REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Data integration; multi-omics; integration strategies; genomics
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:19:31 CET)
Metabolomics deals with multiple and complex chemical reactions within living organisms and how these are influenced by external or internal perturbations. It lies at the heart of omics profiling technologies not only as the underlying biochemical layer that reflects information expressed by the genome, the transcriptome and the proteome, but also as the closest layer to the phenome. The combination of metabolomics data with the information available from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics offers unprecedented possibilities to enhance current understanding of biological functions, elucidate their underlying mechanisms and uncover hidden associations between omics variables. As a result, a vast array of computational tools have been developed to assist with integrative analysis of metabolomics data with different omics. Here, we review and propose five criteria – hypothesis, data types, strategies, study design and study focus – to classify statistical multi-omics data integration approaches into state-of-the-art classes under which all existing statistical methods fall. The purpose of this review is to look at various aspects that lead the choice of the statistical integrative analysis pipeline in terms of the different classes. We will draw a particular attention to metabolomics and genomics data to assist those new to this field in the choice of the integrative analysis pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: supply chain integration
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:33:23 CEST)
This paper applied case study research to design architectures for green-field supply chain integration. The integration design is based on a case study of a supply chain integration of 5 companies, operating in different, but supply chain complimenting industry sectors. The case study research is applied to design and validate the architectures in a real world scenario. The supply chain integration architectures enable the conversion of individual into integrated strategies. The architectures are categorised and the process develops into a conceptual system for identifying the correlations between individual participants’ strategic areas of interest and the integrated supply chain areas of interest. The novelty of this paper is a conceptual system for green-field supply chain integration architectures, which can be applied in real world by supply chain practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0609.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Enterprise Application Integration; EAI; Loose Coupling; External Data Coupling; Software Architecture; System Integration; Legacy Systems Integration; Software Units.
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:17:34 CEST)
Integrating systems acquired from third parties and legacies has become of great necessity in companies. This is mainly due to the need to exchange information between entities, such as banks, suppliers, customers, allies, etc. Therefore, it is essential to guarantee the integrity of the data and keep the integration up to date with the changes that can occur. Furthermore, reducing the transaction risk and avoiding losing information is necessary. Implementing this complex task involving technological and business challenges requires appropriate architecture implementation. This article presents an architecture named Dynamic Canonical Data Model through agnostic messages. The contribution involves treating the low link in integrating software units, also called the integration of loosely coupled software units. In particular, it focuses on internal data and external data integration. The proposal reduces their integration, maintenance time, and cost, maximizing their scalability and promoting reuse. To illustrate their components, a case study undertaken at the Mexican Logistics Company Paquetexpress is presented. The company has evaluated different enterprise application integration systems over 26 years to achieve a standardized integration. The article describes an architecture designed and implemented for this delivery company in a real-world case. The implementation’s source code was registered in the National Registry of Copyrights of Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: network; topology; integration; segregation; fMRI
Online: 10 July 2017 (05:48:41 CEST)
Recent methodological advances have enabled researchers to track the network structure of the human brain over time. Together, these studies provide novel insights into effective brain function, highlighting the importance of the systems-level perspective in understanding the manner in which the human brain organizes its activity to facilitate behavior. Here, we review a range of recent fMRI and electrophysiological studies that have mapped the relationship between inter-regional communication and network structure across a diverse range of brain states. In doing so, we identify both behavioral and biological axes that may underlie the tendency for network reconfiguration. We conclude our review by providing suggestions for future research endeavors that may help to refine our understanding of the functioning of the human brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Human; lifespan; aging; consciousness; brain; integration
Online: 30 September 2023 (17:55:59 CEST)
Human longevity is an important but difficult goal due to the extreme complication of human body. If people could repeatedly transfer their consciousness from old bodies to new ones, their lifespan might be prolonged extremely. However, there are several difficulties which prevent the achievement of such a technique. In this paper, we propose an approach that can transfer human consciousness indirectly, and avoid or significantly relieve those difficulties. The strategy of our approach is to integrate the consciousnesses of two bodies (old and new) into a unique consciousness. By doing so, the consciousness is extended to the new body. After that, the consciousness shrinks and remains in the new body when the old body dies. This may also apply to integrating more than two bodies of human, or animal, or even across different species. After investigating thousands of literatures, we find quite strong evidence (related discoveries and technologies) that can support the proposed approach and its advantages. Beside prolonging human lifespan, the approach could also have other meaningful applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: multiomics; lung, respiratory; models; integration; outcomes
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:38:25 CEST)
Diseases of the lung account for more than 5 million deaths worldwide and are a burden to healthcare. Improving clinical outcomes including mortality and quality of life involves a holistic understanding the etiopathogenesis, which can be provided by multi-omics integration of lung data. An enhanced understanding of large comprehensive datasets provides opportunities to mine those datasets for features that contribute to prevention and amelioration of disease. In this review, we evaluate lung disease models including animal models, organoids and single cell lines as mechanisms to study multiomics in lung health and disease. We provide examples of lung diseases where multi-omics investigations have provided a deeper insight into pathogenesis that has resulted in improved preventive and therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0286.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: data integration; interoperability; harmonization; GeoBIM; metadata
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:10:07 CEST)
The reuse and integration of data give big opportunities, supported by the F.A.I.R. data principles. Seamless data integration from heterogenous sources has been interest of the geospatial community for long time. However, 3D city models, BIM and information supporting smart cities present higher semantic and geometrical complexity, which pose new challenges, never tackled in a comprehensive methodology. Building on previous theories and studies, this paper proposes an overarching workflow and framework for multisource (geo)spatial data integration. It starts from the definition of use case-based requirements for the integrated data, guides the analysis of integrability of the involved datasets, suggesting actions to harmonise them, until data merging and validation. It is finally tested and exemplified on a case study. This approach allows the development of consistent, well-documented and inclusive data integration workflows, for the sake of use cases automation in various geospatial domains and the production of Interoperable and Reusable data.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0474.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: agile; waterfall, build; continuous integration; reproducible
Online: 23 October 2020 (09:41:15 CEST)
Stock assessment determines the status of fishery stock to support manage- ment decision making. Considering the iterations between exploratory cal- culations and the need to compare outputs to elicit better model settings, we should focus on not only the accuracy of abundance estimation and the toler- ance of uncertainty but also the efficiency of the project workflow. Although in Japan, a stock assessment model was introduced written in the R language in 2012, the workflow did not sufficiently adjust, creating problems because the current workflow is contrary to the principles of effective value creation. To make our project sustainable, we propose adopting the agile methodol- ogy, an iterative development method used by software developers, for stock assessment. Therefore, we wrote an example report as a package document in the R language. Developed under a continuous integration environment, the report remains up to date, with every modification on component files. This method enabled our work to be efficient and transparent by allowing and documenting scenario branching, error corrections, and annual updates. We show that the iterative development cycle benefit us by allowing us to focus on the essential business problem of the assessment project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1265.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Financial Integration; Volatility Shocks; Business Cycle Comovement
Online: 20 October 2023 (03:54:17 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of financial integration on international dynamics from the perspective of volatility shocks. To achieve this, I employ an IRBC model with time-varying volatilities, recursive preferences, and a global bank. The model demonstrates that volatility shocks trigger precautionary saving incentives, but the specific effects vary based on the type of shock. In the presence of productivity volatilities, countries with a higher level of financial integration exhibit greater divergence in their business cycles, while financial integration tends to result in more synchronized business cycles in the face of financial volatilities. Disregarding volatility shocks would underestimate the impact of financial integration on the comovement of business cycles across countries. Furthermore, welfare analysis also indicates that financial markets play a crucial role in enhancing social welfare, regardless of the type of volatility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0994.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: BIM methodology; BIM manager; coordination; integration; interoperability
Online: 14 August 2023 (07:11:18 CEST)
Abstract: Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology has been empowering the quality of the construction activity in all sectors: multidisciplinary designs development; construction planning and monitoring; building management and maintenance. A BIM environment aggre-gates several disciplines and different professional skillsets and in order to control and improve the quality of a BIM project, a BIM manager is required. The BIM manager has the responsibility to coordinate all tasks involved in a building design and associated activities usually workout over the project documents. This professional can access to the distinct discipline models, located in a shared platform, and request for amendments if inconsistencies are detected. The topic of the present study is illustrated with three building cases were distinct specific projects, disciplines and tasks were elaborated: collaboration between disciplines (architecture, structures and con-struction); structural analyses and reinforcement details; quantity take-off of materials and cost estimation; construction scheduling and simulation. Although there are still limitations in the implementation of BIM methodology in all sectors and stages, within the construction industry, BIM has been bringing an important improvement in the quality of a building design, reflected in the quality of the final product. The present study put in evidence the BIM manager role in pro-jects that aggregates several disciplines and experts, bringing an important contribution in the quality of a building design. BIM methodology is a current demand in the construction industry supported on advanced technology and in an adequate management of projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0270.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Road accidents; Brazil; fractional integration; long memory
Online: 19 January 2022 (11:45:26 CET)
This paper deals with the analysis of trends in road accidents on major highways in Brazil. Using updated time series techniques, our results indicate that a low degree of long memory was detected in the series with shocks having transitory effects over time. We further find that the number of accidents taking place in Brazil has been reducing over time, though in the presence of negative shocks, the recovery is not going to be immediate due to the long memory nature of the data. Despite the absence of relevant investment relating to infrastructure expansion, it is worth mentioning the consolidation of a nationwide tolled road system in Brazil involving concessions to private administrators, alongside more severe traffic laws that can impose limitations on driving licences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0698.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mobile learning; Integration framework; Design-based research
Online: 30 July 2021 (11:43:12 CEST)
Background: In an age where information is generally accessible, most of the interest these days has focused on how accessible and convenient technology can be. So small and personal, mobile devices can transform our perception of learning by combining both mobility and convenience. Mobile learning is part of the digital learning landscape alongside e-learning and serious games. However, knowledge about effective design of mobile learning experiences remains of interest with a focus on appropriate design models and the embodiments that can be implemented to achieve the intended educational outcomes. Exploring the instructor's perspective on mobile learning is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Moroccan instructors' perception and practice of mobile learning to inform the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Methods: Higher education Instructors (n=41) were recruited to the study. The Moroccan instructors' perception and their experiences regarding their adoption of mobile learning were collected using an online survey. The analysis focused on their mobile use, perceived IT competency, and opinions on mobile learning. Results: We described most of the instructors' considerations regarding integrating mobile technologies into their teaching activities. We found that most of the mobile learning activities defined by the respondents corresponded to relatively advanced use of mobile devices. More promising, instructors have found innovative ways to use the educational potential of mobile devices. However, the prospect of mobile devices was still to challenge. No or poor Wi-Fi connection, number of devices or limited access, sometimes fees or applications incompatibility were identified as reasons and obstacles to mobile learning usage. Conclusion: Mobile learning is mostly perceived positively among Moroccan instructors allowing many applications and usage to enhance teaching and learning. In this study, a better understanding of aspects and factors influencing the integration of mobile learning in the Moroccan educational context is exposed, helping further the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Future work on mobile learning should consider the highly paced evolution of mobile technologies, emphasizing the flexibility of integration frameworks to support instructors and learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0109.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Electricity Markets; Integration; Demand Response; Innovation; Regulation
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:25:51 CEST)
We select four important waves of new entrants that knocked on the door of European electricity markets to illustrate how market rules need to be continuously adapted to allow new entrants to come in and push innovation forward. The new entrants that we selected are utilities venturing into neighbouring markets after establishing a strong position in their home market, utility-scale renewables project developers, asset-light software companies aggregating the assets of smaller consumers and producers, and different types of communities. We show that well-intentioned rules designed for certain types of market participants can (unintentionally) become obstacles for new entrants. We conclude that the evolution of market rules illustrates the importance of dynamic regulation. At the start of the liberalisation process the view was that we would deregulate or re-regulate the sector after which the role of regulators could be reduced. But their role has only increased. New players might also present new risks that require intervention by regulators.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: big data; data integration; EVMS; construction management
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:35:00 CET)
In the information age today, data are getting more and more important. While other industries achieve tangible improvement by applying cutting edge information technology, the construction industry is still far from being enough. Cost, schedule, and performance control are three major functions in the project execution phase. Along with their individual importance, cost-schedule integration has been a significant challenge over the past five decades in the construction industry. Although a lot of efforts have been put into this development, there is no method used in construction practice. The purpose of this study is to propose a new method to integrate cost and schedule data using big data technology. The proposed algorithm is designed to provide data integrity and flexibility in the integration process, considerable time reduction on building and changing database, and practical use in a construction site. It is expected that the proposed method can transform the current way that field engineers regard information management as one of the troublesome tasks in a data-friendly way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0488.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: gis; bim; ifc; citygml; integration; interoperability; geometry
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:15:57 CEST)
It is widely acknowledged that the integration of BIM and GIS data is a crucial step forward for future 3D city modelling, but most of the research conducted so far has covered only the semantic aspects of GIS-BIM integration. We present here the results of the GeoBIM project, in which we tackled three integration problems focussing instead on aspects involving geometry processing: (i) the automated processing of complex architectural IFC models, (ii) the integration of existing GIS subsoil data in BIM, and (iii) the georeferencing of BIM models for their use in GIS software. All the problems have been studied using real world models and existing datasets made and used by practitioners in the Netherlands. For each problem, we expose in detail the issues we faced, our proposed solutions, and our recommendations for a more successful integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: transportation integration; service industry agglomeration; Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration; urban agglomeration transportation integration index system; knowledge spillover effect.
Online: 13 September 2022 (16:02:29 CEST)
This study selected the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as the research area, combining it with the current situation of the transportation development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to construct the urban agglomeration transportation integration index system and evaluate the development status of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration transportation integration. The study examined the influence mechanism of transportation infrastructure on service industry agglomeration. The results are as follows: (1) From 2011–2020, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration’s transportation integration index showed a clear upward trend. (2)The development of transport integration in urban agglomerations has heterogeneous effects on local service agglomeration. The development of the integration level of local transportation has a certain inhibitory effect on the agglomeration of local service industry. The transportation integration of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration plays an important role in promoting the agglomeration of local wholesale and retail industry, transportation, storage and postal services. (3) The transportation integration of urban agglomeration can affect the agglomeration of service industry through the knowledge spillover brought by the free flow of various factors. The knowledge spillover effect caused by local transportation integration can promote the agglomeration of local service industry to a certain extent. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration needs to accelerate the construction of trans-provincial and trans-municipal transportation infrastructure, and further improve the connectivity level of the urban agglomeration, so as to promote the integrated development of high-quality transportation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: sentence semantics; syntactic enhancement network; language model integration
Online: 30 November 2023 (15:38:21 CET)
The realm of natural language processing has always been fascinated by the intricacies of sentence semantics. The emergence of context-aware word representations, especially from pre-trained models like ELMO and BERT, has revolutionized several semantic tasks including but not limited to, question answering, text categorization, and sentiment analysis. Despite these advancements, the integration of supplementary knowledge, particularly syntactic, to augment semantic comprehension in models remains an area ripe for exploration. This paper introduces the Syntactic Enhancement Network (SEN), a pioneering method for synergizing syntactic elements with established pre-trained language models. Our approach encompasses a dual-phase evaluation: initially, we delve into the syntactic augmentation of both RNN-based and Transformer-based language models; subsequently, we test our SEN's proficiency in two specific domains: the task of sentence completion and the extraction of biological relationships. The results are striking, with SEN achieving a stellar 91.2% accuracy in sentence completion—surpassing baseline models by a substantial 37.8%. In the context of biological relation extraction, SEN demonstrates competitive prowess with a 75.1% F1 score.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1211.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: software integration; middleware; data centric workflows; computational phylogenetics
Online: 19 October 2023 (04:47:55 CEST)
Epidemiological surveillance and phylogenetic studies rely nowadays on processing and analysing huge volumes of data. Processing tasks consist on running and refining a series of intertwined computational tasks. And, despite of existing several web applications for data processing and interactive visualization for phylogenetic studies, integrating many different tools and algorithms, their execution is total or partially on the client side, making them unsuitable for dealing with huge volumes of data. Studies are often also not easy to reproduce. On the other hand, in recent years, data-centric workflow systems have been proposed, allowing to deal better with increasingly larger datasets. The integration of these systems within phylogenetic tools will allow to scale them as required, and will contribute also to promote studies reproducibility. We propose then the FLOWViZ middleware for facilitating the integration of a state of the art data-centric workflow system, Apache Airflow, within web applications for phylogenetic analyses. This framework abstracts contracts and a core API for defining tools and workflows, where tools are assumed to be containerized. FLOWViZ has been tested and evaluated within the PHYLOViZ web application, a tool supporting phylogenetic inference and data visualization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Keywords: Model; Drug resistance TB, Collaboration and Integration
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:17:13 CEST)
Infectious illnesses have always posed a threat to human health, with tuberculosis (TB) being a major concern. The use of various medications and antibiotics in the fight against such illnesses has led to the emergence of drug-resistant infectious diseases, which have become increasingly dif-ficult to manage as medical and scientific research has advanced. Inadequate medical infrastruc-ture, incorrect treatment practices that exacerbate resistance patterns, and transmission within communities and healthcare facilities are the main factors contributing to the spread of drug-resistant TB. Though treating individuals with multiple drug resistance (MDR) and extreme drug resistance (XDR) strains is challenging, early identification of resistance and the imple-mentation of a well-designed treatment regimen can result in a cure. Community-based inter-ventions that address socioeconomic barriers to adherence can also enhance treatment outcomes. While there have been few studies and proposed conceptual models on how to manage and prevent various drug-resistant TB mutations and lineages, a model aimed at limiting and controlling such mutations has been developed. This paradigm seeks to bridge the gap by facilitating the exchange of knowledge among healthcare professionals (HCP) in healthcare facilities (HCF), diagnostic laboratories (DL), and research institutes (RI), particularly for underprivileged communities in the Eastern Cape. The model guide will also monitor and evaluate TB management plans
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Genotype; phenotype; sequencing; phenomics; data integration; metadata; standardization
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:30:52 CEST)
The Genotype-Phenotype Working Group was established in November 2021 as part of the AgBioData Consortium (https://www.agbiodata.org) with the goal of identifying current challenges in annotating and integrating large-scale genotype and phenotype data. Over the course of the year, the members of this working group identified different types of data sets, explored experimental platforms and methods for data generation, and examined how these data are annotated including the metadata requirements. We conducted a thorough review of publicly funded repositories for raw and processed data for each data type. We also examined several secondary databases and knowledgebases that enable the integration of heterogeneous data types in the context of the Genome Browser, Pathway Networks and tissue-specific gene expression. The review revealed a need for additional infrastructural support, standards, and tools to connect Genotype to Phenotype data and enhance data interoperability for knowledge synthesis and to foster translational research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0363.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: migration; mentoring; unaccompanied minors; refugee; asylum seeker; integration
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:40:58 CEST)
Adolescents often migrate unaccompanied by a caregiver, facing specific risks. Mentoring has been identified as a strategy with positive results for youth at risk. Its application with unaccompanied minors (UM) refugees and asylum seekers has gained momentum within EU countries receiving refugee citizens from the EU relocation program. Portugal hosts the fourth highest number of Middle East and North Africa UM refugees and asylum seekers among EU countries. Thus, it´s relevant to review strategies and intervention programs, focused on mentoring to inform future programs in Portugal supporting UM. This article aims to describe the use of mentoring strategies towards integrating UM refugees, and how this has been taking place in Portugal. This review has the potential to inform professionals, namely social education professionals involved in the Portuguese refugee relocation program and encourage the discussion about creating based mentoring-based programs for this target group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0082.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: arctangent function; midpoint integration; iterative algorithm; constant pi
Online: 6 February 2023 (07:11:07 CET)
In this work we derive a generalized series expansion of the acrtangent function by using the enhanced midpoint integration (EMI). Algorithmic implementation of the generalized series expansion utilizes a simple two-step iteration. This approach significantly improves the convergence and requires no surd numbers in computation of the arctangent function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: active range of motion; Structural Integration; Rolfing; fascia
Online: 5 September 2022 (03:32:00 CEST)
Background: Recent work has investigated significant force transmission between the compo-nents of myofascial chains. Misalignments in the body due to fascial thickening and shortening can therefore lead to complex compensatory patterns. For the treatment of such nonlinear cause-effect pathology, a comprehensive neuro-musculoskeletal therapy such as the Rolf Meth-od of Structural Integration (SI) could be targeted. Methods: A total of 727 subjects were retro-spectively screened from the medical records of an SI practice over a 23-year period. 383 subjects who had completed 10 basic SI sessions met eligibility criteria and were assessed for active range of motion (AROM) of the shoulder and hip before and after SI treatment. Results: Shoulder flex-ion, external and internal rotation, and hip flexion improved significantly (all p < 0.0001) after 10 SI sessions. Left shoulder flexion and external rotation of both shoulders increased more in men than in women (p < 0.0001), but were not affected by age. Conclusions: SI intervention produces multiple changes in the components of myofascial chains that could help maintain upright pos-ture in humans and reduce inadequate compensatory patterns. SI affects differently the outcome of some AROM parameters in women and men.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen propulsion; aircraft design; conceptual integration; performance assessment
Online: 23 June 2022 (15:59:12 CEST)
The present paper deals with the investigation, at conceptual level, of the performance of short-medium-range aircraft with hydrogen propulsion. The attention is focused on the relationship between figures of merit related to transport capability, such as passenger capacity and flight range, and the parameters which drive the design of liquid hydrogen tanks and their integration with a given aircraft geometry. The reference aircraft chosen for such purpose is a box-wing short-medium-range airplane, object of study within a previous European research project called PARSIFAL, capable to cut the fuel consumption per passenger-kilometre up to 22%. By adopting a retrofitting approach, non-integral pressure vessels are sized to fit into the fuselage of the reference aircraft, under the assumption that the main aerodynamic, flight mechanic and structural characteristics are not affected. A parametric model is introduced to generate a wide variety of fuselage-tank cross-section layouts, from a single tank with the maximum diameter compatible with a catwalk corridor to multiple tanks located in the cargo deck , and an assessment work-flow is implemented to perform the structural sizing of the tanks and analyse their thermodynamic behaviour during the mission. This latter is simulated with a time-marching approach that couples the fuel request from engines with the thermodynamics of the hydrogen in the tanks, which is constantly subject to evaporation and, depending on the internal pressure, vent-ed-out in gas form. Each model is presented in detail in the paper and results are provided through sensitivity analyses to both the technology parameters of the tanks and the geometric parameters influencing their integration. The guidelines resulting from the analyses indicate that light materials, such as the Aluminium alloy AA2219 for tanks’ structure and polystyrene foam for the insulation, should be selected. Preferred values are also indicted for the aspect ratios of the vessel components, i.e. central tube and endcaps, as well as suggestions for the integration layout to be adopted depending on the desired trade-off between passenger capacity, as for the case of multiple tanks in the cargo deck, and achievable flight ranges, as for the single tank in the section.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0487.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: 3D City Model; CityGML 2.0; Spatial Data Integration
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:51:35 CET)
3D city models integrate heterogeneous urban data from multiple sources in a unified geospatial representation, combining both semantics and geometry. Although in the last decades, they are predominantly used for visualization, today they are used in a large range of tasks related to exploration, analysis, and management across multiple domains. The complexity of urban processes and the diversity of urban environment bring challenges to the implementation of 3D city models. To address such challenges, this paper presents the development process of a 3D city model of a single neighborhood in Sofia city based on CityGML 2.0 standard. The model represents the buildings in LOD1 with a focus on CityGML features of related to the buildings like building part, terrain intersection curve and address. Similar building models of 18 cities provided as open datasets are explored and compared in order to extract good modeling practices. As a result, workflows for generation of 3D building models in LOD1 are elaborated and improvements in the feature modeling are proposed. Two options of building model are examined: modeling of a building as a single solid and modeling of a building with separate building parts. Finally, the possibilities for visualization of the model in popular platforms such as ArcGIS Pro and Cesium Ion are explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: refugees; career adaptability; resettlement success; labor market integration
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:56:38 CET)
Today's unstable labor market increasingly requires flexibility and adaptability to cope with the threat of unemployment. It can cause distress in people and have a more significant negative impact on fragile workers, such as migrants. This study aimed to test whether a Career Counseling intervention designed for Migrants (CCfM) can develop Career Adaptability and, therefore, both Work Self-efficacy (WSe) and Job Search Self-efficacy (JSSe) perceptions. It was conducted in Italy and involved a sample of 233 migrants, who were asked to respond to a questionnaire available in three languages (Italian, French, and English). Data analysis showed that an improvement was demonstrated in all the variables considered, namely career adaptability (including concern, control, confidence, and curiosity), WSe, and JSSe, even though the CCfM was not directly designed to increase the last one. In addition, the development of career adaptability explained the increase in migrants' WSe and JSSe, and the initial level of career adaptability was found to explain the increase in WSe due to the initial positive level of curiosity.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar Photovoltaics, PV Self-consumption, Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), Build-ing-applied photovoltaics (BAPV), PV orientations, PV Grid-integration
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:14:35 CEST)
As Solar Photovoltaics in buildings reaches maturity, grid integration and economic yield are topics of greater interest. The traditional design of photovoltaic installations has considered the optimal orientation of photovoltaic modules to be that which yields the maximum annual energy production. The influence of the consumption patterns and the hourly-variable electricity prices implies that this traditional optimal design might not be the most profitable. Using a full-year dataset for a residential installation, alternative installations using canopies and modules attached to the façades are simulated. Simulating the energy balances for different annual consumptions, it is found that the canopy and façade installations offer better self-consumption of the PV produced energy, reflected in a 9% higher self-consumption degree using modules on façades and a 5% using canopies. The economic evaluation under the new electricity tariffs in Spain shows a better profit for PV self-consumption, reducing by more than 2 years the time of return on investment. The analysis of different alternatives for an industrial PV has allowed us to identify several benefits for these orientations, such as an increase in annual energy production of up to 59% over the optimal-producing orientation, that are confirmed after several months of operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0313.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Learning Management System (LMS); perceived role; readiness; integration
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:06:24 CET)
The rapid development of information and communication technologies has led to the use of new and digital technologies in education which involves combinations of text, graphics, audio, video, animations and other eLearning resources such as authoring tools, Learning Management System (LMS), Mobile learning and others. Arguably, using LMS leaves much to be desired. The inherent problem here is that the future of extensive adoption of ICT via LMS to enhance and promote classroom interaction in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is bleak. This is worrisome given that the country is lagging far behind in the innovative use of this web 2.0 technology to impart knowledge. Further, the low-level application of LMS in instruction connotes the loss of inherent advantages in its adoption. Also, the online setting which makes students less nervous and interactive, sharing of ideas and viewpoints; and a host of other benefit will be lost. While evidence has shown that LMS is not a new phenomenon, the use of LMS in ODL is still at its infancy, particularly in Nigeria. Research in this area is rare. A quick search on prominent research databases could testify that. It is on this thrust that this study investigates University of Ibadan undergraduate students’ perceived roles and readiness towards integration of learning management system into teaching and learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: health workforce; operational models; planning; skill mix; integration
Online: 21 January 2021 (12:35:46 CET)
Over the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in oral health workforce planning. The purpose of this review is to examine oral health workforce planning models on supply, demand and needs, mainly in respect to their data sources, modelling technique and use of skill mix. A search was carried out on PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases for published scientific articles on oral health workforce planning models between 2010 to 2020. No restrictions were placed on the type of modelling philosophy, and all studies including supply, demand or needs based models were included. Rapid review methods guided the review process. Twenty-three studies from 15 different countries were included in the review. A majority were from high income countries (n=17). Dentists were the sole oral health workforce group modelled in 13 studies; only five studied included skill mix (allied dental personnel) considerations. The most common application of modelling was a workforce to population ratio or a needs-based demand weighted variant. Nearly all studies presented weaknesses in modelling process due to the limitations in data sources and/or non availability of necessary data to inform oral health workforce planning. Skill mix considerations in planning models were also limited to horizontal integration within oral health professionals. Planning for the future oral health workforce is heavily reliant on quality data being available for supply, demand and needs models. Integrated methodologies that expand skill mix considerations and account for uncertainty are essential for future planning exercises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: resource integration; network analysis; sustainability; small-scale farm
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:26:08 CET)
Shrinking farm size and fragile farm resources pose a significant challenge to the sustainability of small-scale farms. Efficient resource utilization in small-scale farms is crucial to achieving farm sustainability through endogenous mechanisms. However, the precise mechanisms to integrate physical resources to achieve farm sustainability are not very clear yet. By capturing the interaction among farm resources as a network phenomenon, we identify the discrete resource interactions (RIs) in different types of small-scale farms of Indian Sundarbans, which are associated with higher farm sustainability. Thirty-two linkages, 11 reciprocal linkages, 22 triads, and three ‘core elements’ that occurred and cooccurred on highly sustainable farms are found to be critical in achieving farm sustainability. Using the properties of resource interaction networks as explanators of farm sustainability, we anticipate that sustainability in small-scale farms can be achieved by strategically creating new RIs on the farm. However, there may be limitations to such achievement depending on the nature of RI and type of farm. The analytical approach helps to understand the structural basis of sustainability in small-scale farms, and this approach can be used to achieve farm sustainability through the strategic integration of existing farm resources in the smallholder systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Morphological integration; dysmorphogenesis; skull; etiogenesis; neuro-psychiatric disorders
Online: 6 October 2020 (08:29:01 CEST)
Structure - function interdependence is a universal phenomenon in biological systems. Any alteration in structural features may result in change in functions–leading to natural selection of a particular trait, or dysfunctions thereof. Many such alterations arise during the course of evolution of a species and may meticulously be traced during embryonic development of an organism. Through the theoretical construct of morphological integration, a set of phenotypic traits alter in a coordinated and integrated manner during evolution and embryonic development of an organism yielding efficient environmentally adapted physiological functions pertinent to those structures. Such integration may go awry sometimes, setting the basis for genesis of diseases. Morphological integration in human skull has been established through various methods. The brain-skull co-development is handcuffed through evolution and development, and the very basis of a neuro-psychiatric disorder could be underlying in dysmorphogenesis of the skull, its consequent effect on structures, and thus functions of the pertinent brain components. Here we propose that morphological integration in human skull may be mechanistically implied in etiogenesis of certain neuro-psychiatric disorders and should be borne in mind during clinical diagnosis and therapeutic interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fibromyalgia; comprehensive review; neurophysiological abnormalities; psychosocial processes; integration
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:45:54 CEST)
Research into the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms involved in fibromyalgia (FM) has progressed remarkably in recent years. Despite this, currents accounts of FM fail to capture the complex, dynamic and mutual crosstalk between neurophysiological and psychosocial domains. We conducted a comprehensive review of the existing literature in order to synthesise current knowledge on FM, explore and highlight multi-level links and pathways among different systems and build bridges between existing approaches. An extensive panel of international experts in neurophysiology and psychosocial aspects of FM discussed the collected evidence and progressively refined and conceptualized its interpretation. Fibromyalgia is a complex condition resulting from the dynamic interplay between multiple systems and processes. We provided an updated overview of the most relevant observations in FM to date as well as the potential pathways by which they exert they are related and exert their mutual influence, to produce the manifestations commonly associated with FM. This review constituted the first step towards and supported the development of a much needed model capable of integrating the main factors implicated in FM into a single, unified model that may prove valuable in understanding and managing FM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: EthA; ethionamide resistance; BVMO; molecular dynamics; thermodynamic integration
Online: 31 March 2020 (23:21:53 CEST)
Mutation in the ethionamide (ETH) activating enzyme, EthA, is the main factor determining resistance to this drug, used to treat TB patients infected with MDR and XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Many mutations in EthA of ETH resistant (ETH-R) isolates have been described but their roles in resistance remain uncharacterized, partly because structural studies on the enzyme are lacking. Thus, we took a two-tier approach to evaluate two mutations (Y50C and T453I) found in ETH-R clinical isolates. First, we used a combination of comparative modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics to build an EthA model in complex with ETH that has hallmark features of structurally characterized homologs. Second, we used free energy computational calculations for the reliable prediction of relative free energies between the wild type and mutant enzymes. The ΔΔG values for Y50C and T453I mutant enzymes in complex with FADH2-NADP-ETH were 3.34 (+/−0.55) and 8.11 (+/−0.51) kcal/mol, respectively, compared to the wild type complex. The positive ΔΔG values indicate that the wild type complex is more stable than the mutants, with the T453I complex being the least stable. These are the first results shedding light on the molecular basis of ETH resistance, namely reduced complex stability of mutant EthA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cystic fibrosis; gene therapy; gene targeting; gene integration
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:14:02 CET)
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited monogenic disorder, amenable to gene based therapies. Because CF lung disease is currently the major cause of mortality and morbidity, and lung airway is readily accessible to gene delivery, the major CF gene therapy effort at present is directed to the lung. Although airway epithelial cells are renewed slowly, permanent gene correction through gene editing or targeting in airway stem cells is needed to perpetuate the therapeutic effect. Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) has been utilized widely for a variety of gene editing applications. The stringent requirement for nuclease binding target sites allows for gene editing with precision. In this study, we engineered helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors to deliver a pair of TALENs together with donor DNA targeting the human AAVS1 locus. With homology arms of 4 kb in length, we demonstrated precise insertion of either a LacZ reporter gene or a human CFTR minigene into the target site. Using the LacZ reporter, we determined the efficiency of gene integration to be about 5%. In the CFTR vector transduced cells, we have detected both CFTR mRNA and protein expression by qPCR and Wetern analysis, respectively. We have also confirmed CFTR function correction by flurometric Image Plate Reader (FLIPR) and iodide efflux assays. Taking together, these findings suggest a new direction for future in vitro and in vivo studies in CF gene editing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1396.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: APEC; colibacillosis; antimicrobial resistance; autogenous vaccine; poultry integration; Morocco
Online: 23 October 2023 (11:00:25 CEST)
Excessive use of antibiotics to control colibacillosis on poultry farms in Morocco contributes to the development of multiresistant avian pathogenic E. coli. Autogenous vaccines are an alternative to antibiotic usage; the main goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of this approach to control recurrent outbreaks of colibacillosis in a large broiler production flow. A tetravalent autogenous vaccine (serotypes O78, O88, O91, and O185) was produced from E. coli strains isolated from clinical lesions in breeding hens and used on two farms (65,000 breeding hens in total). On each farm, contemporaneous groups were included: groups vaccinated twice (12 and 18 weeks of age) and unvaccinated control groups. The performances of these flocks, as well as the performances of broilers hatched from these breeders (12 farms, over 600,000 broilers in total), were recorded. A significant reduction in lesion scores, mortality rate and a significant increase in the number of saleable day-old chicks were observed among vaccinated hens. In broilers, body weight at slaughter, lesion scores, food conversion ratio, mortality and condemnation rates were significantly improved. This is the first field observation of a lasting effect of breeder hens immunization with an autogenous vaccine against E. coli on their offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1334.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: PM2.5 concentration; feature selection; clustering algorithm; Adaboost integration model
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:49:34 CEST)
Determining accurate PM2.5 pollution concentrations and understanding their dynamic patterns is crucial for scientifically informed air pollution control strategies. Traditional reliance on linear correlation coefficients for ascertaining PM2.5 related factors only uncovers superficial relationships. Moreover, the invariance of conventional prediction models restricts their accuracy. To enhance the precision of PM2.5 concentration prediction, this study introduces a novel integrated model that leverages feature selection and a clustering algorithm. Comprising three components - feature selection, clustering, and integrated prediction, the model first employs the non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-III) to identify the most impactful features affecting PM2.5 concentration within air pollutants and meteorological factors. This step offers more valuable feature data for subsequent modules. The model then adopts a two-layer clustering method (SOM+K-means) to analyze the multifaceted irregularity within the dataset. Finally, the model establishes the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) weak learner for each classification, integrating multiple weak learners using the Adaboost algorithm to obtain a comprehensive prediction model. Through feature correlation enhancement, data irregularity exploration, and model adaptability improvement, the proposed model significantly enhances the overall prediction performance. Data sourced from 12 Beijing-based monitoring sites in 2016 were utilized for an empirical study, and the model's results compared with five other predictive models. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed model significantly heightens prediction accuracy, offering useful insights and potential for broadened application to multifactor correlation concentration prediction methodologies for other pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: RF photonics; optical microcombs; optical signal processing; photonic integration
Online: 15 August 2023 (07:41:04 CEST)
RF photonic transversal signal processors, which combine reconfigurable electrical digital signal processing and high-bandwidth photonic processing, provide a powerful solution for achieving adaptive high-speed information processing. Recent progress in optical microcomb technology provides compelling multi-wavelength sources with compact footprint, yielding a variety of microcomb-based RF photonic transversal signal processors implemented by either discrete or integrated components. Although operating based on the same principle, processors in these two forms exhibit distinct performance. This letter presents a comparative investigation into their performance. First, we compare the performance of state-of-the-art processors, focusing on the processing accuracy. Next, we analyze various factors that contribute to the performance differences, including tap number and imperfect response of experimental components. Finally, we discuss the potential for future improvement. These results provide a comprehensive comparison of microcomb-based RF photonic transversal signal processors implemented using discrete and integrated components and provide insights for their future development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1620.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Africa; maximum temperatures; minimum temperature; fractional integration; fractional cointegration
Online: 24 July 2023 (12:05:49 CEST)
This paper deals with the analysis of the temperatures in a group of 36 African countries. By looking at the maximum, minimum and the range (the difference between the maximum and the minimum) and using a long memory model based on fractional integration and cointegration, we first show that all series display a long memory pattern, with a significant positive time trend in 29 countries for the maximum temperatures and in 33 for the minimum ones. Looking at the range, the estimated value for the order of integration is smaller than the one based on maximum or minimum temperatures in 17 countries. Performing fractional cointegration tests between the maximum and minimum temperatures, our results indicate that the two series cointegrate in the classical sense (i.e., with a short memory equilibrium relationship) in a group of 11 countries, and there is another group of eight countries displaying cointegration in a fractional sense. The remaining 17 countries with no evidence of cointegration are therefore at the very high risk of climate change due to the absence of long-term comovement in their maximum and minimum temperatures. Findings in this paper are of tremendous interpretations and relevance for the analysis and climate projections in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: IGCC; Ion Transport Membrane; air separator; integration; gasifier; HRSG
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:12:02 CEST)
Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) is a well-developed technology for producing O2 by separating air in its membrane. To decrease energy loss in air separation unit and to increase the overall efficiency of a power generation unit ITM is added with the gasification unit in this model. Ceramic materials are generally used to make ion transport membrane that produces oxygen by conducting oxygen ions at specified temperature. Potential advantages can be gained by integrating ITM technology with power generation units as 99% pure oxygen is produced from ITM. A salient comparison between ITM air separator combined with IGCC and cryogenic air separator combined with IGCC is done in this paper where the total power generation cycle remains same for both cases excluding the air separation units (ITM and cryogenic). Using ITM air separator is more beneficial compared to cryogenic air separation as ITM technology helps to improve IGCC overall efficiency and also reduces plant auxiliaries than that of power generation systems integrated with cryogenic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: polyimide bonding; plasma activation; hydrophilic; hybrid bonding; 3D integration
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:47:17 CET)
Polymer adhesives have emerged as a promising dielectric passivation layer in hybrid bonding for 3D integration while they raise misalignment problems during curing. In this work, the synergistic effect of oxygen plasma surface activation and wetting is utilized to achieve bonding between completed cured polyimides. The optimized process achieves a void-less bonding with a maximum shear strength of 35.3 MPa at a low temperature of 250 °C in merely 2 min, significantly shortening the bonding period and decreasing thermal stress. It is found that the plasma activation generated hydrophilic groups on the polyimide surface, and the wetting process further introduced more -OH groups and water molecular on the activated polyimide surface. The synergistic process of plasma activation and wetting facilitate bridging polyimide interfaces to achieve bonding, providing an alternative path for adhesive bonding in 3D integration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: homology; developmental mechanism; evidential integration; eumetazoan body plan; phylogenetics
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:45:06 CEST)
Reconstructing ancestral species is a challenging endeavour: fossils are often scarce or enigmatic, and inferring ancestral characters based on novel molecular approaches (e.g. comparative genomics or developmental genetics) has long been controversial. A key philosophical challenge pertinent at present is the lack of a theoretical framework capable of evaluating inferences of homology made through integration of multiple kinds of evidence (e.g. molecular, developmental, or morphological). Here, I present just such a framework. I start with a brief history and critical assessment of attempts at inferring morphological homology through developmental genetics. I then bring attention to a recent model of homology, namely Character Identity Mechanisms (DiFrisco, Love, & Wagner, 2020), intended partly to elucidate the relationships between morphological characters, developmental genetics, and homology. I utilise and build on this model to construct the evaluative framework mentioned above, which judges the epistemic value of evidence of each kind in each particular case based on three proposed criteria: effectiveness, admissibility, and informativity, as well as providing a generalised guideline on how it can be scientifically operationalised. I then point out the evolution of the eumetazoan body plan as a case in point where the application of this framework can yield satisfactory results, both empirically and conceptually. I will conclude with a discussion on some potential implications for more general philosophy of biology and philosophy of science, especially surrounding evidential integration, models and explanation, and reductionism.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Crustacea; Anomura; Brachyura; Carcinization; Phylogeny; Convergent evolution; Morphological integration
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:43:52 CET)
A fundamental question in biology is whether phenotypes can be predicted by ecological or genomic rules. At least five cases of convergent evolution of the crab-like body plan (with a wide and flattened shape, and a bent abdomen) are known in decapod crustaceans, and have, for over 140 years, been known as ‘carcinization’. The repeated loss of this body plan has been identified as ‘decarcinization’. In reviewing the field, we offer phylogenetic strategies to include poorly known groups, and direct evidence from fossils, that will resolve the history of crab evolution and the degree of phenotypic variation within crabs. Proposed ecological advantages of the crab body are summarized into a hypothesis of phenotypic integration suggesting correlated evolution of the carapace shape and abdomen. Our premise provides fertile ground for future studies of the genomic and developmental basis, and the predictability, of the crab-like body form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big data technology; Business intelligence; Data integration; System virtualization.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:19:48 CEST)
Big Data warehouses are a new class of databases that largely use unstructured and volatile data for analytical purpose. Examples of this kind of data sources are those coming from the Web, such as social networks and blogs, or from sensor networks, where huge amounts of data may be available only for short intervals of time. In order to manage massive data sources, a strategy must be adopted to define multidimensional schemas in presence of fast-changing situations or even undefined business requirements. In the paper, we propose a design methodology that adopts agile and automatic approaches, in order to reduce the time necessary to integrate new data sources and to include new business requirements on the fly. The data are immediately available for analyses, since the underlying architecture is based on a virtual data warehouse that does not require the importing phase. Examples of application of the methodology are presented along the paper in order to show the validity of this approach compared to a traditional one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: cogeneration; process integration; solar energy; thermal storage; desalination; optimization
Online: 18 April 2018 (08:08:48 CEST)
Shale gas production is associated with significant usage of fresh water and discharge of wastewater. Consequently, there is a necessity to create the proper management strategies for water resources in shale gas production and to integrate conventional energy sources (e.g., shale gas) with renewables (e.g., solar energy). The objective of this study is to develop a design framework for integrating water and energy systems including multiple energy sources, cogeneration process, and desalination technologies in treating wastewater and providing fresh water for shale gas production. Solar energy is included to provide thermal power directly to a multi-effect distillation plant (MED) exclusively (to be more feasible economically) or indirect supply through a thermal energy storage system. Thus, MED is driven by direct or indirect solar energy, and excess or direct cogeneration process heat. The proposed thermal energy storage along with the fossil fuel boiler will allow for the dual-purpose system to operate at steady-state by managing the dynamic variability of solar energy. Additionally, electric production is considered to supply a reverse osmosis plant (RO) without connecting to the local electric grid. A multi-period mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) is developed and applied to discretize operation period to track the diurnal fluctuations of solar energy. The solution of the optimization program determines the optimal mix of solar energy, thermal storage, and fossil fuel to attain the maximum annual profit of the entire system. A case study is solved for water treatment and energy management for Eagle Ford Basin in Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep Kalman filter; simultaneous sensor integration and modelling (SSIM); GNSS/IMU integration; recurrent neural network; deep learning; long-short term memory (LSTM)
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:10:32 CET)
The Bayes filters, such as Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of the unknowns. Efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources and it is not trivial for complicated sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Therefore, IMU error modelling and efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we develop deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. In other words, we add modelling step to the prediction and update steps of Kalman filter and the IMU error model is learned during integration. Therefore, our deep Kalman filter outperforms Kalman filter and reaches higher accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: CD31 interactions; Endovascular stents; camouflage strategy; circulatory homeostasis; device integration
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:20:18 CEST)
Background: Implantation of an endovascular device disrupts the homeostatic CD31:CD31 interactions among quiescent endothelial cells, platelets, and circulating leukocytes. The aim of this study was to mask endovascu-lar stents with peptides imitating CD31, to mimic the device's surface to resemble that of a healthy vascular endothelium. Methods: Peptide design relied on established trans-homophilic sequences found within domains 1 and 2 of CD31. Subsequently, synthetic peptides were immobilized onto flat CoCr and nitinol discs and their impact on the primary human arterial endothelial cell phenotype was evaluated in vitro. Following this, clinical-grade CoCr and nitinol endovascular devices were coated with one of the peptides that demonstrated the capability to induce a pro-physiologic endothelial phenotype, implanted in the arteries of rabbits, and compared to un-coated controls. Results: Membrane-distal CD31 domains 1 and 2 peptides exhibited a distinct capability to foster a healthy endothelial phenotype in vitro. By day 7 post-aortic implantation, CoCr stents were evenly covered by whole-some endothelial cells, devoid of thrombo-inflammatory signs, in contrast to both bare metal and drug-eluting stents. At day 60, nitinol-coated flow diverters demonstrated enhanced performance in comparison to the control groups for excluding experimental carotid aneurysms, facilitating the formation of a seamless "neo-arterial" wall. Conclusion: Membrane-distal CD31 biomimetic peptides effectively camouflage the device surface, prevent-ing local reactions and promoting rapid and seamless endovascular integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1157.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: industrialization; intermediate cities; urbanization; railway station; railway corridor; regional integration
Online: 21 September 2023 (14:10:55 CEST)
This article examines evolution of trans-regional Ethio-Djibouti railway corridor and its impact on urbanization. Exploratory and descriptive research methods were employed to examine the impact of this railway corridor. Case study also applied to examine eight selected intermediate cities. The article points out that, the Ethio-Djibouti railway corridor conceived different kinds of linear urban centers ranging from small towns to intermediate cities around stations. Those urban centers have been attracting industries along their fringes that leads to rural urban continuum ribbon urbanization. As the old railway line deteriorated, these linear urban centers on the railway corridor had also been declining from time to time. In 2011 new project was started to construct the Ethi-Djibouti standard gauge railway parallel to the old railway line. This new standard gauge railway infrastructure adopts ‘peripheral station’ development approach, which provides a room for width expansion for station based urban centers. It also attracts industries in a form of special economic zones, which causes for labour migration from rural and nearby small urban centers that caused rural-urban continuum of ribbon settlement; strengthen trade gate way for the landlocked Ethiopia that caused trans-regional integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0804.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Sensorimotor Integration; Spinal muscle atrophy; cognition; Fitts’s Law; Motor; Sensory
Online: 10 August 2023 (03:36:20 CEST)
Previous studies have found that individuals with limited motor capabilities due to acquired neurological injury (e.g., spinal cord injury and stroke) can make accurate action possibility judgements for neurologically healthy individuals. Previous studies have shown that people with limited motor capabilities may rely on previous motor experience (i.e., pre-injury) when making action possibility judgments for others. In the present study, we examined whether having severely limited previous motor experience from birth, as a consequence of spinal muscle atrophy (SMA), alters the action possibility judgments made for neurologically healthy individuals. Participants with SMA and Neurologically Healthy (NH) sex- and age-matched controls performed a perceptual-motor judgment task using the Fitts’s law paradigm (see Fitts, 1954). Participants observed apparent motion videos of reciprocal aiming movements with varying indices of difficulty (ID, see: Manson et al., 2014). For each movement, participants predicted the shortest movement time (MT) at which a neurologically healthy young adult could perform the task while maintaining accuracy. Between-group comparisons revealed that participants with SMA predicted significantly longer MTs compared to controls. Regression analyses revealed that predicted MTs of both NH and SMA participants exhibited a Fitts’s law relationship (i.e., the predicted MTs significantly increased as movement difficulty increased). A supplementary analysis on the SMA group revealed no differences in predicted MTs between the participants with some and no motor function as assessed by the SMA health index. Overall, these results provide evidence that participants with SMA who have limited or no motor experience may make more conservative action possibility judgments for others. Critically, our finding that the pattern of action possibility judgements (e.g., the slopes of the regression lines) were not different between SMA and NH groups provides evidence that limited previous motor experience may not completely impair action possibility judgements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1244.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Critical Thinking; Language and Literature Education; Moral Reasoning; Values Integration
Online: 17 May 2023 (11:04:46 CEST)
In today's complex and rapidly changing world, integrating values, critical thinking, and moral reasoning in language and literature education is crucial for equipping students with the skills to navigate multifaceted ethical dilemmas and become responsible global citizens. This article highlights the connection between language, literature, critical thinking, moral reasoning, and values integration in education. Through language and literature, teachers can incorporate values education in their classroom, which can benefit not only individual students but also society as a whole. Theoretical frameworks such as character education, moral education, and values education provide the basis for this approach. The researcher recommends strategies for incorporating values integration in language and literature curricula, including the use of literary texts that promote critical thinking and moral reasoning skills. The limitations of this approach, including the challenges in assessing the effectiveness of values integration and potential resistance from some stakeholders, are also discussed. Ultimately, this article aims to call on educators to take a proactive role in promoting values integration in language and literature education, guided by the principles of Jesus Christ and the belief that education is not only about acquiring knowledge but developing character as well. Moreover, this concept has a significant and lasting impact on students' overall development that highlights the importance of values and moral reasoning needed to live a better life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0277.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Simple Pendulum; Time Period; Magnetic Action; Numerical Integration; Error Analysis
Online: 15 December 2022 (08:57:20 CET)
In the present study, a simple approximation expression is given for the relationship between the period and amplitude of a simple pendulum under magnetic action. The analytical solution presented for the given problem. Two numerical quadrature methods Simpson's and Boole's method were utilized to demonstrate a new approximation of the problem. The results of the numerical quadrature have been compared to the exact solution. Absolute and relative mistakes of the problem have been presented. The Matlab program 2013R has created a numerical method that is used to analyze the outcome, It has been determined that the comparison's outcomes attest to the method's suitability and correctness. Moreover, the results show that numerical solution is suitable for the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0506.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Integration; Medical and disease prevention; Mediating effect; Public health; Symbiotic
Online: 28 November 2022 (08:56:17 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has accelerated the huge difference between medical care and disease prevention in Chinese medical institutions. This study aimed to investigated the relationship between the symbiotic units, environments, models, and effects of the integration of medical and disease prevention. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 762 employees of public hospitals in 11 cities in Zhejiang Province by random stratified sampling. We analyzed the influence paths of elements in the mechanism of integration of medical and disease prevention and the mediating effect of symbiotic models among symbiotic units, symbiotic environments, and effects for on this integration. Results: The path coefficient of symbiotic unit on the symbiosis model was 0.46 (p<.001), the path coefficient of symbiotic environment on symbiosis model was 0.52 (p<.001). The path coefficient of the symbiotic unit and environment was 0.91 (p<.001). The symbiotic models exhibited a partial mediation effect between symbiotic units and the effect of this integration. Sobel test = 3.27, β = 0.152, and the mediating effect accounted for 34.6%. Conclusions: It is suggested that Health policy-makers and public hospital managers should provide sufficient symbiotic units, establish collaborative symbiotic models, and improve the effects of integration of medical and disease prevention in public hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: active crop canopy sensor; plant height; canopy temperature; sensor integration
Online: 19 October 2022 (04:02:29 CEST)
About a decade ago, active optical crop canopy sensors are being used to manage in-season variable nitrogen (N) fertilization in cornfields to match the plant demand that occurs mid season, increasing the efficiency compared to broadcast N applications. There were also initiatives of using ultrasonic sensors to measure plant height on-the-go for N application and crop water demand estimation, but no studies have integrated the optical, ultrasonic and canopy temperature for crop water stress assessment. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the crop water status using infrared thermometry integrated with optical and ultrasonic sensors. Specifics objectives are: (i) evaluate the corn canopy temperature under different previous crop, N rates and irrigation levels; (ii) test a procedure for water stress assessment in commercial cornfields using the integration of sensors, (iii) correlate plant based sensor measurements (N status, plant height and canopy temperature) with grain yield, soil attributes and detailed topographical features, and (iv) study the spatial dependence of canopy temperature. This study was conducted in one small plot study area and on three producer’s fields in 2010. The small plot experiment consisted of two irrigation levels (70 and 100% of evapotranspiration – ET), two previous crop schemes (corn after corn – CC and corn after soybeans – CS), and four N rates (0, 75, 150, 225 kg N ha-1). Canopy temperature, optical reflectance and plant height was measured from R2 until R6 in the small plots. At the producer’s fields, three long strips across center pivots were used to have a non-limited N and water crop and then continuous georeferenced sensors measurements were taken during side-dress (V11 growth stage) in about 10 hectares in each field. In the small plot study the crop canopy temperature was influenced by the irrigation levels and N rates. The procedure proposed could be used to identify zones in the producer’s field where water stress can be a yield limiting factor other than N derived. Inside the zones considered that water stress played a major whole, there were low correlations between plant height, plant N status and canopy temperature, indicating that the canopy temperature had more influence from water stress than vegetation cover. Concave and lower elevation areas had higher yields compared to convex and high elevation, showing that the detailed elevation mapping can be beneficial to delineate stables zones that possibly could be used in variable irrigation systems. The spatial dependence of canopy temperature was over 65 meters across producers’ sites, showing that the commercial high clearance applicator’s swath width was adequate to obtain accurate maps. The integration of plant N status, plant height and canopy temperature was beneficial to detect water stressed zones in the field. Opportunities can be foresee also for on-the-go N fertilization using integration of these sensors because is likely that water stress can be confounded with different N supply during the growing season and in different zones in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: auto-encoder; high sparse binary data; feature extraction; SNV integration
Online: 10 August 2022 (10:27:32 CEST)
Genomics involving tens of thousands of genes is a complex system determining phenotype. An interesting and vital issue is that how to integrate highly sparse genetic genomics data with a mass of minor effects into prediction model for improving prediction power. We find that deep learning method can work well to extract features by transforming highly sparse dichotomous data to lower dimensional continuous data in a non-linear way. This idea may provide benefits in risk prediction based on genome-wide data associated e.g. integrating most of the information in the genotype data. Hence, we developed a multi-stage strategy to extract information from highly sparse binary genotype data and applied it for risk prediction. Specifically, we first reduced the number of biomarkers via a univariable regression model to a moderate size. Then a trainable auto-encoder was used to extract compact representations from the reduced data. Next, we performed a LASSO problem process over a grid of tuning parameter values to select the optimal combination of extracted features. Finally, we applied such feature combination to two prognostic models, and evaluated predictive effect of the models. The results of simulation studies and real data applying indicated that these highly compressed transformation features could better improve predictive performance and did not easily lead to over-fitting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0651.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: multiple measures synchronization; automatic device integration; open-source; PsychoPy; Unity
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:48:02 CEST)
Background: The human mind is multimodal. Yet most behavioral studies rely on century-old measures such as task accuracy and latency. To create a better understanding of human behavior and brain functionality, we should introduce other measures and analyze behavior from various aspects. However, it is technically complex and costly to design and implement the experiments that record multiple measures. To address this issue, a platform that allows synchronizing multiple measures from human behavior is needed. Method: This paper introduces an opensource platform named OpenSync, which can be used to synchronize multiple measures in neuroscience experiments. This platform helps to automatically integrate, synchronize and record physiological measures (e.g., electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), eye-tracking, body motion, etc.), user input response (e.g., from mouse, keyboard, joystick, etc.), and task-related information (stimulus markers). In this paper, we explain the structure and details of OpenSync, provide two case studies in PsychoPy and Unity. Comparison with existing tools: Unlike proprietary systems (e.g., iMotions), OpenSync is free and it can be used inside any opensource experiment design software (e.g., PsychoPy, OpenSesame, Unity, etc., https://pypi.org/project/OpenSync/ and https://github.com/moeinrazavi/OpenSync_Unity). Results: Our experimental results show that the OpenSync platform is able to synchronize multiple measures with microsecond resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0032.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: global value chain; global economic integration; nestedness; evolutionarily stable equilibrium
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:20:58 CEST)
Nested structure is a structural feature that is conducive to system stability formed by the co-evolution of species in mutualistic ecosystems, and reflects the ability of ecosystem stability to be restored to a stable state again after being destroyed. The co-opetition relationship and value flow between industrial sectors in the global value chain are similar to the mutualistic ecosystem, and the pattern of the global economic system is always changing in dynamic equilibrium. Nestedness theory is used in this article to define the generalist and specialist sectors in the global value chain to analyze the changes in the global supply pattern. Then we study the mechanism of the global economic system to reach a stable equilibrium and the role of different sectors in the steady of the economic system, so as to provide countermeasures for enhancing the stability of the global economic system. At the end of the article, the domestic trade network, export trade network and import trade network of each country are extracted, and an econometric model is designed to analyze how the microstructure of the production system affects a country’s macroeconomic performance, thereby deriving the conclusion that the stability of the international trade network is crucial to a country's economic development.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: PTSD; acculturation stress; transnational families; caregiving; generational trauma; immigrant integration
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:21:20 CEST)
This paper investigates the mental health stressors experienced by Central American youth immigrants and asylum seekers, including unaccompanied minors, surveyed in the U.S. in 2017. This population is hard to reach, vulnerable, and disproportionately exposed to trauma from a young age. They face numerous challenges to mental health, and increased psychopathological risk, exacerbated by high levels of violence and low state-capacity in sending countries, restrictive immigration policies, the fear of deportation for themselves and their family members, and the pressure to integrate once in the U.S. Using survey data and the validated PHQ-9 questionnaire and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), we find that Central American youth have seen improvements in their self-reported mental health after migrating to the U.S. but remain at risk of further trauma exposure, depression, and PTSD. They exhibit a disproportionate likelihood of having lived through traumatizing experiences that put Central American immigrants at higher risk for psychological distress and disorders and may also create obstacles to integration that in turn create new stressors that compound with PTSD and depression. PTSD, depression, or anxiety can be minimized through programs that aid their integration and mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0580.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cybersecurity; supply chains; IoT systems; systems integration, real scenarios analysis
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:33:59 CEST)
The specific demands inherent to supply chains built upon large IoT systems, make a must the design of a coordinated framework for cyber resilience provisioning intended to guaranteeing trusted supply chains of ICT systems, built upon distributed, dynamic, potentially insecure and heterogeneous ICT infrastructures. As such, the proposed solution is envisioned to deal with the whole supply chain system components, from the IoT ecosystem to the infrastructure connecting them, addressing security and privacy functionalities related to risks and vulnerabilities management, accountability and mitigation strategies as well as security metrics and evidence-based security assurance. In this paper we present FISHY, as a preliminary designed architecture, designed to orchestrate both existing and beyond state-of-the-art security appliances in composed ICT scenarios and also leveraging capabilities of programmable network and IT infrastructure through seamless orchestration and instantiation of novel security services, both in real-time and proactively. The paper also includes a thorough business analysis to go far beyond the technical benefits of a potential FISHY adoption as well as three real-world use cases where to strongly support the envisioned benefits of a FISHY adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Tolls; INTEGRATION software; microscopic traffic simulation; traveler value of time
Online: 15 April 2021 (16:52:34 CEST)
Unique analytical challenges arise when drivers, who face a route choice between a toll lane and a set of free lanes, have different values of time. The most complex situation is one in which multiple sub-populations of drivers exist, each with their own unique mean and coefficient of variation of value of time. This situation, when imbedded within a larger network cannot be tackled using existing planning models, and consequently is usually only approximated. This paper examines these different approximations, the resulting numerical solutions and the implications of these approximations on the estimate of the number of expected toll lane users. The paper also shows how this problem can be solved using a combined traffic assignment/simulation model. The first part of this paper develops an analytical formulation for solving the toll lane scenario using the “value of time” representations range from the simplest to the most complex. It is shown that one of the most critical issues is a determination of who the marginal users are of the toll lane, at each level of usage, as the perceived disutility of the last marginal toll lane user depends dynamically upon that driver’s value of time. Analytical formulations based on these different approximations are then solved numerically in the second part of the paper. These numerical solutions show that significant different lane use estimates result, depending upon the representation of value of time. Consequently, it is clear that solving this problem with the fewest approximations is both of theoretical and practical importance. The third part of the paper illustrates the solution to the toll lane problem, with each level of approximation, using a combined traffic assignment/simulation model. The simulated resulting estimates of the toll lane usage for each case matches both the relative and absolute trends found in analytical solutions. However, the solution using the assignment/simulation model is not only much faster and simpler to obtain, but is also scalable both in size and complexity. The additional complexities, that are associated with a less approximate representation of value of time, should therefore be incorporated in all future assessments of toll lane facilities, be they analyzed analytically or through simulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: epidemic; viral sequences; genomics; metadata; data harmonization; integration and search
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:58:27 CEST)
With the outbreak of the COVID-19 disease, the research community is producing unprecedented efforts dedicated to better understand and mitigate the affects of the pandemic. In this context, we review the data integration efforts required for accessing and searching genome sequences and metadata of SARS-CoV2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 disease, which have been deposited into the most important repositories of viral sequences. Organizations that were already present in the virus domain are now dedicating special interest to the emergence of COVID-19 pandemics, by emphasizing specific SARS-CoV2 data and services. At the same time, novel organizations and resources were born in this critical period to serve specifically the purposes of COVID-19 mitigation, while setting the research ground for contrasting possible future pandemics. Accessibility and integration of viral sequence data, possibly in conjunction with the human host genotype and clinical data, are paramount to better understand the COVID-19 disease and mitigate its effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart environment; smart sensors; distributed architectures; object detection; information integration
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:45:21 CET)
Objects recognition is a necessary task in smart city environments. This recognition can be used in processes such as the reconstruction of the environment map or the intelligent navigation of vehicles. This paper proposes an architecture that integrates heterogeneous distributed information to recognize objects in intelligent environments. The architecture is based on the IoT / Industry 4.0 model to interconnect the devices, called Smart Resources. Smart Resources can process local sensor data and send information to other devices. These other devices can be located in the same operating range, the Edge, in the same intranet, the Fog, or on the Internet, the Cloud. Smart Resources must have an intelligent layer in order to be able to process the information. A system with two Smart Resources equipped with different image sensors has been implemented to validate the architecture. Experiments show that the integration of information increases the certainty in the recognition of objects between 2\% and 4\%. Consequently, in the field of intelligent environments, it seems appropriate to provide the devices with intelligence, but also capabilities to collaborate closely with other devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: forest tending; group decision support system; process management; data integration
Online: 10 June 2019 (10:32:09 CEST)
In this study, the decision-making process management of forest tending in the forestry business is decentralized, and forest tending decision-making activities at different points in time are integrated by decision makers at different geographical locations. The decision-making process was analyzed and optimized from a system perspective. Based on the optimized decision-making process, a forest tending business group decision support system (FTGDSS) was established. We first reviewed and discussed the characteristics and development of the forest tending business and forestry decision support system. Business Process Modeling Notation was used to draw a current state flow chart of the forest tending business, to identify and discover important decision points in the process of tending decision-making. We also analyzed the content and attributes of each decision point, and described the system structure, functional framework, knowledge base structure, and reasoning algorithm of FTGDSS in detail. Finally, FTGDSS was evaluated from the two dimensions of the technology adoption model. FTGDSS integrates different levels of time-space decision-making activities, historical tending data, business plans, decision-makers' management tendencies into the decision-making process and automatically extracts decision-making data from the forest business process management enterprise resource planning system (Smartforest) that improves the ease of use of the decision support system (DSS). It also improves the quality of forest tending decisions, and enables the DSS to better support multi-target management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0077.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: integrated information theory; differentiation; integration; complexity; consciousness; computational; IIT; Phi
Online: 8 April 2019 (08:58:29 CEST)
Integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a measure of integrated information (Φ) to capture the level of consciousness for a physical system in a given state. Unfortunately, calculating Φ itself is currently only possible for very small model systems, and far from computable for the kinds of systems typically associated with consciousness (brains). Here, we consider several proposed measures and computational approximations, some of which can be applied to larger systems, and test if they correlate well with Φ. While these measures and approximations capture intuitions underlying IIT and some have had success in practical applications, it has not been shown that they actually quantify the type of integrated information specified by the latest version of IIT. In this study, we evaluated these approximations and heuristic measures, based not on practical or clinical considerations, but rather based on how well they estimate the Φ values of model systems. To do this, we simulated networks consisting of 3–6 binary linear threshold nodes randomly connected with excitatory and inhibitory connections. For each system, we then constructed the system’s state transition probability matrix (TPM), as well as its state transition matrix (STM) over time for all possible initial states. From these matrices, we calculated, approximations to Φ, and measures based on state differentiation, state entropy, state uniqueness, and integrated information. All measures were correlated with Φ in a state dependent and state independent manner. Our findings suggest that Φ can be approximated closely in small binary systems by using one or more of the readily available approximations (r > 0.95), but without major reductions in computational demands. Furthermore, Φ correlated strongly with measures of signal complexity (LZ, rs = 0.722), decoder based integrated information (Φ*, rs = 0.816), and state differentiation (D1, rs = 0.827), on the system level (state independent). These measures could allow for efficient estimation of Φ on a group level, or as accurate predictors of low, but not high, Φ systems. While it’s uncertain whether the results extend to larger systems or systems with other dynamics, we stress the importance that measures aimed at being practical alternatives to Φ are at a minimum rigorously tested in an environment where the ground truth can be established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0352.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: network inference; data integration; regulatory networks; transcription factor; gene expression
Online: 27 April 2018 (06:34:12 CEST)
Data generation using high throughput technologies has led to the accumulation of diverse types of molecular data.These data have different types (discrete,real,string etc.) and occur in various formats and sizes. Datasets including gene expression, miRNA expression, protein-DNA binding data (ChIP-Seq/ChIP-ChIP), mutation data(copy number variation, single nucleotide polymorphisms), GO annotations, protein-protein interaction and disease-gene association data are some of the commonly used genomic datasets to study biological processes. Each of them provides a unique, complementary and partly independent view of the genome and hence embed essential information about their regulatory mechanisms. In order to understand the functions of genes, proteins and analyze mechanisms arising out of their interactions, information provided by each of these datasets individually may not be sufficient. Therefore integrating these multi-omic data and inferring regulatory interactions from the integrated dataset provides a system level biological insights in predicting gene functions and their phenotypic outcomes. To study genome functionality through interaction networks, different methods have been proposed for collective mining of information from an integrated dataset. We survey here data integration approaches using state-of-the-art techniques such as network integration, Bayesian networks, regularized regression (LASSO) and multiple kernel learning methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: process integration; fuel gas network synthesis; block superstructure; optimization; MINLP
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:33:19 CET)
Fuel gas network (FGN) synthesis is a systematic method for reducing fresh fuel consumption in a chemical plant. In this work, we address the synthesis of fuel gas network using block superstructure originally proposed for process design and intensification (Demirel et.al. ). Instead of a classical source-pool-sink superstructure, we consider a superstructure with multiple feed and product streams. These blocks interact with each other through direct flows that connect a block with its adjacent blocks and through jump flows that connect a block with all blocks. The blocks with feed streams are viewed as fuel sources and the blocks with product streams are regarded as fuel sinks. Addition blocks can be added as pools when there exists intermediate operations among 9 source blocks and sink blocks. These blocks can be arranged in a I × J two-dimensional grid with I = 1 for problems without pools, or I = 2 for problems with pools. J is determined by the maximum number of pools/sinks. With this representation, we formulate fuel gas network synthesis problem as a mixed-integer nonlinear (MINLP) problem to optimally design a fuel gas network with minimal total annul cost. We present a real-life case study from LNG plant to demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1915.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: integration of rural industries; development level measurement; regional disparities; dynamic trend
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:04:11 CET)
China is a traditional agricultural country, and the integration of rural industries has become an essential policy direction for the current strategy of agricultural modernization in China. In recent years, the agricultural industrial chains across various regions of China have consistently expanded and extended. The multifunctionality of agriculture is continuously unearthed, and the principal entities managing agriculture have become increasingly diversified and have grown significantly. New industries and forms in agriculture emerge incessantly. Accurately and profoundly understanding the inherent features of the integration of industries in rural China, establishing a scientific and rational measurement index system in line with the current status and development goals of rural China, and employing appropriate measurement methods to assess its development level and process, is instrumental in comprehending the level of integrated development in various regions. This aids in identifying challenges in the developmental process and proposing targeted developmental strategies. Hence, this paper, rooted in the integration of rural industries, cross-industry, industry extension, industry agglomeration, and industry penetration, sets up an measurement index system. Using provincial panel data from 2011 to 2020, the paper measures the level of integrated development in rural industries across China and its 31 provinces. Based on the measurement results, further techniques such as kernel density estimation and Gini coefficient decomposition have been used to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics and dynamic trends of the integrated development of rural industries in China. Research indicates that during the sample period, the overall level of integrated development in rural industries in various provinces in China has shown an upward trend. Development among the eastern, central, and western regions is highly uneven, but this disparity has been gradually narrowing in recent years. Furthermore, the levels of integrated development in different provinces exhibit significant spatial agglomeration effects. The development level of neighboring regions significantly impacts the province's development status. In the process of integrated development of rural industries in China, there's a trend where "it's easier to downgrade than to upgrade," with very few regions achieving leapfrog development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1315.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: polymer waveguide technology; integrated optics; germanium waveguide; spectroscopic ellipsometry; hybrid integration
Online: 20 September 2023 (07:43:13 CEST)
Germanium (Ge) nanostrip is embedded in polymer and studied as a waveguide. Measurement reveals that this new type of semiconductor/polymer heterogeneous waveguide exhibits strong absorption for the TE mode from 1500 nm to 2004 nm, while the propagation loss for the TM mode declines from 20.56 dB/cm at 1500 nm to 4.89 dB/cm at 2004 nm. The transmission characteristics serves as an essential tool to verify the optical parameters (n-κ) of the thin strips, addressing to the ambiguity raised by spectroscopic ellipsometry regarding highly absorbing materials. Furthermore, the observed strong absorption for the TE mode at 2004 nm is well beyond the cut-off wavelength of the crystalline bulk Ge (~1850 nm at room temperature). This redshift is modeled to manifest the narrowing of the Tauc-fitted bandgap due to the grain order effect in the amorphous Ge layer. The accurate measurement of the nanometer-scale light-absorbing strips in a waveguide form is a crucial step toward the accurate design of integrated photonic devices that utilize such components.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2176.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Liquid biopsy; electrochemical sensors; Lab On Chip; miniaturization; sensors integration; microfabrication
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:40:48 CEST)
Screening and early diagnosis of diseases are crucial for a patient's treatment to be successful and to improve their survival rate, especially in cancer. The development of non-invasive analytical methods able to detect biomarkers of pathologies is a critical point to define a successful treat-ment and a good outcome. This study extensively reviews electrochemical methods used for the development of biosensors in liquid biopsy, owing to their ability to provide rapid response, pre-cise detection, and low detection limits. We also discuss new developments in electrochemical biosensors, which can improve the specificity and sensitivity of standard analytical procedures. Electrochemical biosensors demonstrate remarkable sensitivity in detecting minute quantities of analytes, encompassing proteins, nucleic acids, and circulating tumor cells, even within challeng-ing matrices such as urine, serum, blood, and various other body fluids. Among the various de-tection techniques used for the detection of cancer biomarkers, even in the picogram range, volt-ammetric sensors are deeply discussed in this review because of their advantages and technical characteristics. This widespread utilization stems from their ability to facilitate quantitative de-tection of ions and molecules with exceptional precision. The comparison of each electrochemical technique is discussed to provide the selection of appropriate analytical methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: CMOS; DC-DC converter; control circuit; integration; voltage –mode; boost converter
Online: 7 November 2022 (08:48:18 CET)
The integrated DC-DC converter is appropriate for use in many domains, namely, display, cellular, and portable applications. This paper presents an integrated monolithic voltage-mode DC-DC boost converter with a low-power control circuit. The driver circuit requires an integrated converter to power up a digital logic circuit and converts the unregulated DC input to the controlled DC output at the desired voltage level. It is the integration of both power switches and control circuitry within the same CMOS technology to buck down and boost voltages using a switch mode regulator. In order to increase power efficiency in the DC-DC boost converter that provides low-power operation with a small chip size, a low-voltage operation is applied to the unique circuit characteristic. The operational transconductance amplifier(OTA), comparator, and oscillator in the control circuit are designed with the supply voltage of 3.3V and the operating frequency of 5.5 MHz. A compensator is used to create a pole that has sufficient phase margin for high stability. The DC- DC boost converter is measured in both experiment and simulation. Testing of the proposed circuit on the 0.35μm CMOS process shows that the output transient time of the amplifier can be controlled within of 7μsec and the output voltage is accurately controlled with a ripple ratio of 3%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0428.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Agenda 2030; sustainability goals; national environmental quality objectives; industry; integration; implementation
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:36:12 CEST)
Abstract This article examines the implementation of the Swedish national environmental quality objectives and discusses what can be learnt for the equivalent process for the set of global UN 2030 goals (SDGs), established in 2015. The empirical basis is a study on 50 large companies in Sweden and their use of these objectives in their policy formulation. The SDGs are crafted with a broader approach than the Swedish national environmental quality objectives. Therefore, the SDGs probably better reflect the agenda of the business community since they have a global character, cover the whole spectrum of important sustainability issues and provide a mutual agenda for the business community world-wide. More than 90 percent of the large companies in the study have explicitly committed themselves to the SDGs, only 1-2 years after they were published, whereas similar commitments hardly exist for the national environmental quality objectives, even 20 years after its establishment. A large majority of the large companies in this study know about the SDGs, have actively endorsed them, and started to adjust their activities accordingly. At the end, the results of these endorsements remain to be seen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Connected vehicles; C-V2X; V2V; INTEGRATION software; traffic simulation; communication modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:38:56 CET)
The transportation system has evolved into a complex cyber-physical system with the introduction of wireless communication and the emergence of connected travelers and connected automated vehicles. Such applications create an urgent need to develop high-fidelity transportation modeling tools that capture the mutual interaction of the communication and transportation systems. This paper addresses this need by developing a high-fidelity, large-scale dynamic and integrated traffic and direct cellullar vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (collectively known as V2X) modeling tool. The unique contributions of this work are (1) we developed a scalable analytical communication model that captures packet movement at the millisecond level; (2) we coupled the communication and traffic simulation models in real-time to develop a fully integrated dynamic connected vehicle modeling tool; and (3) we developed scalable approaches that adjust the frequency of model coupling depending on the number of concurrent vehicles in the network. The proposed scalable modeling framework is demonstrated by running on the Los Angeles downtown network considering the morning peak hour traffic demand (145,000 vehicles), running faster than real-time on a regular personal computer (1.5 hours to run 1.86 hours of simulation time). Spatiotemporal estimates of packet delivery ratios for downtown Los Angeles are presented. This novel modeling framework provides a breakthrough in the development of urgently needed tools for large-scale testing of Direct C-V2X enabled applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0365.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cancer subtype detection; Multi-omics data; Data integration; Autoencoder; Survival analysis
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:09:51 CET)
A heterogeneous disease like cancer is activated through multiple pathways and different perturbations. Depending upon the activated pathway(s), patients’ survival vary significantly and show different efficacy to various drugs. Therefore, cancer subtype detection using genomics level data is a significant research problem. Subtype detection is often a complex problem, and in most cases, needs multi-omics data fusion to achieve accurate subtyping. Different data fusion and subtyping approaches have been proposed, such as kernel-based fusion, matrix factorization, and deep learning autoencoders. In this paper, we compared the performance of different deep learning autoencoders for cancer subtype detection. We performed cancer subtype detection on four different cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets using four autoencoder implementations. We also predicted the optimal number of subtypes in a cancer type using the silhouette score. We observed that the detected subtypes exhibit significant differences in survival profiles. Furthermore, we also compared the effect of feature selection and similarity measures for subtype detection. To evaluate the results obtained, we selected the Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) dataset and identified the differentially expressed genes in each of the subtypes identified by the autoencoders; the obtained results coincide well with other genomic studies and can be corroborated with the involved pathways and biological functions. Thus, it shows that the results from the autoencoders, obtained through the interaction of different datatypes of cancer, can be used for the prediction and characterization of patient subgroups and survival profiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Simmelian ties, enterprise innovation performance, knowledge capturing, knowledge integration, network routines
Online: 11 August 2020 (04:17:39 CEST)
In an innovation driven business environment, cross-border access to resources is important for companies to improve innovation capabilities and development performance. Based on the previous research, it shows that there are barriers to cross domain communication among alliance firms because of the restriction of multidimensional ties and dyads. Simmelian ties, as a form of alliance network with ternary connections, it effectively restrained opportunism and self-interest in the cooperation process and take a crucial role to evaluate innovation related performance in corporation. Based on the theory of Simmelian, this paper builds a theoretical framework and proposes corresponding research hypotheses between Simmelian ties and enterprise innovation performance. After designing questionnaires, collecting data and conducting empirical analysis to test theoretical models and hypotheses. Results have shown that: (1) Simmelian ties generally have a positive impact on enterprise innovation performance. (2) Knowledge capturing and knowledge integration play a partial intermediary role between Simmelian ties and enterprise innovation performance, and the mediating chain formed by the two variables plays a serial mediating role in the effect. (3) Network routines significantly positively moderates the relationship between Simmelian ties and knowledge capturing. And also, the positive relationship between Simmelian ties and enterprise innovation performance is also actively moderated by network routines. The conclusion of this study is meaningful for companies to establish of Simmelian ties, improve knowledge management capabilities and further promote enterprise innovation performance.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Injection molding, smart textiles, e-textiles, integration of electronics in textiles
Online: 26 August 2019 (13:48:04 CEST)
The protection of electronics against environmental influences and mechanical loads is important for integration of conventional electronics in textile conductive tapes. For this purpose, the sensors on the tapes are molded with plastic locally. This process step is recognized in the injection molding process. The molding compound is then later selected depending on: The field of application, the parameters of the manufacturing process and the textile tape properties. We have designed a mould for liquid silicone (LSR) as well as for the textile and electronic insertions. The cavities are sealed by a local compression of the textile and the two inserts are positioned with position pins representing the main aspect of the mould design. The sampling tool and the process parameter optimization are mainly based on the material properties of the silicone and the mechanical sensitivity of the inserts. To reduce the deformation of the circuit boards by the melt front and ensuring the functionality of the electronics a low-pressure process is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0193.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: archaeological geophysics; magnetic methods; ground penetrating radar; tunnel detection; data integration
Online: 15 May 2019 (11:14:34 CEST)
The UNESCO World Heritage Hadrian’s Villa lies over the Colli Albani volcanic district near Rome. Magnetic, paleomagnetic, radar, and electric resistivity surveys were performed in the Plutonium–Inferi sector to detect buried buildings and outline a segment of the underground system of tunnels that link different zones of the villa. In particular, a paleomagnetic analysis of the bedrock unit allowed to accomplish an accurate geomagnetic field modelling and characterize the archaeological sources of the magnetic field anomalies. We used a computer-assisted forward modelling procedure to generate a structural model of the sources of the observed anomalies. The intrinsic ambiguity of the magnetic field modelling was reduced with the support of ground penetrating radar amplitude slices and an analysis of radar and electric resistivity profiles. The bedrock lithology in this area is an ignimbrite tuff characterized by abundant iron oxides. The high-amplitude magnetic anomalies observed in the Plutonium–Inferi area are due to strong bedrock remnant magnetization and susceptibility contrasts between topsoil infill of cavities and the surrounding tuff. The resulting magnetization model of the Plutonium–Inferi complex shows that the observed anomalies are mostly due to the presence of tunnels, skylights and a system of ditches excavated in the tuff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0337.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Web API; SPARQL; micro-service; Data Integration; Linked Data; REST; Biodiversity
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:59:31 CET)
In recent years, Web APIs have become a de facto standard for exchanging machine-readable data on the Web. Despite this success though, they often fail in making resource descriptions interoperable due to the fact that they rely on proprietary vocabularies that lack formal semantics. The Linked Data principles similarly seek the massive publication of data on the Web, yet with the specific goal of ensuring semantic interoperability. Given their complementary goals, it is commonly admitted that cross-fertilization could stem from the automatic combination of Linked Data and Web APIs. Towards this goal, in this paper we leverage the micro-service architectural principles to define a SPARQL Micro-Service architecture, aimed at querying Web APIs using SPARQL. A SPARQL micro-service is a lightweight SPARQL endpoint that provides access to a small, resource-centric, virtual graph. In this context, we argue that full SPARQL Query expressiveness can be supported efficiently without jeopardizing servers availability. Furthermore, we demonstrate how this architecture can be used to dynamically assign dereferenceable URIs to Web API resources that do not have URIs beforehand, thus literally ``bringing'' Web APIs into the Web of Data. We believe that the emergence of an ecosystem of SPARQL micro-services published by independent providers would enable Linked Data-based applications to easily glean pieces of data from a wealth of distributed, scalable and reliable services. We describe a working prototype implementation and we finally illustrate the use of SPARQL micro-services in the context of two real-life use cases related to the biodiversity domain, developed in collaboration with the French National Museum of Natural History.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0203.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: DNA; DNA nanotechnology; patchy particles; Wertheim theory; thermodynamic integration; phase coexistence
Online: 25 March 2018 (16:14:27 CEST)
We present a numerical study in which large-scale bulk simulations of self-assembled DNA constructs have been carried out with a realistic coarse-grained model. The investigation aims at obtaining a precise, albeit numerically demanding, estimate of the free energy for such systems. We then, in turn, use these accurate results to validate a recently proposed theoretical approach that builds on a liquid-state theory, the Wertheim theory, to compute the phase diagram of all-DNA fluids. This hybrid theoretical/numerical approach, based on the lowest order virial expansion and a nearest-neighbor DNA model, can provide, in an undemanding way, a thermodynamic description of DNA associating fluids that is in semi-quantitative agreement with experiments. We show that the predictions of such scheme are as accurate as the ones obtained with more sophisticated methods. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the approach by incorporating non-trivial additional contributions that go beyond the nearest-neighbor model to compute the DNA hybridization free energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0002.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind prediction; wind estimation; UAS; wind shear; gust; multi-platform integration
Online: 18 January 2017 (09:44:54 CET)
This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz. Predictions show a convergence time with a 95% confidence interval of approximately 30 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1532.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Aerospace Industry; Quality Management; Process Integration; Industry 4.0; Efficiency Sustainability; Technological Advancements
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:16:05 CEST)
This paper delves into the multifaceted domain of the aerospace industry, examining its evolution, current challenges, and imperative focus on quality management and process integration. The aerospace sector, driven by technological advancements and a burgeoning global demand for air travel and freight transport, necessitates a thorough analysis of its industrial fabric and operational intricacies. This research endeavors to analyze the dynamics of the aerospace industry, pinpoint its challenges, and propose an integrated approach to enhance efficiency, quality, and sustainability. The primary goals encompass understanding the evolving industry landscape, identifying critical challenges, and offering innovative solutions by amalgamating principles of Industry 4.0 into quality management and processes within the aerospace sector. Through an in-depth exploration of various facets, this research underscores the pivotal role of efficient processes and integrated quality management in achieving sustainable growth and competitiveness in the aerospace industry. By aligning with the paradigm of Industry 4.0, organizations can optimize their operations and contribute to the industry's advancement, delivering safer and more cost-effective aerospace products. The study adopts a multifaceted approach, incorporating extensive literature review, critical analysis of industry trends, examination of quality management frameworks, and a thorough evaluation of the integration potential of Industry 4.0 technologies. The research also involves case studies and expert insights to validate the proposed approach. The investigation reveals that by leveraging Industry 4.0 technologies and embracing an integrated approach to quality management, the aerospace industry can significantly enhance operational efficiency, product quality, and overall sustainability. The seamless integration of processes and the implementation of advanced quality frameworks pave the way for a more competitive and future-ready aerospace industry, meeting the evolving demands of a globalized world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1988.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: thermo-electrochemical cells; redox couples; quasi‑solid‑state electrolyte; electrode; device integration
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:27:27 CEST)
Currently, efficient utilization of low-grade thermal energy is a great challenge. Thermoelectricity is an extremely promising method of generating electrical energy from temperature differences. As a promising energy conversion technology, thermo-electrochemical cells (TECs) have attracted much attention in recent years for their ability to convert thermal energy directly into electricity with high thermal power. Within TECs, anions and cations gain and lose electrons, respectively at the electrodes using the potential difference between the hot and cold terminals of the electrodes by redox couples. Additionally, the anions and cations therein are constantly circulating and mobile via concentration diffusion and thermal diffusion, providing an uninterrupted supply of power to the exterior. This review article focuses mainly on the operation of TECs, recent ad-vances in redox couples, electrolytes, and electrodes. The outlook for optimization strategies re-garding TECs is also presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); BIM implementation; BIM manager; responsibility; coordination; integration; muiltidisciplines
Online: 19 July 2023 (04:54:14 CEST)
Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology have been optimizing the construction activity in all sectors: multidisciplinary designs development; construction planning and monitoring; building management and maintenance. A BIM environment aggregates several disciplines and different skillsets and in order to control and improve the quality of a BIM project, a BIM manager is required. The BIM manager has the responsibility to coordinate all tasks involved in a building design and associated activities usually workout over the project documents. The professional can access to various discipline models, located in a shared board, and request for amendments if inconsistencies are detected. The present study issue is illustrated with three building cases were distinct specific projects, disciplines and tasks were elaborated: collaboration between disciplines (architecture, structures and construction); structural analyses and reinforcement details; quantity take-off of materials and cost estimation; construction scheduling and simulation. Although there are limitations in the implementation of BIM methodology in all sectors and stages, within the construction industry, BIM have been bringing an important improvement in the quality of a building design, reflected in the quality of the final product. BIM methodology is a current demand in the construction industry supported on advanced technology and in an adequate management of projects, were the BIM manager has an important role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Hydrogen; pipeline; port; offshore; bunkering; sustainable ports; electricity; hydrogen integration; ocean energy.
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:22:13 CEST)
Offshore electricity production, mainly by wind turbines, and eventually floating PV in the future, will contribute to increase renewable energy production, as well as their dispatchability. The need for that energy evacuation and the implementation of the hydrogen economy are challenges that arise the evaluation of such energy facilities for the direct production of hydrogen. The analysis of the alternatives for the evacuation of offshore renewable electricity for the production of hydrogen is presented. The analysis includes discussion about the current state of the art of hydrogen pipelines and subsea cables, as well as the storage and bunkering system that is needed on shore. The main options for energy evacuation will be via an electric subsea cable to produce hydrogen onshore, or by pipeline, depending on the capacity of the offshore plant. For low capacity, an electric subsea cable is the best option. For high capacity renewable offshore plants, pipelines start to be competitive for distances above aprox. 450 miles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: station-city integration; Chongqing East station; combined construction; Evacuation (quasi) safety zone
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:52:15 CEST)
In response to the fire protection design challenges faced by the integrated station-city engineering under the new model of station-city fusion, such as large building volume, diverse traffic types, functional integration, spatial complexity, and inapplicable standards, this paper selects Chongqing East Station as a typical engineering case. The fire safety engineering methods and performance-based fire protection design ideas were used. The paper summarized the fire protection difficulties, such as multifunctional combination construction, large fire protection distance, large fire protection zoning area, long evacuation distance, and design of evacuation (quasi) safety zones. Combining with the actual situation of the engineering, this paper analyzed the basic technical measures taken to address these design challenges. By adopting the method of fire safety engineering, the safety of the design scheme is verified, which can provide a solution approach for the current fire protection design challenges in the integrated station-city engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0549.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest plants; genetic breeding; omics technologies; multi-omics integration; gene regulatory networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (05:31:46 CEST)
In recent years, the ecological and economic values of forest plants have been gradually recognized worldwide. However, the growing global demand for new forest plant varieties with higher wood production capacity and better stress tolerance cannot be satisfied by conventional phenotype-based breeding, marker-assisted selection, and genomic selection. In the recent past, diverse omics technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been developed rapidly, providing powerful tools for the precision genetic breeding of forest plants. Genomics lays a solid foundation for understanding complex biological regulatory networks, while other omics technologies provide different perspectives at different levels. Multi-omics integration has combined the different omics technologies, becoming a powerful tool for genome-wide functional element identification in forest plant breeding. This review summarizes the recent progress of omics technologies and their applications in the genetic studies of forest plants. It will provide forest plant breeders with an elementary knowledge of multi-omics techniques for future breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD; PIV; experimental fluid mechanics; pressure calculation; SIMPLE; Reynolds Stresses; measurement integration)
Online: 30 March 2022 (04:40:11 CEST)
Calculation of the pressure field on and around solid bodies exposed to external flow is of paramount importance to a number of engineering applications. However, conventional pressure measurement techniques are inherently linked to problems principally caused by their point-wise and/or intrusive nature. In the present paper, we attempt to calculate the time-averaged two-dimensional pressure field by integrating PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) velocity measurements into a CFD code and modifying them by the respective correction step of the SIMPLE algorithm. Boundary conditions are applied from the PIV data as a three-layer area of constant velocities, adjacent to the boundaries. A novel characteristic of the approach is the straightforward inclusion of the Reynolds Stresses into the source terms of the momentum equations, calculated directly from the PIV statistics. The methodology is applied to three regions of the symmetry plane parallel to the main boundary layer flow past a surface mounted cube. In spite of findings of deviations from the planar 2D flow assumption, the derived pressure fields and the adjusted velocity fields are found to be reliable, while the intrinsic turbulent nature of the flow is considered without modelling of the Reynolds stresses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0683.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: centrifugal microfluidics; Lab-on-a-Disc; fluidic integration; rotational flow control; valving
Online: 7 June 2021 (14:45:53 CEST)
Current, application-driven trends towards larger-scale integration (LSI) of microfluidic systems for comprehensive assay automation and multiplexing pose significant technological and economical challenges to developers. By virtue of their intrinsic capability for powerful sample preparation, centrifugal systems have attracted significant interest in academia and business since the early 1990s. This review models common, rotationally controlled valving schemes at the heart of such “Lab-on-a-Disc” (LoaD) platforms to predict critical spin rates and reliability of flow control mainly based on geometries, location and liquid volumes to be processed, and their experimental tolerances. In absence of larger-scale manufacturing facilities during product development, the method presented here facilitates the provision of efficient simulation tools for virtual prototyping and characterization to greatly expedite design optimization according to key performance metrics. This virtual in silico approach thus significantly accelerates, de-risks and lowers costs along the critical advancement from idea, fluidic testing, bioanalytical validation and scale-up to commercial mass manufacture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: in vitro diagnostics; microfluidics; full integration; lab-on-a-chip; pathogen detection
Online: 26 November 2019 (09:56:47 CET)
Microfluidics is facing critical challenges in the quest of miniaturizing, integrating, and automating in vitro diagnostics, including the increasing complexity of assays, the gap between the macroscale world and the microscale devices, and the diverse throughput demands in various clinical settings. Here a “3D extensible” microfluidic design paradigm that consists of a set of basic structures and unit operations was developed for constructing any application-specific assay. Four basic structures- check valve (in), check valve (out), double-check valve (in and out), and on-off valve, were designed to mimic basic acts in biochemical assays. By combining these structures linearly, a series of unit operations can be readily formed. We then proposed a “3D extensible” architecture to fulfill the needs of the function integration, the adaptive “world-to-chip” interface, and the adjustable throughput in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. To verify this design paradigm, we developed a fully integrated loop-mediated isothermal amplification microsystem that can directly accept swab samples and detect Chlamydia trachomatis automatically with a sensitivity one order higher than that of the conventional kit. This demonstration validated the feasibility of using this paradigm to develop integrated and automated microsystems in a less risky and more consistent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: carbon intensity; coal consumption; co-integration test; Granger causality; error correction model
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:33:34 CEST)
Co-integration and Causality was built to conduct studies on causality relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption leading to providing important basis for the transition to a low carbon economy. The EG two-step method was performed to study the relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption of China during 1990-2015 and the co-integration and Granger test was constructed to build up the co-integration and error correction models for analysis of the interaction between carbon intensity and coal consumption. The results showed that in long term there is a stable co-integration relation and a positive correlation between carbon intensity and coal consumption; whereas fluctuations exist in short term and there is a one-way Granger causality of carbon intensity with respect to coal consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0752.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: geospatial models; model integration framework; model servicized structure; prioritization-based orchestration; heuristic scheduling
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:03:34 CET)
With the rapid development of Earth observation and information technology, people are increasingly able to access geospatial models. Geospatial models, based on principles of geography, utilize mathematical, statistical, as well as computer science methods to interpret and predict geographic phenomena. These models can be applied in the fields such as urban planning, environmental protection, traffic management to help decision-makers solve geography-related problems. However, integrating different geospatial models to collaboratively solve complex geographic problems still faces significant obstacles due to heterogeneity in model structure, dependencies, and running modes. In this study, we propose a containerized service-based integration framework for heterogeneous geospatial models (GeoCSIF). GeoCSIF consists of three main components: (1) Model encapsulation. It breaks down complicated geospatial models into independently manageable model units, and builds as unified service packages with a templated constraint method. (2) Model orchestration. It achieves an optimal combination of large-scale models with complex dependencies using a prioritization-based orchestration method. (3) Model publication. It incorporates heuristics into the model scheduling process, which can provide adaptive deployment for different model runs. Finally, a prototype system was developed to validate the effectiveness and progressiveness of GeoCSIF by the integrating process of heterogeneous flood disaster models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2073.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: virtual reality; education; Indian school system; perceived benefits; challenges; future expectations; technology integration
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:27:53 CET)
Virtual Reality (VR) technology in education has the potential to revolutionize the Indian school education system. This research study investigates the present state of VR adoption, perceived benefits, concerns, and future expectations among both students and educators. The survey-based approach collected responses from 45,000 students and 2,000 educators across a diverse range of schools in India. The findings highlight a mixed current landscape with significant room for expansion in VR utilization. Both students and educators express optimism regarding the benefits of VR, recognizing its capacity to enhance engagement, comprehension, and motivation in the learning process. However, challenges, including budget constraints, the need for training and support, and concerns about student safety, must be addressed to effectively integrate VR into education. Expectations for the future emphasize inclusivity, accessibility, and customized learning experiences. The research underscores the transformative potential of VR in Indian education while emphasizing the necessity of addressing practical challenges for its successful implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0063.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digitalization; IT strategy; digital transformation; hospitality industry; hotel industry; key properties; technology integration
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:04:10 CEST)
This article explores how digitalisation is impacting the hospitality industry and assesses the evolving role of Information Technology (IT) strategy in the digitalisation process. The research approach is qualitative and inductive, based on six in-depth interviews with senior IT professionals in the hospitality industry. Findings indicate significant differences in the role of IT strategy in guiding digitalisation in the companies studied. The depth of information provided by the interviewees supports the development and application of a model that profiles the companies regarding their degree of digitalisation and technology integration. Analysis of interview material allows the identification of key properties for successful digitalization: process agility, workforce adaptability, and technology manageability, along with a clear data culture and ensured cybersecurity. However, disparate systems and technologies, and a lack of data integrity, are key issues that leave hospitality companies with difficult choices in progressing digitalisation initiatives. The applied model and identification of key properties for successful digitalisation contribute to the development of related theory and can also be used as a reference point for senior IT professionals working in the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2047.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 vaccination; integration mapping tool; routine immunization; field testing; PHC; Cote d'Ivoire
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:17:54 CEST)
Abstract Introduction: With the containment of the COVID-19 pandemic in Côte d'Ivoire, efforts were made to seamlessly integrate COVID-19 vaccination into the national immunization program. A collaborative initiative involving UNICEF, WHO, GAVI, and partner organizations resulted in the creation of the COVID-19 Vaccine Integration Mapping Tool. This paper presents a case study documenting the field testing of the Integration Mapping Tool and assessing the integration of COVID-19 vaccination within primary healthcare and routine immunization in Côte d'Ivoire. The study aims to describe the pilot process, gather feedback on tool usefulness and challenges, and establish integration priorities through roadmap development. Methods: Under the guidance of the Ministry of Health and Universal Coverage Cabinet, a workshop was conducted with participants from major health programs to field test the tool. Data analysis was performed using Excel, and the results were presented through tables, heat maps, and line graphs. Results: The first-of-its-kind field test of the Integration Mapping Tool in Cote d'Ivoire showcased its potential to bring key partners together to discuss the current state of integration, to improve transparency about resource allocation resource allocation, and enhance data management for the successful incorporation of COVID-19 vaccination into existing immunization systems. The integration of COVID-19 vaccines in Côte d'Ivoire showed a moderate level of progress, with improvement needed in resource allocation, payment systems, targeting of highest risk groups and vaccine administration. Support should be increased for target population identification, distribution points, quality of care mechanisms, and health personnel training. Health information systems and access to essential medicines were relatively satisfactory. Integration into existing programs, intersectoral collaboration, national health strategy, communication strategy, community participation, and data utilization require improvement. The post-workshop satisfaction survey gave the tool a score of .7 out of 10. Early lessons from Côte d'Ivoire provide guidance for enhancing integration, focusing on data-driven decision-making, collaboration, stakeholder engagement, and effective leadership. Conclusion: The successful field test of the Integration Mapping Tool (IMT) in Côte d'Ivoire marks a groundbreaking milestone, exemplifying the transformative potential of innovative tools in immunization practices. The IMT's application sets a precedent for seamless COVID-19 vaccination integration worldwide, emphasizing data-driven decision-making, collaboration, timing, and leadership. The pilot exercise's success in Côte d'Ivoire was attributed to political commitment, well-facilitated workshops, assessments, and the fact that the team in CI had previously already developed some initial integration plan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0433.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CRS); Management Systems (MSs); ANOVA; Integration of Management Systems (IMS)
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:11:10 CEST)
The implementation of management systems has become a strategic advantage in achieving business goals, especially in industrial organizations, but the implementation of social responsibility requirements is especially ethical. Large multinational companies have long been developing and, in particular, implementing their own codes of conduct, which include their suppliers, to demonstrate their commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The compliance with CSR requirements from stakeholders is thus extended or intertwined with requirements in established management systems (MSs). The objectives of the study were to (1) analyze the different approaches to CSR in internationally recognized cross-industry and industry-specific standards and codes in different industries; (2) select the most appropriate framework for assessing the degree of applicability of CSR in the selected management systems and develop a methodology for its assessment; (3) apply the proposed methodology (referred to as SRIMS) in the selected areas: automotive industry, research organization, and metallurgical industry; (4) through ANOVA, validate its use for assessing the overall level of CSR applicability in an organization's established management systems. The application of the Bonferroni method confirmed the hypotheses that the developed SRIMS model is a sufficiently appropriate tool for assessing the overall level of applicability of CSR requirements to established MSs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2215.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Numerical time integration; diffusion equation; heat equation; cylindrical coordinates; spherical coordinates; unconditional stability
Online: 31 May 2023 (09:53:08 CEST)
New analytical solutions of the heat conduction equation are presented in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Then these solutions are reproduced with high accuracy by recent explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference methods. After this, real experimental data from the literature regarding a heated cylinder are reproduced by the explicit numerical methods as well as by Finite Element Methods (FEM) ANSYS workbench. Convection and nonlinear radiation are also considered on the boundary of the cylinder, and it is shown that the explicit methods are much more accurate than the commercial software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1653.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Milne’s rule; Simpson’s rule; Quadrature rule; Newton–Cotes formulae; Numerical integration; Error estimation
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:32:21 CEST)
In this work, in spite of Milne’s recommendation using the three-point Newton–Cotes open formula (Milne’s rule) as a predictor rule and three-point Newton–Cotes closed formula (Simpson’s rule) as a corrector rule for 4-th differentiable functions with bounded derivatives. There is still a great need to introduce such formulas in other Lp spaces. Often, we need to approximate real integrals under the assumptions of the function involved. Because of that, the aim of this work is to introduce several Lp error estimates for the proposed perturbed Milne’s quadrature rule. Numerical experiments showing that our proposed quadrature rule is better than the classical Milne rule for certain types of functions are provided as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Data integration; Decision Support System; Information Systems; Infrastructure Asset Management; Water supply systems
Online: 16 November 2022 (03:31:31 CET)
This paper presents a new information technology platform specially tailored for infrastructure asset management of urban water systems operated by water utilities of lower digital maturity level, developed in the scope of DECIdE research project. This platform aims at the integration of different data from the water utilities with several information systems and the assessment of the system performance, in terms of water losses, energy efficiency and quality of service by using developed tools (i.e., water and energy balances and key performance indicators). This platform was tested with data from five small to medium size Portuguese water utilities with different maturity levels in terms of technological and human resources. Obtained results are very promising since the platform allows to assess the systems performance periodically which constitute an important part of the infrastructure asset management for small and medium-sized water utilities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: North Sea region; offshore grid; offshore hydrogen; offshore wind; system integration; IESA-NS
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:45:35 CEST)
The North Sea Offshore Grid concept has been envisioned as a promising alternative to: 1) ease the integration of offshore wind and onshore energy systems, and 2) increase the cross-border capacity between the North Sea region countries at low cost. In this paper we explore the techno-economic benefits of the North Sea Offshore Grid using two case studies: a power-based offshore grid, where only investments in power assets are allowed (i.e. offshore wind, HVDC/HVAC interconnectors); and a power-and-hydrogen offshore grid, where investments in offshore hydrogen assets are also permitted (i.e. offshore electrolysers, new hydrogen pipelines and retrofitted natural gas pipelines). We compare these scenario results with a business as usual scenario, in which offshore wind is connected radially to the shore and no offshore grid is deployed. All scenarios are run with the IESA-NS model, without any specific technology ban and under open optimization. This paper also presents a novel methodology, combining Geographic Information Systems and Energy System Models, to cluster offshore spatial data and define meaningful offshore regions and offshore hub locations. This novel methodology is applied to the North Sea region to define nine offshore clusters taking into account offshore spatial claims, and identifying suitable areas for single-use and multi-use of space for renewable energy purposes. The scenario results show that the deployment of an offshore grid provides relevant cost savings, ranging from 1% to 4.1% of relative cost decrease (2.3 bn € to 8.7 bn €) in the power-based, and ranging from 2.8% to 7% of relative cost decrease (6 bn € to 14.9 bn €) in the power-and-hydrogen based. In the most extreme scenario (H2) an offshore grid permits to integrate 283 GW of HVDC connected offshore wind and 196 GW of HVDC meshed interconnectors. Even in the most conservative scenario (P1) the offshore grid integrates 59 GW of HVDC connected offshore wind capacity and 92 GW of HVDC meshed interconnectors. When allowed, the deployment of offshore electrolysis is considerable, ranging from 61 GW to 96 GW, with capacity factors of around 30%. Finally, we also find that, when imported hydrogen is available at 2 €/kg (including production and transport costs), large investments in an offshore grid are not optimal anymore. In contrast, at import costs over 4 €/kg imported hydrogen is not competitive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0694.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Transpiration; PV Heat Conversion; Plant Heat Stress; Agrivoltaic system; Sustainable Integration; Thermal Analysis
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:20:25 CEST)
This paper shares some new information on the ambient temperature profile and the heat stress occurrences directly underneath ground-mounted Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Arrays (monocrystalline-based) focusing on different temperature levels. A common ground for this work lies on the fact that 10C increase of PV cell temperature results in reduction of 0.5% energy conversion efficiency thus any means of natural cooling mechanism would gain much benefit especially to the Solar Farm operators. Transpiration process plays an important role in the cooling of green plants where in average it could dissipate around 32.9% of the total solar energy absorbed by the leaf making it a good natural cooling mechanism. This condition is relatively applied for herbs specifically for this project, Orthosiphon Stamineus or generally known as Java Tea are used as the high value crops. The thermal process via convective heat and mass exchange of leaves with the environment is relevant for a better understanding of plant physiological processes in response to environmental conversion factors for a wide range of applications. An important fact for plant heat stress with respect to the Ambient temperature is that the range lies between 10 C to 15 C above the surrounding value. This heat stress condition is relatively important and should be modelled in crops-energy integration. Agrivoltaic concept is a system that combines commercial agriculture and photovoltaic electricity generation in the same space. The concept is in line with the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDG) which highlights the clean energy and sustainable urban living. The integration of agrivoltaic systems would optimize the yield, improving clean system efficiency and solving the issue of land resource sustainability. The PV bottom surface temperature are the main source of dissipated heat as shown in the thermal images recorded at 5 minutes interval at 3 sampling time. Statistical analysis shows that the Thermal correlations for transpiration process and heat stress occurrences between PV bottom surface and plant height will be an important finding for large scale plant cultivation in agrivoltaic farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0196.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: simulation software; manufacturing systems; process integration; machining optimization; Industry 4.0; knowledge-based manufacturing
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:28:34 CEST)
The future of machine tools will be dominated by highly flexible and interconnected systems, in order to achieve the required productivity, accuracy and reliability. Nowadays, distortion and vibration problems are easily solved in labs for the most common machining operations by using models based on equations describing the physical laws of the machining processes; however additional efforts are needed to overcome the gap between scientific research and the real manufacturing problems. In fact, there is an increasing interest in developing simulation packages based on “deep-knowledge and models” that aid machine designers, production engineers or machinists to get the best of the machine-tools. This article proposes a methodology to reduce problems in machining by means of a simulation utility, which uses the main variables of the system&process as input data, and generates results that help in the proper decision-making and machining planification. Direct benefits can be found in a) the fixture/clamping optimal design, b) the machine tool configuration, c) the definition of chatter-free optimum cutting conditions and d) the right programming of cutting toolpaths at the Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) stage. The information and knowledge-based approach showed successful results in several local manufacturing companies and are explained in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0171.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: identity over time; Bayesian networks; multi-information; entity; persistence; integration; emergence; naturalising agency
Online: 21 March 2017 (16:23:00 CET)
We present a first formal analysis of specific and complete local integration. Complete local integration was previously proposed as a criterion for detecting entities or wholes in distributed dynamical systems. Such entities in turn were conceived to form the basis of a theory of emergence of agents within dynamical systems. Here, we give a more thorough account of the underlying formal measures. The main contribution is the disintegration theorem which reveals a special role of completely locally integrated patterns (what we call ι-entities) within the trajectories they occur in. Apart from proving this theorem we introduce the disintegration hierarchy and its refinement-free version as a way to structure the patterns in a trajectory. Furthermore we construct the least upper bound and provide a candidate for the greatest lower bound of specific local integration. Finally, we calculate the i-entities in small example systems as a first sanity check and find that ι-entities largely fulfil simple expectations.