ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0129.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:38:04 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to identify potential causes of violence and crime in informal settlements and residents’ strategies for response and prevention to these issues, as perceived by women living in Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with women living in the informal settlement in 2015-2016. A modified grounded theory approach was used to guide data collection and analysis. The most common contributor to violence and crime identified by women in Mathare informal settlement was idle youth, but leadership and government challenges, corruption and/or inadequacy of police, community barriers, tribalism, and lack of protective infrastructure also emerged as contributing factors. Despite facing many economic, environmental, and day-to-day challenges, women in Mathare identified violence and crime as predominant issues; thus, developing effective response and prevention strategies to these issues in informal settlements is paramount. Women suggest there are many strategies and initiatives to reduce and prevent violence and crime in informal settlements, but also identified barriers to implementing them. Findings suggest there is a need for trust-building between formal and informal organizations and institutions, systems of accountability, and long-term investment to foster sustainable and effective violence and crime response and interventions in these settlements.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0249.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: slums; informal settlements; bifurcation; Turing pattern
Online: 23 December 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Worldwide, about one in eight people live in slums. Empirical studies based on satellite data have identified that the size distributions of this type of settlement are similar in different cities of the Global South. Based on these results, we developed a model describing the formation of slums with a Turing mechanism, in which patterns are created by diffusion-driven instability and the inherent characteristic length of the system is independent of boundary conditions. We examine the model in this paper by critically reflecting its assumptions, comparing them with recent empirical observations and discussing possible adjustments and future extensions based on new methods of identifying pattern formation mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0521.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: SDG11; urban; deprivation; informal settlement; poverty; mapping
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:31:37 CET)
Low- and middle-income country cities face unprecedented urbanization and growth in slums. Gridded population data in small grid squares (e.g., 100x100m) derived from demographic and spatial data are a promising source of current population estimates, but face limitations in slums due to the dynamic nature of this population as well as modelling assumptions. The efficacy of using gridded population data in slum areas remains a question mark especially in the context of UN SDG indicator development. In this study, we use field-referenced boundaries and population counts from Slum Dwellers International (SDI) in Lagos (Nigeria), Port Harcourt (Nigeria), and Nairobi (Kenya) to assess the accuracy of nine gridded population datasets in slums. We also use a modelled map of all slums in Lagos to assess use of gridded population dataset for SDG11.1.1 (percent of population living in deprived areas). We found that all gridded population estimates vastly under-estimated population counts in populous slums, and the calculation of SDG11.1.1 in Lagos was impossibly low; gridded population datasets estimated that just 1-3% of the Lagos population lived in slums, compared to 56% using the UN-Habitat approach. We outline specific steps that might be taken to improve each gridded population dataset in deprived urban areas. While gridded population estimates are not yet sufficiently accurate to estimate SDG11.1.1, we are optimistic that some datasets could be following updates to their modelling approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: LMIC; urban; deprivation; informal settlement; poverty; Global South
Online: 22 July 2021 (09:15:06 CEST)
People living in slums and other deprived areas in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) cities are under-represented in censuses, and subsequently in "top-down" gridded population estimates. Modelled gridded population data are a unique source of disaggregated population information to calculate local development indicators such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study evaluates if, and how, WorldPop-Global (WPG) -Unconstrained and -Constrained “top-down” datasets might be improved in a simulated realistic LMIC urban population by incorporating slum profile population counts into model training. We found that the WPG-Unconstrained model with or without slum training data grossly underestimated population in urban deprived areas while grossly overestimating population in rural areas. SDG 11.1.1, the percent of population living in slums, for example, was estimated to be 20% or less compared to a "true" value of 29.5%. The WPG-Constrained model, which included building auxiliary datasets, far more accurately estimated the population in all grid cells (including rural areas), and the inclusion of slum training data further improved estimates such that SDG 11.1.1 was estimated at 27.1% and 27.0%, respectively. Inclusion of building metrics and slum training data in “top-down” gridded population models can substantially improve grid cell-level accuracy in both urban and rural areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: sustainability; urban planning; parametric model; informal settlements; GIS
Online: 5 June 2018 (12:56:11 CEST)
The non-existence of a land ownership database in most of the developing countries moves the inhabitants to the occupation of public lands. Some of this situation are the origin to areas of informal housing, commerce and agriculture and in the end into new informal settlements. Informal settlements become a serious problem in developing countries. The most common typology of informal settlements is that they are the population settled in public lands without any infrastructures and against the administrator's will. Thought this action the result in an uncontrolled land occupation process that promotes new informal areas without any proper built-up utilities, located in risk areas on the territory, barely ensuring the minimum requirements for a heaty living of the population and in various cases incentives to an informal economy. The process of build a cadastral map in informal settlement areas is a fundamental base to support the future transformation of illegal areas and to regulate the occupation of new subdivision planning and into the creation of new expansion areas. In this paper, it is presented a methodology developed to be applied to support a new register of land and to management. The transformation of informal settlement areas. The model to register the land tenure has been associated with allows the process application to multiple typology of informal settlements. The model to register land tenure has developed on a series of qualitative and quantitative data that determine the identification and classification of the buildings and its physical and functional description. The model was developed using Geographic Information System and with an initial survey of existing land titles of possession and public proposals to develop new expansion areas. A case study of the method is presented, where the land management model was implemented - Chã da Caldeiras in Ilha do Fogo an informal settlement in Cape Verde. The results are a great acceptance of the proposal by the population and local authorities and the starting of the implementation phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0428.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Innovation; Informal competition; credit access; Business plan; emerging countries
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:39:39 CEST)
This paper examines the influence of informal competition on SMEs innovation in the Eastern European transition economies. It investigates whether credit constraints mediate this relation. SMEs innovation is presented through four measures: Product innovation, Process innovation, Radical innovation and Green innovation. Using the BEEPs VI that covers the period from 2018-2020, we show that informal competition affects positively the product, process and radical innovation. Yet, it has a non-significant effect on green innovation. Besides, the informal sector increases SMEs credit constraints, which indirectly leads to less corporate innovation. The negative indirect effect restrains the positive direct effect. Hence, a partial mediation effect of credit constraints on the informal competition and the innovation proxies is reported with the exception of green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0059.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: smallholder women farmers; Newcastle disease vaccines; informal institutional barriers
Online: 6 May 2022 (04:34:32 CEST)
Institutional barriers can hinder effective access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among smallholder chicken farmers. Many studies have focused on formal institutional barriers with minimal focus on informal institutions - unwritten rules and regulations that govern access and utilisation of Newcastle vaccines. However, informal institutions are more profound and encultured in individuals’ daily activities. This study sought to investigate informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among women smallholder chicken farmers in Makueni, Kenya. The cross-sectional qualitative study employed in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions as data collection methods. Study informants were conveniently and purposively sampled. Informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation included: fear of Newcastle disease vaccine as a new technology, use of herbal remedies, mistrust of community vaccinators, gender division of labour, ownership of household resources and beliefs that indigenous chickens do not need vaccines. The study concludes that women chicken farmers are constrained by unwritten rules, norms, regulations and gender roles that hinder their access to and utilisation of the Newcastle disease vaccines. The need to examine informal institutions to identify and eradicate barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines by farmers is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0209.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: slums; informal settlements; deep learning; machine learning; uncertainty quantification
Online: 9 August 2021 (20:27:05 CEST)
Over a billion people live in slums, with poor sanitation, education, property rights and working conditions having direct impact on current residents and future generations. A key problem in relation to slums is slum mapping. Without delineations of where all slum settlements are, informed decisions cannot be made by policymakers in order to benefit the most in need. Satellite images have been used in combination with machine learning models to try and fill the gap in data availability of slum locations. Deep learning has been used on RGB images with some success but since labeled satellite images of slums are relatively low quality and the physical/visual manifestation of slums significantly varies within and across countries, it is important to quantify the uncertainty of predictions for reliable application in downstream tasks. Our solution is to train Monte Carlo dropout U-Net models on multispectral 13-band Sentinel-2 images from which we can calculate pixelwise epistemic (model) and aleatoric (data) uncertainty in our predictions. We trained our model on labelled images of Mumbai and verified our epistemic and aleatoric uncertainty quantification approach using altered models trained on modified datasets. We also used SHAP values to investigate how the different features contribute towards the model’s predictions and this showed that certain short-wave infrared and red-edge image bands are powerful features for determining the locations of slums within images. Having created our model with uncertainty quantification, in the future it can be applied to downstream tasks and decision-makers will know where predictions have been made with low uncertainty, giving them greater confidence in its deployment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0307.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Public health; Population groups; Informal sector; asymptomatic diseases; Seroepidemiologic studies
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:43:46 CEST)
Introduction. COVID-19 is a pathology caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus. The World Health Organization has reported more than 94 million cases and two million deaths worldwide. Objective: To describe the seroprevalence, spatial distribution, and clinical and sociodemographic variables of SARS-CoV2 in a community of the Colombian Amazon region. Methods. In December 2020, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a population located in the Colombian Amazon in the municipality of Mitú. Sociodemographic and clinical data were taken. Besides, 590 blood samples were taken, and an antibody detection was carried out with an ELISA and a recombinant protein N antigen of SARS-CoV2. Results. A seroprevalence of 57.6% was observed. The highest proportion of the infection is located in inter-municipal transport zones. The bivariate analysis did not show differences in the SARS-CoV2 infection rate concerning the variables sex, age-range, and the presence of comorbidities (P> 0.05). The bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that being symptomatic and presenting neurological manifestations of the upper respiratory tract are clinical variables associated with SARS-CoV2 infection (P <0.05). One of the causes of this virus's high spread in this community could be that 53.3% of the people were asymptomatic. Conclusions. Our data showed a high burden and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in this indigenous community. This could be linked to cultural behaviors and the high infection rate in asymptomatic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: hiking; trekking tours; engagement; outdoor leadership; soft skills; informal learning
Online: 3 May 2019 (16:20:03 CEST)
Organised hiking and trekking tours are promoted by many providers in adventure travel. Such guided tours shall be engaging for the tourists and evoke positive attitudes towards enjoying nature. We present the Trekking Engagement Profile as a tool to evaluate engagement factors of such guided tours, based on engagement research performed in a different domain, namely evaluating engagement in museums and science centres. This tool shall strengthen guides’ soft skills and enable them to increase engagement during an ongoing arrangement. For instance, the Trekking Engagement Profile can be applied when tourists indicate that the quality of a guided tour is not entirely to their liking. We show the viability of using the Trekking Engagement Profile in a small study with guides and participants of trekking tours offered by the Norwegian Trekking Association. Further, we offer guidance and charts to promote its practical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; Transition Management; WASH; informal settlements; sustainability transitions
Online: 31 August 2018 (11:22:13 CEST)
The unsustainability of the services related to water, sanitation and hygiene in informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa services is deeply embedded in current societal and governance structures, cultures and practices; it is context-dependent and involves numerous actors with different interests. The field of sustainability transitions research addresses such persistent and large scale societal challenges, with transition management being one of its widely applied governance approach. By drawing on an analysis of the root causes of unsustainability and unreliability of WASH services in three case studies in Sub-Saharan Africa (Arusha-Tanzania, Dodowa-Ghana, Kampala-Uganda), we explore how a transition management approach can be designed to support a transition towards sustainable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Sub-Saharan Africa. We distinguish the following contextual dimensions related to the unsustainability of WASH services: a) Multiplicity of WASH practices, structures and arrangements, b) Governance capacities for WASH services and maintenance, c) Landownership for sustainable access to WASH, d) Public participation in decision-making related to WASH, e) socio-economic structures governing access to WASH. These dimensions prompt the identification of conceptual and application challenges for transition management. Based on these challenges, recommendations were formulated for the design of a prescriptive transition management process that is not only functional but also emancipatory of character.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: informal settlements; population; displacement; GHS; WSF; HRSL; GRID3; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 July 2021 (11:48:58 CEST)
Satellite-based broad-scale (i.e., global and continental) human settlement data offer foundational information for diverse applications spanning climate hazard mitigation, sustainable development monitoring, spatial epidemiology, and demographic modeling. While many human settlement products report exceptional detection accuracies above 85%, there is a substantial blind spot in that product validation is typically centered on large urban areas rather than rural, small-scale settlements that are home to 3.4 billion people. In this study, we make use of a data-rich collection of 30 refugee settlements in Uganda to produce a targeted assessment of small-scale settlement detection by four broad-scale human settlement products: Global Human Settlements Built-Up Sentinel-2 (GHS-BUILT-S2), World Settlement Footprint (WSF), High Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL), and Geo-Referenced Infrastructure and Demographic Data for Development (GRID3). We measured each product’s areal coverage within refugee settlements, assessed product detection accuracies in comparison to an independent dataset of 317,416 refugee settlement building footprints, and examined agreement between products. For refugee settlements established before 2016, the human settlement products had a low median F1-Score (F1) of 0.24, a high median false alarm rate of 0.59, and tended to only agree at locations of highest building density. Individually, WSF entirely overlooked 8 of the 30 study refugee settlements (median F1=0.17); GHS-BUILT-S2 underestimated the building footprint area by a median 50% (F1=0.15); GRID3 overestimated the building footprint area by a median 280% (F1=0.38); and HRSL underestimated the median area by 7% (F1=0.34). All products suffer from low detection accuracy and high false alarm rates, but GRID3 and HRSL, based on 0.5 meter resolution imagery, offer better detection accuracy than GHS-BUILT S2 and WSF, which are based on 10-30 meter resolution imagery. These results show that human settlement products have far to go in providing an accurate depiction of small-scale refugee settlements and would benefit from incorporating refugee settlements in training and validation of broad-scale human settlement detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: informal caregiving; unpaid family caregivers; labour force participation; income; labour supply
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:58:39 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers might suffer losses in income as a result of care provision. Here we used data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess the relationship between hours of weekly caregiving provided to grandchildren/parents/parents-in-law and individual’s monthly employment income. Our study sample comprised 3,718 middle-aged Chinese adults who were of working age (45-60 years). For women and men separately, we used a likelihood-based method to determine a caregiving threshold in a two-stage Heckman selection procedure. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Our analysis revealed a negative association between caregiving and income for women that depended on a caregiving threshold of 63-hours per week. There was an absence of caregiving-income relationship among men. These results offer new insights into the opportunity costs of unpaid caregiving and support tailored policies to protect the financial well-being of female caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0183.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: informal settlement; sustainable neighborhood; approaches; district 13 of Kabul city Afghanistan
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:20:52 CET)
Abstract: Afghanistan witnessed rapid urbanization in recent decades due to the post-war recovery process. When the war ended in 2001 by fall of Taliban regime, most Afghans refugees returned to urban areas of Afghanistan, especially in Kabul city. Moreover, the rapid urbanization, migration from rural areas, and population growth impacted on Kabul city with the manifestation of informal settlement. The residents of informal settlements suffer social and economic exclusion from the benefit and opportunity of an urban environment. Furthermore, the residents of informal settlements experience disadvantages by geographical marginalization, shortage of basic infrastructure, improper governance framework, vulnerability into the effect of poor environment, and natural disasters. With all the above, the problems of informal settlements are considered enormous challenges for informal residents. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the proper approaches to addressing informal settlement problems in District 13 of Kabul city. To reach the aim of the research, the interview and questionnaires survey used as an instrument in data collection. Consequently, the finding of this paper indicates that through the resident’s preferences, government capacity, and District 13 physical condition there are three approaches which can be implemented and adopted for improvement of informal settlement in District 13 of Kabul city, which is settlement upgrading as the first option, the land readjustment as the second option and urban redevelopment as the last option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0059.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: fear of victimization, violence, crime, geography of crime, women, informal settlements, Kenya
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:58:56 CEST)
Around one billion people live in informal settlements, globally, including over half of Nairobi, Kenya’s three million residents. The purpose of this study was to explore women’s fear of victimization within Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and how fear of victimization influences behavior. Fifty-five in-depth interviews were conducted with women in 2016. A modified grounded theory approach guided data collection and analysis. Findings suggest fear of victimization is a serious concern in informal settlements. Women have found ways to adopt their behaviors that allow them to continue to function and protect their children despite fearing victimization, but at a potential cost to their health and well-being. Thus, there is a critical need for more research focused on social, economic, structural, community, infrastructure, technological, and individual strategies to prevent violence, enhance residents’ sense of safety, and, subsequently, minimize women’s fear of victimization in informal settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Small-scale bean farmers, marketing arrangements, formal and informal marketing, intensification models
Online: 5 September 2018 (11:30:25 CEST)
This case study assessed marketing arrangements used by small scale farmers in the Lake Basin and Lower Eastern bean corridors of Kenya to determine which markets work for rural producers and what changes are needed to produce and supply sufficient quantities for trade. Using exploratory research, data was collected through focus group discussions with six farmer groups representing a total of 1255 bean farmers and key informant interviews with extension staff. The results indicated that 94% of the farmers produced beans before identifying buyers with only 6% participating in group marketing. Though spot-market transactions with brokers and traders provided ready cash for the farmers, formal buyers were perceived to be more reliable but difficult to find and, operated stringent requirements which were a barrier to entry. A theory of change to integrate smallholders into formal markets to sustainably produce and supply sufficient volumes for trade should entail a transformation agenda at four levels of the value chain: intensification of production through pure stand models with greater use of certified high yielding varieties; stable price guarantees; a market-driven research and extension service and; an enabling political, policy and business environment in the bean value chain. Further research is needed to pilot these changes in a case control study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Informal employment; social security; state effectiveness; Maghreb countries; individual preferences; discrete choice model
Online: 16 April 2021 (22:29:59 CEST)
State legitimacy and effectiveness could be seen by the way to deliver welfare to citizens to mitigate social grievances, that could eventually lead to conflicts (Kivimäki, 2021). Social security systems in Maghreb countries are quite similar in their architecture and aims to provide social insurance to all the workers in the labor market. However, they suffer from the same main problem: the low rate of enrollment of workers. Many workers (employees and self-employed) work informally without any social security coverage. The issue of whether informal jobs are chosen voluntarily by workers or as a strategy of last resort is controversial. Many authors recognize that the informal sector is heterogeneous and it is made up of workers who voluntary choose it and others who are pushed inside because of entry barriers to the formal sector (Günther & Launov, 2012). Using the SAHWA survey and discrete choice models, this article confirms the heterogeneity of the informal labor market in three Maghreb countries: Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Furthermore, this article highlights the profiles of workers who voluntarily choose informality, which is missing from previous studies. Finally, this article proposes policy recommendations in order to extend social security to informal workers and to include them in the formal labour market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: noise measurement; road traffic noise; neighborhood noise; informal settings; developing country; South Africa.
Online: 9 August 2017 (06:03:00 CEST)
In developing countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound level (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00-18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9-62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00-6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3-55.8 dB(A)) and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1-66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2=0.130) suggesting that other influences than represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: domestic markets; small producers; retailers; informal restaurants; low-income population; minister of health; well-being
Online: 16 October 2018 (07:49:00 CEST)
Taking four of the United Nations Development Goals as reference, this overview describes the need to see from a systemic perspective, the food certifications programs along the food chain in Mexico as today food certifications are voluntary. Using secondary data, the main objectives were: a) there is a fall short in food safety policies and those federal agencies responsible for food safety, to guarantee safe food along the whole domestic food chain, especially in that for low income players; b) the amount of the Mexican Federal Budget Expenses devoted to safety food issues is really low, considering the health, well- being, and food security consequences; and c) due the structural heterogeneity of the Mexican food market, there is a lack of coordination in food regulations along all agents of the food supply chain, bringing to alternate informal markets that put at risk peoples´ health, increasing poverty and inequalities. According to this exercise, only 0.7- 8.7% of producers, 12.5% of supermarkets as well as 42.8% of restaurants would have some type of certifications. Public policies must attend this issue in order to improve food safety and security for the whole population, reducing inequalities, poverty and ensuring them a healthy live.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0275.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: An anthropological study; Agro-industrial food system; Institutional settings; formal and informal institutions; common pool resources
Online: 21 May 2018 (12:59:07 CEST)
Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya’s economy, supporting up to 80% of the rural livelihoods. Kenya’s export horticulture is currently the leading Agriculture subsector in Kenya has evolved from small-holder farming to agro-industrial large-scale export farming dominated by multinational companies. It is regarded as an agro-industrial food system based on the economies of scale producing for mass markets outside of the production area. Much of the food consumed from this food system has undergone multiple transformations and been subject to a host of formal and informal insitutions (rules, regulations, standards, norms and values). An Anthropological study of export horticulture in Northwest Mount Kenya was carried out utilizing qualitative data collection methods in Northwest Mount Kenya region. Data was coded and analysed thematically based on grounded theory approach. The study described the institutional settings of export horticulture from an emic perspective as changing and defining the operations of the food system access and management of common pool resources, namely water and land. With the agro-industrial food system competing for these scarce resources in a semi-arid zone, there is potential for conflict and also reduced production and overall benefits to the different actors in the study area.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Climate change; rural-urban migration; innovation; Bangladesh; adaptation strategies; politicization of technology; Dhaka; urban climate solutions; informal settlements
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:14:33 CET)
Climate change-induced events amplify existing social, political, economic, infrastructural and environmental concerns in many Global South cities, and perhaps no city is more vulnerable than Bangladesh’s capital of Dhaka. Climate-induced rural-urban migration is a profound concern, and Dhaka’s political leaders have embraced technology-based innovation as a solution pathway. This article explores the societal impact of Dhaka’s innovation environment strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Employing a case study qualitative methodology, our three findings expand knowledge about innovation-urban climate mitigation as understood by Dhaka-based entrepreneurs: First, the most effective innovations were not the most technologically advanced, but those with the highest degree of participant ownership. Second, gaps between recipient, corporate and governmental understandings of effective mitigation and adaptation harmed projects, and were driven by different definitions of risk and competing understandings of vulnerability. Third, even the most technical climate adaptation measures were inherently political in their application. We discuss how to better position urban climate innovation infrastructures in Bangladesh and beyond, including developing a better recognition of innovation lifecycles for urban climate adaptation and widening our definitions of ‘innovation’ to better incorporate more effective and inclusive climate adaptation solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0050.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: public engagement on science, science engagement, science communication, public understanding of science, deficit model, informal STEM learning, active learning
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:09:31 CEST)
Publicly-funded scientists have a responsibility to engage with the public on scientific information, but are lacking a standardized framework and assessment strategy to do it well. The PEPS (Public Engagement Practices for Scientists) Method is an outcomes-centered framework employing standardized pedagogical methods with quantifiable outcomes. This approach reveals that scientists often have unrealistic expectations for achieving affective learning outcomes (i.e. changing views from anti- to pro-vaccine) by solely cognitive learning strategies (i.e. supplying data). The PEPS Method can serve as a roadmap for standardized science communication assessments, complementing existing science communication training programs for the next generation of scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0219.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: informal settlement indicators; very high resolution (VHR); urbanisation; sustainable development goals; object-based image analysis (OBIA); machine learning (ML); random forest (RF)
Online: 12 September 2018 (12:32:25 CEST)
The identification of informal settlements in urban areas is an important step in developing and implementing pro-poor urban policies. Understanding when, where and who lives inside informal settlements is critical to efforts to improve their resilience. This study aims to analyse the capability of machine-learning (ML) methods to map informal areas in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery and terrain data. Fourteen indicators of settlement characteristics were derived and mapped using an object-based ML approach and VHR imagery. These indicators were categorised according to three different spatial levels: environ, settlement and object. The most useful indicators for prediction were found to be density and texture measures, (with random forest (RF) relative importance measures of over 25% and 23% respectively). The success of this approach was evaluated using a small, fully independent validation dataset. Informal areas were mapped with an overall accuracy of 91%. Object-based ML as a hybrid approach performed better (8%) than object-based image analysis alone due to its ability to encompass all available geospatial levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0598.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: circulation; informal settlements; COVID-19; coronavirus; physical distancing; social distancing; graph theory; oriented graph; cluster graph; urban planning; architecture; Königsberg; Dharavi; Christopher Alexander; slum; favela
Online: 29 October 2020 (08:44:21 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a wide range of spatial interventions to slow down the spread of the virus. The spatial limitations of narrow public circulation spaces within informal settlements, which house over one billion people around the world, make it impossible for pedestrians to practice physical distancing (or social distancing). In this paper, we propose a flexible mathematical method, named the Cluster Lane Method, for turning a planar circulation network of any size or complexity into a network of unidirectional lanes, making physical distancing possible in narrow circulation spaces by limiting face-to-face interactions. New notions and theorems about oriented graphs in graph theory are introduced. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential implementation of this cost-efficient, low-tech, sustainable solution, and with the introduction of a novel unidirectional tactile paving for the visually impaired.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.