ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: epidemiology; baseball injury; young baseball players; injury prevalence; early single sport specialization
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:06:25 CEST)
This study aimed to describe the injury profiles of young Korean baseball players according to position and age as the proportion and distribution of injuries based on playing position and age remains unclear. A total of 271 elite youth baseball players aged 8 to 16 years were divided into two groups: elementary school (ES) (n=135) and middle school (MS) (n=136). The participants' basic, baseball practice, and injury information were collected. Injuries in the MS group were not limited to the elbow and shoulder, and the injury prevalence varied by age group and baseball position. The most injured body region in the ES group was the elbow joint, regardless of the position. In contrast, the most injured body region in the MS group was the lower back, except for infielders whose elbows were the most injured. Additionally, the MS group was more likely to experience injuries of the lower back (OR=4.27, 95% CI=2.47–7.40), shoulder (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.08–3.43; P=0.024), and knee (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.17–3.94; P=0.012). Our findings indicate that excessive practice and lack of rest during MS (growth spurt period) can significantly increase the risk of lower back problems in young baseball players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: trauma; pancreas; abdominal injury; head injury; polytrauma
Online: 23 February 2021 (11:03:14 CET)
Background: We aimed to study the frequency, management, and outcomes of patients with blunt pancreatic trauma. Methods: We reviewed the medical records for all patients admitted with pancreatic injuries between 2011 and 2017 at the only level 1 trauma center in the country. Results: There were 71 patients admitted with pancreatic trauma (0.6% of trauma admissions and 3.4% of abdominal injury admissions) with a mean age of 31 years. Sixty-two patients had pancreatic injury grade I-II and 9 had grade III-IV. Thirty-eight percent had GCS <9 and 73% had ISS >16. The level of pancreatic enzymes was significantly proportional to the grade of injury. Over half of patients required a laparotomy, of them 12 patients had an intervention on the pancreas. Eight patients developed complications related to pancreatic injuries ranging from pancreatitis to pancreatico-cutaneous fistula while 35% developed hemorrhagic shock. Mortality was 31% and regardless of the grade of injury, the mortality was associated with high ISS, low GCS and presence of hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion: Pancreatic injuries following blunt trauma are rare and the injured subjects are usually young male. However, most injuries are of low-grade severity. This study shows that shock, higher ISS and lower GCS are associated with worse in-hospital out-comes. Non-operative management may suffice in patients with lower grade injuries, which may not be the case in patients with higher grade injuries unless carefully selected
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Injury mechanism; Muscle strengthening; Neuromotor; Neurocognitive; Injury Prevention
Online: 18 December 2020 (08:34:06 CET)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear is currently a main issue in all of sports communities. Although the number of ACL injuries in football remains low, it’s consequences on both professional and personal lives remain a major concern of rehabilitation. If practitioners often require more time to bring athletes in the best condition, the fact remains that this concept of time before return to sport is nowadays considered as obsolete. Indeed, the better understanding of the mechanisms of lesion and the strains placed on the graft after reconstruction, allow us to establish a personalized program based on clinical criteria and the patient's objectives. The current scientific literature allows us today to optimize the return to play and performance by the use of neuromotor and neurocognitive approaches, muscle strengthening methods and a preventive program necessary to cover the previous level of the players while taking into account physiological and psychological changes due to ACL reconstruction. Indeed, it is important to have a systemic approach centered on the patient, the sports movement, as close as possible to the field in order to find an optimal function of the knee in interaction with its environment.If there is a risk of reinjury of the ACL, it appears important to be able to identify the risk factors so that the player can return to play in optimal conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0310.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: astroglial injury; GFAP; calpain; caspase; biomarkers; traumatic brain injury
Online: 22 June 2022 (08:28:02 CEST)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament III protein of astroglia cells which is upregulated in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we reported that GFAP is truncated at both the C- and N-terminals by cytosolic protease calpain to GFAP breakdown products (GBDP) of 46-40K then 38K following pro-necrotic (A23187) and pro-apoptotic (staurosporine) challenges to primary cultured astroglia or neuron-glia mixed cells. In addition, with another pro-apoptotic challenge (EDTA) where caspases are activated but not calpain, GFAP was fragmented internally, generating a C-terminal GBDP of 20 kDa. Following controlled cortical impact in mice, GBDP of 46-40K and 38K were formed from day 3 to 28 post-injury. Purified GFAP protein treated with calpain-1 and -2 generates (i) major N-terminal cleavage sites between A-56 and A-75, and (ii) major C-terminal cleavage sites between T-383 and Q-388, producing a limit fragment of 38K. Caspase-6 treated GFAP was cleaved at D-78, R-79, D-266 and A-267, where GFAP was relatively resistant to caspase-3. We also derived a GBDP-38K N-terminal-specific antibody which only labels injured astroglia cell body in both cultured astroglia and mouse cortex and hippocampus after TBI. As a clinical translation, we observed that CSF samples collected from severe human TBI have elevated levels of GBDP-38K as well as two C-terminally released GFAP peptides (DGEVIKES and DGEVIKE). Thus, in addition to intact GFAP, both the GBDP-38K as well as unique GFAP released C-terminal proteolytic peptides species might have the potential in tracking brain injury progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anorexia; adolescents; pediatric; liver injury; aminotransferase; renal injury; refeeding
Online: 2 June 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Background: Only few pediatric reports exist regarding the prevalence, cause and evolution of liver and renal injury in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of hepatic and renal failure at admission and during hospitalization, especially during refeeding in a cohort of hospitalized adolescents with AN.Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with AN in a single hospital of Marseille from 2013 to 2019, we compared four groups on admission: elevated aminotransferases (AT)/normal AT and renal injury/no renal injury to analyze the differences between them (demographic factors, anthropometric factors, disease duration, initial prescribed calories, speed of refeeding, aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate). We observed the evolution of AT and renal injury for these four groups during refeeding (by the increase of kilocalories). Results: A total of 29 subjects with AN met eligibility criteria (age: 14.2 years, female (86.2%), BMI at admission (Z-score= -2.8 standard deviation (SD)) with elevated AT (20.7 %) and renal injury (13.8 %) on admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-4.05 vs -2 SD, p = 0.013), lower expected weight for height (69% vs 76%, p = 0.034) and longer disease duration (2.1 vs 0.9 years, p =0,032) were significantly associated with elevated liver enzymes at admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-3.35 vs -2.5 SD, p = 0.002), lower expected weight for height at admission (69% vs 74,5%, p = 0.002) and loss of weight before admission (0.66 vs à 0.20 kg per day, p = 0.002) were associated with renal injury at admission. Time nadir BMI (13.5 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.034) and duration of hospitalization (55 vs 41 days, p = 0.036) were longer in elevated enzymes on admission group. During refeeding, liver enzymes (95% confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) aspartate aminotransferase: -0.07 [-0.11; -0.03] and OR alanine aminotransferase: -0.16 [-0.27; -0.06]) and renal injury (95% CI, OR creatinine: -0.013 [-0.017; -0.008]) have normalized with the increase of calories, with significant association.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that degree of malnutrition is associated with liver and renal injury on admission. Theses failures disappeared with refeeding. In the future, prospective multicentric studies could examine evolution of renal and hepatic failure undergoing refeeding in large pediatric cohort of AN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: electric scooter; emergency care; trauma care; injury; scooter; bicycle; intoxication; traffic accident; injury patterns; craniofacial injury
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:21:19 CET)
Background and Objectives: In recent years, electric scooters have gained widespread popularity as an easy and affordable mode of transport in urban areas worldwide. Simultaneously, trauma centres have observed an increasing number of associated injuries to users. While injury patterns associated with other vehicles are now well-researched, electric scooter-related injuries are a new topic in the literature. Our study aims to investigate the disparities in injury patterns and other critical accident characteristics among bicycle, electric scooter, and scooter riders. Materials and Methods: In this one-year prospective observational study, we examined patients who sustained injuries while riding bicycles, electric scooters, or scooters between April 2021 and March 2022 at Hungary's largest trauma centre in Budapest. During this one-year period, we identified 1938 patients, 1378 cyclists, 370 electric scooters and 190 scooter users. We collected basic demographic information, recorded injury type and severity, time of day the injury occurred, and alcohol intoxication. Results: While 4.6% of cyclists and 5.8% of scooter riders had consumed alcohol, 26.8% of electric scooter riders were intoxicated at the time of their accident. 45.8% of electric scooter-related injuries occurred at night, compared to only 9.2% and 14.1% of bike and scooter-related injuries, respectively. Sober patients were more likely to suffer mild and severe limb injuries (Odds Ratio (OR): 3.85, P = .0001 and OR: 3.26, P = .0001), but less likely to experience mild and severe head injuries (OR: 0.1, P = .0001 and OR: 0.25, P = .0001) than intoxicated patients. Cyclists had significantly fewer cases of severe head trauma than those injured while using electric scooters (OR: 0.34, P = .0166). Conclusions: Severe craniofacial injuries are more common in intoxicated patients and in patients injured using electric scooters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Dendritic cell; Rapamycin; Mitochondria; Acute kidney injury; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:13:27 CEST)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique immune cells that can link innate and adaptive immune responses and Immunometabolism greatly impacts their phenotype. Rapamycin is a macrolide compound that has immunosuppressant functions and is used to prevent graft loss in kidney transplantation. The current study evaluated the therapeutic potential of ex-vivo Rapamycin treated DCs to protect kidneys in a mouse model of acute kidney injury (AKI). For the Rapamycin single (S) treatment (Rapa-S-DC), Veh-DCs were treated with Rapamycin (10 ng/ml) for 1 hour before LPS. In contrast, Rapamycin multiple (M) treatment (Rapa-M-DC) were exposed to 3 treatments over 7 days. Only multiple ex-vivo Rapamycin treatments of DCs induced a persistent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism. These DCs had 18-fold more mitochondria, had almost 4-fold higher oxygen consumption rates, and produced more ATP compared to Veh-DCs (Veh treated control DCs). Pathway analysis showed IL10 signaling as a major contributing pathway to the altered immunophenotype after Rapamycin treatment compared to vehicle with significantly lower cytokines Tnfa, Il1b, and Il6, while regulators of mitochondrial content Pgc1a, Tfam, and Ho1 remained elevated. Critically, adoptive transfer of Rapamycin treated DCs to WT recipients 24 hrs before bilateral kidney ischemia significantly protected the kidneys from injury with a significant 3-fold improvement in kidney function. Last, the infusion of DCs containing higher mitochondria numbers (treated ex-vivo with healthy isolated mitochondria (10 µg/ml) one day before) also partially protected the kidneys from IRI. These studies demonstrate that pre-emptive infusion of ex-vivo reprogrammed DCs that have higher mitochondria content has therapeutic capacity to induce an anti-inflammatory regulatory phenotype to protect kidneys from injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: traumatic brain injury; fluid percussion injury; neurodegeneration; apoptosis; sensorimotor deficit
Online: 28 December 2017 (08:58:32 CET)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and PARP and annexin V western blotting. We correlated the neurodegeneration with sensorimotor deficits by conducting the animal behavioral tests including grid walk, balance beam, inverted screen test, and climb test. Our study demonstrated that the excess cell death or neurodegeneration correlated with the neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor impairments associated with TBI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1924.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: spinal cord injury; spinal cord dysfunction; traumatic spinal cord injury; non traumatic spinal cord injury; rehabilitation; neuroregeneration
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:02:29 CEST)
Spinal Cord Injury in children can be a devastating condition in children with profound implications for their overall health and quality of life. In this review we aim to provide a concise overview of the key aspects associated with SCI in pediatric population. Firstly, we discuss the etiology and epidemiology of SCI in children, highlighting the diverse range of causes. We explore the unique anatomical and physiological characteristics of the developing spinal cord that contribute to the specific challenges faced by pediatric patients. Next, we delve into the clinical presentation and diagnostic methods, emphasizing the importance of prompt and accurate diagnosis to facilitate appropriate interventions. Furthermore, we approach the multidisciplinary management of pediatric SCI, encompassing acute medical care, surgical interventions, and ongoing supportive therapies. Finally, we explore emerging research and innovative therapies in the field and we emphasize the need for continued advancements in understanding and treating SCI in children to improve their functional independence and overall quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Cathinones; Designer drugs; Bath salts; Neuronal injury; astroglial injury; Calpain; Caspase
Online: 8 September 2022 (09:14:34 CEST)
This study aims to examine the cytotoxicity mechanisms of synthetic cathinone (bath salts) on rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells, and to assess their neurobehavioral effects on mice. We administered methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) to both rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells to assess cell injury. We also analyzed the effects of MDPV on these cell cultures using immunocytochemistry. We utilized western blotting to assess the breakdown of αII-spectrin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) induced by MDPV. The western blotting experiment also included calpain and caspase inhibitors (SNJ1945 and Z-D-DCB, respectively) and pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic agents (Staurosporine and calcium ionophore A23187, respectively). Lastly, we assessed MDPV’s effects on behavioral effects using rotarod, locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, forced swimming, and open field tests. MDPV caused a dose-dependent release of LDH in both cerebrocortical neuron-astroglia mixed cultures and primary astroglial cultures. MDPV also caused neurite breakages and astroglial process retraction on immunocytochemistry. Lastly, MDPV induced αII-spectrin breakdown in western blotting experiments. Co-administration of calpain and caspase inhibitors reduced the degradation of αII-spectrin and GFAP. MDPV administration also increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in the mice. Synthetic cathinones, which share structural similarities with methamphetamine, also induce significant neurotoxic effects and neurobehavioral effects on rodent models. These neurotoxic effects are likely mediated by calpain and caspase-induced apoptosis and necrosis, while astroglial death is likely only due to calpain activation. Therefore, further research may focus on pharmacological interventions targeting these pathways to mitigate the cytotoxic impact of cathinones in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1817.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Injury; education; training; equipment
Online: 27 September 2023 (17:14:22 CEST)
Occupational injury is widely acknowledged as a significant public health concern. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational harm within the context of small-scale and woodworking firms in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to examine the knowledge and practices of woodworkers in Cameroon with the purpose of formulating suggestions for enhancement. This study employed a quantitative research design and targeted a sample of 223 workers. The participants were selected a snowball sampling approach was used to select participants from small-scale and informal wood processing enterprises located in the Tiko, Mutengene, Buea, Ekona, and Muyuka districts. Data collection was completed using a structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that most individuals engaged in woodworking were male, of a younger age, and possessed limited experience. These woodworkers primarily acquired their skills through apprenticeship programmes and were known to work extended hours. The respondents exhibited a notable lack of knowledge and adherence to workplace health and safety procedures. The study found a statistically significant association (p<0.05) between woodworkers' age, medium of training, job category and their knowledge of specific occupational health and safety (OHS) components. The study revealed that there is a strong association between the practise of specific occupational health and safety (OHS) components and various factors among woodworkers. These factors include the level of education, the medium through which they obtained training, their work experience, and the type of employment. Importantly, each of these factors individually contributes to the observed association. The study suggests that it is necessary to implement effective strategies to reduce the incidence of work-related injuries. This can be achieved by improving health and safety promotion initiatives, particularly through the provision of pre-employment occupational health and safety (OHS) training for newly hired employees. Additionally, it is important to ensure that workers are equipped with appropriate personal protective equipment, as well as necessary supplies such as suitable fire extinguishers and first aid kits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; hippocampus
Online: 13 February 2023 (02:24:00 CET)
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant risk factor for post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the injury-induced epileptogenesis are under under investigation. The dentate gyrus, a structure highly susceptible to injury, and has been implicated in the evolution of seizure development. Methods: Utilizing the murine unilateral focal control cortical impact (CCI) injury, we evaluated seizure onset using 24/7 EEG video analysis at 2-4 months post-injury. Cellular changes in the dentate gyrus and hilus of the hippocampus were quantified by non-biased stereology and Imaris image analysis to evaluate Prox1-positive cell migration, astrocyte branching and morphology, as well as neuronal loss at four months post-injury. Isolation of region-specific astrocytes and RNA-seq was performed to determine differential gene expression in PTE+ vs. PTE- that may comport with the epileptogenic process. Results: CCI injury resulted in 37% PTE+-incidence, which increased with injury severity and hippocampal damage. Histological assessments uncovered a significant loss of hilar interneurons that coincided with aberrant migration of Prox1-positive granule cells and reduced astroglial branching in PTE+ compared to PTE- mice. We uniquely identified Cst3 as a PTE+-specific gene signature in astrocytes across all brain regions. Conclusions: These findings suggest that epileptogenesis may emerge following TBI due to distinct aberrant cellular remodeling events and key molecular changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, neurologic injury, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:39:56 CEST)
The present review aimed to identify through what means neurologic injury can predispose individuals to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In recent years, comprehensive studies have helped to clarify which structures in the central nervous system (CNS) that, when damaged, lead to distinct PTSD symptoms–namely dissociative reactions or flashbacks. Our review narrowed its focus to three common neurologic injuries including traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and stroke. Beyond discussing the potential mechanisms by which neurotrauma may lead to PTSD, we summarized our current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder and discussed predicted associations between the limbic system and PTSD. In particular, the role of noradrenergic neuromodulatory signaling on the HPA axis as it pertains to fear memory recall needs to be further explored to better understand its effects on limbic structures in PTSD patients. This paper also described how damage to the CNS can alter the function of the limbic system and result in characteristic symptoms of PTSD like intrusive memories and acute psychological distress. Further, our review intended to draw attention to a lack of PTSD prognosis in TBI, SAH, and stroke patients who could benefit from early treatment. PTSD symptoms often compound with pre-existing issues further deteriorating health outcomes for these patients. It is ultimately our goal to clarify the relationship between neurotrauma and PTSD such that earlier diagnoses and appropriate treatment are observed in clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1331.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; Axonal injury; Micro pig; Diffuse pathology; Microglia; Aged tissue
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:33:47 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people annually, however, our knowledge of the diffuse pathologies associated with TBI is limited. As diffuse pathologies, including axonal injury and neuroinflammatory changes, are difficult to visualize in the clinical population, animal models are used. In the current study we used the central fluid percussion injury (CFPI) model in a micro pig to study the potential scalability of these diffuse pathologies in a gyrencephalic brain of a species with inflammatory systems very similar to humans. We found that both axonal injury and microglia activation within the thalamus and corpus callosum are positively correlated to the weight-normalized pressure pulse, while subtle changes in blood gas and mean arterial blood pressure are not. We also found that the majority of tissue generated up to 10 years previously is viable for immunofluorescent labeling after long-term refrigeration storage. This study indicates that a micro pig CFPI model could allow for specific investigations of various degree of diffuse pathological burdens following TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: acute kidney injury; ischemia-reperfusion injury; dietary restriction; nutrition; preconditioning; endocannabinoids; AEA
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:59:13 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and critical complication in the clinical setting. In rodents AKI can be prevented effectively through caloric restriction (CR), which has also been shown to increase lifespan in many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity studies revealed that a marked CR-induced reduction of endocannabinoids may be a key mechanism. Thus, we hypothesized that regulation of endocannabinoids, in particular arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), might also play a role in CR-mediated protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in mammals including humans. In male C57Bl6J mice, CR significantly reduced renal IRI and led to a significant decrease of AEA. Supplementation of AEA to near-normal serum concentrations by repetitive intraperitoneal administration in CR mice, however, did not abrogate the protective effect of CR. We also analyzed serum samples taken before and after CR from patients of three different pilot trials of dietary interventions. In contrast to mice and C. elegans, we detected an increase of AEA. We conclude that endocannabinoid levels in mice are modulated by CR, but CR-mediated renal protection does not depend on this effect. Moreover, our results indicate that modulation of endocannabinoids by CR in humans may differ fundamentally from the effects in animal models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0770.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CDP-choline; citicoline; pharmacological neuroprotection; brain ischemia; traumatic brain injury; head injury
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:42:27 CEST)
Head injury is among the most devastating types of injury, specifically called Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). There is need to diminish the morbidity related with TBI and to improve the outcome of patients suffering TBI. Among the improvements on the treatment of TBI, neuroprotection is one of the upcoming improvements. Citicoline has been used in the management of brain ischemia related disorders, such as TBI. Citicoline has biochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic characteristics that make it a potentially useful neuroprotective drug for the management of TBI. A short review of these characteristics is included in this paper. Also, a narrative review of almost all the published or communicated studies performed with this drug in the management of patients with head injury is included. Based on the results obtained in these clinical studies, it is possible to conclude that citicoline was able to accelerate recovery of consciousness and to improve the outcome of this kind of patients, with an excellent safety profile. Thus, citicoline could have a potential role in the management of TBI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0449.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Central Nervous System; Ependymal Cells; Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells; NG2+ Cells; Regenerative Medicine; Retina Injury; Spinal Cord Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury.
Online: 16 June 2021 (15:02:02 CEST)
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to learning, memory, maintenance of homeostasis, energy metabolism and many other essential processes. They are highly heterogeneous populations that require input from a regionally distinct microenvironment including a mix of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, NG2+ glia, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and others. The diversity of NSPCs is present in all three major parts of the CNS, i.e., the brain, spinal cord, and retina. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals, e.g., neurotrophic and growth factors, master transcription factors, and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), collectively regulate activities and characteristics of NSPCs: quiescence/survival, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration. This review discusses the heterogeneous NSPC populations in the normal physiology and highlights their potentials and roles in injured/diseased states for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Metformin; tendon injury; scar tissue
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:06:59 CET)
Tendon injuries, while prevalent, present a significant challenge in fully restoring their structural and functional integrity. Utilizing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-Ai9-scleraxis (Scx)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, which exhibit both Scx (a tendon cell marker) and α-SMA (a myofibroblast marker), we explored Met's effects on tendon healing and repair and its mechanisms of action. Our findings revealed that intraperitoneal (IP) injections of Met -administered before or after injury, as well as both - effectively prevent the release of HMGB1 into the tendon matrix and reduce circulating levels of HMGB1. Additionally, Met treatment increased and activated AMPK and suppressed TGF-β1 levels within the healing tendon. These interventions also improved tendon healing by blocking the migration of α-SMA+ myofibroblasts, reducing the prevalence of disorganized collagen fibers and collagen type III, and enhancing the presence of collagen type I. These outcomes highlight Met's anti-fibrotic properties on acutely injured tendons and suggest its potential for repurposing as a therapeutic agent to minimize scar tissue formation in tendon injuries, which could have profound implications in clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: GI endoscopy; occupational injury; ergonometry
Online: 12 July 2023 (21:21:41 CEST)
GI endoscopy forms an important part in a daily practice of a gastroenterologist. Musculoskeletal injuries related to GI endoscopy are on the rise. Observational studies and surveys depict the importance of proper ergonomical environment when performing GI endoscopy. Our aim is to outline preventive measures in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in reducing possibility for occupational injury. We review most relevant studies that outline the gravity of the problem. A detailed analysis of proposed ergonomical recommendations is performed, outlining crucial steps in injury prevention. Proper ergonomical education is a key-step in preventing occupational injury. Robotics and other mechanical solutions offer a variety of approaches tackling the ergonomical challenge. Implementing proper ergonomical education and mechanical solutions lowers the possibility if occupational injury. Strategies and appliances presented are beneficial to all GI endoscopy practitioners.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Glioblastoma; Neurodegeneration; Injury; Regeneration; Drosophila
Online: 23 February 2021 (08:15:48 CET)
The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signalling pathway is a conserved response to a wide range of internal and external cellular stress signals. Besides the stress response, the JNK pathway is involved in a series of vital regulatory mechanisms during development and adulthood that are critical to maintain tissue homeostasis. These mechanisms include the regulation of apoptosis, growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. The JNK pathway has such a diverse functionality and cell-tissue specificity, that it has emerged as a key player in regeneration, tumorigenesis and other pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases. The JNK pathway is highly active in the central nervous system (CNS), and plays a central role for the cells to cope with pathophysiological insults during both development and adulthood. Among the many mechanisms described in the literature, in this review we focus on the JNK pathway functions in pathologies of the CNS. More specifically, we discuss some newly identified examples and mechanisms of JNK-driven tumor progression in glioblastoma, regeneration/repair after an injury in the CNS, neurodegeneration, and neuronal cell death. Recent studies have shown that the JNK pathway regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production in response to cytoneme/tumor microtubes formation and Wingless (Wg)/WNT pathway activation in glioblastoma cells. Thus, JNK pathway is essential for glioblastoma progression, infiltration and non-autonomous induction of neurodegeneration. In regeneration, the JNK pathway controls Draper (Drpr) expression in glial cells that mediate engulfment and regeneration of the CNS upon injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Kinesio tape; injury-prevention; electromyography
Online: 30 July 2020 (07:44:16 CEST)
Kinesio tape is considered one of the most common techniques which using recently, where it is used as a therapeutic technique for pain relief, correction of joint position, prevention of oedema and injuries, improve range of motion and muscular activity for the individual. This study is a descriptive research design and aims to identify the effect of using Kinesio tape on the neuromuscular activity of quadriceps muscle after the rehabilitation program of the knee joint. The study sample consists of (10) players from different sports (football, basketball …etc.) and suffering from knee joint injuries. This sample was taken from Kafr-El sheikh and Kaleen club. Results showed that Kinesio tape doesn’t have any explicit effect on the neuromuscular activity of muscle but acts as a catalyst for muscle and promote a person’s feeling of psychological wellbeing and reassurance.When comparing results of using Kinesio tape during performing leg squatting and balance test with not using tape, founded that when performing leg squatting and balance test with using Kinesio tape, there were significant effects on muscle activity compared to not using it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0382.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: spinal cord injury; inflammation; plasma
Online: 20 July 2018 (12:49:20 CEST)
While over half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur in the cervical region, the majority of preclinical studies have focused on models of thoracic injury. However, these two levels are anatomically distinct—with the cervical region possessing a greater vascular supply, grey-white matter ratio and sympathetic outflow relative to the thoracic region. As such, there exists a significant knowledge gap in the secondary pathology at these levels following SCI. In this study, we characterized the systemic plasma markers of inflammation over time (1, 3, 7, 14, 56 days post-SCI) after moderate-severe, clip-compression cervical and thoracic SCI in the rat. Using high-throughput ELISA panels, we observed a clear level-specific difference in plasma levels of VEGF, leptin, IP10, IL18, GCSF, and fractalkine. Overall, cervical SCI had reduced expressions of both pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins relative to thoracic SCI, likely due to sympathetic dysregulation associated with higher level SCIs. However, contrary to the literature, we did not observe level-dependent splenic atrophy with our incomplete SCI model. This is the first study to compare the systemic plasma-level changes following cervical and thoracic SCI using level-matched and time-matched controls. The results of this study provide the first evidence in support of level-targeted intervention and also challenge the phenomenon of high SCI-induced splenic atrophy in incomplete SCI models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain injury, coma, consciousness, cognitive motor dissociation, disorders of consciousness, ethics, neurorehabilitation, traumatic brain injury
Online: 6 December 2018 (10:05:52 CET)
Background: The vegetative state (VS)/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) denotes brain-injured, awake patients who are seemingly without awareness. Still, up to 15% of these patients show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or EEG, which is known as cognitive motor dissociation (CMD). Most experts prefer the term unresponsive wakefulness syndrome to avoid the negative connotations associated with vegetative state and to highlight the possibility for CMD. However, the perception of VS/UWS by the public has never been studied systematically. Methods: Using an online crowdsourcing platform, we recruited 1297 participants from 32 countries. We investigated if vegetative state and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome might have a different influence on attitudes towards VS/UWS and CMD. Results: Participants randomized to be inquired about the vegetative state believed that CMD was less common (mean estimated frequency in unresponsive patients 38.07% ± SD 25.15) than participants randomized to unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (42.29% ± SD 26.63; p=0.016). Attitudes towards treatment withdrawal were similar. Most participants preferred unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (60.05%), although a sizeable minority favored vegetative state (24.21%; difference 35.84%, 95% CI 29.36 to 41.87; p<0.0001). Searches on PubMed and Google Trends revealed that unresponsive wakefulness syndrome is increasingly used by academics but not lay people.Discussion: Simply replacing vegetative state with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome may not be fully appropriate given that 1 of 4 prefer the first term. We suggest that physicians take advantage of the controversy around the terminology to explain relatives the concept of CMD and its ethical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0151.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cyhalothrin; Nerve injury; Synaptic plasticity; A2AR
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:56:57 CET)
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Cyfluthrin (Cy) exposure on neurobehaviour, hippocampal tissue and synaptic plasticity in Wistar rats. First, high-dose Cy exposure can cause nerve injury with symptoms such as deficits in learning and memory ability, spatial exploration and autonomic motor ability. Moreover, it was found that medium- and high-dose Cy exposure can cause disordered energy metabolism in hippocampal cells and an abnormal release of the neurotransmitter Glu. Second, pathological brain sections showed that the middle and high doses of Cy caused deformation, reduction and disorder of hippocampal pyramidal cells, a decrease in the number of Nissl bodies, pyknosis of the hippocampal cell nuclear membrane and serious damage to organelles, indicating that exposure to these doses of Cy may cause hippocampal tissue damage in rats. Third, with the increase in exposure dose, the morphological changes in hippocampal synapses were more obvious, including blurred synaptic spaces, decreased synaptic vesicles and a decreased number of synapses. Moreover, the expression levels of the key synaptic proteins PSD-95 and SYP also decreased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating obvious synaptic damage. Finally, the study found that medium and high doses of Cy could upregulate the expression of A2AR in the hippocampus, and the expression levels of inflammatory factors and apoptosis-related proteins increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the expression of A2AR mRNA was correlated with neurobehavioural indicators, inflammatory factors, synaptic plasticity factors and apoptosis factors, suggesting that Cy may cause nerve damage in rats and has a close relationship with A2AR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0271.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: CrossFit; coaching; neck injury; fitness; biomechanics
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:50:27 CEST)
The kipping handstand push-up (kHSPU) is an exercise performed by millions of people. The safety of kHSPUs has been questioned because of vertical impacts upon the head. Here, we measured the axial loads placed upon the head during kHSPUs and sought to identify other factors that may place participants at risk of injury. 16 volunteers from a single gym performed 3 sets of up to 7 kHSPUs with their head and one hand contacting force platforms. Forces were recorded continuously and video recording were made while performing the exercises. The force profiles showed distinct landing and kipping peaks. Participants landed with more force than during their normal headstand, but less than their body weight. The force on the head was greatest during the "kip," and was usually more than body weight. Participants who reported pain following kHSPUs moved their head into extension during the exercises. Forces to the head during kHSPUs were below forces proposed for damage to the young cervical spine, with minimum estimated safety factors of 4.3 for landing and 3.8 for kipping. While kipping handstand push-ups may be safe for young and previously uninjured athletes, they may be unsafe for those with previous injury or other compromising factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: acute lung injury; biomarkers; sepsis; bioinformatics
Online: 1 August 2023 (09:15:53 CEST)
Background： Sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by disruption of the epithelial barrier and activation of alveolar macrophages (AMs), which leads to uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation. However, effective treatments for ALI are unavailable. This study aimed to discover potential diagnostic molecular biomarkers based on bioinformatics, which will benefit the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis-induced ALI. Methods: GSE10474 was analyzed for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in sepsis patients with ALI (sepsis + ALI) compared with sepsis patients without ALI. Functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed. on the DEGs via R package “clusterProfiler”, and visualized via Cytoscape. Prediction analysis of microarrays (PAM) was performed to identify diagnostic biomarkers and the diagnostic ability of diagnostic biomarkers was accessed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Moreover, interactions among diagnostic biomarkers were analyzed via GeneMANIA. We also analyzed the function of diagnostic biomarkers and predicted their corresponding drugs via Cytoscape plugin BiNGO and web tool DGIdb. At last, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the diagnostic biomarkers via the web tool miRNet. Results: 71 genes were found to be differentially expressed in the sepsis + ALI group, mainly involved in immune-related biological processes and pathways. STRING database indicated 31 DEGs have protein-protein interactions. In addition, the PAM identified 6 diagnostic biomarkers, including HIST1H4H, CDKN1A, HMOX1, NQO2, RHOB, and TREM1, from these 31 DEGs. Conclusion: In conclusion, through bioinformatics analyses, we identified 6 potential diagnostic biomarkers and targets for sepsis-induced ALI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: nutraceuticals; liver; ischemia-reperfusion injury; apoptosis
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:46:56 CEST)
Nutraceuticals are bioactive compounds present in foods, utilized to ameliorate health, prevent diseases, and support the proper functioning of the human body. They have gained attention due to their ability to hit multi-targets and act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and modulators of immune response and cell death. Therefore, nutraceuticals are being studied to prevent and treat liver ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). This study evaluated the effect of a nutraceutical solution formed by resveratrol, quercetin, omega-3 fatty acid, selenium, ginger, avocado, leucine, and niacin on liver IRI. IRI was performed with 60 min of ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion in male Wistar rats. Afterward, the animals were euthanized to study hepatocellular injury, cyto-kines, oxidative stress, gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, TNF-alpha and Caspase 3 proteins, and histology. Our results show that the nutraceutical solution was able to decrease apoptosis and histologic injury. The suggested mechanisms of action are a reduction in gene expression and the Caspase 3 protein and a reduction in the TNF-alpha protein in liver tissue. The nutraceutical solution was unable to decrease transaminases and cytokines. These findings suggest that the nutraceuticals used favored the protection of hepatocytes and their combination represent a promising therapeutic proposal against liver IRI.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Drug-induced liver injury; ocrelizumab; hepatotoxicity
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:41:29 CEST)
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure and 5-10% of patients hospitalized for jaundice are diagnosed with DILI. For a diagnosis of DILI to be made, there should be exclusion of other etiologies of liver injury and the use of a precipitator drug, latency of symptoms, and resolution of liver injury once the offending drug is identified and discontinued. In our case report, we present a patient with idiosyncratic hepatocellular pattern DILI after two doses of ocrelizumab for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ocrelizumab was given 16 and 27 days prior to the onset of icterus, jaundice, and fatigue, in a patient without the evidence of prior exposure to hepatitis B virus. At presentation labs revealed severe acute hepatocellular liver injury with R factor of 30.42, marked hyperbilirubinemia, and transient hypoalbuminemia. No evidence of latent or active hepatitis B infection was detected. Drug dechallenge led to return of liver chemistries to near-normal levels 31 days after the onset of her symptoms. This case indicates DILI diagnosis associated with the use of ocrelizumab, and warrants careful monitoring of liver functions in patients even in the absence of hepatitis B.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Corrosive injury; dilatation; esophageal; pyloric stricture
Online: 14 April 2023 (05:25:24 CEST)
Background: Corrosive injuries (CI) became medical problems related complications include esophageal, pyloric stricture, squamous cell carcinoma , physical and quality of life . Endoscopic dilatation (ED) is primary therapy . The ultrathin endoscope assisted method is potentially safe and useful in avoiding technical failure . Methods: Retrospective study of esophageal and/or pyloric stricture after CI who underwent di-latation at Soetomo General Hospital (July 2018 – July 2022). One-biweekly ED using Ultrathin Endoscope Assisted Method then continued by Through The Scope (TTS) balloon or Bougie dila-tor. Target diameter is 14mm. Clinical outcome included successful, refractory, recurrent rate and complications related procedures Results: Fifteen patients with stricture related CI. Eleven patients underwent ED with total 73 procedures. Mean age 31,45 years, Male 6(54,6%), suicide attempt 7(63,6%), acid agent 9(81,8%) located at esophagus 3(27,3%), pylorus 3(27,3 %), or both 5(45,4%). Number of esophageal dilata-tion to achieve target 14mm was 1-2 and 2-15 procedures for simple and complex stricture with overall successful, recurrent and refractory rate were 75%, 12.5% and 12.5% respectively. Pyloric dilatation outcome were 62.5%, 25% and 12.5% for successful, recurrent and refractory rate re-spectively. Conclusions: Stricture-related corrosive injury has predominantly complex anatomical structure, more sessions are required and lower clinical outcome
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: hypothermia; sportstr; brain injury; rehabilitation; hyperthermia
Online: 9 December 2022 (14:50:39 CET)
Sports traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for up to 20% of all sports injuries, and the number of cases is growing year by year due to an increase in the number of people involved in sports, the growing popularity of extreme and contact sports, as well as a high level of motivation to achieve record results. Mild TBI dominates, which can provoke the development of a very wide range of complications and negative consequences. In the programs for the prevention of complications and the rehabilitation of athletes after TBI, TBI features are not sufficiently considered, which significantly differ from household, road or criminal injuries. There are no instrumental methods for diagnosing the severity of the injury. Sports TBI is characterized by repeated frequent TBI, elevated body and brain temperature, peripheral redistribution of blood flow and hypocapnia, which significantly affect cerebral blood flow. Brain injury is an independent cause of the development of cerebral hyperthermia, which significantly worsens the consequences of TBI. To diagnose sports TBI, the method of microwave radiometry of the brain (MWR) can be used. For the prevention of complications, the technology of craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH), which allows for to reduce of physical general and cerebral hyperthermia, and increases the resistance of cerebral cortex neurons to hypoxia and trauma could be used However, these approaches in sports medicine are used sporadically, which, is due to the lack of awareness of coaches and doctors of sports teams. The purpose of the review is to present MWR and CCH in sports TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Running; Joint force; Barefoot; Osteoarthritis; Injury
Online: 28 November 2022 (10:53:28 CET)
Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the magnitude of forces in the joints of the lower limb whilst running barefoot and compare them to the forces generated whilst wearing running shoes with a thick midsole.MethodsTwenty-three volunteers who utilised running as their main sport or a training aid ran as training aid were included in this study. Each volunteer would run down a fourteen-meter-long corridor both barefoot and with running shoes. Forces for joints of the lower limb were collected using a Vicon motion analysis system and force plates. The joint forces for the ankles, knees and hips were taken as the largest joint force experienced during the stance phase and then averaged over five running trials.ResultsThere was significant reduction in the joint forces for the ankles, knees, and hips when barefoot running compared to the shod condition.ConclusionBarefoot running could be utilised to prevent both acute and degenerative injuries of the lower limb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional intelligence; brain injury; cognitive impairment
Online: 20 September 2022 (13:14:54 CEST)
Background: Cognitive-behavioral alterations can occur after an acquired brain injury. It is a stressful situa-tion for patient and relatives. Objectives: To develop and evaluate a synchronous online training program on emotional intelligence (EI) for caregivers of adult patients with cognitive-behavioral impairment due to acquired brain injury. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was designed, a target population of ten caregivers attended to a one-month virtual synchronous course about EI. The emotional status of caregivers was registered one-month-previous and one-month-post program using comparative measures: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: Median age of the ten caregivers was 48 years, 80% of women with a median care-time of 6 years. 50% of them were spouses of the patients. 60% of the patients were affected by stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic cause). The main cognitive impairment of the patients reported by relatives was memory deficit. After re-ceiving training, favorable changes were found regarding emotional affect measured with the PANAS, both positive (increase) and negative (decrease), as well as with the TMMS-24-mood-repair area (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Training in EI helps caregivers to make their mood more positive and improve aspects of their emotional intelligence such as emotional regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: psychiatric disease; brain injury; chloride transporter
Online: 29 August 2022 (09:36:50 CEST)
Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disabilities over the industrialized countries. Cognitive decline appears in the chronic phase of the pathology consecutively to cellular and molecular processes. Here we described the use of KCC2, a neuronal-specific potassium-chloride transporters as potent biomarker to predict cognitive dysfunctions after TBI. Methods. Using neuronal and total exosomes collection from blood serum in control and TBI subjects we were able to anticipate the decline of cognitive performance. Results. After TBI, we observed a significative and persistant loss of KCC2 expression in the blood exosomes that is correlated to changes in network activity and cellular processes such as secondary neurogenesis. Also we correlated this KCC2 loss in expression to the appearance of the cognitive decline observed in mice and more particularly we correlate the KCC2 loss of expression to the appearance of the depressive-like behavior. Conclusion. According to our protocol, we were able to confirm our previous findings in agreement with the potential therapeutic effect of bumetanide in the prevention of the post traumatic depression after TBI, by restoring the KCC2 expression thus preventing the massive neuronal death of interneurons and the secondary neurogenesis effect observed in such model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: helmet; military; sport; innovation; secondary injury
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:19:59 CEST)
Neurotrauma continues to contribute to significant mortality and disability. The need for better protective equipment is apparent. This review focuses on improved helmet design and the necessi-ty for continued research. We start by highlighting current innovations in helmet design for sport and subsequent utilization in the lay community for construction. The current standards by sport and organization are summarized. We then address current standards within the military envi-ronment. The pathophysiology is discussed with emphasis on how helmets provide protection. As innovative designs emerge, protection against secondary injury becomes apparent. Much research is needed, but this focused paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for improvement in helmet de-sign and implementation to provide more efficient and reliable neuroprotection across broad arenas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: chilling injury; mealiness; metabolomics; lipidomics; biomarker
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:42:26 CET)
Peach is the third most important temperate fruit crop considering fruit production and harvested area in the world. Exporting peaches represents a challenge due to the long-distance export markets. This requires fruit to be placed in cold storage for a long time, which can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI). The main symptom of CI is mealiness which is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. The purpose of this work was to identify and compare the metabolic and lipid profile between two siblings from a contrasting population for juice content, at harvest and after 30 days at 0°C. A total of 119 metabolites and 189 lipids were identified, which showed significant differences of abundance including mainly in amino acids, sugars and lipids. Our results indicate that some of the top metabolites and lipids could be used as biomarkers associated with mealiness at harvest and after cold storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: rehabilitation; traumatic brain injury; Acute Care Unit Readmissions; head injury; functional independence measure; length of stay
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:57:50 CEST)
Background: This study investigated the incidence, characteristics and functional outcomes associated with unplanned Acute Care Unit Readmissions (ACUR) during inpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation in an Asian cohort. Methods: Retrospective review of electronic medical records from single rehabilitation unit was conducted from 1 Jan 2012 to 31 Dec 2014. Inclusion criteria were first TBI, aged >18 years, admitted < 6 months of TBI. ACUR were characterized into either of neurological, medical or neurosurgical subtypes. The main outcome measure was discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Secondary outcomes included rehabilitation length of stay (RLOS). Results: Of 121 eligible TBI records, the incidence of ACUR was 14% (n=17), comprising neurologic (76.5%) and medical (23.5%) subtypes, occurring at median of 13 days (IQR 6, 28.5) after rehabilitation admission. Patients without ACUR had significantly higher admission mean (SD) FIM score compared to those with ACUR (FIM ACUR-negative 63.4 (21.1) vs FIM ACUR-positive 50.53(25.4), P =0.026). Significantly lower discharge FIM was noted in those with ACUR compared to those without. (FIM ACUR-positive 65.8(31.4) vs FIM ACUR-negative 85.4 (21.1), P = 0.023) Furthermore, a significant near-doubling of RLOS was noted in ACUR patients compared to non-ACUR counterparts [ACUR-positive median 55 days (IQR 34.50, 87.50) vs ACUR-negative median 28 days (IQR 16.25, 40.00), P = 0.002]. Conclusion: This study highlights the significant negative functional impact and lengthening of rehabilitation duration of ACUR on inpatient rehabilitation outcome for TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0630.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: spinal cord injury; sarcopenia; immobilization osteoporosis; spasticity
Online: 8 December 2023 (14:40:25 CET)
Background. Sarcopenia and spinal cord injury (SCI) often coexist, but little is known about the associations of these two pathologies. This study aimed to assess the impact of SCI on muscle and bone mass and the correlations between clinical characteristics of SCI patients and sarcopenia. Methods: 136 patients diagnosed with SCI admitted to rehabilitation hospital were included in the study. The type and severity of injury (AIS), the level of spasticity (MAS), bone mineral density and Appendicular Lean Muscle Mass (ALM) were assessed. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the recommended EWGSOP2 cut-off points for ALM. Results: There was a statistically significant association between the ALM value and the gender, 75% of women developing sarcopenia. Among men, 42.9% had sarcopenia. Over 55% of AIS Grades A and B cases had sarcopenia. Mean age of sarcopenic patients was 35.8 years and they had multiple comorbidities. 51.6% of the patients with osteoporosis had sarcopenia. 69.7% of MAS level 0 cases had sarcopenia, while this was diagnosed in about 40% of patients with MAS levels 1-4. Conclusions: Gender, type of injury, presence of multiple comorbidities and age were directly associated with sarcopenia, while surprisingly, spasticity level and the presence of immobilization osteoporosis were not.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0908.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: electrosurgical injury; monopolar diathermy; burns; electrosurgical safety
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:25:53 CEST)
Podiatric surgeons routinely use electrosurgical devices to cut and coagulate tissue during surgical procedures. Although advances in technology have made electrosurgery increasingly safer for patients and personnel, its use is still poorly understood by those using it and the hazards associated with its use still exist presently. Human error, direct or indirect transfer of electricity to a conductive device, or device malfunction can cause serious adverse events, including burns, electrical shocks, and or fires. Here, we report a rare case of a 43-year-old man who suffered severe burns during hallux valgus surgery. The surgeon and the nursing staff did not notice any injuries during the surgical intervention. This case highlights the need to implement tools to help health professionals improve patient safety during surgery. Based on the case herein reported, a specific checklist was implemented to prevent adverse events related to electrosurgery in our podiatric unit to reduce the risk of electrosurgical complications.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0825.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Cough Reflex; Acquired Brain Injury; capsaicin; dysphagia
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:42:59 CEST)
The cough assessment is fundamental in the weaning process as it gives information on the possibility to expel food and secretion from the airways. The majority of persons suffering from severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are not able to cough voluntarily due to severe motor deficits. In the present study, we evaluated the cough reflex in ABI patients using a new method based on a capsaicin spray stimulation test. 100 Healthy controls demographically matched with 50 ABI patients were included in this study. Clinical observations demonstrated robust cough response in both healthy controls and ABI patients, as well as the safety and tolerability of capsaicin spray stimulation. ABI patients with dysphagia were characterized by slower and delayed cough responses. Further studies are needed to validate this feasible, less-invasive, and simple-to-comprehend technique in inducing cough reflex. According to this preliminary evidence, we believe that this test might be translated into a simple and effective treatment to improve cough strength training reflexive cough modulation in ABI patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0788.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Craniofacial trauma; Traumatic Brain Injury; Concurrent diagnosis
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:31:13 CEST)
Background: Craniofacial injuries are thought to be commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there is conflicting evidence in the literature. The objective of this retrospective cohort study is to evaluate the incidence of TBI in patients with craniofacial trauma. Methods: The study included 2982 consecutive patients with either solitary or concurrent diagnoses of TBI and facial fractures, seen and evaluated at a single level II trauma center between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2020. Continuous variables were compared against whether the patient had one or both diagnoses.Results: Of the target population, 55.8% had a solitary diagnosis of TBI, 30.28% had a solitary diagnosis of facial fractures, and 13.92% had concurrent diagnoses of both TBI and facial fractures. Patients with concurrent diagnoses had a significantly longer mean length of stay (LOS) compared to those with solitary diagnoses (9.92 ± 16.33 days vs. 6.21 ± 10.96 days, p<0.01), but age (p=0.68) and ICU LOS (p=0.09) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: Trauma to the face should be given special attention due to the close relationship between facial bones and the brain. Patients with concurrent diagnoses of TBI and facial fractures had worse hospital outcomes than those with solitary diagnoses of either TBI or facial trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0626.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: diabetic kidney injury; inflammation; systemic inflammatory index
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:26:17 CEST)
Background: The systemic inflammatory index (SII) is a new inflammatory marker that has been the subject of various studies in diseases with chronic inflammation. Diabetic nephropathy is also a disease that goes with chronic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the relationship be-tween SII and diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Patients with diabetes who applied to our outpatient clinic are included in the study. Diabetic patients are divided into two groups: those with diabetic nephropathy and those with-out. In addition, healthy individuals who applied to our clinic for general check-ups during these dates are included as control group. The SII values and other characteristics of the three study groups are compared. Results: The median SII value for those with DKI was 584 (178-4819); for those without DKI, it was 282 (64-618); and for the control group, it was 236 (77.5-617) (p<0.001). SII was significantly and positively correlated with BMI, weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, CRP and creatinine, and neg-atively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) value. The SII value higher than 336 has 75% sensitivity and 70% specificity in detecting DKI. Conclusion: The SII value could predict diabetic kidney injury in diabetics and it could be used as an adjunctive diagnostic tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1822.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Glial scar; Spinal cord injury; cell ablation
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:11:31 CEST)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition that affects between 8.8 and 246 people in a million and, unlike many other neurological disorders, it affects mostly young people, causing deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Promoting regrowth of axons is one of the most important goals for the neurological recovery of patients after SCI, but it is also one of the most challenging goals. A key event after SCI is the formation of a glial scar around the lesion core, which is mainly comprised of astrocytes, NG2+-glia, and microglia. Traditionally, the glial scar has been regarded as detrimental for recovery because it may act as a physical barrier for axon regrowth and release various inhibitory factors. However, more and more evidence now suggest that the glial scar is beneficial for the surrounding spared tissue after SCI. Here, we review experimental studies that used genetic and pharmacological approaches to ablate specific populations of glial cells in rodent models of SCI, in order to understand their functional role. The studies showed that ablation of either astrocytes, NG2+-glia or microglia may result in disorganization of glial scar, increased inflammation, extended tissue degeneration and impaired recovery after SCI. Hence, glial cells and glial scar appear as important beneficial players after SCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hypoxia; p38; Apoptosis; Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy; Myocardial Injury
Online: 16 February 2023 (07:21:53 CET)
Right ventricular remodeling and its function are closely related to the symptom severity and survival of hypoxia pulmonary hypertension, but molecular mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial injury remain unclear. It evaluated the cardiac function (by right cardiac catheterization to measure right ventricular systolic pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure), myocardial tissue morphology（Haematoxylin and Eosin）, myocardial hypertrophy (Wheat Germ Agglutinin Staining), then RNA sequencing was applied to explore the mechanism, which results were verified by western blot in final. Hypoxia developed pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular diastolic and systolic functions were enhanced in rats, such as the mean pulmonary artery pressure, systolic pressure of pulmonary artery, the max pressure of right ventricular, the mean right ventricular pressure, and the heart rate was significantly higher than that in control. We found that Hif-1 signaling pathway and p38-MAPK signaling pathway have been activated by hypoxia, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis also aggravated in the right ventricular, which might be one cause of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial injury, and targeted intervention might be one potential prevention for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial injury induced by hypoxia.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mentalization; Secure Attachment; Nonsuicidal Self-Injury; Adolescents
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:50:08 CET)
This paper, which is one of the few in the world dealing with this topic, presented the psychologist's work based on the concepts of mentalization and internal working models (IWMs) of attachment, with an adolescent girl who was prone to nonsuicidal self-injury. Gaga, a student in the first grade of high school, had visible scars from cutting her hands on the inner sides of both forearms. Gaga told the psychologist that her mother believes that this is an attempt to draw attention to her problems, and even a suicide attempt. Together with Gaga, the psychologist made a formulation of her mental difficulties. The main aim of the psychologist's work with Gaga was to control unpleasant impulses and emotions, so as to eliminate self-injury. This aim has been achieved through three global tasks: 1) that Gaga, in the relationship with the psychologist, builds her IWMs as positive, so that she can see herself as a person who is worthy of the love and support of close people; 2) to develop a stable capacity for mentalization; 3) to apply this acquired skills in the interpretation of her affective experiences. The mentalizing approach in working with Gaga was based on an attitude of emotional warmth, acceptance and authentic interest in her inner world. The psychologist's work with Gaga led to her better self-control, which resulted in the cessation of her self-injury. In her work with a psychologist, Gaga acquired positive IWMs, which she transferred into other significant interpersonal relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0285.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Botulinum toxin; bladder hypertrophy; spinal cord injury
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:08:17 CEST)
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), pathological reflexes develop that result in altered bladder function and sphincter dis-coordination, with accompanying changes in the detrusor. Bladder chemodenervation is known to ablate the pathological reflexes, but the resultant effects on the bladder tissue are poorly defined. In a rodent model of contusion SCI, we examined the effect of early bladder chemodenervation with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) on bladder histopathology and collagen deposition. Adult female Long Evans rats were given a severe contusion SCI at spi-nal level T9. The SCI rats immediately underwent open laparotomy and received detrusor injec-tions of either BoNT-A (10 U/animal) or saline. At 8 weeks post injury, the bladders were col-lected, weighed, and examined histologically. BoNT-A injected bladders of SCI rats (SCI-BoNT-A) weighed significantly less than saline injected bladders of SCI rats (SCI-saline) (241 ± 25 mg vs. 183 ± 42 mg; p<0.05). Histological analyses showed that SCI resulted in significantly thicker bladder walls due to detrusor hypertrophy and fibrosis compared to bladders from uninjured animals (339 ± 89.0 m vs. 193 ± 47.9 m; p<0.0001). SCI-BoNT-A animals had significantly thinner bladder walls compared to SCI-saline animals (202 ± 55.4 m vs. 339 ± 89.0 m; p<0.0001). SCI-BoNT-A animals had collagen organization in the bladder walls similar to that of uninjured animals. Detrusor chemodenervation soon after SCI appears to preserve bladder tissue integrity, by reducing the development of detrusor fibrosis and hypertrophy associated with SCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: brachial plexus; traction injury; surgical treatment; electrostimulation
Online: 9 July 2022 (16:47:09 CEST)
As the problem of traction injuries to brachial plexus is a common one and of high socio-economic significance, the analysis of the surgical outcomes in patients with this pathology is significant for neurosurgery, neurology, traumatology-orthopedics, and rehabilitation. The aim of the research is to compare the short-term outcomes of using various surgical methods for managing patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus. Material and methods. The research involved 61 patients with closed traction injury of brachial plexus divided into two groups homogeneous in sex, age and severity of their neurological deficit: Group I – 33 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis, Group II – 28 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis combined with one-level electrostimulation. The dynamic assessment of clinical and functional status of upper limbs was performed using scale methods and electrophysiological monitoring. Results. The research revealed a more evident recovery of the upper limb function in Group II patients suggesting the method of microsurgical neurolysis combined with electrostimulation to be preferable in case of closed traction injuries to brachial plexus. Conclusion. The combination of microsurgical neurolysis with one-level electrostimulation improves the short-term outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus due to a sooner decrease in pain in postoperative period, and positive dynamics of clinical and electrophysiological parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Ischaemia/reperfusion injury; Development; Mitochondria; Immature Heart
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:38:07 CET)
Metabolic and ionic changes during ischaemia predispose the heart to the damaging effects of reperfusion. Such changes and the resulting injury differ between immature and adult heart. Therefore, cardioprotective strategies for adults need to be tested in immature heart. We have recently shown that simultaneous activation of PKA and EPAC confers marked cardioprotection in adult hearts. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of this intervention in immature hearts and determine whether the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is involved. Isolated perfused Langendorff hearts from both adult and immature rats were exposed to global ischaemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) following control perfusion or perfusion after an equilibra-tion period with activators of PKA and/or EPAC. Functional outcome and reperfusion injury were measured and in parallel, mitochondria were isolated following 5 min reperfusion to determine whether cardioprotective interventions involved changes in MPTP opening behaviour. Perfusion for 5 minutes preceding ischaemia of injury- matched adult and immature hearts with 5 µM 8-Br (8-Br-cAMP-AM), an activator of both PKA and EPAC, led to significant reduction in post-reperfusion CK release and infarct size. Perfusion with this agent also led to a reduction in MPTP opening propensity in both adult and immature hearts. These data show that immature hearts are innately more resistant to I/R injury than adults, and that this is due to a reduced ten-dency to MPTP opening following reperfusion. Further, simultaneous stimulation of PKA & EPAC causes cardioprotection which is additive to the innate resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants, Pain
Online: 2 July 2021 (09:05:08 CEST)
Introduction:In this study we evaluated the connivance of oxidative and antioxidative parameters in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the etiology and pathogenesis of SCI remain to be fully understood, it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of SCI. Furthermore, there is little information available in scientific literature about oxidative and antioxidative parameters in SCI patients. Methods:Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of Lipid Peroxides (LPO) and Protein carbonyl in plasma and antioxidative parameters like Glutathione Reductase (GR), catalase and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in lysate in 40 SCI patients and 40 healthy subjects without SCI. However, pain was measured by McGill pain questionnaire. Results: Concentrations of catalase (p<0.01), GR (p<0.01) and GPx (p<0.01) were significantly lower in patients with SCI than in controls, and levels of oxidative stress parameters, LPO (p<0.01), Protein carbonyl (p<0.01) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. A significant positive correlation was found between LPO and pain score among SCI patients group. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was also found between Protein carbonyl and pain score among SCI patients group than in control group. Conclusion: The present results indicate that SCI patients are exposed to oxidative stress and this escalated oxidative stress may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, our results also show that increased oxidative stress parameters are more strongly amalgamated with pain in SCI patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Heart Failure; Acute Kidney Injury; Prognosis; Mortality.
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:09:49 CET)
Introduction: Decompensated heart failure (HF) is a complex and debilitating syndrome, which constitutes a severe emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality. The kidneys play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of HF and, in the context of decompensations, acute kidney injury (AKI) has a bilateral cause-and-effect relationship, which can significantly worsen prognosis. However, the interaction between AKI and decompensated HF is poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of AKI in patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF and to analyze its prognostic impact during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective single-center observational study that included patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF in a tertiary-level teaching hospital, conducted between July 2017 and January 2020. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were compared with those who did not develop it, until hospital discharge or death. AKI was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl in 48 hours, a 1.5-fold increase in baseline creatinine in seven days or urinary volume <0.5 ml/kg/h during six hours, according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The endpoints analyzed were death, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and length of hospital stay. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and unpaired student t tests were used. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included, with a mean age of 65.4 ± 14 years, of which 47 (47.5%) were male and 52 (52.5%) were female. Reduced ejection fraction was observed in 77.8% of patients, whilst 22.2% had a diagnosis of HF with preserved EF. The decompensation clinical classifications were: dry and warm = 7 (7.1%), wet and warm = 72 (72.7%), wet and cold = 15 (15.1%) and dry and cold = 5 (5.1%). The average left ventricular ejection fraction was 38.3% ± 15. AKI ocurred in 22 patients (22.2%). Comparison between patients who evolved with and without AKI showed higher mortality (36.4% vs 10.4%, p = 0.004) and the need for IMV (54.5% vs 13%, p = 0.0001) in the first group. There was no significant difference regarding the length of in-hospital stay (22.9 ± 19 vs 18.8 ± 16 days, p = 0.26). Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI was frequent in patients with decompensated HF requiring hospitalization, affecting approximately one out of five patients. This complication was significantly associated with increased mortality and the need for IMV during hospitalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID19; ACE2; diabetes; SARS-CoV2; liver injury
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:57:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has resulted in a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms of the disease vary from mild illness to acute respiratory issues. Older age, diabetes, cardiac diseases predict poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Various reports mention the incidence of liver injury with transient elevations in the levels of aminotransferases (liver function enzymes). The clinical characteristics, etiology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver damage in SARS-CoV2 infected patients need to be explored. This review highlights the severity of the hepatic injury in COVID-19.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion injury; mesenchymal stem cells; treatment
Online: 11 June 2019 (04:28:04 CEST)
The shortage of donor organs is a major global concern. Organ failure requires the transplantation of functional organs. Organ donors are preserved in warm or cold ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion damage the organs, due to the lack of oxygen during the ischemia step and the oxidative stress during the reperfusion step. Different methodologies were developed to prevent or diminish the level of injuries. Preservation solutions were first developed, followed by the addition of chemical compounds. In addition of inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase, inhibitors of the proteasome, mesenchymal stem cells started to be used 13 years ago to prevent or diminish the organ’s injuries. Mesenchymal stem cells (e.g bone marrow stem cells, adipose derived stem cells) have proven to be powerful tools in repairing damaged organs. This review will focus on the use of some bone marrow stem cells, adipose derived stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells on preventing or decreasing the injuries due to ischemia-reperfusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0266.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genetics; injury; sport; soccer; DNA; inflammation; football
Online: 9 February 2018 (02:24:40 CET)
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: salidroside; inflammation; alcoholic liver injury; TLR4; TAK1
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:06 CEST)
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: semaphorin 3A; neuropilin-1; podocyte; diabetic nephropathy; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney injury; lupus nephritis; fibrosis; apoptosis; inflammation
Online: 31 August 2023 (02:53:48 CEST)
Kidney diseases are worldwide public health problems affecting millions of people. However, there are still limited therapeutic options against kidney diseases. Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is the secreted and membrane-associated proteins, which regulate diverse functions, including immune regulation, cell survival, migration and angiogenesis, thus involving in the several pathogeneses of diseases, including eyes and neurons, as well as kidneys. SEMA3A is expressed in podocytes and tubular cells in the normal adult kidney, and recent evidence revealed that excess SEMA3A expression and subsequent signaling pathway aggravates kidney injury in a variety of kidney diseases, including nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury, and chronic kidney disease. In addition, several reports demonstrated that inhibition of SEMA3A ameliorated kidney injury via reduction of cell apoptosis, fibrosis and inflammation, thus SE-MA3A may be a potential therapeutic target for kidney diseases. In this review article, we summarized current knowledges regarding the role of SEMA3A signaling in kidney pathophysiology and their potential use in kidney diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1605.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Sulfated polysaccharide; G. edulis; Liver injury; Protective effect
Online: 27 November 2023 (07:14:29 CET)
The sulfated polysaccharide (SP) was extracted from Gracilaria edulis and tested for its ability to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in Wistar rats. The chemical composition of the sulfated polysaccharide, documented 12.90% of yield, 83.07% of carbohydrate, 0% of protein, 15.02% of ash, and 2.09% of moisture, and the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur content were 25.90%, 4.28%, 2.65%, and 3.61%. SP has a molecular weight of 41kDa. The monosaccharide and structural properties of SP were investigated using GC-MS, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectral analysis. In rats, CCl4 produced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels and a decrease in ALB levels. The SP treated showed decreases in ALT, AST and ALP levels, as well as an increase in ALB levels. SOD, catalase, GPx, and GSH levels were suggestively lower in CCL4-induced rats compared to normal control rats. SOD, catalase, GPx and GSH levels in the SP-treated rats, on the other hand, improved to normal levels. The rat liver tissue treated with SP recovered well from hepatic injury. SP can be considered an alternative in the treatment of liver injury or as preventive medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0929.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Secondary TBI; Traumatic Brain Injury; Brain Injuries; Physiopathology
Online: 14 November 2023 (12:58:03 CET)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all ages; despite the advances, understanding pathophysiological responses after TBI is still complex, involving multiple mechanisms. Previous reviews have focused on potential targets; however, the research on potential targets has continuously grown in the last five years, bringing even more alternatives and elucidating previous mechanisms. Knowing the key and updated pathophysiology concepts is vital for adequate management and better outcomes. This article reviews the underlying molecular mechanisms, the latest updates, and future directions for pathophysiology-based TBI management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Muse cell; intravenous administration; rat; spinal cord injury
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:06:09 CEST)
Background Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are newly established pluripotent stem cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of the systemic administration of Muse cells as an effective treatment for subacute SCI. Methods: We intravenously administered the clinical product “CL2020” containing Muse cells to a rat model two weeks after mid-thoracic spinal cord contusion. Eight experimental animals received CL2020 and 12 received the vehicle. Behavioral analyses were conducted over 20 weeks. Histological evaluations were performed. After 20 weeks of observation, diphtheria toxin was administered to 3 CL2020-treated animals to selectively ablate human cell functions. Results: Hindlimb motor functions significantly improved from 6 to 20 weeks after the administration of CL2020. The cystic cavity was smaller in the CL2020 group. Furthermore, larger numbers of descending 5-HT fibers were preserved in the distal spinal cord. Muse cells in CL2020 were considered to have differentiated into neuronal and neural cells in the injured spinal cord. Neuronal and neural cells were identified in the gray and white matter, respectively. Importantly, these effects were reversed by the selective ablation of human cells by diphtheria toxin. Conclusions: Intravenously administered Muse cells facilitated the therapeutic potential of CL2020 for severe subacute spinal cord injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: microRNA; acute kidney injury; biomarker; mesenchymal stem cell.
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:57:53 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome where a rapid decrease in kidney function and/or urine output is observed, which may result in the imbalance of water, electrolyte and acid base, and is associated with poor prognosis and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment to avoid the severe AKI stage is important. While several biomarkers, such as urinary L-FABP and NGAL, can be clinically useful, there is still no gold standard for early detection of AKI and there are limited therapeutic options against AKI. miRNAs are non-coding and single-stranded RNAs that silence their target genes in the post-transcriptional process and are involved in a wide range of biological processes. Recent accumulated evidence has revealed that miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AKI. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge about miRNAs as promising biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for AKI, as well as the challenges in their clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0976.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: crush-related acute kidney injury; fasciotomy; morbidity; earthquake
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:41:27 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the impact of fasciotomy on mortality and morbidity in children and adults with crush-related AKI following the 2023 Kahramanmaraş earthquakes. Materials and Methods: The study included individuals who had suffered crush injuries after the 2023 Kahramanmaraş earthquakes and were identified as having acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with AKI were divided into two groups based on age: those under 18 years and those over 18 years. A comparative analysis was conducted between the mortality and morbidity rates of patients who underwent fasciotomy and those who did not. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), sepsis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have all been identified as contributors to morbidity. Results: The study was conducted with a total of 40 patients (21 males and 19 females) aged between four and 83 years. A total of 21 patients underwent fasciotomy and the patients underwent varying numbers of fasciotomy, ranging from zero to 11. The mortality rate was 12.5%, corresponding to five adult patients. No instances of mortality were reported in the paediatric cohort. The application of fasciotomy in instances of crush-induced AKI did not result in elevated levels of mortality in either the paediatric or adult demographic. Within the adult population, a substantial difference in the duration of dialysis was observed between individuals who underwent fasciotomy and those who did not. A statistically significant increase in the number of fasciotomy incisions was observed in patients diagnosed with sepsis compared with those without sepsis. The study found a significant positive correlation between the number of fasciotomy incisions and dialysis days. Conclusions: Neither adult nor paediatric patients with crush-induced AKI showed an increased risk of death after fasciotomy. The number of fasciotomy incisions significantly correlated with the development of sepsis. Despite experiencing delays in hospital admission for paediatric patients, the incidence of both crush syndrome and mortality rates among children remained relatively low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0230.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: HMGB1; bioflavonoid; inflammatory lung injury; oxidative stress; sepsis
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:10:31 CEST)
HMGB1 is a key late inflammatory mediator upregulated during air pollution-induced oxidative stress. Extracellular HMGB1 accumulation in the airways and lungs plays significant roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung injury. Decreasing extracellular HMBG1 level may restore innate immune cell functions to protect the lungs from harmful injuries. Current therapies for air-pollution induced respiratory problems are inadequate. Dietary antioxidants from natural sources could serve as a frontline defense for air pollution-induced oxidative stress lung damage. Here, a standardized bioflavonoid antioxidant composition from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu was evaluated for its efficacy in attenuating acute inflammatory lung injury and sepsis induced by oxidative stress and endotoxemia. Murine hyperoxia-exposed, bacterial-challenged acute lung injury, LPS-induced sepsis, and LPS-induced acute inflammatory lung injury models were utilized in vivo. Effect of the bioflavonoid composition on phagocytic activity and HMGB1 release was assessed using hyperoxia-stressed macrophages in vitro. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining for lung tissue damage evaluation, ELISA for inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, western blot analysis for protein and HMGB1 as well as bacterial counts in the lung and airways have been performed. Statistically significant decrease in mortality (50%), reduced proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokines (CINC-3) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage, increased bacterial clearance of airways and lungs; reduced airway total protein, and extracellular HMGB1 were observed in vivo. A statistically significant 75.9% reduction in the level of HMGB1 and increased phagocytosis activity were also observed in vitro. The compilation of data in this report strongly suggest that the bioflavonoid composition could be indicated for oxidative stress induced lung damage protection possibly through attenuation of extracellular HMGB1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: pelvic injury; hemorrhage; angioembolization; meta-analysis; systematic review
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:30:06 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Angioembolization has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach for pelvic hemorrhages; however, its exact effect size remains uncertain. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect size of embolization-related pelvic complications after nonselective angioembolization compared to that after selective angioembolization in patients with pelvic injury accompanying hemorrhage. Materials and Methods Relevant articles were collected by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases until June 24, 2023. Meta-analyses were conducted using odds ratios (ORs) for binary outcomes. Quality assessment was conducted using the risk of bias tool in non-randomized studies of interventions. Results: Five studies examining 357 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Embolization-related pelvic complications did not significantly differ between patients with nonselective and selective angioembolization (OR 1.581, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.592 to 4.225, I2 = 0%). However, in-hospital mortality was more likely to be higher in the nonselective group (OR 2.232, 95% CI 1.014 to 4.913, I2 = 0%) than in the selective group. In the quality assessment, two studies were found to have a moderate risk of bias, whereas two studies exhibited a serious risk of bias. Conclusions: Despite the favorable outcomes observed with nonselective angioembolization concerning embolization-related pelvic complications, determining the exact effect sizes was limited owing to the significant risk of bias and heterogeneity. Nonetheless, the low incidence of ischemic pelvic complications appears to be a promising result.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1790.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: soft tissue injury; fibrin membranes; concentrated growth factors
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:32:40 CEST)
Accidental soft tissue injuries are a frequent injury. We report a case involving a 37-year-old man with a soft tissue wound failing conservative treatment. The use of applied fibrin membranes and concentrated growth factors yielded a resolution of the injury in 16 months without need of skin grafting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1921.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ACL; screening; injury-risk; prevention; LESS; asymmetry; soccer
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:42:12 CEST)
The study aimed to identify football players at high risk (HR) for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury via a four-test battery and assess possible factors affecting classification. Ninety-one professional and semi-professional athletes participated in a field-based preseason screening. Aknowledged inter-limb asymmetry limits for quadriceps and hamstrings isometric strength, and Single Leg Triple Hop for distance, in addition to the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) comprised the test-battery. Additional assessment of hip adductors and core stability completed the global functional profile of the players. Sixty-one players were identified as HR and 30 as low-risk (LR) for ACL injury. Test-battery classified adequately 78,0% of them (Chi-square= 27,485 p=,000), identifying only 4 misclassified cases in the LR group, this low number being important for avoiding improper treatment of injury-prone athletes. All partcipants were considered healthy, and history of a previously rehabilitated injury did not interfere with the results. LESS seems to be the optimal criterion for classification and also the best predictor of both the initial grouping and the secondary one with the wrong vs correct classification cases. The proposed test-battery provides a promising option for field-based preseason ACL-risk assessment of football players and needs to be studied prospectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: calvarium; bone; traumatic brain injury; biomechanics; pathology; fracture
Online: 22 March 2023 (10:23:44 CET)
Mild impacts to the head, particularly when repetitive in nature, are increasingly recognized to have a range of significant negative implications for brain health. Much of the ongoing research in the field is focused on the neurological consequences of these injuries, and the relationship between head impacts and long-term neurodegenerative conditions such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimer’s disease. However, our understanding of the complex relationship between applied mechanical force at impact, brain pathophysiology, and neurological function, remains incomplete. Past research has shown that mild head impacts, even below the threshold that results in cranial fracture, induce changes in cranial bone structure and morphology. These structural and physiological changes likely have implications for the transmission of mechanical force into the underlying brain parenchyma. Here, we review this evidence in the context of the current understanding of bone mechanosensitivity and the consequences of traumatic brain injuries or concussions. We postulate that heterogeneity of the calvarium including differing bone thickness due to prior impacts, age, or individual variability, may be a modulator of outcomes following subsequent head impacts. We advocate for greater consideration of cranial responses to head injury in both experimental and computer modeling of impact biomechanics, and raise the hypothesis that calvarial bone thickness represents a novel biomarker of brain injury vulnerability after head trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: TBI; brain; injury; microglia; caspase; apoptosis; retina; degeneration
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:38:56 CET)
A Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the main causes of sudden death after head trauma. These injuries can result in severe degeneration and neuronal cell death in the CNS, including the retina which is a crucial part of the brain responsible for perceiving and transmitting visual information. The long-term effects of mild-repetitive TBI (rmTBI) are far less studied thus far, even though damages induced by repetitive injuries occurring in the brain are more common, especially amongst athletes. rmTBI can also have a detrimental effect on the retina and the pathophysiology of these injuries are likely to differ from the severe TBI (sTBI) retinal injury.Here we showed how rmTBI and sTBI can dissimilarly affect the retina. Our results indicate an increase in the number of activated microglial cells and Caspase3-positive cells in the retina in both traumatic models, suggesting a rise in the level of inflammation and cell death after TBI. The pattern of microglial activation appears evenly distributed and widespread but differs amongst the various retinal layers. sTBI induced microgial activation in both the superficial and deep retinal layers. In contrast to sTBI, no significant change occurred following the repetitive mild injury in the superficial layer, only the deep layer (spanning from the inner nuclear layer to the outer plexiform layer) shows microglial activation. This difference suggests that alternate response mechanisms play a role in the case of the different TBI incidents. The Caspase3 activation pattern showed a uniform increase in both the superficial and deep layers of the retina. This suggests a different action in the course of the disease in sTBI and rmTBI models and points to the need for new diagnostic procedures.Our present results suggest that the retina might serve as such a model of head injuries since the retinal tissue reacts to both forms of TBI and is the most accessible part of the human brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dauricine; STAT5; NF-κB; Inflammation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:18:00 CEST)
Inflammatory reaction after ischemia-reperfusion contributes significantly to prognosis, and microglia activation is the main resource of inflammation in nervous system. STAT5 is proving to be a highly effective anti-inflammatory therapy with great potential, and inhibition of STAT5 has demonstrated significant anti-inflammation and therapeutic effects, but rarely focus on mechanism of neuroinflammation and brain injury from ischemia-reperfusion. It is the first time to found that the anti-inflammation of dauricine is mainly through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, might act as a STAT5 inhibitor. Dauricine suppressed the inflammation cytokines Eotaxin, KC, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-17α, and also inhibited the microglia activation. STAT5b mutant at Tyr-699 reversed the protective effect of dauricine on oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion injury of neurons, and reactivated the suppression of dauricine on P-NF-κB of microglia. These results suggest that dauricine might suppress the neuroinflammation and protect the neuron from the injury of post-ischemia-reperfusion via mediating the microglia activation through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, and ss a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation, STAT5 needs to be raised concern in ischemic stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: traumatic optic neuropathy; mice; axon injury; TBI; neurodegeneration
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:26:51 CET)
Injury to the optic nerve, termed, traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a known comorbidity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is now known to cause chronic and progressive retinal thinning up to 35 years after injury. Although animal models of TBI have described the presence of optic nerve degeneration and research exploring acute mechanisms is underway, few studies in humans or animals have examined chronic TON pathophysiology outside the retina. We used a closed-head weight-drop model of TBI/TON in 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were euthanized 7-, 14-, 30-, 90-, and 150-days post injury (DPI) to assess histological changes in the visual system of the brain spanning a total of 12 regions. We show chronic elevation of FluoroJade-C, indicative of neurodegeneration, throughout the time course. Intriguingly, FJ-C staining revealed a bimodal distribution of mice indicating the possibility of subpopulations that may be more or less sus-ceptible to injury outcomes. Additionally, we show that microglia and astrocytes react to optic nerve damage in both temporally and regionally different ways. Despite these differences, as-trogliosis and microglial changes were alleviated between 14-30 DPI in all regions examined, perhaps indicating a potential critical period for intervention/recovery that may determine chronic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: sepsis; renal tubulointerstitial injury; resolvin; ATRvD1; inflammation; kidney
Online: 20 July 2021 (15:47:50 CEST)
Current interventions are not effectives in preventing sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and its long-term outcomes or even after second renal insult. Therapeutic strategies using lipid mediators, as aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (ATRvD1), can contribute for resolution of acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we examined the potential effect of ATRvD1 on long-term kidney dysfunction after severe sepsis. Fifteen days after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis-surviving BALB/c mice were subjected to a tubulointerstitial injury through intraperitoneal injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 7 days, called subclinical acute kidney injury (subAKI) animal model. ATRvD1 treatment was performed right before BSA injections. On day 22 after CLP, urinary protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), histologic parameters, fibrosis, cellular infiltration, apoptosis, inflammatory markers levels, and mRNA expression were determined. ATRvD1 treatment mitigated tubulointerstitial injury by reducing the proteinuria excretion, UPC ratio, glomerular cell number and extracellular matrix deposition. Pro-fibrotic markers, as transforming growth factor β (TGFb), type 3 collagen and metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and -9 were reduced after ATRvD1 administration. Post-septic mice treated with ATRvD1 were protected from renal apoptosis and recruitment of F4/80+ cells. Interleukin-1b (IL-1b) levels were increased in subAKI animal model, being attenuated by ATRvD1. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), IL-10 and IL-4 mRNA expression was increased in the kidney of BSA-challenged post-septic mice and it was also reduced after ATRvD1. These results suggest that ATRvD1 protects the kidney against a second insult as BSA-induced tubulointerstitial injury and fibrosis by suppressing inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators in renal dysfunction after sepsis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Post-cardiac injury syndrome; pericarditis; percutaneous coronary intervention.
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:48:46 CEST)
Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is known as a very rare possible trigger of pericarditis. Most frequently it develops after a latent period or early in case of periprocedural complications. In this report, we present an atypical early onset of pericarditis after the uncomplicated PCI. Case Summary: A 58-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for the PCI of the chronic total occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD) artery. An initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was unremarkable. PCI attempt was unsuccessful. There were no procedure related complications observed at the end of PCI attempt and patient was symptom free. Six hours after interventional procedure the patient complained of severe chest pain. The ECG demonstrated ST-segment elevation in anterior and lateral leads. Troponin I was mildly elevated but coronary angiogram did not reveal impairment of collateral blood flow to the LAD territory. Because of pericarditic chest pain, typical ECG findings and pericardial effusion with elevated C-reactive protein, the diagnosis of acute pericarditis was established, and a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was initiated. Chest pain was relieved and ST-segment elevation almost completely returned to baseline after three days of treatment. The patient was discharged in stable condition without chest pain on the fourth day after symptom onset. Conclusions: Acute pericarditis is a rare complication of PCI. Despite the lack of specific clinical manifestation, post-traumatic pericarditis should be considered in patients with symptoms and signs of pericarditis and a prior history of iatrogenic injury or thoracic trauma.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Meniscal injury; anatomical basis; physiological changes; biochemical changes
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:10:31 CEST)
The meniscus is a meniscus-shaped fibrocartilage tissue located between the femur and tibia，it is mainly composed of meniscus cells and related extracellular matrix.The synovial limbus area of the knee joint capsule near the meniscus is divided into red areas with rich blood vessels and white areas with less blood supply according to the distribution of blood vessels,there is a transition zone called the red and white zone between the two;Red zone has better self-repair ability,The injury in this area can be treated by conservative treatment or surgical suture;Once the white area of the meniscus is torn and involves the free edge area,It is often necessary to partially remove the damaged meniscus.When most of the entire meniscus is severely torn and involved,not only the course of the disease is very long, but it cannot be repaired by sutures,Often a subtotal or total meniscus resection is required,whether it is a partial meniscus resection, a subtotal meniscus resection or a complete resection.In the later period, it may cause quadriceps atrophy and osteoarthritis (OA）.OA is a refractory multi-system disease,involve the patient’s peripheral joints,it has high disability and teratogenicity, and is very harmful to human health.Chondrocyte pyrolysis, degradation, and inflammation play a vital role in the destruction of OA articular cartilage and chondrocyte apoptosis.Meniscus stem cells have strong proliferation and differentiation ability,has become one of the hot spots in the field of meniscus repair,this article studies the role of meniscal stem cells in the development of OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: chilling injury; pepper; seed browning; maturity; harvest time
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:04:39 CEST)
Chilling injury (CI), which causes seed browning in pepper, may arise following long-term cold storage, and is a major cause of postharvest losses. To explore potential strategies of minimizing the associated postharvest losses, the present study investigated the optimal pepper harvest time that could reduce levels of seed browning, in addition to the relationship between fruit maturity and seed browning. Fruit harvested 15 days after flowering (DAF) were sensitive to cold storage at 4°C and exhibited 100% seed browning (CI index, 4.0); in contrast, the seed browning rate of fruit harvested 35 DAF was 10% (CI index, 0.4) within 7 d of cold storage. Seed antioxidant activity was higher in seeds harvested at early stages (15 DAF to 20 DAF) than in seeds harvested at later stages (40 DAF to 50 DAF) at the beginning of storage. Pericarps of fruit harvested at 50 DAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Lipoxygenase, catalase, and peroxidase activity, and the expression levels of cell wall-related genes, pectin methylesterase-like protein, and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were higher in seeds of immature fruit harvested 15 DAF than in seeds of mature fruit harvested 35 DAF. The endosperm separated from the seed coat in fruit harvested 35 DAF and the seeds did not brown under low-temperature storage. The lack of seed browning observed in mature fruit under low-temperature storage could be attributed to physical protection provided by the seed coat rather than cold stress resistance conferred by antioxidants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Wrist injury; motion capture; croquet; technique analysis; overuse
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:16:48 CEST)
This study investigated the relationship between wrist flexion and the dynamics of the swing of a croquet mallet. Twenty seven subjects participated in a study which used 3D motion capture equipment and high speed and high-definition video to determine if there is a correlation between the lateral twist of a croquet player’s swing and the flexion of the wrist during that swing. The study found a significant correlation between the amount of flexion of the wrist from the start of the stroke to the top of the backswing and the twist of the mallet head at the top of the backswing (r=0.330, p<0.01). The methodology and findings are relevant to all sports where minimising wrist flexion is favourable for improving consistency of stroke making. Additionally, reducing wrist motion in stroke-making may reduce the incidence of wrist pain and injury in croquet, further supporting recommendations to reduce the amount of wrist flexion during the croquet swing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bicycle; helmet; brain injury; EPS foam; impact; safety
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:10:36 CEST)
This study evaluates various safety aspects of standardized impacts that cyclists may suffer while wearing a bicycle helmet, by combining a partially validated finite element model of the cranio-cervical region and a newly developed bicycle helmet model. Under EN 1078 standardized impact conditions, the results of simulated impact tests show that the helmet can absorb 40% to 50 % of the total impact energy at impact velocities above 4 m/s. Further, based on a relationship between Head Injury Criterion and the risk of injury from field data, the results of the simulations suggest that minor injuries may occur at impact velocities of 10 km/h, serious injuries at 15 km/h, and severe injuries at 20 km/h. Fatal injuries will likely occur at impact velocities of 30 km/h and higher.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: novel coronavirus infection; renal transplant; acute kidney injury
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:02:03 CET)
Novel coronavirus infection is a recent infective agent that causes severe potentially fatal pneumonia. The clinical presentation includes asymptomatic infection, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. Data pertaining to the clinical presentation of solid organ transplant recipients are scarce. Two cases of novel coronavirus infection in two recipients of renal transplant with variable clinical presentations and outcomes are reported. The first patient presented with progressive respiratory symptoms, acute renal failure, and passed away, whereas the second one, although presented with respiratory tract symptoms and hypoxemia remained stable and exhibited an excellent clinical recovery despite recent reception of thymoglobulin induction. This paper reports rare cases of novel coronavirus infection in renal transplant recipients. For an enhanced insight of the novel coronavirus infection and acute kidney injury on the clinical presentation, severity, and outcome in solid organ transplant recipients, further investigations are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: endothelial disorders; glycocalyx injury; syndecan-1; nonlinear regression
Online: 28 June 2019 (07:42:18 CEST)
Endothelial disorders are related to various diseases. An initial endothelial injury is characterized by endothelial glycocalyx injury. We aimed to evaluate endothelial glycocalyx injury by measuring serum syndecan-1 concentrations in patients during comprehensive medical examinations. A single-center, prospective, observational study was conducted at Asahi University Hospital. The participants enrolled in this study were 1313 patients who underwent comprehensive medical examinations at Asahi University Hospital from January 2018, to June 2018. One patient undergoing hemodialysis was excluded from the study. At enrollment, blood samples were obtained, and study personnel collected demographic and clinical data. No treatments or exposures were conducted except for standard medical examinations and blood sample collection. Laboratory data were obtained by collection of blood samples at the time of study enrolment. According to nonlinear regression, the concentrations of serum syndecan-1 were significantly related to age (p = 0.016), aspartic aminotransferase concentration (AST, p = 0.020), blood urea nitrogen concentration (BUN, p = 0.013), triglyceride concentration (p < 0.001), and hematocrit (p = 0.006). These relationships were independent associations. Endothelial glycocalyx injury, which is reflected by serum syndecan-1 concentrations, is related to age, hematocrit, AST concentration, BUN concentration, and triglyceride concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: hepatic injury; sealants; metalloproteinases; inflammatory response; wound healing
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:52:27 CET)
This study examines the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the healing of liver injuries treated with biological adhesives Tachosil® and GelitaSpon® and the elastic cyanoacrylate Adhflex®. Hepatic lesions were induced in male rats using a Stiefel biopsy punch. Healing was assessed 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by quantifying tissue levels of MMP1, 2, 8, 9, and 13. Histopathological repair was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and immunohistochemical markers CD31 and CD68. The sealants contributed to complete healing. Histopathology and MMP findings indicate that Adhflex® has slower degradation and a strong inflammatory reaction at the onset of healing. Early on, all MMPs showed higher levels in Adhflex® and Tachosil®-treated animals, and MMP2 and MMP9 expressions were significantly higher in the Adhflex-treated group at 18 days post-injury (T3). The Adhflex® group had significantly higher MMP8 and MPP13 levels than other treated groups and showed a sustained overexpression of all MMPs, even in the latest healing stages. Notably, the overexpression did not negatively influence the histological healing process. All hepatic trauma injuries should be treated as emergencies, and any easy-to-use and rapid sealant like Adhflex® could be considered as an option for treating liver trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0334.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hepatic injury; sealants; metalloproteinases; inflammatory response; wound healing
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:43:43 CEST)
. Sealants and adhesives are used in the repair and preservation of damaged solid organs. This study examines the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity in the healing of liver injuries treated with two biological adhesives (Tachosil® and GelitaSpon®) as well as that of a new elastic cyanoacrylate (Adhflex®). Methods. We induced in 90 male rats hepatic lesions using a Stiefel biopsy punch in the liver. Wound healing was assessed 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by quantifying MMP1, 2, 8, 9, and 13 tissue levels. The histopathological repair was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and CD31, CD68 immunohistochemical marker. The three sealants used contributed to the complete healing of hepatic lesions. Both histopathology and MMP findings point to the fact that degradation with Adhflex® is slower and causes a strong inflammatory reaction at the onset of healing. Results. All the MMPs measured showed higher values early in the healing process in animals treated with Adhflex® and Tachosil, expression for MMP2 and MMP9 being significantly higher in the Adhflex-treated group. Animals treated with Tachosil had significant greater values of MMP8 and MPP13 than the Adhflex group. Animals treated with Adhflex® showed a sustained overexpression in all MMPs even at the latest wound healing stages. Conclusion. Notably, the overexpression of the MMPs did not negatively influence the histological healing process of liver injuries. Since all hepatic trauma injuries should be treated as emergencies, any easy-to-use and rapid sealant, like Adhflex®, could be considered an adequate treatment option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: hepatic injury; sealants; metalloproteinases; inflammatory response; wound healing
Online: 20 April 2018 (11:14:49 CEST)
Background. Adhesives and sealants can be used to repair and preserve solid damaged organs. This study explores the activity of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) during the healing of liver injuries treated with two biological adhesives (Tachosil and GelitaSpon) and a new synthetic elastic cyanoacrylate (Adhflex®). Methods. Liver traumatic injuries were experimentally induced in 90 male Wistar rats using a Stiefel biopsy punch in the liver. Wound healing was evaluated 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by determining MMP1, 2, 8, 9, and 13 expression. The histopathological repair was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The three sealants used supported complete healing of the liver lesions. Both histopathology and MMP findings indicate that the degradation process of Adhflex® is slower and produces a strong initial inflammatory reaction. Results. All the MMPs measured disclosed higher values at early stage of the healing process in animals treated with Adhflex® and Tachosil, being the expression of for MMP2 and MMP9 significantly higher in the Adhflex-treated group. Animals treated with Tachosil had significant higher values of MMP8 and MPP13 than the Adhflex-treated group. Animals treated with Adhflex® showed a maintained overexpression in all the MMPs tested even at the latest wound healing stages. Conclusion. Notably, this MMPs overexpression did not influence negatively the histological healing process of the hepatic injuries. Given that all hepatic trauma injuries should be considered emergencies, any easy-to-use and rapid sealant, such as Adhflex®, could be considered as a suitable treatment option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; judo; biomechanics; knee injury; gender differences
Online: 20 September 2023 (08:40:06 CEST)
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most serious injury in judo. Therefore, its prevention is of great importance. The main mechanism of injury is the collapse of the knee in valgus, which usually occurs when there are deficits of strength and neuromuscular control of the core, external rotators and hip abductors, as well as limitations of ankle and hip mobility. In most sports there is a difference in the prevalence of this injury between both sexes, being more common in women. Therefore, in the present study we observed this possible intersexual disparity in the difference of movement patterns among elite judokas according to their sex, in order to identify those athletes with a higher risk of ACL injury. In addition, it was not observed differences between sexes in the performance of the Single Leg Squat test (SLS test); There was worse neuromuscular control of the non-dominant leg in men and women; No differences were observed in in the range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and hip external rotation between men and women, but there were differences in internal rotation, a movement whose restriction may be related to an increased risk of ACL injury.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0992.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: brachial plexus injury; cats; electrical stimulation; locomotor training; rehabilitation
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:58:19 CEST)
This prospective cohort pilot study included 22 cats diagnosed with partial traumatic brachial plexus injury (PTBPI), aiming to explore the response of an early intensive neurorehabilitation protocol. This protocol included functional electrical stimulation (FES), locomotor treadmill training and kinesiotherapy exercises, starting at the time with highest probability of nerve repair. The synergetic benefits of this multimodal approach were based on the structural and protective role of proteins and release of neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, parametrization of FES was according to presence or absence of deep pain. Results have shown 72.6% (16/22) cats that achieved ambulation, with 9 cats within 15 days, 2 cats until 30 days and 5 cats until 60 days, however with persistent knuckling position. During the 4 years follow-up, there was evidence of improvement on both muscle mass and muscle weakness, in addition to the disappearance of neuropathic pain. Notably, after the 60 days of neurorehabilitation, 3 cats improved ambulation after arthrodesis of the carpus. Thus, early rehabilitation, with FES applied at the first weeks after injury and accurate parametrization according to deep pain perception, may improve functionality and ambulation, reducing probability of amputation of the affected limb.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2090.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: spinal cord injury; cell therapy; neuroprotection; supplements; peptides; inflammation
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:24:19 CEST)
Spinal cord injury is a traumatic injury that causes a catastrophic state in patients due to neuronal deficits, loss of motor and sensory function, and this is due to secondary deleterious events subsequent to mechanical damage that expands the death of neural cells beyond the initial trauma. One of the most important events is inflammation, which activates molecules like pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) that provoke a toxic environment, inhibiting axonal growth and exacerbating CNS damage. As there is no effective treatment, one of the strategies developed is neuroprotection to preserve healthy neural tissue and reduce neuroinflammation. Some of the neuroprotective treatments that have been practiced are the use of cell therapy, the administration of peptides and molecules or supplements that have been shown to favor an anti-inflammatory environment, and help to preserve the cells and tissues surrounding the injured area, favoring axonal growth and improving locomotor function. In this review we will explain some of these strategies used in different animal models of spinal cord injury, their activity as modulators of the immune system and the benefits they have shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: acute kidney Injury; TIMP2xIGBP7; mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin; sepsis
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:15:18 CEST)
Identifying a panel of markers detecting kidney injury before the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction is the challenge to improve the diagnosis and the management of acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic patients. This study evaluated the roles of tissue inhibitor metal proteinase, insulin growth factor binding protein (TIMP2*IGFBP7), and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in AKI patients. Patients and Methods: This study was prospectively conducted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) enrolling 230 patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Biomarkers were evaluated before and after 4 hours of the cardiac surgery. Results: Whereas urine and creatinine alterations appeared at 23.2 (12.7 – 36.5) hours, after cardiac surgery, urinary TIMP2*IGBP7 levels were higher at 4 hours in AKI patients (1.1±0.4 mg/l vs 0.08±0.02 mg/l; p < 0.001). Its concentration >2 mg/l increases the AKI risk within the following 24 hours, clearly identifying the population at high risk of renal replacement therapy (RRT). In patients with sepsis, MR-proADM levels were 2.3 nmol/l (0.7–7.8 nmol/l), with the highest values observed in septic shock [5.6 nmol/l (3.2–18 nmol/l)] and a better diagnostic profile than procalcitonin and C-reactive protein to identify septic patients. MR-proADM values >5.1 nmol/l and urine TIMP2*IGBP7 levels > 2 mg/l showed a significantly faster progression to RRT, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 days. Conclusions: TIMP2*IGBP7 and MR-proADM precociously diagnose AKI in septic patients after cardiac surgery, giving prognostic information for RRT requirement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee; anterolateral ligament; all; ligament injury; paediatrics; anterolateral capsule
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:13:05 CEST)
The knowledge on anatomy, function, biomechanics, and role on surgical procedures of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee is still controversial. Only a few papers have examined the ALL in children. The aim of this review is to analyse all the available literature about ALL in pediatric population. Following the PRISMA criteria, the literature was systematically reviewed, examining all the articles about ALL in pediatric patients. Eight articles were involved in the study. Five cadaveric studies, 2 diagnostic studies and 1 Cross-sectional study were found. The identification of the ALL is not always possible in diagnostic studies using the Magnetic Resonance (MRI) or in dissecting specimens. A high variability in the presence of the ligament, in its origin and insertion were found among the studies. In younger patients is more difficult to identify the ligament than in older children, suggesting that its presence may develop at some point during the growth. Further studies are needed for a detailed knowledge of the ALL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ECMO; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Plasma biomarker; Brain injury; neuromonitoring
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:03:46 CEST)
Background: Early diagnosis of acute brain injury (ABI) is critical for patients on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) to guide anticoagulation strategy; however, neurological assessment in ECMO is often limited by patient sedation. Methods: In this pilot study of adults from June 2018 to May 2019, plasma samples of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light chain (NFL), and Tau were collected daily after VA-ECMO cannulation and measured using a multiplex platform. Primary outcomes were the occurrence of ABI, assessed clinically, and neurologic outcome, assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Of 20 consented patients (median age=48.5 years; 55% female), 8 (40%) had ABI and 15 (75%) had unfavorable neurologic outcomes at discharge. 10 (50%) patients were centrally cannulated. The median duration on ECMO was 4.5 days (IQR: 2.5-9.5). Peak GFAP, NFL, and Tau levels were higher in patients with ABI vs. without (AUC = 0.77; 0.85; 0.57, respectively) and in patients with unfavorable vs. favorable neurologic outcomes (AUC = 0.64; 0.59; 0.73, respectively). GFAP elevated first, NFL elevated to the highest degree, and Tau showed limited change regardless of ABI. Conclusion: Plasma biomarkers may facilitate early detection of ABIs in VA-ECMO where neurological exam is limited and assist timely clinical decision-making.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: tetranychids; mite injury; bronzing; predatory mites; highbush blueberry; Florida
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:14:48 CEST)
Tetranychid outbreaks have been detected since 2016 in southern highbush blueberries (SHB); however, it was not until 2019 when the southern red mite (SRM), Oligonychus ilicis (Acari: Tetranychidae) was confirmed as the pest causing severe bronzing and stunting, in multiple Florida and Georgia commercial blueberry plantings. There is little known about the management of SRM in SHB and only three miticides (fenazaquin, fenpyroximate, and acequinocyl), have recently been registered for use in SHB between 2019 and 2020. Similarly, there is no knowledge regarding the existence of natural enemies of SRM in SHB. This is the first report of naturally occurring predatory mites (Amblyseius sp. and Neoseiulus ilicis) associated with SRM in SHB. Predatory mites were recorded in treated bushes after evaluating the performance of seven miticides used to manage SRM populations including spiromesifen, acequinocyl, sulfur, sulfur + molasses, bifenazate, fenpyroximate, and fenazaquin. Miticide efficacy was rated based on the number of SRM recorded on collected leaves and plant damage ratings using an arbitrary index (from 0= no bronzing to 4= 100% bronzing). Additionally, the presence or absence of predatory mites per sample was recorded. Fenpyroximate used as the standard miticide, significantly reduced mite numbers seven days after application, as well as acequinocyl and fenazaquin. Only plants treated with fenpyroximate or fenazaquin showed significantly less bronzing compared with the control plants. Overall, fenpyroximate and fenazaquin demonstrated the best performance for managing O. ilicis on SHB and safe to naturally occurring predatory mites. Lastly, the level of growers’ awareness regarding SRM was assessed using surveys in 2020 to design adequate educational materials available to the grower community.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0134.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: planting depth; drought; freeze injury; herbivory; mortality; survival; insects
Online: 7 February 2023 (14:01:52 CET)
Artificial regeneration is successful when high performing seedlings are transported with care to the planting site, stored for a short period in an environment without desiccation or fungal growth, and are planted in a deep hole so roots are in contact with moist soil. One of the requirements for success is the ability to avoid common planting mistakes. Due, in part, to use of container stock plus an increase in rainfall, average 1st year survival of pine seedlings (89%) in the southern United States is about 15% greater now than 45 years ago. However, when survival is less than 50% six months after planting, some landowners seek reimbursement for their loss. Some assume poor seedling quality was the cause without realizing that anaerobic soils or sudden freeze events or shallow planting holes or pruning roots, a lack of rain, or underground insects can kill pines. With a focus on pines planted in the southern United States, we list non-nursery factors that have killed seedlings in North America, Africa and Europe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: EEG; stroke; traumatic brain injury; neurorehabilitation; brain-machine interface
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:08:43 CET)
Background: There is an increasing interest in the role of EEG in neurorehabilitation. We primarily aimed to identify the knowledge base through highly influential studies. Our secondary aims were to imprint the relevant thematic hotspots, research trends, and social networks within the scientific community. Methods: We performed an electronic search in Scopus looking for studies reporting on rehabilitation in patients with neurological disabilities. The most influential papers outlined the knowledge base, while a word co-occurrence analysis imprinted the research hotspots. Likewise, co-citation analyses highlighted collaboration networks between Universities, authors, and countries. The results were presented in summary tables, burst detection plots, and geospatial maps. Finally, a content review based on the top-20 most cited articles completed our study. Results: Our current bibliometric study was based on 874 records from 420 sources. There was a vivid research interest in EEG use for neurorehabilitation, with an annual growth rate as high as 14.3%. The most influential paper was the study titled "Brain-computer interfaces, a review" by Nicolas-Alfonso LF and Gomez-Gill J, with 997 citations, followed by "Brain-computer interfaces in neurological rehabilitation" by Daly J. and Wolpaw JR (708 citations). The USA, Italy, and Germany were among the most productive countries. The research hotspots shifted with time from the use of “functional magnetic imaging” to EEG-based “brain-machine interface”, “motor imagery”, and “deep learning”. Conclusions: EEG constitutes the most significant input in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and can be successfully used in the neurorehabilitation of patients with stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and traumatic brain and spinal injury. EEG-based BCI facilitates training, communication, and control of wheelchair and exoskeletons. However, research is limited to specific scientific groups from developed countries. Evidence is expected to change with the broader availability of BCI and improvement in EEG filtering algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: reparative osteogenesis; vertebrae; injury; trauma; thoracic spine; lumbar spine
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:46:17 CEST)
Reparative osteogenesis in the damaged vertebrae is a complex cascade of morphological and biochemical processes that result in the consolidation of the vertebral body. This research was aimed at studying the features of reparative osteogenesis in damaged thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies at different time points after injury. We analyzed the morphological findings of the vertebral tissues harvested during surgical interventions in 43 patients with recent, subacute and long-standing injuries to thoracic and lumbar spine, and found that cell differentiation in osteogenesis is closely related to angiogenesis and the metabolic cascade. In areas with sufficient oxygenation, good partial pressure of oxygen, and active growth of microvasculature the normal cycle of development and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteocytes occurs, and hypoxia and acidosis lead to pathological osteogenesis. The reclination maneuver with dorsal tools on Day 10-12 of the injury may be ineffective due to the formation of adhesions between fragments, and reclination of the body of the damaged vertebra two weeks or more after the injury is apparently doomed to failure. Timely ventral fusion performed for objective indications is the key to successful rehabilitation of patients, on the one hand, and reduction of the surgical trauma volume in the future, on the other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Paramedic; Violence; Qualitative Research; Operational Stress Injury; Mental Health
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:04:48 CET)
Purpose Violence against paramedics is a complex – but underreported – problem. Extant research suggests organizational culture may play a role in sustaining cultural norms that downplay the significance and limit reporting. Our objective was to qualitatively explore paramedics’ experience with violence, with particular emphasis on understanding how organizational culture contributes to under-reporting. Approach We surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban service in Ontario, Canada, asking participants to describe their experiences with violence, including whether – and why or why not – the incidents were reported. Within a constructivist epistemology, we used inductive thematic analysis with successive rounds of coding to identify and then define features of organizational culture that limit reporting. Findings A total of 196 (33% of eligible) paramedics completed the survey. Fully 98% of participants disclosed having experienced some form of violence; however only a minority (40%) reported the incidents to management, or the police (21%). We defined a framework within which a lack of support from management, and consequences for offenders, implicitly positions the ability of paramedics to “brush off” violent encounters as an expected professional competency. Disclosing emotional or psychological distress in response to violent encounters invited questions as to whether the individual is personally suited to paramedic work. Originality While the extant research has indicated that underreporting is a problem, our findings shed light on why – a critical first step in addressing what has been described as a serious public health problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intracranial compliance; intracranial pressure; intracranial hypertension; acute brain injury
Online: 7 October 2021 (10:54:26 CEST)
We validated a new noninvasive tool (B4C) to assess intracranial pressure waveform (ICPW) morphology in a set of neurocritical patients, correlating the data with ICPW obtained from invasive catheter monitoring. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were consecutively evaluated using the B4C sensor. Ultrasound-guided manual internal jugular vein (IJV) compression was performed to elevate ICP from the baseline. ICP values, amplitudes, and time intervals (P2/P1 ratio and time-to-peak [TTP]) between the ICP and B4C waveform peaks were analyzed. Results: Among 41 patients, the main causes for ICP monitoring included traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke. Bland-Altman’s plot indicated agreement between the ICPW parameters obtained using both techniques. The strongest Pearson’s correlation for P2/P1 and TTP was observed among patients with no cranial damage (r = 0.72 and 0.85, respectively) in detriment of those who have undergone craniotomies or craniectomies. P2/P1 values of 1 were equivalent between the two techniques (area under the receiver operator curve [AUROC], 0.9) whereas B4C cut-off 1.2 was predictive of intracranial hypertension (AUROC 0.9, p < 000.1 for ICP > 20 mmHg). Conclusion: B4C provided biometric amplitude ratios correlated with ICPW variation morphology and is useful for noninvasive critical care monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0091.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Sports injury, health-seeking behaviour, junior school footballers, Bangladesh
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:52:41 CEST)
Globally, football as a sport has recorded the highest rate of injury morbidity compared with other sports due to the high degree of contact between the players. Coaches play an important role in reducing injuries among the players. The objective of this study was to explore the pattern of football-related sports injuries among junior high school footballers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2019 to March 2019 in 20 junior high schools in Dhaka Metropolitan city. We observed 368 boys in the age range of 10 to 18 years old. A pre-structured questionnaire was provided to six trained junior physiotherapists to conduct the face-to-face interview with the boys in the school setting. Most students were from middle-income families. The injury prevalence of defenders was the most (157, 42.7%) followed by mid-fielders (132, 35.94%), forwards (63, 17.1%), and goalkeepers (16, 4.3%). Tackling was the main cause of injury in 21.1% of cases followed by foul play in 19.1% of the cases. In July, there were more injuries (69.0%) and associated muscle strain. Injured footballers did not visit sports physiotherapists as much as they did other health profession and the association was significant. When considering scientific knowledge, students were aware of fitness, flexibility & endurance (25.5%), sports massage (24.5%), the relation of body structure with sports Injury (21.2%), warm-up and/or cool down (19.6%). Based on the study, it was seen that students had no scientific knowledge of sports. As sports is a key activity for school-going children, comprehensive sports injury preventive knowledge is needed for students and sports teachers and coaches. Access to sports physiotherapists is also needed to prevent and manage sports injury at the field level and for rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: rehabilitation; stress; reptiles; injury; disease; euthanasia; trauma; clinical care
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:23:18 CET)
Direct and indirect anthropogenic factors play a massive role in driving wildlife species towards extinction. Longitudinal retrospective studies identify key ‘factors’ responsible for the decline in numbers of wildlife, however, lack the reasoning behind the events leading to mortality. The overarching aim of this study was to categorize these ‘factors’ into different stressor categories faced by reptiles to understand its impact on an individual, and to compare how each stressor category influences the survival of an individual. The results from this study indicated that almost half of the number of reptiles being hospitalized were due to exposure to preliminary stressors such as lawn mowing incidents and pet attack. Primary and secondary admissions were fairly equal in number, however the mortality rate for secondary admissions was drastically high (~80%). The discussion integrates species’ ecology and stress physiology which can prove to have multi-faceted benefits across the fields of ecology and animal welfare. Ecologists can use the results from this study to comprehend species’ activity patterns to better plan reptilian conservation programs, whereas, for wildlife clinicians and rehabilitators, assignment of stressor categories could be a beneficial tool for bolstering the welfare monitoring program for small native reptiles in clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Chilling injury; Ethylene response factor; Ripening; Tomato
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:26:34 CET)
The effect of CO2 pre-treatments on tomato quality prior to cold storage was investigated using physiochemical and transcriptome changes. Three hours CO2 treated fruits were firmer than untreated fruits and had a good appearance even after being transferred from 4°C storage to 20°C for 8 d. CO2 pretreatment with cold storage showed a synergistic effect on delayed ripening through reduced respiration; these tomatoes exhibited a lower lycopene content than untreated fruit under cold storage. Tomatoes treated with 30% CO2 had fewer pits than untreated fruits subjected to chilling temperatures, even after being transferred to 20°C for 8 d. Functional enrichment analyses from transcriptome and metabolome commonly showed that CO2-responsive genes or metabolites were involved in the sucrose and starch and biosynthesis of secondary metabolisms. The most frequently detected domain, ethylene-responsive factor domain and reduced glycolysis provide insights into the mechanism that CO2 regulates tomato quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0332.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; renal injury; lipocalin-2; collagen type IV; inflammation
Online: 22 August 2020 (03:56:22 CEST)
Rats fed a high-fat diet with a single streptozotocin (STZ) injection developed obesity, prediabetes, cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Here we aimed to explore the renal consequences of prediabetes in the same groups of rats. Male Long-Evans rats were fed normal chow (CON; n = 9) or high-fat diet containing 40% lard and were administered STZ at 20 mg/kg (i.p.) at week four (prediabetic rats, PRED, n = 9). At week 21 cardiac functions were examined (Koncsos et al., 2016) and blood and urine samples were taken. Kidney samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry and for analysis of gene expression. High-fat diet and streptozotocin increased body weight gain and visceral adiposity, and plasma leptin, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, despite hyperleptinemia, plasma C-reactive protein concentration decreased in PRED rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed elevated collagen IV protein expression in the glomeruli, and Lcn2 mRNA expression increased, while Il-1β mRNA expression decreased in both the renal cortex and medulla in PRED vs. CON rats. Kidney histology, urinary protein excretion, plasma creatinine, glomerular Feret diameter, desmin protein expression and cortical and medullary mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Nrf2, PPARγ were similar in CON and PRED rats. Reduced AMPKα phosphorylation of the autophagy regulator Akt was the first sign of liver damage, while serum lipid and liver enzyme levels were similar. In conclusion, glomerular collagen deposition and increased lipocalin-2 expression were the early signs of kidney injury, while most biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were negative in the kidneys of obese, prediabetic rats with mild heart and liver injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: acute kidney injury; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 18 May 2020 (17:29:02 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgeries. Material and Methods: All the HPB surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and fisher t test wherever approptiate and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We performed 195 HPB surgeries between April 2018 to March 2020, Which included 114 biliary surgeries, 57 liver surgeries and 23 pancreas surgeries. 10 patients developed Acute Kidney Injuries. (AKI) On Univariate analysis AKI was associated with open surgeries, intra operative hypotension and liver surgeries, higher ASA grade, increase operative time, more blood products used, higher CDC grade of surgery and more hospital stay before diagnosis of AKI. However on multivariate analysis only higher ASA score independently predicted Acute Kidney Injury. (p=0.003, odds ratio 15.659, 95% confidence interval 2.54-93.36). AKI was also significantly associated with mortality. (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Pre operative higher ASA grade independently predicted post operative acute kidney injury. Post operative AKI is significantly associated with mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0052.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pressure ulcer; pressure injury; decubitus ulcer; position change; Ethiopia
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:10:34 CET)
Background: Pressure ulcers (PU) aﬀect millions of people worldwide and always occur over bony areas of the body where pressure and tissue distortion is greatest. The national pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer remains unknown. Hence, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of position change on pressure ulcer among hospitalized clients in Ethiopia. Methods: Studies were retrieved through search engines in PubMed, Scopus, WHO afro library, Google Scholar, Africa journal online, PsycINFO and web-science following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Analysis was done using STATA version 14 software. We checked the between-study heterogeneity using the I2 and examined a potential publication bias by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger’s regression test statistic. The random-effect model was fitted to estimate the summary effects, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence interval (CIs) across studies. Results: Out of the reviewing 401 studies, 7 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was 11.7% (95% CI (7.28, 16.13%)). Based on the subgroup analysis, the estimated magnitude of pressure ulcer was 15.89% (95% CI: 35.34, 54.04) among studies their sample size were greater than or equals to 250. Those clients who have position change during hospitalization were 85% less likely to develop pressure ulcer [(OR 0.15, 95%CI (0.06, 0.4)] than their counter part. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was relatively high. Position change of the client during hospitalization had paramount benefit to reduce the burden of pressure ulcer. Therefore, policymakers could give special attention to minimize the magnitude of pressure ulcer in order to improve the overall quality of healthcare service. Further meta-analysis study is need to identify individual and health care service related factors to the occurrence of pressure ulcer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Heavy metals; Mining; Balochistan gerbil; liver injury; Kidney damage.
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:14:09 CEST)
Mining can impact the environment, biodiversity and human health through direct and indirect practices. This study investigated the effects of gold mining on Gerbillus nanus, pointing to organ dysfunction and redox imbalance. Soil samples, Lycium shawii and G. nanus were collected from a site near a mining planet and a control site. Soil and L. shawii samples from the mining site showed a significant increase cadmium (Cd), cupper (Cu), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). Hepatic, renal and pulmonary Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu, Fe, As and V concentrations were increased significantly in G. nanus at the mining site. Markers of liver and kidney function were elevated in serum, and several histological manifestations were demonstrated in liver, kidney and lung of G. nanus at the mining site. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were increased, and glutathione and antioxidant enzyme were declined in the liver and kidney of G. nanus. In conclusion, mining practices triggered tissue damage and oxidative stress in G. nanus living close to the mining site. These findings can represent the scientific basis for evaluating the environmental and health impact of mining in the on the nearby communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: rhabdomyolysis; pigment nephropathy; haem; NLRP3 inflammasome; acute kidney injury
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:11:08 CEST)
Pigment nephropathy is an acute decline in renal function following the deposition of endogenous haem-containing proteins in the kidneys. Haem pigments such as myoglobin and haemoglobin are filtered by glomeruli and absorbed by the proximal tubules. They cause renal vasoconstriction, tubular obstruction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Haem is associated with inflammation in sterile and infectious conditions, contributing to the pathogenesis of many disorders such as rhabdomyolysis and haemolytic diseases. In fact, haem appears to be a signaling molecule that is able to activate the inflammasome pathway. Recent studies highlight a pathogenic function for haem in triggering inflammatory responses through the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Among the inflammasome multiprotein complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome has been the most widely characterized as a trigger of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-18 and -1β. In the present review, we discuss the latest evidence on the importance of inflammasome-mediated inflammation in pigment nephropathy. Finally, we highlight the potential role of inflammasome inhibitors in the prophylaxis and treatment of pigment nephropathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.