ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0706.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Chlorogenic acid; coffee; cyclooxygenase; espresso; instant coffee; platelet aggregation
Online: 30 November 2020 (08:07:40 CET)
Coffee is rich in caffeine (CF), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and phenolics. Differing types of coffee beverages and brewing procedures may result in differences in total phenolic contents (TPC) and biological activities. Inflammation and increases of platelet activation and aggregation can lead to thrombosis. We focused on determining the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on agonist-induced platelet aggregation and cyclooxygenase (COX) of coffee beverages in relation to their preparation method. We prepared instant coffee and brewed coffee beverages using drip, espresso and boiling techniques. Coffee extracts were assayed for their CF and CGA contents using HPLC, TPC using colourimetry, platelet aggregation with an aggregometer and COX activity using ELISA. The findings have shown all coffee extracts, except the decaffeinated types, contained nearly equal amounts of CF, CGA and TPC. Inhibitory effects of coffee extracts on platelet aggregation differed depending on the activation pathways induced by different agonists. All espresso, drip and boiled coffee extracts caused dose dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, epinephrine, and arachidonic acid (ARA). The most marked inhibition was seen at low doses of collagen or ARA. Espresso and drip extracts inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation more than purified caffeine or CGA. Espresso, boiled and drip coffee extracts were also a more potent inhibitors of COX-1 and COX-2 than purified caffeine or CGA. We conclude that inhibition of platelet aggregation and COX-1 and COX-2 may contribute to anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects of espresso and drip coffee extracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0551.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nudges; diet; healthy living; instant messaging; digital interventions
Online: 29 November 2021 (18:30:30 CET)
With roots beyond behavioural economics to psychology, nudges can be applied for influencing healthy behaviours such as food choice and portions to decrease obesity for better public health outcomes. However, the effectiveness of the type of nudges are contentious with conflicting literature. In this pilot study, we conducted a 23-day study surveying the food choices that included portion, locus of control, demographic data, and psychological measures of personality, perceived stress, narcissism, regulatory focus, food choice motive and dietary restraint, with the participants given four intervention conditions of 12 instant messaging sent every two days through WhatsApp. The messages were either factual (control), focused on consequences, through social comparison, or persuasive. Running over the COVID19 pandemic, 17 participants completed the full surveys showing significant effects between the experimental conditions with the psychological parameters except for diet confidence and extraversion and conscientiousness, as well as cognitive restraint. We found BMI and waistline measurements to be suitable measurements, with promising results from the fear and social comparison nudges for food-related behaviours and exercise. Our pilot findings have implications to the use of nudges upon which future studies investigating psychological factors can build on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Moringa; pods; instant soup mixes; proximate; sensory and storage study
Online: 10 June 2021 (09:08:44 CEST)
Traditionally Moringa is known as mystical miracle tree or the tree of life. Soup can be classified as an appetizer, warm food during cold and sick. Moringa oleifera pods have been procured from College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur. The present investigation is planned with objectives to standardize best combination of for the development of instant soup mix, to evaluate various quality parameters, to evaluate the storage stability and cost estimation of product. Protein in instant soup is ranged from 9.76 to 11.89 percent in different formulations of instant soup mix. Formulation MPP4 (11.89) had significantly maximum protein content followed by MPP3, MPP2, MPP1 and Control with the minimum protein content. The original instant soup mix (control) exhibited highest carbohydrate content (61.52%) followed by MPP1, MPP3, MPP4, and MPP2 with lowest content. The evaluated scores of control for colour and appearance, taste, flavour, consistency, after taste and overall acceptability are 8.36, 8.50, 8.60, 8.90, 8.76 and 8.63 respectively
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic wave; microwave; instant green tea; extraction rate; active components; aroma
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:38:20 CET)
The production of instant green tea requires hot-water extraction, which is time consuming and contributes to losses in aromatic compounds. In this study, an ultrasonic-assisted technology was used to improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, thereby shortening extraction time from 45 to 15 min. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 0.23 mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 3.2 mg/mL. In 76.2% ethanol, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 1.57mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 1.5 mg/mL. Additionally, we used microwave-assisted technology to further improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, which shortened the extraction time to 2 min. However, the extraction rate remained unchanged. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but the dissolution of total catechins increased by 0.41 mg/mL and the dissolution of tea polyphenols decreased by 2.9 mg/mL. Ultrasonic treatment increased the proportion of 3-hydroxybutan-2-one, (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one and 2-phenylethanol, which were the main aroma compounds in tea. Microwave treatment changed the aroma compounds in tea, causing losses in aroma compounds with low boiling point and maintaining (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one. The taste and aroma of instant green tea improved based on sensory evaluation results.