ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: public-private partnership; infrastructure; infrastructure funds; Nigeria; South Africa
Online: 10 July 2020 (03:56:50 CEST)
Budget deficits, economic crisis and competing demands for lean state resources are clear reasons why governments, especially in sub-Saharan Africa are now inclined towards the public-private partnership model of infrastructure finance. This paper comparatively examines the regulation of public-private partnership in Nigeria and South Africa. The aim is to highlight areas where both countries can learn from their experiences. The paper finds that beyond the problem of overlapping laws, weak institutional mechanisms and the need to check the arbitrariness of public officials as some of the problems that need to be addressed to build strong public-private partnership regimes in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper recommends among others, holistic strategies for strengthening the framework and practice in both countries and the need to make the public-private partnership process less cumbersome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: political borders; ecosystem edges; green infrastructure, blue infrastructure; opportunities; threats; sustainability.
Online: 9 December 2020 (13:40:19 CET)
Cities are small on earth’s surface but they are the most attractive places for people to live and work; cities are developing quickly, thus it’s important to keep it a better quality place to live as it has the major of the economic activities and more job opportunities and other social and economic advantages to be a more green and sustainable place. Seeking to achieve sustainable use of ecosystems and conserve natural resources in the city of Prague; integrating ecological sustainability goals, the political borders as a reflection of urban development in the city, and ecosystems edges in blue and green functions impact the city development, and present opportunities to create strategies for green and blue infrastructure and clarifying threats could slow down the process to achieve the sustainability and greenery application. Also checking possible urban areas for development like brownfields and clarifying their relationship with political borders and ecosystems to find possible areas to add for sustainable green use, which will create better places for people to live and raise the value of life as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Field Robotics; Concrete Corrosion; Infrastructure Maintenance; Condition Assessment; Remote Sensing; Sewer Infrastructure
Online: 5 March 2021 (08:57:33 CET)
Worldwide, millions of kilometres of sewers are constructed from concrete pipes. Unfortunately, concrete sewers are susceptible to corrosion from biogenic hydrogen sulphide, and though they may pass visual inspection, their ability to hold together under load may be degraded. This paper presents the design of a teleoperated robot with a protractible probe, that allows an operator to apply a localised load to selected points within a concrete sewer pipe. We report findings from laboratory and field trials of our prototype, with initial results suggesting that this approach has the potential to contribute useful information to sewer maintenance planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: data extraction; data mining; railway infrastructure costs; infrastructure costs data analysis; cost analysis
Online: 18 August 2023 (16:03:08 CEST)
The capability of extracting information and analyze it into a common format is essential for performing predictions, comparing projects through cost benchmarking, and for having a deeper understanding of the project costs. However, the lack of standardization and the manual inclusion of the data makes this process very time-consuming, unreliable, and inefficient. To tackle this problem, a novel approach with a big impact is presented combining the benefits of data mining, statistics, and machine learning to extract and analyze the information related to railway costs infrastructure data. To validate the suggested approach, data from 23 real historical projects from the client network rail was extracted, allowing their costs to be comparable. Finally, some machine learning and data analytics methods were implemented to identify the most relevant factors allowing for costs benchmarking. The presented method proves the benefits of data extraction being able to gather, analyze and benchmark each project in an efficient manner, and deeply understand the relationships and the relevant factors that matter in infrastructure costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: system-of-systems; High Level Architecture (HLA); infrastructure modelling; infrastructure resilience; time granularity; complex networks; synchronization.
Online: 4 March 2021 (13:01:47 CET)
System-of-systems (SoS) approach is often used for simulating disruptions to business and infrastructure system networks allowing for integration of several models into one simulation. However, the integration is frequently challenging as each system is designed individually with different characteristics, such as time granularity. Understanding the impact of time granularity on propagation of disruptions between businesses and infrastructure systems and finding the appropriate granularity for the SoS simulation remain as major challenges. To tackle these, we explore how time granularity, recovery time, and disruption size affect the propagation of disruptions between constituent systems of an SoS simulation. To address this issue, we developed a High Level Architecture (HLA) simulation of 3 networks and performed a series of simulation experiments. Our results revealed that time granularity and especially recovery time have huge impact on propagation of disruptions. Consequently, we developed a model for selecting an appropriate time granularity for an SoS simulation based on expected recovery time. Our simulation experiments show that time granularity should be less than 1.13 of expected recovery time. We identified some areas for future research centered around extending the experimental factors space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0665.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: AI Readiness Assessment; Business Processes; Data Infrastructure
Online: 11 October 2023 (04:48:52 CEST)
Keywords: AI Readiness Assessment; Business Processes; and Data Infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: infrastructure damage; transportation vulnerability; roadway; risk; hazard
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:21:08 CEST)
Wildfires can be destructive to highway infrastructure. Despite the substantial number of wildfires experienced every year, research on the physical impacts of wildfire on highways has been understudied. This research examines historical and potential future highway physical damage from wildfires. To accomplish our research objectives, we examined three major areas related to physical harm to highways and the consequences of that damage – physical characteristics, roadway impacts, and traffic impacts. These categories were subsequently broken into additional metrics, the first being physical characteristics, which includes length of highway affected and reduced average daily traffic (RADT) impacts during the event. Roadway impacts were broken into the number of trees requiring removal (those that present a danger either standing or fallen), pavement damage (burning asphalt concrete), slope/rock scaling (loose hazard rocks/vegetation), and structural damage (guardrail, signs, and delineators). Traffic impacts included the need for traffic control, road closures required, and reduced annual average daily traffic (RAADT) impacts for the year. The physical characteristics on the three highways researched during the 2020 Oregon Labor Day wildfires (Beachie Creek, Archie Creek, and Holiday Farm) indicated less than 61% of the highways were affected. The highway impacts, which included damage from hazard trees, damage to various structures – guardrail, signs, and delineators as well as bridges, slope/rock scaling damage and pavement destruction – averaged 34% for the three highways, while the three of eight arterial highway routes studied in the Oregon Cascades saw a 21% reduction in AADT. Results from this study can be used not only to assess physical damage to highways from wildfires, but as a baseline for measuring and assessing potential future wildfire highway impacts.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0269.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ICT in Education; ICT Infrastructure; Cost Implications
Online: 13 February 2023 (15:22:42 CET)
The domain of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) education has garnered significant consideration in recent times. However, several challenges are inherent to this area of study, including monetary expense, temporal factors, pedagogical environment, teacher training programs, incentive, syllabus design, and health-related concerns. This paper presents an analysis of the difficulties encountered in the realm of ICT education in Japan, taking into account ten different perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0376.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: flood damage methodology; hydraulic infrastructure; resilience; indicators
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:27:21 CET)
Critical infrastructures are those that are essential. For this type of infrastructure, it is necessary to implement analytical methodologies that will allow us to quickly obtain the susceptibility or resilience and possible damage generated in extreme precipitation episodes, through a holistic perspective in which the factors linked to hydrological risk intervene. In particular, urban hydraulic infrastructures are analyzed considering the degree of criticality, defined as the number of interactions on the different activities of the population. For this purpose, a hydrological risk analysis methodology is required. This methodology is focused on an integral approach of the system indicators to be analyzed and linked to the hydrological threat. This work proposes to delimit and analyze those factors that involve risk using an analytical expression. This model will estimate the damage to these infrastructures breaking down the factors involved in the risk equation and analyzing their variability according to the intrinsic characteristics linked to them as well as the interaction with external factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0289.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: project governance; programme; infrastructure development; developing countries
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:24:48 CEST)
The governance of public sector infrastructure projects became an important topic of interest in the project, programme and portfolio management literature during the last decade. Today, it is becoming a central focus for policymakers seeking to ensure success in selecting, designing and implementing government-sponsored programme of multi-projects. Due to the multiple underlying risks and complexities, the governance of infrastructure programme constitutes a critical element in strategic planning in developing countries. This paper has analyzed infrastructure development programme and revealed shortcomings in the areas of appraisal, decision-making, quality assurance and stakeholder management. Approaches to remedy these shortcomings have been proposed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0560.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: MIGI; microbiome-inspired green infrastructure; microbiome; urban microbiome; nature-based intervention; biodiversity; greenspace; green infrastructure; multispecies urbanism; EcoHealth
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:01:13 CEST)
Background: Microbiome-Inspired Green Infrastructure (MIGI) was recently proposed as an integrative system to promote healthy urban ecosystems, through multidisciplinary design. Specifically, MIGI is defined as nature-centric infrastructure restored and/or designed and managed to enhance health-promoting interactions between humans and environmental microbiomes, whilst sustaining microbially-mediated ecosystem functionality and resilience. MIGI also aims to stimulate a research agenda that focuses on considerations for the importance of urban environmental microbiomes. Objectives: In this paper we provide details of what MIGI entails from a bioscience and biodesign perspective, highlighting the potential dual benefits for human and ecosystem health. We present ‘what is known’ about the relationship between urban microbiomes, green infrastructure and environmental factors that may affect urban ecosystem health (ecosystem functionality and resilience as well as human health). We discuss how to start operationalising the MIGI concept based on current available knowledge, and present a horizon scan of emerging and future considerations in research and practice. We conclude by highlighting challenges to the implementation of MIGI and propose a series of workshops to discuss multi-stakeholder needs and opportunities. Discussion: This article will enable urban landscape managers to incorporate initial considerations for the microbiome in their development projects to promote human and ecosystem health. However, overcoming the challenges to operationalising MIGI will be essential to furthering its practical development. Although the research is in its infancy, there is considerable potential for MIGI to help deliver sustainable urban development driven by considerations for reciprocal relations between humans and the foundations of our ecosystems –– the microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0294.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: vehicular networks; performance management; design of vehicular networks; mobile networks; vehicle-to-infrastructure; roadside units; infrastructure for vehicular networks
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:55:58 CET)
Over the past few decades, the growth of the urban population has been remarkable. Nowadays, 50% of the population lives in urban areas, and forecasts point that by 2050 this number will reach 70%. Today, 64% of all travel made is within urban environments and the total amount of urban kilometers traveled is expected to triple by 2050. Thus, seeking novel solutions for urban mobility becomes paramount for 21st century society. In this work, we discuss the performance of vehicular networks. We consider the metric Delta Network. The Delta Network characterizes the connectivity of the vehicular network through the percentage of travel time in which vehicles are connected to roadside units. This article reviews the concept of Delta Network and extends its study through the presentation of a general heuristic based on the definition of scores to identify the areas of the road network that should receive coverage. After defining the general heuristic, we show how small changes in the score computation can generate very distinct (and interesting) patterns of coverage, each one suited to a given scenario. In order to exemplify such behavior, we propose three deployment strategies based on simply changing the computation of scores. The results show that the strategies derived from the general heuristic are very interesting, all of them deploying roadside units in a circle pattern around the traffic epicenter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: infrastructure-as-code; reproducibility; virtualization; containerization; open science
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:39:04 CEST)
Verifying published findings in bioinformatics through independent validation is challenging, mainly when accounting for differences in software and hardware to recreate computational environments. Reproducing a computational environment that closely mimics the original proves intricate and demands a significant investment of time. In this paper, we present a case study on how a recently proposed reproducibility framework named Environment Code-First (ECF) based on the Infrastructure-as-Code approach can improve the implementation and reproduction of computing environments by reducing complexity and manual intervention. We detail the steps needed to implement the computational environment of a bioinformatics pipeline named MetaWorks from the perspective of the scientist who owns the research work. Also, we present the steps taken to recreate the environment from the point of view of one who wants to reproduce the published results of a research work. This exercise compares the manual way of implementing the pipeline and the automated method proposed by the ECF framework, showing real metrics regarding time consumption, efforts, manual intervention, and platform agnosticism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1921.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hydrology analysis; Riverine Bridges; Infrastructure Intervention; Bridges Prioritization
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:44:55 CEST)
Globally, bridges fail mostly due to hydrological causes such as scour or flooding. Therefore, under a hydrological approach, this study proposes a methodology that contributes to prioritize the intervention of bridges to prevent their collapse. Through an exhaustive literature review, an evaluation matrix subdivided into 4 dimensions was developed and a total of 18 evaluation parameters were considered, distributed as follows: 4 environmental, 6 technical, 4 social and 4 economic. This matrix was applied to eight bridges with a history of hydrological problems in the same river and validated through semi-structured interviews with specialists. Data were collected through field visits, journalistic information, review of the gauged basin historical hydrological flow rates and consultations with the population. Then, the modeling, which considered the influence of gullies that discharge additional flow, was carried out using HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS and subsequently calibrated. The application of the matrix revealed that five bridges have a high vulnerability, and three bridges have a medium vulnerability. The multidimensional approach can be adapted for studies of other riverine bridges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1683.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: InSAR; permafrost; active layer; Arctic infrastructure; ice content
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:15:14 CEST)
In permafrost regions, ground surface deformations induced by freezing and thawing threaten the integrity of the built environment. Mapping the frost susceptibility of the ground at a high spatial resolution is of practical importance for the construction and planning sectors. We processed Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from thawing seasons 2015 to 2019, acquired over the area of Ilulissat, West Greenland. We used a least-squares inversion scheme to retrieve the average seasonal displacement (S) and long-term deformation rate (R). We secondly investigated two different methods to extrapolate active layer thickness (ALT) measurements, based on their statistical relationship with remotely-sensed surface characteristics. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was first implemented, but the model was not able to fit the data and represent the ALT spatial variability over the entire study domain. ALT were alternatively averaged per vegetation class, using a land cover map derived by supervised classification of Sentinel-2 images. We finally estimated the active layer ice content and used it as a proxy to map the frost susceptibility of the ground at the community scale. Fine-grained sedimentary basins in Ilulissat were typically frost susceptible and subject to average seasonal downward displacements of 3 to 8 cm. Areas following a subsiding trend of up to 2.6 cm/yr were likely affected by permafrost degradation and melting of ground ice below the permafrost table. Our approach enabled us to identify frost-susceptible areas subject to severe seasonal deformations, and/or long-term subsidence induced by degrading permafrost. Used in combination with traditional site investigations, InSAR maps provide valuable information for risk management and community planning in the Arctic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0088.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: ecological corridors; green infrastructure; protected areas; landscape components
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:21:34 CEST)
An important set of Ecosystem services (ES) provided by Green infrastructures (GI) consists of habitats and species protection and improvement, which coincides with biodiversity conservation and enhancement. From this perspective, one of the most outstanding features of GI is its attitude towards addressing the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation on the supply of ES related to biodiversity by strengthening the effectiveness of connections between protected areas. Building on a methodological approach defined in previous studies by Cannas, published in a set of articles between 2017 and 2018 [1–4], this study identifies ecological corridors (EC) with reference to the spatial layout of a set of protected areas. Moreover, such methodological approach is implemented into the context of the Sardinian region to map EC, which form, together with protected areas, a network representing the spatial framework of a regional GI. Finally, the relation between the EC and the spatial taxonomy of the landscape components featured by environmental relevance (LCFER), identified by the Regional Landscape Plan is analyzed, in order to assess if, and to what extent, the present regional spatial zoning code can be used as a basis to implement regulations aimed at protecting EC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Cloud infrastructure; Spark; Molecular Dynamics simulations; Drug design.
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:02:38 CEST)
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations model motion of molecules in atomistic detail and aid in drug design. While simulations on large systems may require several days to complete, analysis of terabytes of data generated in the process could also be time consuming. Recent studies captured exciting and dramatic drug-receptor interactions under cell-like complex conditions. Such advances make simulations of biomolecular interactions more realistic, insightful, and informative and have potential to make drug design more realistic. However, currently available resources and techniques do not provide, in reasonable time, a comprehensive understanding of events seen in simulations. We demonstrate that big data approach results in significant speedups, and provides rapid insights into simulations performed. Advancing this improvement, we propose a scalable, self-tuning, and responsive framework based on Cloud-infrastructure to accomplish the best possible MD studies with given priorities and within available resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sea level rise; climate change; infrastructure; coastal engineering
Online: 10 August 2021 (08:47:00 CEST)
The national study analyzes sea level rise (SLR) impacts based on 36 different SLR and storm surge scenarios across 5.7 million geographic locations and 3 time periods. Taking an approach based on engineering design guidelines and current cost estimates, the study details projected cost impacts for states, counties, and cities. These impacts are presented from multiple perspectives including total cost, cost per-capita, and cost per-square mile. The purpose of the study is to identify specific locations where infrastructure is vulnerable to rising sea levels. The study finds that Sea Level Rise (SLR) and minimal storm surge is a $400 billion threat to the United States by 2040 that includes a need for at least 50,000 miles of protective barriers. The research is limited in its scope to protecting coastal infrastructure with sea walls. Additional methods exist and may be appropriate in individual situations. The study is original in that it is a national effort to identify infrastructure that is vulnerable as well as the cost associated with protecting this infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0752.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: spatial analysis; urban development; sustainable infrastructure; urban scales
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:29:41 CEST)
The reality of people’s lives has shifted from rural to urban areas, where an ever-increasing proportion of the world’s population lives. Providing infrastructure to serve these areas, especially in the Global South, is a key task of sustainable development. A deep understanding of the spatial arrangement and scales of these urban structures and their temporal evolution can help to develop innovative solutions to issues of energy, water, or transportation infrastructures. For this purpose, in this work we study the temporal evolution of urban built-up structures (Global Artificial Impervious Area) and population distributions (Global Human Settlement Population) in four regions of the Global South (Argentina, India, Egypt, and Nigeria). We qualitatively analyze regularity through the pair correlation function and subsequently identify typical scales within the different interurban systems. In doing so, we identify that especially the large settlement objects arrange themselves in a regular way and thus typical scales exist in urban systems. Thus, settlement objects are usually located about 20 to 40 km apart from each other. This information can be used to develop sustainable infrastructure concepts, for example for passenger transport between settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0390.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: fragmentation; Green Infrastructure; ecosystem; edge effect; spatial planning
Online: 15 December 2020 (16:00:29 CET)
This paper discusses Green Infrastructure, which can be considered a useful tool in the process of ensuring the sustainable development of urban structures in the Carpathian region. It allows for achieving a better quality of the environment of human life and healthy wildlife linkages. The element that supports defining information about the existing state of Green Infrastructure and its resources is the Green Infrastructure fragmentation coefficient based on edge effect calculations, which is the relation between the edge of the patch (circumference) to its surface area [1, 2]. With the use of model analysis of Green Infrastructure, it is possible to implement the provisions of the Carpathian Convention and coordinate planning documents that facilitate the sustainable development of spatial structures. Our study on the state of Green Infrastructure in rural areas of the Polish Carpathian Mountains is a source of knowledge about the quality of this area, its natural environment and fragmentation. Determining the territory’s Green Infrastructure fragmentation coefficient provides an opportunity for higher-precision studies and the detection of threats and integration of GI fragments and addressing proper solutions in conflict areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0321.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainability; project management; collaboration; business arrangement; maintenance; infrastructure
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:25:09 CET)
The need to consider sustainability has substantially increased the complexity of implementing construction and infrastructure projects and new management practices have emerged during the past decade to tackle the global sustainability challenges, where the engagement and coordination of broader competences from stakeholders throughout the supply chain is required. This new project management paradigm has been accompanied by greater attention to the concept of collaborative business arrangements, often called partnering, that has emerged in construction and infrastructure projects to improve project deliveries. However, there are uncertainties about the optimal strategy to foster, integrate and maintain the required collaboration, particularly in sustainable management practices in infrastructure maintenance projects. This paper addresses these uncertainties, based on a single case study of an infrastructure maintenance contract involving an extensive collaborative business arrangement. The findings reveal that different collaborative practices affect diverse aspects of sustainable project management. Further, the extensive collaborative business arrangement has promoted sustainable deliveries based upon organizational learning and continuous improvements. Thus, this study offers an encouraging example of how extensive collaboration can be fostered and play a key role in sustainable project management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: network simulation modeling; rail infrastructure; hybrid-simulation optimization
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:18:59 CEST)
The availability of rail infrastructure resources is a major driver of rail operations performance. To evaluate the impact of infrastructure provision, network simulation models can be used to accurately represent train traffic behavior in a wide range of scenarios. However, performing this task can result in a problem of high combinatorial nature as the number of factors and their associated levels increase. This requires more sophisticated techniques such as experimental design formulations or optimization modeling in order to yield satisfactory results. Yet the research in network simulation models for rail systems has hitherto been limited to simple what-if analysis, made up from few factors that cannot represent the whole spectrum of interventions. This is especially critical in closed-loop rail systems where trains are subject to various interferences. Local improvements can be misleading as the queues are merely transferred within the network. Considering this, we propose a hybrid simulation-optimization model to aid the strategic decision of minimizing supplementary capital costs in a heavy-haul Brazilian railroad under construction. As soon as the railroad is completed, investments in both loading and unloading rail terminals will be necessary. First, we developed a representative and flexible model capable of dealing with complex relations between variable infrastructure provision and the resulting operational performance. Then, we simulated this system to prove that the current set of proposed infrastructure resources cannot meet the transportation demands. Afterwards, we demonstrate that local improvements can be delusive as the queues are shifted from loading to unloading operations, reciprocally. Then, we solve an optimization model to define the minimal supplementary investment in order to meet the commercial goals of mining companies. This is done by choosing the best trackage configuration, equipment quantity and capacity and fleet sizing in 3 different production scenarios. The best values of the objective function were found by improving both loading and unloading equipment and increasing the number of trains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: benzotriazole; biofilter; bioretention; green infrastructure; phytoremediation; sorption; stormwater
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:55:42 CEST)
Urban stormwater runoff is a significant source of pollutants into surface water bodies. One such pollutant, 1H-benzotriazole, is a persistent, recalcitrant trace organic contaminant commonly used as a corrosion inhibitor in airplane deicing processes, automobile liquids, and engine coolants. This study explored the removal of 1H-benzotriazole from stormwater using bench-scale biofilter mesocosms planted with California native sedge, Carex praegracilis, over a series of three storm events and monitoring period. Benzotriazole metabolites glycosylated benzotriazole and benzotriazole alanine were detected and benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole partitioning in the system were quantified. With a treatment length of seven days, 97.1% of benzotriazole was removed from stormwater effluent from vegetated biofilter mesocosms. Significant concentrations of benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole were observed in the C. praegracilis leaf and root tissue. Additionally, a significant missing sink of benzotriazole developed in the vegetated biofilter mesocosms. This study suggests that vegetation may increase the operating lifespan of bioretention basins by enhancing degradation of dissolved trace organic contaminants, thus increasing the sorption capacity of the geomedia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital object; data infrastructure; research infrastructure; data management; data science; FAIR data; open science; European Open Science Cloud; EOSC; persistent identifier
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:30:06 CET)
Data science is facing the following major challenges: (1) developing scalable cross-disciplinary capabilities, (2) dealing with the increasing data volumes and their inherent complexity, (3) building tools that help to build trust, (4) creating mechanisms to efficiently operate in the domain of scientific assertions, (5) turning data into actionable knowledge units and (6) promoting data interoperability. As a way to overcome these challenges, we further develop the proposals by early Internet pioneers for Digital Objects as encapsulations of data and metadata made accessible by persistent identifiers. In the past decade, this concept was revisited by various groups within the Research Data Alliance and put in the context of the FAIR Guiding Principles for findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data. The basic components of a FAIR Digital Object (FDO) as a self-contained, typed, machine-actionable data package are explained. A survey of use cases has indicated the growing interest of research communities in FDO solutions. We conclude that the FDO concept has the potential to act as the interoperable federative core of a hyperinfrastructure initiative such as the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Redundancy allocation; generalizes assignment problem; simulation; smart grid infrastructure
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:34:26 CET)
It is a critical issue to allocate redundancy to critical smart grid infrastructure for disaster recovery planning. In this study, we present a framework to combine statistical prediction methods and optimization models for the optimal redundancy allocation problem. First, we develop statistical simulation methods to identify critical nodes of very large-scale smart grid infrastructure based on the topological features of embedding networks, and then present a linear integer programming model based on generalized assignment problem (GAP) for redundancy allocation of critical nodes in smart grid infrastructure. The model is specifically implemented in the context of smart grid infrastructure. The findings demonstrate that the combined approach of statistical simulation and optimization effectively addresses the size limitations inherent in a sole optimization approach. Notably, the optimal solutions for redundancy allocation in very large grid systems highlight that the cost of redundancy is only a fraction of the economic losses incurred due to weather-related outages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1354.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Urbanization; Green infrastructure; Urban forestry; Biological invasion; Ecological restoration
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:46:31 CET)
With the liberalization of the mining sector, a considerable demographic explosion is witnessed in Lubumbashi city (southeastern of the D.R. Congo). The resulting spatial urban expansion is unplanned, reducing the vegetation cover abundance within and around the city. To address this situation, Acacia auriculiformis, an alien species, has been planted without planning and monitoring. We quantify the spatio-temporal pattern dynamics of A. auriculiformis along the urban-rural gradient from the digitisation of Google Earth images from 2006, 2014 and 2021, and evaluate tree diversity through floristic inventory. Results showed that the plantation of A. auriculiformis, belonging to park, street trees and green spaces-types, increased in patch number and acreage, mostly in urban zone. The values of the patch which were highest in 2006 decreased in 2021, especially in the urban zone. Thirty-nine trees species were founded on A. auriculiformis plantations, with Albizia lebbeck, Albizia alba and Leucaena leucocephala being the most common. However, results showed that 20 species out of 39 species found are exotic, half of which are invasive species. However, 19 trees species are indigenous, mainly found in peri-urban zones. Although most tree species were observed in urban zones, the average diameters were greater in the peri-urban zone. Overall, obtained results appear to suggest that the sustainability of A. auriculiformis within the urban and peri-urban zones of Lubumbashi city appears uncertain since a considerable number of attracted species are found to be alien invasive trees that pose a threat to biodiversity conservation. There is an urgent need for adoption of a master plan for sustainable integration and monitoring of trees plantations for limiting erosion of indigenous phytodiversity and the spread of alien invasive species populations in the adjacent rural area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0268.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: KPI validation; nautical bottlenecks; IW infrastructure; inland waterway transport
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:29:41 CET)
Addressing nautical bottlenecks is crucial to optimize the utilization of inland waterways and maximize economic benefits of transports. To maximize economic benefits, a study was conducted to validate a Key Performance Indicator (KPI)-based framework. This framework offers a structured approach to assess the impact of resolved nautical bottlenecks on the economic benefits of inland waterway transport (IWT). To validate the applicability of the KPI framework, interviews with eleven experts were conducted. The goal was to prioritize each KPI based on their insights. The results of the interviews shed light on the relevance and coherence of both the individual KPIs and the overall KPI framework. The experts confirmed the importance of measures related to transportation efficiency, such as reduced transit times, increased vessel throughput, and enhanced reliability. The validated KPI-based framework serves as a valuable tool for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and researchers. It enables the assessment of the effects of resolving nautical bottlenecks in inland waterway systems. Future research should focus on quantifying the multifaceted impacts, making this framework even more useful for decision-making processes concerning investments in infrastructure upgrades and maintenance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1622.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: collaborative philosophy; contractual management; NEC4 ECC; public infrastructure procurement
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:21:03 CEST)
The modern civil engineering and construction sector requires collaborative work environments, learning and trust among all parties involved, qualities that are absent in the Peruvian reality. This research, which is based on an extensive literature review, investigates this challenge. The study reflects upon (i) the current situation of public works procurement in Peru and (ii) the New Engineering Contract (NEC). Comparisons are presented between the characteristics, documentation and roles of these two systems, with the purpose of understanding and representing the advantages, disadvantages and possibilities of integrating tools of NEC4 Engineering and Construction Contract to the Peruvian State Contracting Law (Ley de Contrataciones del Estado: LCE). The research is validated through the case study of a high impact road infrastructure project in the city of Arequipa, Peru; which revealed five main negative impacts on good contractual management and, also, facilitated an initial assessment of challenges and improvement opportunities in public infrastructure procurement. Thus, contribution is made to closing the knowledge gap regarding the implementation of NEC4 ECC in public sector works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: data mining; data extraction; data science; cost infrastructure projects
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:25:22 CEST)
Context: Despite the effort put into developing standards for structuring construction cost, and the strong interest into the field. Most construction companies still perform the process of data gathering and processing manually. That provokes inconsistencies, different criteria when classifying, misclassifications, and the process becomes very time-consuming, particularly on big projects. Additionally, the lack of standardization makes very difficult the cost estimation and comparison tasks. Objective: To create a method to extract and organize construction cost and quantity data into a consistent format and structure, to enable rapid and reliable digital comparison of the content. Method: The approach consists of a two-step method: Firstly, the system implements data mining to review the input document and determine how it is structured based on the position, format, sequence, and content of descriptive and quantitative data. Secondly, the extracted data is processed and classified with a combination of data science and experts’ knowledge to fit a common format. Results: A big variety of information coming from real historical projects has been successfully extracted and processed into a common format with 97.5% of accuracy, using a subset of 5770 assets located on 18 different files, building a solid base for analysis and comparison. Conclusion: A robust and accurate method was developed for extracting hierarchical project cost data to a common machine-readable format to enable rapid and reliable comparison and benchmarking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: green hydrogen; roadmap; strategic policy; infrastructure; sustainable energy future
Online: 13 March 2023 (09:58:50 CET)
The most potential renewable energy source for global emissions reductions is green hydrogen production. Iraq is looking into several sources of alternative energy to lessen its dependency on fossil fuels and to considerably cut its carbon dioxide emissions. This research examined the conceptual framework for the production and consumption of green hydrogen in Iraq. On the basis of accessible official and public data from government agencies, the potential capabilities of renewable energy resources are assessed, and certain fair assumptions are also established for a full study and evaluation of a possible hydrogen production in the country. The data presented here demonstrate conclusively that the contributions of renewable energy to the production of green hydrogen are substantial, giving the country prominence in the area of green hydrogen production. A pathway for a green hydrogen economy in the country by 2050 is proposed by this research based on its analysis. It is distributed in three stages: green hydrogen as a fuel for industry; using green hydrogen for fuel cells; and hydrogen commercialization. On the other hand, the research found a number of challenges to the implementation of a green hydrogen production that can be used in Iraq and other developing countries, including technological, economic, and social problems in addition to the related policy consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0622.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Complex Regression, Least-Squares Techniques, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:46:32 CEST)
This paper uses the complex regression analysis method to establish the customer’s load regression models, which consider economic indicators, temperature and rainfall. Furthermore, the proposed models are used to study the forecasting feasibility of the future energy sales and summer peak load demand. At first, this paper used least-squares techniques to derive regression models for considering economic indicators and temperature of 34 customer energy sales and total energy sales. Besides, the AMI high voltage customer demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours were adopted to forecast summer peak load. The above-mentioned data analysis tool is used by EViews software to achieve, in order to verify the feasibility of the research framework. The study found that although its forecasting model accuracy is low only when mixed with temperature and high voltage demands. So, when mixed with high voltage demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours to forecast peak load, the average error is ± 0.87% and in the majority of its energy sales forecasting model of average error is ±3%. This result can provide power company as future reference.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Infrastructure projects; LCCA; Systematic Review; PRISMA statement; Sustainability; LCA
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:23:23 CET)
The comfort of human life depends on the quality, size, and reliability of the infrastructure projects. In the infrastructure systems, rapid growth is found, where the economic and sustainable impact has become a topic of significant concern for policies and government officials. To achieve con-straints of sustainable development, all the policies and actions over the infrastructure project's life cycle must be assessed. Decision-makers have adopted approaches for economic, social, and en-vironmental initiatives through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost Analyses (LCCA) of infrastructure projects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the impact of per-forming LCA and LCCA in infrastructure projects. To achieve this goal, a systematic literature review methodology is adopted in which renowned databases, i.e., Web of Science, Science Direct, Emerald and Scopus were selected to extract the relevant literature. Using the PRISMA approach, 1251 publications were identified which were then filtered and 55 documents were included in the final review. In the extracted publications most, researchers were biased toward LCA and LCA individually, whereas few focused on integrated LCA and LCCA. The researchers assessed the costs and impact associated with the infrastructure project while there were less focused on the environmental cost. Besides this, techniques of economic, social, and environmental growth of infrastructure projects have been emphasized during the design phase because of substantial relations between infrastructure design and operation management. Moreover, a conceptual framework has been developed that will assist the decision-makers to consider the effects of LCA and LCCA on various aspects of the infrastructure project and how it impacts sustainability. In the last, a case study was performed to assess the developed framework with the incorporation of environmental impact cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0113.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Landsat; artisanal-scale gold mining; infrastructure; protected areas; commodity
Online: 30 November 2018 (10:02:42 CET)
While deforestation rates decline globally they are rising in the Western Amazon. Artisanal-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a large cause of this deforestation and brings with it extensive environmental, social, governance, and public health impacts, including large carbon emissions and mercury pollution. Underlying ASGM is a broad network of factors that influence its growth, distribution, and practices such as poverty, flows of legal and illegal capital, conflicting governance, and global economic trends. Despite its central role in land use and land cover change in the Western Amazon and the severity of its social and environmental impacts, it is relatively poorly studied. While ASGM in Southeastern Peru has been quantified previously, doing so is difficult due to the heterogeneous nature of the resulting landscape. Using a novel approach to classify mining that relies on a fusion of CLASlite and the Global Forest Change dataset, two Landsat-based deforestation detection tools, we sought to quantify ASGM-caused deforestation in the period 1984–2017 in the southern Peruvian Amazon and examine trends in the geography, methods, and impacts of ASGM across that time. We identify nearly 100,000 ha of deforestation due to ASGM in the 34-year study period, an increase of 21% compared to previous estimates. Further, we find that 10% of that deforestation occurred in 2017, the highest annual amount of deforestation in the study period, with 53% occurring since 2011. Finally, we demonstrate that not all mining is created equal by examining key patterns and changes in ASGM activity and techniques through time and space. We discuss their connections with, and impacts on, socio-economic factors, such as land tenure, infrastructure, international markets, governance efforts, and social and environmental impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0661.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: national parks; ecosystem service value; natural infrastructure; natural capital
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:11:30 CET)
The annual budget for the United States National Park Service was roughly three billion dollars in 2016. This is distributed amongst 405 National Parks, 23 national scenic and historic trails, and 60 wild and scenic rivers. Entrance fees and concessions generate millions of dollars in income for the National Park Service; however, this metric fails to account for the total value of the National Parks. In failing to consider the value of the ecosystem services provided by the National Parks we fail to quantify and appreciate the contributions our parks make to society. This oversight allows us to continue to underfund a valuable part of our natural capital and consequently damage our supporting environment, national heritage, monetary economy, and many of our diverse cultures. We explore a simple benefits transfer valuation of the United States national parks using National Land Cover Data from 2011 and ecosystem service values determined by Costanza (et al). This produces an estimate suggesting the parks provide $84 billion / year in ecosystem service value. If the natural infrastructure 'asset' that is our national park system had a budget comparable to a piece of commercial real estate of this value, the annual budget of the National Park Service would be roughly an order of magnitude larger at something closer to $30 billion rather than $3 billion.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: charging infrastructure; e-mobility; electric vehicle; optimization; private electric car; transport simulation; distribution of charging Infrastructure; battery electric; genetic optimization; high-power charging
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:15:14 CET)
To enable the deployment of battery-electric vehicles (BEV) as passenger cars in the private transport sector, a suitable charging infrastructure is crucial. In this paper a methodology for efficient spatial distribution of charging infrastructure is evaluated by investigating a scenario with a market penetration of BEVs of 100 percent (around 1.3 million vehicles). It aims towards the development of various charging infrastructure scenarios - including public and private charging - which are suitable to cover the charging demand. Therefore, these scenarios are investigated in detail with focus on number of public charging points, their spatial distribution, the available charging power and the necessary capital costs. For the creation of those charging infrastructure scenarios a placement model is developed. It uses the data of a MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation) traffic simulation of the metropolitan area of Berlin to evaluate and optimize different distributions of charging infrastructure. The model uses a genetic algorithm and the principle of multi-objective optimization. The capital cost of the charging points and the mean detour car drivers must cover additionally are used as optimization criteria. Using these criteria should lead to cost efficient infrastructure solutions which provide high usability at the same time. The main advantage of the method selected is that multiple optimal solutions with different characteristics can be found and suitable solutions can be selected by using other criteria subsequently. The optimized charging infrastructure solutions show capital costs between 624 and 2950 million euro. Users must cover an additionally mean detour of 254m to 590m per charging process to reach an available charging point. According to the results a suitable ratio between charging points and vehicles is between 11:1 and 5:1. A share of fast charging infrastructure (>50kW) of less than ten percent seems to be sufficient, if it is situated at main traffic routes and highly frequented places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: urban mitigation; energy demands; WRF-SLUCM; CitySim; green infrastructure; dubai
Online: 26 July 2023 (08:55:02 CEST)
Due to urban warming, energy demand for cooling buildings is rising. The current study used CitySim to estimate the cooling energy requirements for 40 buildings in Downtown, Dubai using high-resolution climate data from weather research and forecasting (WRF) coupled with single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM). Simulating the four mitigation scenarios allowed for the examination of the reduction in cooling load caused by the addition of greenery at a rate ranging from 25% to 100%. The insulated building's cooling demand reduced by a maximum of 13.89% under 100% GI (M4). Scenario M4 resulted in a reduction of 4.6 kWh/m2 and 3.1 kWh/m2 for the non-insulated and insulated low-rise residential buildings, respectively, while the high-rise buildings saw a reduction of 3.09-4.91 kWh/m2 for the non-insulated and 2.07-3.09 kWh/m2 for insulated buildings. This study offered a potential remedy to deal with the problem of urban heating in subtropical environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stakeholder; engagement; project success; factors; criteria; governance; infrastructure; framework model
Online: 26 April 2023 (15:25:01 CEST)
Today, the world is undergoing a major investment cycle in infrastructure, which is vital for the development and prosperity of countries and society. Management deficiencies in infrastructure projects are well known and some of them concerns weak engagement of project stakeholders. Importance of stakeholder engagement as the key success factors for infrastructure projects is recognized. However, the literature gives very few answers how this process manifests in projects. Some scholars concluded that it is a complex and undertheorized management process which necessitates more empirical research. The research questions seek to identify how practitioners perceive the stakeholder engagement, who implements activities and processes related to engagement and in what way, which organizational aspects influence the process and how success is achieved in infrastructural projects. Interviews were conducted with eight experienced experts who participated in a whole series of (complex) infrastructure projects. The interviews examined all aspects of the engagement of stakeholders in detail, and a thematic analysis was carried out. Based on the analysis, success/failure factors related to the stakeholder engagement process were defined. As a result, a framework model for engaging stakeholders and achieving success in infrastructure projects is presented, which is based on three management levels and three levels of project success.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: green infrastructure; tree by-laws; tree ordinances; urban forest governance
Online: 6 April 2023 (08:38:44 CEST)
Tree ordinances can be an effective means of preserving urban forests in the face of development pressures. Despite this, they also have the potential to be divisive among the public - especially when applied to privately-owned land. In this study we surveyed 1,716 Florida urban residents to understand how they value regulation and management of the urban forest. Specifically, we asked about: tree protection ordinances, incentive programs to manage or plant trees, justification for tree removal, and development. Most respondents supported tree protections, even when applied to trees on their own property or when they had the potential to limit development activities. Additionally, there was limited support for removing healthy trees for development. Respondents supported the use of funds for urban forestry efforts – particularly at the local or state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0107.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: green infrastructure; transdisciplinary; water systems; Costa Rica; co-design; prototype
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:55:16 CET)
The management of urban water has evolved from single-function systems to more sustainable designs promoting society and nature as inputs to engineer novel infrastructure. In transdisciplinary research, co-design refers to a design thinking strategy in which people jointly frame a problem-solution. This article presents a conceptual framework to assess a case study focusing on the process of co-design and implementation of green infrastructure as a prototype for stormwater management. The evaluation is carried out from a self-reflective post-implementation perspective. Research activities are translated into the framework to evaluate conditions shaping the trajectory of the prototype. As a result, key aspects driving the research regarding levels of stakeholder participation and dimensions of power are identified. Planning resilient co-design strategies to retrofit urban spaces is necessary to avoid unintended consequences, especially at the initial experimental stages. This study aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of pilot strategies in urban spaces by providing a framework for a structured evaluation of research experiences.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: ecosystem disservices; green infrastructure; site design; tree selection; urban forestry
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:42:48 CEST)
As urban development increases in density, the space to grow urban trees becomes more constrained. In heavily developed areas, small stature trees can be planted to reduce both above- and below-ground conflicts with infrastructure elements. However, even these species have their limits when placed in extremely confining conditions. In this study, we build on past work to determine the minimum planting widths of small stature urban trees. We found that species, stem diameter, and the height at which stem diameter measurements occurred were all strong predictors of trunk flare diameter (adjusted R2 of 0.843). Additionally, we modelled the relationship between planting space and the presence or absence of hardscape conflicts – using the predictions derived from this effort to project the potential cost savings in two United States cities. Study results provide a guideline to create sufficient space for urban trees and minimize infrastructure damage and associated cost savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0737.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia, severe pulmonary hypertension, bedside surgery, NICU infrastructure
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:06:10 CEST)
Background: This study presents the experience gained in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at “M. S. Curie” Emergency Clinical Hospital for Children in Bucharest after performing a series of bedside surgery interventions on newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We evaluate the advantages, complications, immediate and long-term outcome as well as the morbidity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the data for all patients operated on-site be-tween 2011 and 2020, in terms of pre- and post-operative stability, procedures performed, com-plications and outcomes. Results: Our study is based on data from ten cases of newborns, term or small for gestation age with birthweights ranging from 2300 to 3300 grams, operated, on average, on the fifth day of life. The main reasons for operating on-site were the hemodynamical instability and the need to ad-minister inhaled Nitic Oxide (iNO) and HFOV ventilation. There were no unforeseen events dur-ing surgery, no immediate postoperative complications and no surgery related mortality. One noticed drawback was the unfamiliarity of the surgery team with the new operating environment. Conclusions: Our experience indicates that bedside surgery improves the likelihood of survival for critically ill neonates suffering from CDH. No immediate complications could be associated with this practice. Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia, severe pulmonary hypertension, bedside surgery, NICU infrastructure
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen supply; renewable energy import; global energy infrastructure; hydrogen trade
Online: 8 February 2020 (05:36:14 CET)
The threats of climate change and the sustainable supply of clean energy are global challenges that require an international approach to the energy supply. Utilizing the wind and solar energy potential of regions where these renewable sources are especially viable to produce hydrogen by means of water electrolysis represents an attractive option to counter the above-mentioned challenges. Within the scope of this techno economic analysis of a worldwide hydrogen supply infrastructure based on renewable energy, selected regions are assessed on the basis of their wind or solar energy potential. In contrast to established analyses of hydrogen infrastructures, this paper introduces a worldwide allocation approach to the supply hydrogen from strong wind and solar regions to different demand regions on the premise of a global supply cost minimum. The allocation results show a significant dependence of hydrogen export volumes and the oversea transport distances of potential trading partners. Hence, the transnational trading flows of hydrogen derived from wind and solar energy are concentrated in continental regions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fast-charging; electric vehicles; infrastructure; electrode materials; Li-ion batteries
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:29:10 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EVs) are being endorsed as the uppermost successor to fuel-powered cars, with timetables for banning the sale of petrol-fueled vehicles announced in many countries. However, the range and charging times of EVs are still considerable concerns. Fast charging could be a solution to consumers' range anxiety and the acceptance of EVs. Nevertheless, it is a complicated and systematized challenge to realize the fast charging of EVs because it includes the coordinated development of battery cells, including electrode materials, EV battery power systems, charging piles, electric grids, etc. This paper aims to serve as an analysis for the development of fast-charging technology, with a discussion of the current situation, constraints and development direction of EV fast-charging technologies from the macroscale and microscale perspectives of fast-charging challenges. It is emphasized that to essentially solve the problem of fast charging, the development of new battery materials, especially anode materials with improved lithium ion diffusion coefficients, is the key. It is highlighted that red phosphorus is the most promising anode that can simultaneously satisfy the double standards of high-energy density and fast-charging performance to a maximum degree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1984.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: factor utilization; infrastructure; industrial policy; institutional capacity; enterprise architecture; diversification levers
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:37:52 CET)
This article postulates that, in principle, it is possible (1) to develop linkages between the extractive sector and other economic sectors; (2) for such linkages to contribute to economic diversification; and (3) for economic diversification to potentially drive positive economic transformation. We argue that achieving this three-stepped pathway is impossible without also achieving some level of political and social transformation. Empirically, many resource-rich countries have failed to develop linkages. Or, if they have, the linkages built remain limited to the development of supply chains serving the extractive sector, contributing little to economic diversification. In this article, we refer to limited linkages and dependence on exporting unprocessed minerals as the centripetal force of the extractive sector. This implies that capital investments and economic activities are concentrated around the extractive sector. We propose an alternative theoretical model that strives to foster the centrifugal force of the extractive sector – a term we use to capture the three-stepped pathway. This model is underpinned by multiple factors and their interactions, which are within the purview of the complex state and market relationship (posing as a challenge) and the role of minerals in the global transformation towards a clean energy system (posing as an opportunity).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: road barricades; illegal removal; ITS; GPS tracking; road assets; connected infrastructure
Online: 4 April 2023 (14:37:03 CEST)
Illegal removal of road barricades without the notice of road emergency officials and road users has resulted in fatalities, injuries, and property damages. It is only after an incident has occurred or someone noticed the removal and alerted the authorities for the barricade to be placed back at its intended location. There is a need for traditional barricades to be equipped with mechanisms that would alert officials on illegal road barricade removal and warn road users of a road/lane(s) closure to prevent fatalities, injuries, and property damages to the traveling public. This research has used the Global Positioning System (GPS) module to implement the detection of barricade displacement and an alerting system for emergency officials and road users. The barricade displacement was estimated from the haversine distance formula, corrected for errors, and interfaced with the displacement threshold value for the road users within a geofenced area to be alerted. The geofenced area radius was estimated to be 1.04 miles from the barricade location using AASHTO, NSC, and TransGuide ITS manuals. The non-parametric bootstrapping method estimated the GPS position error to 10.5 feet and corrected the measured distances. Data from a clear sunny day shows the best response to barricade movements compared to a cloudy day where movements can’t be explained easily. The proposed monitoring and warning systems would warn road users and alert emergency officials of the danger when the physical barricades have been removed illegally hence saving lives and reducing property damages.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0505.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Semantics; standards; clinical research infrastructure; terminology; graph data; data-driven medicine
Online: 29 September 2021 (17:32:40 CEST)
Health-related data originating from diverse sources are commonly stored in manifold databases and formats, making it difficult to find, access and gather data for research purposes. In addition, so-called secondary use scenarios for health data are usually hindered by local data codes, missing dictionaries and the lack of metadata and context descriptions. Following the FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable), we developed a decentralized infrastructure to overcome these hurdles and enable collaborative research by making the meaning of health-related data understandable to both, humans and machines. This infrastructure is currently being implemented in the realm of the Swiss Personalized Health Network (SPHN), a research infrastructure initiative for enabling the use and exchange of health-related data for research in Switzerland. The SPHN ecosystem for FAIR data consists of the SPHN Dataset (semantic definitions), the SPHN RDF Schema (linkage and transport of the semantics in a machine-readable format), a project RDF template, extensive guidelines and conventions on how to generate SPHN RDF schema, a Terminology Service (converter of clinical terminologies in RDF), and a Quality Assurance Framework (automated data validation with SHACLs and SPARQLs). The SPHN ecosystem has been built in a way that it can easily be adapted and extended by any SPHN project to fit individual needs. By providing such a national ecosystem, SPHN supports researchers in generating, processing and sharing FAIR data.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: containers; virtual machines; cloud; COVID-19; serverless; analytics; software defined infrastructure
Online: 19 February 2021 (11:31:42 CET)
TThe XPRIZE Foundation designs and operates multi-million-dollar, global competitions to incentivize the development of technological breakthroughs that accelerate humanity toward a better future. To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the Foundation coordinated with several organizations to make available data sets about different facets of the disease and to provide the computational resources needed to analyze those data sets. This is paper is a case study of the requirements, design, and implementation of the XPRIZE Data Collaborative, a cloud-based infrastructure that enables the XPRIZE to meet its COVID-19 mission and host future data-centric competitions. We examine how a Cloud Native Application can use an unexpected variety of Cloud technologies, ranging from containers, serverless computing, to even older ones like Virtual Machines. We also search and document the effects that the pandemic had on application development in the Cloud. We include our experiences of having users successfully exercise the Data Collaborative, detailing the challenges encountered and areas for improvement and future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Green Infrastructure (GI); Human Thermal Comfort (HTC); ENVI-met; microclimate; modelling
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:58:39 CET)
This study assesses Human Thermal Comfort in two selected areas: a Green Infrastructure (GI) area represented by a garden and a high-rise building area, in the Central Business District (CBD) of Melbourne, Australia. Three-dimensional microclimatic modelling software, ENVI-met version 4 was used to simulate the microclimate. The indices of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Temperature Climate Index (UTCI) were used to quantify the level of thermal comfort in the research areas. The simulation results showed that at midday, the difference in temperature between the garden area and the high-rise building area was approximately 1°C. Increasing temperatures at midday led to a change in the level of thermal comfort for both the areas, even though it was not significant. In general, the thermal perception in the GI area was slightly ‘cooler’ than in the high-rise building area. The results of the study indicated the important role of GI in improving the thermal comfort in urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: green infrastructure; urban; multi-functionality; retrofitting; sustainability; neighborhood level; Costa Rica
Online: 7 September 2020 (04:08:13 CEST)
Green Infrastructures (GI) are considered key to reconcile ecological and social benefits by providing multiple functions. The concept is increasingly promoted and guidelines for its implementation have been developed in many countries and regions of the Western Hemisphere. However, for other parts of the world, especially for countries with less developed infrastructures, promotion, guidance for decision-making and manuals for GI are often lacking. But the state of infrastructure development and often unplanned character of settlements in the Global South differ and result in specific constraints as well as demands to GI that need to be addressed explicitly. This study presents a methodological approach to explicitly address the specific conditions and physical limitations to GI development in urban areas of the Global South. A four step methodology was developed to assess the implementation potential for retrofitted and multifunctional urban green infrastructure in public areas. An initial site analysis (1) and the definition of design criteria as well as general strategies (2) to achieve the different dimensions of multi-functionality are the basis to derive spatial typologies (3) for GI elements and finally the spatial suitability assessment for potential placements (4). An application of the methodology to a study area in the metropolitan region of San José, Costa Rica, shows exemplarily that the potential to improve the hydrological conditions (up to 34% of surface runoff reduction), ecological conditions (increase of green space by 2,2 %, creation of 1500 m length of roadside greenery and two new habitat types), and social conditions (2.200 m of road type upgrading) of multi-functionality of the site through Green Infrastructures. These assessment results of different multi-functionality dimension can serve as a guidance for GI promotion and implementation in urban areas of the Global South.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable development; system resilience; resilient and sustainable infrastructure; pandemics; COVID-19
Online: 6 April 2020 (10:14:50 CEST)
Humanity’s social and economic development has been challenged by a range of adversities over the millennia that have caused widespread and unimaginable suffering. At the same time, these challenges have forced humans to evolve more wisely, overcoming adversity through creativity and leading to advancements in science and technology, medicine, ethics and legal systems, and socio-political systems. The dynamics of risks and opportunities caused by COVID-19, in the built, cyber, social and economic environments, present opportunities for deepening our understanding of resilient and sustainable development and infrastructure. This article reflects on five lessons that COVID-19 is teaching us about what it means to develop sustainably through the lens of transportation: (1) sustainable development planning and analytical frameworks must be comprehensive, for long-term sustainability; (2) multi-modal transportation is a superior vision for sustainable development than any one particular mode; (3) tele-activities are part of an effective infrastructure sustainability strategy; (4) economic capital is critically important to sustainable development even when it is not a critical existential threat, and, (5) effective social capital is essential in global disaster resistance and recovery, and can and must be leveraged between fast-moving and slow-moving disasters. Resilient and sustainable infrastructure will continue to be critical to addressing evolving natural and man-made hazards in the 21st Century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Cameroon, agency; community; cultural assets; empowerment; relational networking; infrastructure; traditional authority
Online: 27 July 2018 (14:00:24 CEST)
Utilizing relational networking and cultural assets provide an arena for village development associations (VDAs) to fill the gaps in infrastructure in resource limited communities of Cameroon’s north-western region. Through case study, this study interrogates the foundational thesis of relational networking and cultural assets deployed to deal with social development challenges. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with community participants. Purposive sampling was used, and data were analysed and critically synthesized with comparable literature. Communities increasingly shoulder their own development through a multiplicity of agency with internal and external stakeholders. The analysis captures a typology of incremental cultural assets, galvanised and re-engineered, promoting a rejuvenated community. A multi-layered approach centred on intersecting elements with unvarying input from community members are perceptible. Though the translational benefits are not clear-cut, relational networking and incremental cultural assets hold out the prospect for community transformation in infrastructure provision - supply of fresh water, equipping schools, community halls, building roads, bridges and community halls. In the process, social inequality and other barriers of disadvantage are narrowed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: public sector; operating environment; electric bus; optimal charging type; charging infrastructure
Online: 22 June 2018 (06:13:55 CEST)
South Korea proposed reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 37% compared to the expected emissions by 2030 as the POST-2020 greenhouse gas reduction target. Electric vehicle distribution in the public sector is essential to achieve the carbon dioxide reduction target for transportation. In particular, when buses with internal combustion engines, which travel long distances and contribute substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, are replaced with electric buses, it is expected that greenhouse gas emissions will be significantly reduced. There are three types of electric buses with different power supply systems: a plug-in type in which power is supplied when a plug is inserted, a battery-swapping type in which a battery mounted on top of the vehicle is swapped at a swapping station, and a wireless type in which the battery is wirelessly charged through self-induction at a charging facility installed on the road. Vehicles of each charging type have different advantages and disadvantages. The performance, charging type, battery capacity, and operating environment of electric buses are mutually related parameters that must be considered when introducing such vehicles. Therefore, the optimal charging type must be selected according to the operating environment to enable the widespread use of electric buses. As such, this report proposes the optimal charging type according to the operating environment of public-sector electric vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: resistance; physical resistance; crisis preparedness; anticipation ability; security measures; critical infrastructure resilience
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:43:19 CEST)
Technical sectors are an inseparable and elementary part of a critical infrastructure (CI) complex system. The services they provide are essential to the functioning of all the dependent sectors of CI on whose services society depends, especially in areas with high levels of urbanisation. The starting point for effective CI elements protection of is permanent assessing and strengthening their resilience to the negative effects of internal and external threats. Current perceptions of resilience focus primarily on repressive components responsive to incident (i.e., robustness, recoverability, and adaptability), while little attention is paid to preventative components. Therefore, the benefit of the article is to define resistance which could be seen as the CI element ability or characteristic to prevent the occurrence of incidents. Based on that, the article defines 1) the individual factors (variables and parameters) determining the CI resistance and 2) the methodological procedure for infrastructure elements resistance assessment in order to identify weak points and subsequently strengthen them. The essence of the article is defining the starting points for extending the CIERA method by a component strengthening the critical infrastructure resilience in the prevention phase. A practical example of resistance assessment for a selected critical energy infrastructure element is presented at the end of the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: water reservoir; critical infrastructure elements; physical protection system; model; simulation; physical attack
Online: 29 June 2023 (08:16:56 CEST)
Water management systems help allocate water resources effectively, considering various demands such as agriculture, industry, domestic use, and environmental needs. They optimise water distribution and ensure equitable access, minimising water scarcity and conflicts. Critical elements of this system are often the target of various attacks. Depending on the target of the attack, different scenarios based on physical, cyber, or combined forms of attacks can be used. Requirements for the protection of water objects forming part of the critical infrastructure system are determined primarily by generally binding legal regulations, technical standards, or other requirements of third parties. These requirements imply the need to adopt certain protective measures. Physical protection system (PPS), as a convenient way of organising protective measures, makes it possible to prevent an unauthorised person from achieving his goal. Current procedures aimed at protecting objects use a qualitative or quantitative approach. The article presents the use case of a possible way to protect a selected water reservoir that has been identified as a national element of critical infrastructure in the subsector Drinking Water Provision. The use case is based on the analysis of safety requirements and subsequent design of the PPS water reservoir. To verify the functionality of the proposed PPS, a quantitative PPS model was created using a software tool, and four possible attack scenarios were simulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0778.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental justice; urban heat island; extreme heat; heat vulnerability; public transportation infrastructure
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:05:42 CEST)
Extreme heat is a climate, public health, and environmental justice issue. This case study examined public transit exposure and vulnerability to extreme heat by investigating the microenvironment, land cover characteristics, and social vulnerability of heat-vulnerable bus stops in Knoxville, Tennessee. The community’s temperature and Heat Index information, bus stop point data, land cover characteristics data, and the microenvironment of bus stops (i.e., trees and shelters) were processed and mapped with ArcGIS Pro. The pictures of the microenvironment of the bus stop were collected from Google Maps, and the social vulnerability of the area where the bus stops are located was investigated by analyzing the Center for Disease and Prevention's Social Vulnerability Index. Results found that the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in West Knoxville, South, North, Northeast, and Northwest Knoxville. In addition, the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in commercial complexes and areas a large number of systematically marginalized populations reside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0445.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; public charging infrastructure; neighborhood charging; reservation system; urban; city; Hamburg
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:35:48 CEST)
Electric vehicles offer a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in passenger transport. The availability of reliable charging infrastructure is crucial for the successful uptake of electric vehicles in dense urban areas. In a pilot project in the city of Hamburg, Germany, public charging infrastructure is equipped with a reservation option providing exclusive access for local residents and businesses. The present paper combines quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of the newly introduced neighborhood charging concept. We use a methodology combining a quantitative questionnaire survey and qualitative focus group discussions as well as the analyses of charging infrastructure utilization data. Results show that inner-city charging and parking options are of key importance for (potential) users of electric vehicles. Hence, the neighborhood concept is rated very positively. Providing guaranteed charging and parking facilities are therefore likely to increase the stock of EVs. On the other hand, these could to a large extent be additional cars with consequential disadvantages. The study shows that openly accessible infrastructure is presently utilized much more intense than the exclusive option. Consequentially, the concept evaluated should be part of an integrated approach managing parking and supporting efficient concepts like car sharing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0034.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: active transport; PPGIS; planning support systems; infrastructure prioritisation; bicycle planning; public participation
Online: 2 December 2021 (11:42:25 CET)
The planning of bicycle infrastructure across our cities remains is a complex task involving many key stakeholders including the community, who traditionally have had limited involvement in the planning process. This research develops an interactive bicycle prioritisation index tool which includes participatory spatial and textual citizen feedback. The research involves three components. Firstly, a survey of current cyclists in Sydney, their current level of participation, priorities in investment in cycling, and preferred locations for cycling infrastructure. Secondly, it documents the development of an interactive digital bicycle planning tool which is informed through citizen feedback. Thirdly, it evaluates the approach in conversation with potential end-users, including government, planning practitioners, and advocacy group members. The research proposes the combination of multiple passive and active data traces with end-user evaluation to legitimise the citizen co-design of bicycle investment prioritisation initiatives. A case study approach has been taken, focusing on the city of Sydney, Australia. The bicycle planning support system can be used by cities when engaging in cycle prioritisation initiatives, particularly with a focus on integrating citizen feedback and navigating new and complex data landscapes introduced through recent, passively collected big data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Africa; biodiversity infrastructure; Clupeidae; Clupeiformes; Dactylogyridea; flatworm; historical collection; Monogenea; Pellonulini; sardine
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:28:05 CET)
Unlike their marine counterparts, tropical freshwater clupeids receive little scientific attention. However, they sustain important fisheries that may be of (inter)national commercial interest. Africa harbours over 20 freshwater clupeid species within Pellonulini. Recent research suggests their most abundant parasites are gill-infecting monogenean flatworms within Kapentagyrus. After inspecting specimens of 12 freshwater clupeids from West and Central Africa, mainly sourced in biodiversity collections, we propose 11 new species of Kapentagyrus which we describe using their haptoral and genital morphology. Because of their high morphological similarity, species delineation relies mostly on morphometrics of anchors and hooks. Specifically, earlier, molecular taxonomic work indicated that the proportion between the length of the anchor roots, and between hook and anchor length, are diagnostic. On average, about one species of Kapentagyrus exists per pellonuline species, although Pellonula leonensis harbours four species and Microthrissa congica two, while Microthrissa moeruensis and Potamothrissa acutirostris share a gill monogenean species. This study more than quadruples the number of known species of Kapentagyrus, also almost quadrupling the number of pellonuline species of which monogeneans are known. Since members of Kapentagyrus are informative about their hosts’ ecology, evolutionary history, and introduction routes, this enables a parasitological perspective on several data-poor African fisheries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: green infrastructure; urban heat island; human thermal comfort, modelling tools; ENVI-met.
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:19:13 CEST)
Research on urban heat mitigation has been growing in recent years with many of the studies focusing on green infrastructure (GI) as a strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of Urban Heat Island (UHI). This paper aims at presenting a review of the range of findings from GI research for urban heat mitigation through a review of scientific articles published during the years 2009-2019. This research includes a review of the different types of GI and its contribution for urban heat mitigation and human thermal comfort. In addition to analyzing different mitigation strategies, numerical simulation tools that are commonly used are also reviewed. It is seen that ENVI-met is one of the modelling tools that is considered as a reliable tool to simulate different mitigation strategies and hence has been widely used in the recent past. Considering its popularity in urban microclimate studies, this article also provides a review of ENVI-met simulation results that were reported in the reviewed papers. It was observed that the majority of the research was conducted on a limited spatial scale and focused on temperature and human thermal comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0704.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Green Infrastructure; urban flooding; SWMM; stormwater; neighborhood level; high resolution; Costa Rica
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:07:43 CEST)
Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI), a sustainable engineering design approach for managing urban stormwater runoff, has long been recommended as an alternative to conventional conveyance-based stormwater management strategies to mitigate the adverse impact of sprawling urbanization. Hydrological and hydraulic simulations of small-scale GSI measures in densely urbanized micro watersheds require high-resolution spatial databases of urban land use, stormwater structures, and topography. This study presents a highly resolved Storm Water Management Model developed under considerable spatial data constraints. It evaluates the cumulative effect of the implementation of dispersed, retrofitted, small-scale GSI measures in a heavily urbanized micro watershed of Costa Rica. Our methodology includes a high-resolution digital elevation model based on Google Earth information, whose accuracy was sufficient to determine flow patterns and slopes, as well as to approximate the subsurface stormwater structures. The model produced satisfactory results in event-based calibration and validation, which ensured the reliability of the data collection procedure. Simulating the implementation of GSI shows that dispersed, retrofitted, small-scale measures could significantly reduce impermeable surface runoff (peak runoff reduction up to 40%) during frequent, less intense storm events and delay peak surface runoff 5-10 minutes. The presented approach can benefit stormwater practitioners and modelers conducting small scale hydrological simulation under spatial data constraint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0237.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: GPR; NDT; railway; ballast fouling; ballast fragmentation; railway maintenance; transport infrastructure monitoring
Online: 14 October 2019 (09:48:16 CEST)
Effective maintenance of railways requires a comprehensive assessment of the actual condition of the construction materials involved. In this regard, Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) stands as a viable alternative to the invasive and time-consuming traditional techniques for the inspection of these infrastructures. This work reports the experimental activities carried out on a test-site area within a railway depot in Rome, Italy. Specifically, a 30 m-long railway section was divided into 10 sub-sections reproducing different various physical and structural conditions of the track-bed. In more detail, combinations of varying scenarios of fragmentation and fouling of the ballast were reproduced. The set-up was then investigated using different multi-frequency GPR horn antenna systems. The effects of the different physical conditions of ballast on the electromagnetic response of the material were analysed for each scenario using time- and frequency-domain signal processing techniques. Parallel to this, modelling was provided to estimate fouling content. Interpretation of results has proven the viability of the GPR method in detecting signs of decay at the network level, thereby proving this technique to be worthy for implementation in asset management systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0347.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: local economic development (LED) index; basic infrastructure; rural development; Romania; impact assessment
Online: 20 August 2018 (08:01:18 CEST)
This article investigates if public investments in rural basic infrastructure represent the best strategy for boosting the local economy of rural communities from Romania. The article focuses on one specific program implemented under the Cohesion policy in the framework of the National Plan for Rural Development called Measure 322. Geographically, the research included a sample of rural communes from the North-Western Region of Romania. Moreover, the study also looks at other determinants of local economic development (LED) than infrastructure investments, with a focus on certain feature characterizing Romanian rural communities such as population size, isolation from urban centers, connection with European and national roads networks, educational stock, etc. The research included three steps, namely the construction of the LED Index, a cvasi-experimental research, and a regression model. Our main findings seem to suggest that while investments in infrastructure help the development gap between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries remains relatively the same. In terms of determinants of LED, percentage of population with a university degree and connection to a European road are the most significant in the Romanian rural context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: site identification; electric charging infrastructure; electromobility; spatial analysis; modal split; public transport
Online: 22 May 2018 (10:49:04 CEST)
The spread of charging infrastructure (CIS) for battery electric vehicles is crucial for coping with the increasing number of electric vehicles. Therefore, the selection of ideal (fast-) charging locations determines acceptance, utilization and, thus, the economic viability of a single site or the whole charging network. The methodology of the Integrated Model Approach STELLA for site identification of CIS uses proven methods of traffic modeling such as the classic four-step traffic modeling in a new context to enable statements regarding the positioning of CIS. Based on different spatial analyzes and characterizations of urban quarters, traffic generated by individuals is calculated using the FGSV approach of 2010. Because only (electric) motorized individual traffic is of importance for CIS, the share of trips is calculated by differentiating the modal split between various transport groups. One approach is to concretize the modal split share of public transport based on analyzes of different criteria and data sets, e.g. the accessibility of stops. The model approach STELLA, which also combines various extensive data (e.g. transport networks and traffic volumes, settlement structures, vehicle characteristics, power supply data and user requirements), is currently developed for a planning area covering the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany.  STELLA is the acronym for the German term "STandortfindungsmodell für ELektrische LAdeinfrastruktur”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: overall risk; technical infrastructure; major accident; explosive for civil use; terrorist attack
Online: 29 September 2017 (04:38:10 CEST)
The paper presents the results of the theoretical and practical research on developing the infrastructure for assessment of overall risk (explosion / occupational / terrorist attack) associated with unwanted events such as major accidents that can occur at explosive storehouses for civilian use. The scientific research outlined in this article was carried out within the Nucleu Project PN 16 43 02 15 - “Research on increasing safety levels at technical facilities for storage of explosives for civil use”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: urban public transportation infrastructure; utilization benefits; coupling coordination degree model; Gini coefficient
Online: 1 March 2017 (10:31:45 CET)
The economic, social and environmental benefits generated by the use of urban public transportation infrastructure constitute a complex dynamic urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit system. This paper evaluates the coupling coordination among these three benefits taking four Chinese autonomous municipalities as an example. These four cities have large-scale urban public transportation infrastructures but their utilization has many serious problems. The basic function of urban public transportation infrastructure has not been fully played in these cities. Whether the different benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure have been developed in harmony or not is unclear. We analyzed the coordinated development among three benefits by constructing coupling coordination degree model and used Gini coefficient to study the difference of coordinated development among three benefits of four cities. The result shows that the levels of coordinated development among three benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure were lower in these four cities and have positive correlation with it of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit. Raising the level of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit is the most crucial solution of promoting the coordinated development among three benefits.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Concrete sleeper; crosstie; design standard; holes; web opening; railway infrastructure; static performance
Online: 5 August 2016 (08:06:33 CEST)
Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground of railway tracks. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. In spite of the most common use of the prestressed concrete crossties in railway tracks, there have always been many demands from rail engineers to improve serviceability and functionality of concrete crossties. For example, signaling, fiber optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by ballast corners or by tamping machine. There has been a need to re-design concrete crosstie to cater cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Also, many concrete crossties need a retrofit for automatic train control device and similar signaling equipment. In contrast, the effects of holes and web openings on structural capacity of concrete crossties have not been thoroughly investigated. This paper accordingly highlights the effect of holes and web openings on the toughness and ductility of concrete crossties. The outcome of this research enables better decision making process for retrofiting prestressed concrete crossties with holes and web opening in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0824.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Least-Cost-Path; Closest Facility, District Heating Network; Restructuring of Heat Infrastructure; Replication
Online: 13 November 2023 (15:55:34 CET)
Due to an urgent need for reducing the fast progressing climate changes, a rapid, standardized and replicable solution for the infrastructure restructuring of heat demand coverage of buildings at district and city level must be developed. As more and more communities in Europe, especially in Germany, are obligated to have plans for coverage of heat demand, city planners, energy agencies seek a tool, which will help them to design the first drafts of heating network routes, which can supply whole districts and cities with renewable energy. ArcGIS Pro Tools like Least-Cost-Path-Analysis (LCPA) and Closest Facility (CF) allow to find the shortest and “cheapest” way between the heat source and heat consumers in the analyzed areas. Starting from the community level, through the district, county, voivodeship and whole country levels, the replication of the methods for generating district heating (DH) network infrastructure can be achieved. The proposed LCPA and CF based methods help to design the most suitable and efficient DH networks in the analyzed areas. As only few open-source data input, like street networks and building footprints are needed, the methods can be implemented in all communities of the country of Poland. In this paper one example of one community of Wroclaw county, called Siechnice and surroundings is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1852.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: injury severit; road infrastructure; traffic control; singe- and multi-vehicle crash; population density
Online: 27 June 2023 (05:46:27 CEST)
Single and multi-vehicle crashes are a significant issue that causes economic and social costs and has therefore gained attention. This study explored the factors associated with injury severity for both single- and multi-vehicle crashes using over 550,000 crash data points in Japan between 2019 and 2021. We identified the determinants of road infrastructure and traffic control while controlling for driver, vehicle, environmental, and accident characteristics by applying ordered logit and bias-reduced binomial regression models. Our findings are as follows. 1) Traffic control variables did not affect single-vehicle crashes. 2) Guardrails had a higher severity in both single-vehicle crashes and multi-vehicle crashes at intersections. 3) The impact of the centerline differed between intersections and non-intersections for multi-vehicle crashes. These results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the road infrastructure and transport control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Data integration; Decision Support System; Information Systems; Infrastructure Asset Management; Water supply systems
Online: 16 November 2022 (03:31:31 CET)
This paper presents a new information technology platform specially tailored for infrastructure asset management of urban water systems operated by water utilities of lower digital maturity level, developed in the scope of DECIdE research project. This platform aims at the integration of different data from the water utilities with several information systems and the assessment of the system performance, in terms of water losses, energy efficiency and quality of service by using developed tools (i.e., water and energy balances and key performance indicators). This platform was tested with data from five small to medium size Portuguese water utilities with different maturity levels in terms of technological and human resources. Obtained results are very promising since the platform allows to assess the systems performance periodically which constitute an important part of the infrastructure asset management for small and medium-sized water utilities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0259.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: test artifact; two photon polymerization; Direct Laser Writing; quality infrastructure; multi photon lithography
Online: 18 October 2022 (09:59:13 CEST)
With Direct Laser Writing (DLW) maturing in all aspects as a manufacturing technology a toolset for quality assurance must be developed. In this work we want to introduce a first of its kind test artifact. Test artifacts are standardized 3D models with specific geometric feature to evaluate the performance of writing parameters. Test artifacts are already common in other 3D additive manufacturing technologies e.g. Selective Laser Melting. The test artifact introduced in this work was developed in particular to accommodate 1) the high geometrical resolution of DLW structures and 2) the limited possibilities to examine the resulting structure. Geometric accuracy, surface adhesion as well as confocal raman spectroscopy results were considered when evaluating the design of the test artifact. We will explain the individual features and design considerations of our DLW test artifact. The difference between two slicers, Cura and 3DPoli, and the implications on measured feature sizes and the general shape is quantified. The measured geometries are used to derive a general design guide for a specific combination of photoresist, laser power and scanning speed and to analyse the geometric accuracy of a structure produced using these guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: robotics; monitoring; repair; replace; infrastructure; space robotics; flexible; structural-controls interaction; trajectory shaping
Online: 28 January 2022 (12:12:26 CET)
Infrastructure monitoring, inspection, repair, and replacement in space is crucial for continued usage and safety, yet it is expensive, time-consuming, and technical very challenging. New robotics technologies and artificial intelligence algorithms are potentially novel approaches that may alleviate such demanding operations using existing or novel sensing technologies. Space structures must necessarily be very light weight due to high costs of placing robots in space. Several methods are proposed and compared to control highly flexible space robotics, where a key challenge is the presence of flexible resonant modes at frequencies so low as to reside inside typical feedback controller bandwidths. Such conditions imply the very action of sending control signals to the ultra-light weight robotics will cause structural resonance. Implementations of incrementally increasing order are offered, achieving over ninety percent performance improvement in trajectory tracking errors, while improvement using unshaped methods merely achieve twenty-four percent improvement in direct comparison (where the only modification is the proposed control methodology). Based on superior performance, single-sinusoidal trajectory shaping is recommended with a corollary benefit of preparing future research into applying deterministic artificial intelligence whose current instantiation relies on single-sinusoidal, autonomous trajectory generation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0170.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: significative infrastructure; biological networks; normalized mutual information; recall; pre-cision; modularity; gene ontology
Online: 12 January 2022 (14:17:32 CET)
Abstract: In network science and big data, the concept of finding meaningful infrastructures in networks has emerged as a method of finding groups of entities with similar properties within very complex systems. The whole concept is generally based on finding subnetworks which have more properties (links) amongst nodes belonging to the same cluster than nodes in other groups (A concept presented by Girvan and Newman, 2002). Today meaningful infrastructure identification is applied in all types of networks from computer networks, to social networks to biological networks. In this article we will look at how meaningful infrastructure identification is applied in biological networks. This concept is important in biological networks as it helps scientist discover patterns in proteins or drugs which helps in solving many medical mysteries. This article will encompass the different algorithms that are used for meaningful infrastructure identification in biological networks. These include Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution, Water Cycle Algorithm (WCA), Walktrap Algorithm, Connect Intensity Iteration Algorithm (CIIA), Firefly algorithms and Overlapping Multiple Label Propagation Algorithm. These al-gorithms are compared with using performance measurement parameters such as the Mod-ularity, Normalized Mutual Information, Functional Enrichment, Recall and Precision, Re-dundancy, Purity and Surprise, which we will also discuss here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0070.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: high speed rail project; enterprise; infrastructure; socio-economic; spatial impacts; urban development; policy
Online: 3 August 2021 (10:56:39 CEST)
Growth benefits of high speed rail (HSR) for enterprises are not automatic, but require a buoyant local economy and a robust strategy. Against above background, main objectives of ex-ante case study have been to investigate local socio-economic and spatial impacts of proposed HSR project around Ahmedabad station area on Mumbai-Ahmedabad HSR corridor, analyze the opportunities and challenges of HSR development and draw policy implications. Qualitative research methodology has been used to elicit the perceptions and perspectives of randomly selected 43 small, medium and large enterprises. Data has been analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study reveals that HSR induced greater human interaction will activate local economy, improve business efficiency and generate employment. Frequent travels on business trips can influence enterprises decision to settle near HSR station for easy access and likely to promote realty development. The proposed HSR project should be developed in synergy with urban dynamics of cities in transition and metropolitan service cities. Poor public transport connectivity is likely to be a major challenge in improving HSR accessibility and enhancing overall impacts of HSR, which can be improved by developing an integrated urban transport system, for which cooperation of all stakeholders and coherence with firms’ strategies is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; infrastructure planning; town & city planning; municipal & public service engineering; smart city
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:32:10 CEST)
With the continuous emergence and application of new technologies, the construction of smart cities has entered the practical promotion period. Since 2012, the pilot construction of smart city has been promoted by the government in China. On the basis of these practical experiences, this paper presents an overview of the latest technologies and applications for smart city construction in China and demonstrates that smart city strategy needs to be implemented according to local conditions, adhering to the people-oriented concept and using scientific and effective top-level design and planning. The construction of smart city is comprehensive system engineering, including the integration of geographic information sharing service platform, full-cycle management and control system of urban planning, construction and social management, as well as intelligent business information management system of gardening, water conservancy, environmental protection and other industries and departments. The information system (GIS), satellite remote sensing (SRS), global navigation satellite system (GNSS), Internet of things, mobile applications, cloud computing, visualization technology ware used to promote urban construction and sustainable development, and to meet the needs of future smart city development. Results show that centralized management is very important for the construction of smart city. The government plays a major role in the construction of smart city, which will be conducive to the development of new technologies and the effective use of smart city construction resources.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: GIS; health Infrastructure; National Portal; COVID-19; Hot-Spot mapping; Accessibility to services
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:00:04 CEST)
This short note proposes a national Geographic Information System (GIS) - based health infrastructure to deal with epidemics and pandemics. Currently, there is no pan-India health infrastructure available that can compile, update, and report the spread of epidemic diseases. It not only curtails the opportunity of finding the real-time data on the spatial distribution of a disease but prevents one to inquire into the causes of the disease through epidemiological analysis. The proposed infrastructure in this study is a pan-India one and can broadly be divided into two parts, hotspot mapping and accessibility to services. In the first part, hospitals are proposed to act as nodes of data collection, sending data to a national GIS portal. This portal shall have the capabilities of plotting the data using map rendering services such as Google and Bing Maps. This way, hotspots can be visualized in no time, benefitting the government and common citizenry alike. The second part deals with the accessibility of citizenry to a wide range of services, i.e., healthcare services, grocery outlets, emergency services, baby food, and many other essential services of the day to day life. In order to implement this, we propose that the government need to enforce a mandatory submission of locational coordinates of all Goods and Services Tax (GST) enrolled service providers. Once the coordinates are submitted, the government can effectively control the opening and closing of services and inform the citizenry at the same time. The proposed infrastructure is going to help deal with the extraordinary situations during epidemic and pandemics similar to what the world is currently facing in the form of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, the infrastructure can be scaled up or down as per the spread of a disease. The health-GIS platform proposed in this concept paper, shall help India in controlling and managing the epidemic more efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: BIM; construction; critical infrastructure; cybersecurity; cyber-physical systems; digital twin; EPCIP; Industry 4.0
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:44:01 CEST)
The umbrella concept for the current efforts to digitize construction is known as Construction 4.0. One of its key concepts is cyber-physical systems. The construction industry is not only creating increasingly valuable digital assets (in addition to physical ones) but also the buildings and built infrastructures are increasingly monitored and controlled using digital technology. Both make construction a vulnerable target of cyber-attacks. While the damage to digital assets, such as designs and cost calculations, may result in economic damage, attacks on digitally-controlled physical assets may damage the well-being of occupants and, in worst-case scenarios, even damage (or death) to the users. The problem is amplified by the emerging cyber-physical nature of the systems, where the human checks may be left out. We propose that construction learns from the work done in the context of critical infrastructures (CI). First, a lot of CI is construction-related, and the process of designing and building it must be secured accordingly. Second, while most assets may not be critical in the CI sense, they are critical to the operations of a business and the lives of citizens. In the end, we recommend some steps so that well-established processes of critical infrastructure protection trickle down to make Construction 4.0 and the built environment more cyber-secure. With that in mind, we describe the possible inclusion of Construction 4.0 considerations into existing critical infrastructure protection (CIP) frameworks with minimum frictions. We also propose some suggestions regarding possible future courses of action to improve the increasingly vulnerable cyber-security environment of the built environment across all life cycle phases - design, construction, operation, maintenance, and end of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: radio virtualization; software-defined radio; network densification; infrastructure sharing; multi-tenancy; cognitive radios
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:44:52 CET)
The next generation of wireless and mobile networks will have to handle a significant increase in traffic load compared to the actual one. This situation calls for novel ways to increase spectral efficiency. Therefore in this paper, we propose a wireless spectrum hypervisor architecture that abstracts a radio frequency (RF) front-end into a configurable number of virtual RF front-ends. The proposed architecture has the ability to enable flexible spectrum access in existing wireless and mobile networks, which is a challenging task due to the limited spectrum programmability, $i.e.$, the capability a system has to change the spectral properties of a given signal to fit an arbitrary frequency allocation. The main goal of the proposed approach is to improve spectral efficiency by efficiently using vacant gaps in congested spectrum-bandwidths or adopting network densification through infrastructure sharing. We demonstrate mathematically how our proposed approach works and present several simulation results proving its functionality and efficiency. Additionally, we designed and implemented an open-source and free proof of concept prototype of the proposed architecture, which can be used by researchers and developers to run experiments or extend the concept to other applications. We present several experimental results used to validate the proposed prototype. We demonstrate that the prototype can easily handle up to 12 concurrent physical layers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1634.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: transportation disasters; western Asia; accident frequency; road safety; data analysis; public awareness; infrastructure development
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:47:14 CEST)
Investigating transportation disasters in Western Asia over two decades (2003-2023), this study provides a meticulous examination of a comprehensive dataset, shedding light on the dynamics and nuances of these catastrophic events in terms of frequency, modality (air, rail, road, and water), and subsequent outcomes. The data reveals a concerning uptrend in mishaps from 2003 to 2010, which fortunately reverses into a notable decline in the subsequent years. Noteworthy is the predominance of road-related incidents, yet an alarming 73.8% of events are ambiguously categorized under "Unknown", hinting at potential gaps or inconsistencies in record-keeping. With Turkey being a significant epicenter, accounting for nearly 45% of all incidents, the regional distribution of these disasters becomes evident. Advanced ANOVA analyses discern marked variations in fatality rates over the years and between nations. However, the contrast in injury rates among different disaster categories did not achieve statistical significance. While the post-2010 era showcases a commendable reduction in calamities, the data punctuates the persistent necessity for robust safety measures, targeted public awareness campaigns, and infrastructural advancements. In synthesis, this study vehemently advocates for heightened regional collaboration and systematic knowledge dissemination as cornerstones for bolstering transportation safety across Western Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building information modelling; machine learning; infrastructure; 3D laser scanning; semantic segmentation; support vector machine.
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:47:42 CEST)
Building Information Modelling (BIM) has gained significant relevance in civil engineering, particularly in the infrastructure sector. It offers the potential to increase efficiencies, optimize processes, and enhance sustainability throughout infrastructure projects’ life cycles. BIM consolidates information about asset components into a single model, enabling real-time updates, cost reduction, and improved consistency. Digital twins serve as valuable extensions of BIM in infrastructure, playing a crucial role during operation. By capturing real-time data from sensors and IoT devices, digital twins enabls continuous monitoring, proactive maintenance, efficient energy management, and informed decision-making for optimized operational efficiency. Advancements in 3D point cloud technologies, such as 3D laser scanning, have expanded BIM’s application in operation and maintenance. These technologies rapidly capture accurate and detailed three-dimensional information, prompting the exploration of automated alternatives to manual point cloud modeling. This paper demonstrates the application of supervised machine learning, specifically support vector machines, for analyzing and segmenting 3D point clouds, a crucial step in 3D modeling. Various approaches for semantic segmentation are introduced, investigated, and evaluated using diverse data sets. The results highlight the effectiveness of supervised machine learning techniques in achieving accurate segmentation of 3D point clouds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resilience assessment; resilience strategies; urban stormwater and wastewater; urban water infrastructure; water supply systems
Online: 19 June 2023 (10:35:06 CEST)
Resilient urban water infrastructure (UWI) is essential to maintaining public health and safety in urban areas and preventing consistent disruptions. However, UWI is vulnerable to a wide range of shocks and stresses due to the complex nature and interdependency of its components. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the advances in resilience assessment of UWI comprising water supply, stormwater, and wastewater systems. This assessment involves examining bibliometric analysis, developed frameworks to understand resilience concepts for infrastructure and society, strategies for improving resilience, and resilience indicators. The study findings indicate that resilience assessment has primarily been conducted in developed countries, highlighting the macroeconomic importance of UWI. Three major areas were identified for analysing resilience in UWI: system design, development of resilience concepts, and implementation of green infrastructure. It was also found that while resilience is commonly defined based on technical approaches, a more thorough understanding of resilience can be obtained through holistic approach. While strategies such as system upgrade, decentralisation, digitalisation, and nature-based solutions can enhance resilience in UWI, they may be insufficient to achieve all resilience indicators. To address the issue of proper comparison of different resilience options, comprehensive and qualified indicators and metrics should be extensively examined in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; concrete bridges; structural health monitoring; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; prioritizing
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for monitoring the structural health of concrete bridges in Iran. In this method, the bridge condition index (BCI) of bridges is determined by the analytical hierarchy process. BCI constitutes eight indices that are scored based on the experts' views, including structural, hydrology and climate, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and traffic and pavement. Experts' views were analyzed by Expert Choice software, and the relative importance (weight) of indices were determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, the gave scores of experts were assigned to indices for various conditions. Bridge inspectors can examine the bridge, determine the scores of indices, and compute BCI. Higher values of BCI indicate better conditions. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. Five bridges in Iran, Semnan province, were selected as the case studies, and BCI calculation of these bridges was conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: open research practices; digital humanities; scholarly communication; publication formats; infrastructure; research methodology; research tools
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:50:52 CET)
The digital transformation has initiated a paradigm shift in research and scholarly communication practices towards a more open scholarly culture. Although this transformation is slowly happening in the Digital Humanities field, open is not yet default. The article introduces the OpenMethods metablog, a community platform that highlights open research methods, tools, and practices within the context of the Digital Humanities by republishing open access content around methods and tools in various formats and languages. It also describes the platform’s technical infrastructure based on its requirements and main functionalities, and especially the collaborative content sourcing and editorial workflows. The article concludes with a discussion of the potentials of the OpenMethods metablog to overcome barriers towards open practices by focusing on inclusive, community sourced information based around opening up research processes and the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve its goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0233.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban rivers; ecological status; ecosystem services; developing countries; Nicaragua; nature-based solutions; green infrastructure
Online: 20 May 2019 (09:07:23 CEST)
Natural rivers in urban areas bear significant potential to provide ecosystem services for the surrounding inhabitants. However, surface sealing by houses and street networks, urban drainage, disposal of waste and wastewater resulting from advancing urbanization usually lead to the deterioration of urban rivers and their riparian areas. This ultimately damages their ability to provide ecosystem services. This paper presents an innovative methodology for a rapid and low-cost assessment of the ecological status of urban rivers and riparian areas in developing countries under data scarce conditions. The methodology uses a combination of field data and freely available high-resolution satellite images to assess three ecological status categories: river hydromorphology, water quality, and riparian land cover. The focus here is on the assessment of proxies for biophysical structures and processes representing ecological functioning that enable urban rivers and riparian areas to provide ecosystem services. These proxies represent a combination of remote sensing land cover- and field-based indicators. Finally, the three ecological status categories are combined to quantify the potential of different river sections to provide regulating ecosystem services. The development and application of the methodology is demonstrated and visualized for each 100 m section of the Pochote River in the City of León, Nicaragua. This spatially distributed information of the ecosystem service potential of individual sections of the urban river and riparian areas can serve as important information for decision making regarding the protection, future use, and city development of these areas, as well as the targeted and tailor-made development of nature-based solutions such as green infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ANCOVA; Blockage; Clogging; Efficient; Green infrastructure; Infiltration bed; Orifice; Perforation; Performance; Philadelphia; Pipe; Stormwater
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:18:14 CEST)
Performance of flow through orifices on a perforated distribution pipe between periods with and without partial clogging (submersion of part of the distribution pipe) was compared. The distribution pipe directly receives runoff and delivers it to an underground infiltration bed. Partial clogging appeared in winter but reduced in summer. Performance was defined as flow rate divided by l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) where h_(d,mean) is the mean pressure head that drives flow and l_eff is the effective pipe length (length of water column with pipe water volume and the pipe cross-sectional area). ANCOVA (ANalysis of COVAriance) was adopted to examine the clogging effects with flow rate plotted against l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) . Partial clogging had a significant effect on pipe performance during periods of low or no rainfall. However, if only data during larger storms was considered, little evidence showed that partial clogging had effects on pipe delivery performance. Partial clogging might be caused by leaves accumulated in the lower section of the pipe in winter, and its effect was insignificant when water level rose in the pipe, utilizing significantly more orifices on the distribution pipe, thus the effect from the clogged portion had negligible impact on system performance. Larger storms might also provide the required flow rate to move the debris block thus exposing the orifices. Partial clogging did not increase the tendency of overflow; therefore, current maintenance schedule was sufficient to keep the distribution pipe at satisfactory performance even though partial clogging can exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: cyclists; bicycle users; risky behaviors; human factors; infrastructure; self-reported road crashes; road safety
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:56:56 CET)
The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade, and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development, and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics, and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age) from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors, and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviors, and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: vehicle to vehicle communications; vehicle to infrastructure communications; network security; mobile ad-hoc networks
Online: 1 June 2017 (04:51:57 CEST)
Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) or briefly V2X communications are the one of hot topics in automotive industry. Therefore, this situation is providing many advantages of connected vehicles and infrastructures which bring to human life. For instance, vehicles and road infrastructures which shares information with each other, provides a neat flow regulation, more ordered traffic flow and therefore jammed traffic dependent accident’s percentage will be decreased. On the other hand, security is the most important issue for these systems because the operation of V2X networks is completely dependent on uninterrupted and accurate information sharing. In the light of these information, in this paper we review security issues and current solution architectures. We also propose some open problems in this lively field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1886.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Walking Environment; User Satisfaction; Sustainable Urban Mobility; Urban Sustainability; Pedestrian Infrastructure; Road Safety and Walking
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:21:04 CET)
Urban mobility and sustainable transportation are fundamental for the European Union's goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. The EU encourages national governments to prioritize zero-emission urban transport systems that emphasize safety, accessibility, and inclusiveness. Promoting walking plays a fundamental role in sustainable urban mobility, offering advantages such as emission reduction, better air quality, and enhanced public health. Recent research underscores the importance of creating appealing and safe pedestrian environments to encourage walking. These efforts align with the United Nations' Agenda 2030 sustainability goals, particularly Objective 11, which aims to build inclusive, safe, and sustainable cities and communities. This paper explores the factors influencing pedestrians' willingness to walk and categorizes them into four main groups: Physical Characteristics, Comfort, Safety, and Attractiveness. Significantly, the study reveals that the importance of these factors varies based on demographics, mainly the age of the users. Understanding these factors and their relative significance for pedestrian satisfaction is crucial for shaping effective policies and urban planning strategies aimed at promoting sustainable mobility. By prioritizing pedestrian satisfaction and addressing the specific needs and preferences of diverse groups, cities can create more walkable and environmentally friendly urban environments. These findings offer valuable insights for policymakers and urban planners working toward EU climate-neutral objectives and enhancing the well-being of citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Blue-Green Infrastructure; hydrological balance; stormwater management; tree pit; tree water uptake; water holding capacity
Online: 5 October 2023 (07:32:17 CEST)
Key elements of Blue-Green Infrastructure are vegetation and stormwater storage. A combination of a bioretention cell with an underlying trench (BC-T) serving as a tree pit is often used in dense urban environments. An adequate ratio of drained area to bioretention cell area is a crucial design parameter. The ratio is derived from the hydrological balance; however, input data are often difficult to obtain or uncertain. The goal is to study the sensitivity of such data (tree water uptake and water holding capacities of soil filter and trench substrate) in the BC-T design. Sensitivity analysis is performed for the setup of a BC-T used in Prague, Czech Republic. A 10-year rainfall series (1 hour resolution) is used as an input. Data that are subject to the sensitivity analysis are changed for different trench exfiltration rates, and the effect on the size of the drained area is studied. At low trench exfiltration rates (1.8 mm.h-1), both the water holding capacity of the trench substrate and potential tree water uptake have a significant influence (more than a 20% change in the size of the drained area) and cannot be neglected. At good exfiltration rates (more than 18 mm.h-1) or when the trench is equipped with an underdrain, all studied parameters can be neglected. However, it is recommended to reduce the size of the drained area by 10-20%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0142.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: night-time economy (NTE); sustainable development (SD); promote and share (QB); infrastructure and safety (HT)
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:15:20 CEST)
In this study, we aimed to identify the factors affecting the night-time economy in Hanoi to achieve the sustainable development of this economy. We surveyed four selected groups of subjects: people, tourists, business establishments, and managers in Hanoi City, in which tourists were nationwide but have been on a night tour in Hanoi. We chose a nonrandom convenience sample. With the above sample size, the number of respondents was insufficient, so we selected districts with potential for night economic development including Hoan Kiem, Tay Ho, Dong Da, Nam Tu Liem, Ha Dong, and Gia Lam. We obtained 463 usable surveys. We processed and analyzed the data using SPSS Statistics 26.0 software. Our quantitative study included: (1) testing the suitability of the scale for the variables using Cronbach’s alpha, (2) analyzing the EFA factors to check the convergence of the observed variables and the separation between the independent variables, (3) checking the correlation to evaluate the problem of multicollinearity of the model; , and (4) performing regression analysis to evaluate the impact of the factors on night-time economic development in Hanoi City. The results showed that the variables positively impacted night-time economic development in Hanoi, but we found differences in the levels of their impact. Among the four factors, factor 3 (promotion and sharing) had the strongest impact on night-time economic development, followed by factor 2 (infrastructure and safety), factor 1 (institutions and environment), and factor 4 (nature and resources.)
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0418.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: general theory of information; named set; knowledge structure; structural machine; autopoietic machine; multi-cloud infrastructure.
Online: 23 November 2021 (10:42:36 CET)
The General Theory of Information (GTI) tells us that information is represented, processed and communicated using physical structures. The physical universe is made up of structures combining matter and energy. According to GTI, “Information is related to knowledge as energy is related to matter.” GTI also provides tools to deal with transformation of information and knowledge. We present here, the application of these tools for the design of digital autopoietic machines with higher efficiency, resiliency and scalability than the information processing systems based on the Turing machines. We discuss the utilization of these machines for building autopoietic and cognitive applications in a multi-cloud infrastructure.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vehicle detection; automated driving; autonomous vehicles; measurement campaign; 5G; vehicle sensors; infrastructure sensors; UHD map
Online: 15 March 2021 (16:46:28 CET)
The paper presents the measurement campaign carried out on a real-world motorway stretch of Hungary with the participation of both industrial and academic partners from Austria and Hungary. The measurement included vehicle based as well as infrastructure based sensor data. The obtained results will be extremely useful for future automotive R&D activities due to the available ground truth for static and dynamic content. The aim of the measurement campaign was twofold. On the one hand, road geometry was mapped with high precision in order to build Ultra High Definition (UHD) map of the test road. On the other hand, the vehicles - equipped with differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for ground truth localization - carried out special test scenarios while collecting detailed data using different sensors. All test runs were recorded by both vehicles and infrastructure. As a complementary task, the available 5G network was monitored and tested. The paper also showcases application examples based on the measurement campaign data, in which the added value of having access to the ground truth labeling and the created UHD map of the motorway section becomes apparent. In order to present our work transparently, a part of the measured data have been shared openly such that interested automotive as well as academic parties may use it for their own purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0620.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Urban green space; COVID-19; urban parks; open space; New York City; urban infrastructure; equity
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:00:40 CEST)
Urban green spaces provide a range of environmental and health benefits, which may become even more critical during times of crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, with a radical shift in mobility, additional concerns over safety, and access temporarily restricted during the implementation of social distancing policies, the experience and use of urban green spaces may be reduced. This is particularly concerning for densely populated cities like New York, considered the first U.S. epicenter or vanguard of the outbreak. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the perception and use of urban green spaces, we conducted a social survey during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic in New York City (May 13 - June 15, 2020). The results of the survey show respondents continued to use urban green spaces during the pandemic and consider them to be more important for mental and physical health than before the pandemic began. However, the study revealed a pattern of concerns residents have about green space accessibility and safety, and found key differences between the concerns and needs of different populations, suggesting a crucial role for inclusive decision-making, support for additional management strategies, and urban ecosystem governance that reflect the differential values, needs and concerns of communities across the City. As urban centers face looming budget cuts and reduced capacity, this study provides some empirical evidence to illustrate the value of urban green spaces as critical urban infrastructure, and may have implications for funding, policy, and management, of urban green spaces in NYC, with potential applications to other cities, particularly during times of crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0411.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; structural number prediction; Gaussian process regression; m5p model tree; random forest
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:35:32 CEST)
The most common index for representing structural condition of the pavement is the structural number. The current procedure for determining structural numbers involves utilizing falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar tests, recording pavement surface deflections, and analyzing recorded deflections by back-calculation manners. This procedure has two drawbacks: 1. falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar are expensive tests, 2. back-calculation ways has some inherent shortcomings compared to exact methods as they adopt a trial and error approach. In this study, three machine learning methods entitled Gaussian process regression, m5p model tree, and random forest used for the prediction of structural numbers in flexible pavements. Dataset of this paper is related to 759 flexible pavement sections at Semnan and Khuzestan provinces in Iran and includes “structural number” as output and “surface deflections and surface temperature” as inputs. The accuracy of results was examined based on three criteria of R, MAE, and RMSE. Among the methods employed in this paper, random forest is the most accurate as it yields the best values for above criteria (R=0.841, MAE=0.592, and RMSE=0.760). The proposed method does not require to use ground penetrating radar test, which in turn reduce costs and work difficulty. Using machine learning methods instead of back-calculation improves the calculation process quality and accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0420.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; bridge management system; concrete bridges; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; expert system
Online: 29 March 2020 (04:55:22 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for determining the bridge condition index (BCI) in concrete bridges, which is based on the views of bridge experts. First, eight indices were defined for a concrete bridge including structure, hydrology, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and finally traffic and pavement. Each index consists of several sub-indices. Next, a series of questionnaires about the relative importance of indices and their sub-indices were prepared and distributed among bridge experts. Experts’ views were analyzed by Expert Choice software and the relative importance (weight) of each index and each sub-index was determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, based on experts’ views, an average score was assigned to each sub-index for any condition. Now the bridge inspectors can examine the bridge and determine the scores of sub-indices. Each index’s score is the sum of the weighted score assigned to its’ sub-indices and BCI is the sum of weighted scores assigned to indices. Higher values of BCI indicate a better condition. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. To apply the proposed method, five bridges were selected in Semnan province, Iran, and BCI calculation of these bridges were conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0275.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: flood; Geodesign; urban growth; development; land use/land cover; green infrastructure; drainage; stormwater; runoff; underground storage
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:35:14 CEST)
The consequences of growing urbanization can be perceived in multiple levels around the globe: overpopulated living conditions, water and air pollution, loss of open space, costly transportation infrastructure, food shortages, fires and floods. The Houston metropolitan area is an example of fast urban growth, with a population increase of more than sixteen percent in seven years, going from 5.8 million people in 2010 to 6.9 million in 2017 . By 2045, the robust growth of the region is projected to lead to the addition of approximately five hundred square miles of developed area, including an estimated six million parking spaces, seven hundred eighty million square feet of non-residential uses, and three and a half billion square feet of residential use . The accelerated development, in addition to physical features, geomorphic processes and human activities in the region are believed to have caused Houston to suffer through over fifty devastating floods since its settlement, despite some successful flood damage reduction projects. The present study focused on the potential outcomes of an increased use of green infrastructure in comparable urban areas, and its effects on flooding volume. Results from the research revealed that not only these measures would likely improve the performance of existing urban drainage systems and attenuate flood incidence in the area, but would also promote connectivity between areas otherwise detached or only accessible by car, improving walkability and incentivizing engagement in outdoor activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0126.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC); Big Data Streaming (BDS); Energy-Efficiency; resource management; Infrastructure-to-Vehicular (I2V)
Online: 24 November 2017 (05:06:27 CET)
In this paper, we discuss the most significant application opportunities and outline the challenges in performing a real-time and energy-efficient management of the distributed resources available at mobile devices and Internet-to-Data Center. We also present an energy-efficient adaptive scheduler for Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC) that operates at the edge of a vehicular network, connected to the served Vehicular Clients (VCs) through an Infrastructure-to-Vehicular (I2V) over multiple Foglets (Fls). The scheduler optimizes the energy by leveraging the heterogeneity of Fls, where the Fl provider shapes the system workload by maximizing the task admission rate over data transfer and computation. The presented scheduling algorithm demonstrates that the resulting adaptive scheduler allows scalable and distributed implementation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: next generation passive optical networks; beyond 100G; digital signal processing; infrastructure sharing technology; intelligent control management
Online: 16 August 2023 (20:29:48 CEST)
In order to provide high capacity and universal access of telecommunication networks, this paper reviews and prospects the advanced multiplexing technology, physical layer digital signal processing technology, infrastructure sharing technology, security protection technology, intelligent control management and other key technologies for beyond 100G next generation passive optical network (NG-PON).