health of hospitalized patients. In our study we focused on the onset of symptoms correlated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and physical disabilities in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) because of a severe respiratory distress related to COVID-19 (COVID Group) compared with patients admitted to the same ICU for trauma and other medical conditions than COVID-19 (No-COVID Group). The physical symptoms and the level of disability were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) and the 3 levels version of EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire; psychiatric symptoms were investigated using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised 22-item (IES-R), the Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-Item Version (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, 7-items version (GAD-7). These questionnaires were administered 6 months after discharge. Patients in the No-COVID Group showed statistically significant more severe scores in all the physical assessments while similar relevant PTSD and depressive symptoms were reported in both groups. The results of the present study underline the psychopathological impact of being hospitalized in ICU because of COVID-19 even after 6 months from discharge ,suggesting the importance of assessing the psychiatric effects of COVID-19 in the long term in order to create supportive measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: End of Life; Advance Directives; Advance Care Planning; Intensive Care, Medical Oncology; malignant hemopathy
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:34:51 CET)
Patients living with cancer often experience serious adverse events due to their condition or its treatments. Those events may lead to a critical care unit admission or even result in death. One of the most important but challenging part of care is to build a caring plan according to the patient’s wishes, meeting his goals and values. Advance directives (ADs) allow everyone to give their preferences in advance regarding life sustaining treatments, continuation, and withdrawal or withholding of treatments in case one is not able to speak his mind anymore. While the absence of ADs is associated with a greater probability of receiving unwanted intensive care around the end of his life, their existence correlates with the respect of the patient’s desires and his greater satisfaction. Although progress has been made to promote ADs’ completion, they are still scarcely used among cancer patients in many countries. Several limitations to their acceptation and use can be detected. Efforts should be made to provide tailored solutions for the identified hindrances. This narrative review aims to depict the situation of ADs in the oncology context, and to highlight the future areas of improvement.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dyalisis in pregnancy; End stage renal disease; haemodyalisis; peritoneal dyalisis; intensive dyalisis regimen; preeclampsia
Online: 30 December 2020 (16:55:39 CET)
Background. Pregnancy rates in women on dialysis have increased in the last decades, thus making it a topic of growing interest. The rarity of this event is predominantly due to fertility problems and to the high rates of pregnancy failure including stillbirth, fetal and neonatal deaths . Methods. We conducted a narrative review of existent literature in order to analyse the major issues about pregnancy on dialysis to give the reader a full updated prospective about this topic which, even if not common, is becoming more and more frequent. Results. Even if recently acquired knowledge has improved diagnosis and treatment of dialysis pregnancies focusing on several aspects, pregnancy on dialysis remains a great challenge for obstetricians and should be managed by a multidisciplinary expertise team. Conclusion. Dialysis in pregnancy may be necessary for women previously affected by end stage renal disease (ESRD) becoming pregnant, or in case of acute renal injury presenting for the first time during gestation or, again in case of existent renal pathology worsening during pregnancy and requiring dialysis. Although some evidence suggests that more intensive dialysis regimens are correlated with better obstetric outcomes, the optimal therapeutic protocol still remains to be established.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0283.v1
Subject: Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Ventilation, pulmonary; Lung Injury; Personalized ventilation; Hypoxia; Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity; Intensive care; Pneumonia; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:24:52 CET)
Chest trauma is one of the most serious and difficult injuries, with various complications that can lead to ventilation - perfusion (V/Q) mismatch and systemic hypoxia. We are presenting a case of 53 – year - old male with no comorbidities or chronic therapy, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit due to severe respiratory failure after chest trauma. He developed right - sided pneumothorax and then thoracic drain was placed. On admission, the patient was hemodynamically unstable and tachypneic. The patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated, febrile (38.9°C) and unconscious. A lung CT showed massive non-ventilated areas predominantly in the right lung. He was ventilated with PEEP of 10 cmH2O with a FiO2 of 0.6 – 0.8. Empirical broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated. Both high FiO2 and moderate PEEP were maintained and adjusted according to the current blood gas values and oxygen saturation. After Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was identified and treated with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim his general condition gradually improved, and he was weaned from mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, both ventilatory and antibiotic therapy were needed to improve oxygenation and outcome of the patient with pneumonia due to the resistant S. maltophilia with V/Q mismatch.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: rapidly growing ulcerated breast cancer; intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy; skin ulceration; invasive ductal carcinoma; doxorubicin; cyclophosphamide.
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:00:18 CEST)
(1) Background: This case report focuses on a 46-year-old female patient diagnosed with a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer known as rapidly growing, ulcerated breast cancer. The patient exhibited rapid progression of the disease, experiencing discomfort and noticeable changes in the size and texture of the affected breast over a short period of time; (2) Methods: An intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen was employed as the primary treatment approach. The patient's response to this treatment was closely monitored and assessed. Various diagnostic tests and imaging techniques were utilized to evaluate the extent of the disease and track its response to the chemotherapy; (3) Results: The patient's response to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen was remarkable, resulting in a complete pathologic response. This outcome, although unusual in rapidly growing, ulcerated breast cancers, highlights the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in managing large, locally advanced breast cancers; (4) Conclusions: The multidisciplinary approach employed in managing this complex breast cancer case proved to be crucial to the patient's favorable outcome. Despite the aggressive nature of the disease and the challenges posed by the rapid growth and ulceration, the patient achieved a positive result. This case contributes to the limited clinical literature on such unusual and aggressive breast cancer cases, providing valuable insights for future clinical practice.8
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: intensive horticulture; bush habit; qualitative characteristics of berries; sintering and shedding of berries; yield; technologies; mechanized harvesting
Online: 6 February 2023 (08:37:14 CET)
The cultivation of berry crops by the type of "intensive plantings" is an economic and scientific approach in modern horticulture. The principles of forming a red currant assortment adapted to mechanized harvesting are considered. The bush should be compact for mechanized harvesting and have a straight-growing or slightly spreading shape. The morphological structure of the bush is a feature determined by the genotype. The ripening period of berries and the mechanical parameters of berries assess the effectiveness of the berry harvesting process. With the help of agrotechnical techniques, the mechanical parameters of berries cannot be improved and are de-termined by weather, soil, water, and climatic factors. The present study was conducted in the 2021-2022 season using 14 red currant genotypes of different geographical and genetic origins to assess cultivars' suitability for machine harvesting. In most of the studied cultivars, berry quality indicators, the parameters of separation force (Fs) and crushing force (Fc) decreased by the time of biological maturity of the genotype. Several cultivars have shown a non-simultaneous decrease in Fs and Fc. A minor limiting feature determines the duration of harvesting. The high correlation of Fs and Fc (R=0.75-0.85) allows us to predict the most significant period for the high-quality operation of a mechanized harvester. There was no dependence of the strength of the attachment of berries to the peduncle on the thickness of the skin of the berries. Jonkheer Van Tets, Red Lake, Rovada, Rolan, Vika, Asya, and Niva can be attributed to technological cultivars as sources of compact and erect bush habit, Jonkheer Van Tets, Rovada, Rolan, Vika, and Asya are recommended for mechanized harvesting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1613.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Albumin levels; pre-Albumin levels; Emergency Department; Nephrology; Cardiology; Oncology; Infectious Diseases; Intensive Care Units; Rheumatologig Autoimmune Diseases.
Online: 23 August 2023 (09:14:44 CEST)
Serum albumin (ALB), one of the most important proteins in human physiology, has the main functions of maintaining plasma oncotic pressure and plasma volume, transporting hormones, vitamins, oligominerals and drugs, and exerting a powerful antioxidant-antiinflammatory role. Its prognostic value in liver and malabsorption syndromes is well known. In this narrative review, an analysis of the most important studies evaluating the prognostic significance of low serum ALB levels in hospitalized patients was performed. Specifically, the risk in emergency medicine, cardiovascular diseases, COVID-19 infection, nephrology, oncology and autoimmune rheumatic diseases has been examined to fully explore its clinical value. ALB is a negative acute-phase reactant and the reduction of its serum levels represents a threatening parameter for long-term survival in several clinical settings, and a strong poor prognostic biomarker in most diseases. Therefore, clinicians should consider serum ALB as a valuable tool to assess the efficacy of specific therapies, both in hospitalized patients and in chronic follow-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0677.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: bipolar disorder; knowledge distillation; kernel density estimation; Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC); decision tree; artificial neural network
Online: 9 August 2023 (05:38:28 CEST)
Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder and is one of the top 20 reasons of disability in the world. It causes a huge burden on society. In this study, the prediction models of bipolar disorder were constructed based on the concept of knowledge distillation. The input data consisted of patients of bipolar disorder and matched controls, all of which were selected from the open database MIMIC. The method of kernel density estimation (KDE) was exploited to generate probability density functions (PDF) which identify distributions of input data. The PDF values referred to as the soft labels were combined with the input data to construct the prediction models of bipolar disorder using decision tree and artificial neural network respectively. According to the evaluation results, indicators for identifying positive samples of bipolar disorder were improved. Meanwhile, the indicators for identifying negative samples have also been advanced. In addition, the branching attributes selected by the decision trees can be mapped back to specific disease diagnoses, which are all associated with bipolar disorder. In conclusion, using KDE to generate the soft label information of the input data can make knowledge distillation work and has improved the performances of prediction models for bipolar disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Critical Illness; Hospital Mortality; Intensive Care Units; Outcome Assessment, Health Care; Prognosis; Risk Adjustment; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:51:34 CET)
Objectives To develop and validate a prediction model for 28-day in-hospital mortality among adult patients critically ill with COVID-19 in the UK. Design Observational cohort study. Setting 287 adult critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, of which 260 admitted at least one eligible patient. Participants 10,933 patients with confirmed COVID-19 of whom 10,401 were eligible (excluding 532 patients with a duration of critical care less than 24 hours and 1 patient with unknown 28-day outcome): 8,666 development (March-April 2020) and 1,735 temporal validation (May-August 2020). Main outcome measures 28-day in-hospital mortality from start of critical care. Results Two models were developed using 14 patient level predictors selected from 30 candidate predictors, with and without adjustment for calendar time. In the temporal validation data, the model discrimination was maintained (c index 0.78) but calibration was poor, particularly for the model not adjusted for calendar time (ratio of observed to predicted mortality 0.74 versus 0.88 for the model adjusted for calendar time). Conclusions We developed and validated a prediction model for 28-day in-hospital mortality for patients critically ill with COVID-19. Although absolute predictions were inaccurate due to changing outcomes, the models will support risk-adjustment in analyses and monitoring changes in risk-adjusted outcome over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0491.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; KNN; energy consumption; energy-intensive manufacturing; time series prediction; industry
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:19:45 CEST)
To minimise environmental impact, avoid regulatory penalties, and improve competitiveness, energy-intensive manufacturing firms require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. Deep learning is widely touted as a superior analytical technique to traditional artificial neural networks, machine learning, and other classical time series models due to its high dimensionality and problem solving capabilities. Despite this, research on its application in demand-side energy forecasting is limited. We compare two benchmarks (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and an existing manual technique used at the case site) against three deep learning models (simple Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)) and three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVM), Random Forest, and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)) for short term load forecasting (STLF) using data from a Brazilian thermoplastic resin manufacturing plant. We use the grid search method to identify the best configurations for each model, and then use Diebold-Mariano testing to confirm the results. Results suggests that the legacy approach used at the case site is the worst performing, and that the GRU model outperformed all other models tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0093.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nanotechnology applications in road maintenance; preventative road surface maintenance; nanotechnology clear-seals; New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME); pot-hole repairs; modified binder slurry seals; hydrophobic slurries; hydrophobic road surface sealants; labour intensive maintenance; rapid employment creation through nanotechnology usage in road maintenance
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:34:49 CET)
: Nanotechnology options to road surface maintenance offers several advantages compared to traditionally used materials. The small particle sizer of hydrophobic Nano-Silane modified Nano-Polymers (NSNP) enables these nanotechnology products to deeply penetrate existing road surfaces, sealing micro-cracks and render surfacings to be water-resistant for extended periods of time. In comparison, traditionally used products contain minimum partial sizes of about 1 – 5 microns, that provide a superficial protection that wears off in a relatively short period of time. These traditional products are often associated with vehicle contamination while drying and requires the re-instatement of road markings. None of these disadvantages are associated with applicable NSNP technologies that are quick drying, with no vehicle contamination risks and is equivalent to a “clear-seal” requiring no reinstatement of road markings. In a similar vein, pot-hole repairs can be done using applicable, easy to use, pre-packed and treated pot-hole repair kits that are water-repellent and quick-drying at a fraction of the costs of conventional cold-mix products. Resurfacing using NME binder slurries can be done labour-intensively on a pre-treated NSNP surfacing, restoring cracked surfacing and providing a water-resistant long-lasting protective layer without the removal of existing cracked areas. The implementation of nanotechnology solutions for road surface maintenance operations is directly associated with ease of use, labour-intensive operations, prevention of considerable deterioration in riding quality due to removal and manual re-instatement of cracked surfaces, time and cost savings and a reduction in the risk of water damage to the sub-structure. TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back