ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Malnutrition; association; feeding; practice; infants; Pakistan
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:13:18 CEST)
Breastmilk is the only recommended source of nutrition for infants below six-months of age. However, a significant proportion of children are either on supplemental breastfeeding(SBF) or weaned due to the early introduction of solid/semi-solid/soft food and liquids(SSF) before 6 months of age. There is good evidence that Exclusive Breastfeeding(EBF) in infants below six-months of age protects them from preventable illnesses, including malnutrition. The relationship between infant feeding practices and coexisting forms of malnutrition(CFM) has not yet been explored. This study examined the association of different feeding indicators(continuation of breastfeeding, predominant feeding, and SSF) and feeding practices(EBF, SBF, and complete weaning) with CFM in infants aged below six-months of age in Pakistan. National and regional datasets of Pakistan from the last ten years were retrieved from the Demographic Health Surveys(DHS) and UNICEF data repositories. In Pakistan, 34.5%(n=6131) of infants have some form of malnutrition. Among malnourished infants, 44.7%(~15.4% of the total sample) had a CFM. Continuation of breastfeeding was observed in more than 85% of infants, but less than a quarter were on EBF, and the rest were either SBF(65.4%) or weaned infants(13.7%). Compared to EBF, complete weaning increased the odds of coexistence of underweight with wasting and underweight with both wasting and stunting by 1.96(1.12-3.47) and 2.25(1.16-4.36), respectively. Overall, breastfed children had lower odds of various forms of CFM (compared to non-breastfed), except for the coexistence of stunting with overweight/obesity. Continuation of any breastfeeding protects infants in Pakistan from various types of CFM during the first six months of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anthropometric deficit; infants under 6 months; malnutrition; weight-for-age; the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure; MAMI; Ethiopia
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:31:54 CEST)
Poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF); and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting each of 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (Mid upper arm circumference); and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: lung ultrasound; infants; children; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; multisystem inflammatory syndrome.
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:29:22 CET)
It is already well known that infants and children infected with COVID-19 develop mild to mod-erate forms of the disease, with fever and oropharyngeal congestion being the most common symptoms. Nevertheless, there are cases in which the patients accuse respiratory symptoms. These cases need lung evaluation, which can be done using lung ultrasound (LUS), because it is a non-irradiating and repeatable imaging technique. 19 children with COVID-19 pneumonia were eval-uated using LUS. The LUS score (LUSS) for each patient varied between 1 to 8 points from a max-imum of 36 points. The arithmetic mean was 4.47 ± 2.36 (S.D), while 95% CI for the Arithmetic mean was 3.33 to 5.61. The lung changes were correlated with their biomarkers, specifically in-flammatory markers. The correlation between LUSS and LDH, D-dimers and IL-6 was a strong positive one with r=0.66 (p=0.01, 95% CI 0.147 to 0.896) between the LUSS and LDH level at symptomatic infants and children (with cough present) and r=0.66 (p=0.01, 95% CI 0.140 to 0.895) between LUSS and D-dimers level at symptomatic infants and children (with cough pre-sent). The results suggest that LUS could be a good imaging technique that can be used both in ini-tial evaluation of children with respiratory diseases, and, also in their follow-up, correlated with symptoms and biomarkers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Coronary artery abnormalities; Infants; Kawasaki disease
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:45:30 CEST)
Kawasaki disease is a form of acute febrile multisystem vasculitis. In Japan, the Kobayashi score is used to predict intravenous immunoglobulin resistance and subsequent complications, including coronary artery abnormalities, in children with Kawasaki disease. If the score is high, it is standard practice to use steroids in the initial treatment of the disease. In this study, we describe a pediatric case of coronary artery abnormality formation after acute steroid treatment for Kawasaki disease, despite the lack of an inflammatory response and Kawasaki disease symptoms. The use of steroids with acute Kawasaki disease patients can mask laboratory findings and clinical symptoms. Echocardiogram should be considered an equivalent technique to physical examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fortified infant cereals; anemia; growth; infants
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:49:03 CET)
After approximately 6 months of age, term breastfed infants are increasingly depending on other sources of iron to avoid iron deficiency anemia. The appropriate complementary feeding must include a balance composition of foods containing an adequate amount of macro- and micronutrients to reduce the risk of iron deficiency anemia. This study aims to compare the anemia and growth status of infants receiving commercial fortified infant cereals (FIC) with infants not receiving them. We use all complete multiple Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) from 2005 to 2018 to understand global infant feeding patterns. To better control for the strong household wealth effect in nutritional choices and possibly health awareness, we use propensity score technique as applied in outcome research to better control the effect of covariates. After matching and controlling for confounders, we did find a significant association between reduced risk of anemia and consumption of FIC. After matching and adjusting for confounders the small but positive effects of consumption of FIC on Height for age z-score and Weight for Height Z-score are no longer statistically significant.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Rwanda; Risk associated MTCT; HIV-exposed infants
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:18:07 CEST)
Several factors enhance the possibility of vertical HIV transmission in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, the data of the prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors in these populations remain limited in Rwanda. The study aimed to assess HIV prevalence and risk factors for infants born to mothers on ARV treatment at CHUB/Rwanda. MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out on infants who were born to mothers under ARV treatment at CHUB. The associated risk factors were retrospectively assessed using prevention vertical HIV transmission records, and Dried Blood spots (DBS) were prospectively tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Ethical clearance (Ref: CMHS/IRB/198/2017) was issued by University of Rwanda to fulfill research ethical consideration.ResultsAmong 185(100%) infants born to HIV-positive mothers under ARV treatment, 5(2.7%) were HIV positive. The most associated risk factors were increased to over 1log copies/ml mother’s viral load (OR 9.3, 95% CI 1.01-85.45, P= 0.04) and mother’s CD4 count lower than 350 cells/µl (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.03-40.06, P=0.04). The factors found to reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV were health facility as a delivery place (P=0.03), exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (P= 0.006), and attending the antenatal care (P=0.01) while feeding children and vaginal delivery were associated risks but not statistically significant.ConclusionThe current study supports that the more mothers’ viral load and CD4 count decrease, so does the risk of HIV to their infants. A fact which indicates that both prevalence and risk factors remain an alarming issue. Much effort and multi-disciplinary approach are highly recommended.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breastfeeding; Infants; Bangladesh; Morbidity; Adolescent mothers; Mortality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:04:09 CET)
Optimal breastfeeding practices among mothers have been proven to have health and economic benefits, but evidence on breastfeeding practices among adolescent mothers in Bangladesh is limited. Hence, this study aims to estimate breastfeeding indicators and factors associated with selected feeding practices. The sample included 2554 children aged 0-23 months of adolescent mothers aged 12-19 years from four Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2004 and 2014. Breastfeeding indicators were estimated using World Health Organization indicators. Selected feeding indicators were examined against potential confounding factors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Only 42.2% of adolescent mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, 53% exclusively breastfed their infants, predominant breastfeeding was 17.3%, and 15.7% bottle-fed their children. Parity (2-3 children), older infants and adolescent mothers who made postnatal check-up after two days were associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Adolescent mothers aged 12-18 years and who watched television were less likely to delay breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of birth. Adolescent mothers who delivered at home (adjusted OR=2.63, 95% CI:1.86, 3.74) and made postnatal check-up after two days (adjusted OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.30) were significantly more likely to delay initiation breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Younger infants, adolescent mothers living in Barisal region and who listened to radio reported increased odds of predominant breastfeeding and increased odds for bottle-feeding included male infants, an infant aged 0-5 months, Adolescent mothers who had eight or more antenatal clinic visits and richest wealth quintiles. In order for Bangladesh to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 3 by 2030, breastfeeding promotion programmes should discourage bottle-feeding among adolescent mothers from richest households and promote early initiation of breastfeeding especially among adolescent mothers who delivered at home and had late postnatal check-up after delivery
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Parenteral fluids in premature infants; late premature infants; infections associated with the use of lines; early oral feeds
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:05:52 CEST)
Introduction: Some of the practices in medicine are carried out of habit without proven benefits. This is the case of premature babies from 30 to 34 weeks of gestation who are always given parenteral fluids, even though this practice has been associated with an increase incidence of infection. At the end of 2017, we started a protocol of rationalization in the use of parenteral fluid. To administer nutrition/fluids, we used oral fluids by suction if this was possible or otherwise by oral/nasogastric tube at volumes of 70-80 mL/Kg/day divided every 3 hours, with 5 mL increments every 12-24 hours until 200 mL/K/day was achieved, always using breast milk when possible. Material and methods: The present study sought to compare results before and after this new policy. For this work, we review all premature babies between 30-34 weeks of gestation in two time periods, the first from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2017 and the second from 01/01/2018 to 08/15/2022. The number of cases with and without parenteral fluids (PF), the incidence of infection, the weight at admission and discharge, and the change in the weight Z score between birth and discharge were compared. Both the anthropometric and outcome variables were compared using the different statistical methods according to each variable. Results: were found 920 cases with the described characteristics. The groups before and after the intervention did not show significant differences in their general demographic characteristics. We observed a decrease use of PF in the second period, from 425 cases (82.0%) before to 297 (26.2%) after implementation, p <0.0001 and fewer days of use (4.1 days/average before vs 1.3 after, p <0.0001) of PF. The weight at discharge and the change in weight Z-score were the same in both groups. Infections went from nine cases before to two cases after but it was not statistically significant. There were no complications due to less use of PF. Discussion: This study showed that the use of PF is not associated with significant changes in outcomes of interest, which reinforces that its use does not generate any benefit for the patient. Larger number of cases is required to detect differences in low incidence events such as infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RSV; respiratory virus; tracheobronchitis; bronchiolitis; pneumonia; apnea; infants
Online: 26 July 2023 (08:43:20 CEST)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. The most common symptoms of an RSV infection are cough, runny nose, and fever. However, RSV can also cause more serious complications, such as tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and apnea. RSV is especially dangerous for infants, young children, and older adults. RSV is a seasonal virus, with peak incidence in the winter months. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also be spread through contact with contaminated surfaces. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and preventing complications. This review will provide an overview of the medical significance, virology, pathogenesis, immunity, epidemiology, symptoms, risk factors, and complications associated with RSV, and the diagnosis and management of RSV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: premature infants; umbilical cord shedding time; influencing factors
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:45:07 CEST)
Objective: To study the factors affecting the time of umbilical cord shedding in premature infants.Methods: A total of 151 premature infants who were born in the obstetrics department of a Class III hospital in Hefei from November 2020 to June 2021 were selected as subjects. All premature infants and their families met the complete inclusion criteria. A total of 33 related factors from 3 aspects, including the birth situation of premature infants, the condition of premature infants in hospital and the condition of pregnant mothers, were collected for univariate analysis and multiple Logistic regression analysis. The relevant factors affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants were screened through the univariate analysis results, and the main factors affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants were screened through the multiple Logistic regression analysis results.it was found that the weight, gestural age, admission age, whether the premature infants were combined with NRDS, the use of antibiotics, the duration in the warm box, the initial temperature in the warm box, the duration of light therapy, the degree of Apgar for 1 minute, the maternal education level had an effect on the time of umbilical cord shedding of premature infants (P < 0.05). Through Logistic multiple regression analysis, it was screened that the duration of premature infants in the incubator was the main factor affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Factors such as premature infants' weight, gestural age, admission age, whether they are combined with NRDS, antibiotic use, duration in the incubator, initial temperature in the incubator, duration of phototherapy, Apgar level of 1 minute, and maternal education level will affect the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants. Among them, duration in the incubator is the main factor affecting the umbilical cord shedding time of premature infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1715.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; extremely preterm infants; human milk; breastfeeding
Online: 25 May 2023 (02:28:28 CEST)
Introduction The increase in survival of extremely preterm infants has led to increased rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Therefore, a potential role of human milk feeding in protecting against this condition has been suggested. Material and methods Retrospective descriptive study based on data about morbidity in the population of infants born from 22+0 to 26+6 weeks of gestation, included in the Spanish network SEN1500 during the period 2004-2019 and who were alive at discharge. The primary outcome was moderate-severe BPD. In addition, associated conditions were studied, including breastfeeding at discharge. The temporal trends of BPD and breastfeeding rates at discharge were also studied. Results In the study population of 4341 infants who survived to discharge, the rate of moderate-severe BPD was 43,7% and increased over the period to a rate >50% in the last three years. The factors significantly associated with a higher risk of moderate-severe BPD were male sex, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, patent ductus arteriosus, and late-onset sepsis. Exclusive human milk feeding at discharge and any amount of human milk at discharge were associated with a lower incidence of moderate-severe BPD (OR 0.752, 95% CI 0.629-0.901, and OR 0.714, 95% CI 0.602-0.847, respectively). The rates of human milk at discharge in infants with moderate-severe BPD increased over the period. In the last years, more than one-third of extremely preterm infants were discharged on exclusive human milk feeds, and about two-thirds of them on any amount of human milk feeding. Conclusions The results of the present study strongly support the role of any amount of human milk in preventing BDP in extremely preterm infants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Infants, Newborn, Neonatal Resuscitation, Chest compressions, Delivery room
Online: 2 October 2018 (14:58:58 CEST)
Annually, an estimated 13-26 million newborns need respiratory support and 2-3 million newborns need extensive resuscitation, defined as chest compression and 100% oxygen with or without epinephrine in the delivery room. Despite such care, there is a high incidence of mortality and short-term neurologic morbidity. The poor prognosis associated with receiving chest compression alone or with medications in the delivery room raises questions as to whether improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods specifically tailored to the newborn could improve outcomes. This review discusses the current recommendations, mode of action, different compression to ventilation ratio, continuous chest compression with asynchronous ventilations, chest compression and sustained inflation optimal depth, and oxygen concentration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Optimized protein in formula, infants, obesity risk reduction
Online: 31 October 2017 (15:29:45 CET)
Background. Increasing evidence demonstrate that concentration of protein in infant formula >1.9g/100Kcal with high levels of insulinogenic aminoacids is associated with accelerated weight gain, increased fat mass accumulation and risk of adiposity. Purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the metabolic effects in infants feed with infant formula optimized in protein. Methods. Systematic review was conducted according PRISMA Statement. RCTs with one intervention group (infant formula with 1.6-1.9gr of protein/100Kcal) and at least one comparative control group (infant formula with >1.9gr of protein/100Kcal) were included. Standardized mean differences (SMD), through random model were calculated. Results. 15 RCT were included. Optimized protein in infant formula was associated with less gain of BMI at 24 months of follow-up (SMD -0.25, IC95% -0.36 to -0.13, p 0.01) and less fat mass accumulation (SMD -0.68, IC95% -0.98 to -0.37, p 0.01). Optimized protein was also associated to less gain of weight, weight/age Z-score, weight/length Z-score, BUN (mmol/dL) and IGF1 (ng/ml). No effect on length/age Z-score was observed. Conclusions. Robust evidence showed optimized protein (1.6gr/100Kcal to 1.9gr/100Kcal) in infant formula is associated with metabolic benefits in infants with less weight gain, BMI and fat mass accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: extremely low birth weight infants; blood sampling; blood transfusion
Online: 7 July 2023 (03:34:38 CEST)
(1) Background: This study aimed to evaluate whether the implementation of a modified blood sampling protocol, which focused on need-based laboratory testing and minimized venous sampling by replacing it with point-of-care testing (POCT) via capillary puncture, successfully reduced iatrogenic blood loss, incidence of anemia, and frequency of blood transfusion in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) without negatively affecting neonatal outcomes. (2) Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 313 ELBWIs of gestational age (GA) between 23 and 28 weeks, born between 2013 and 2019. The infants were divided into two groups: before (period I) and after (period II) the implementation of the modified blood sampling protocol in January 2016. Propensity score matching was conducted to minimize selection bias. Clinical data, including the frequency and amount of blood sampling, frequency and volume of blood transfusion, and clinical characteristics, such as gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal outcome data, were collected and compared between the two groups. (3) Results: No significant differences in the GA or birth weight between the two periods were observed. The total sampling volume during a month after birth (16.7 ± 4.1 mL vs. 15.6 ± 4.4 mL, P=0.03) and total sampling volume during hospital days (51.4 ± 29.7 mL vs. 44.3 ± 27.5 mL, P=0.04) in period II were significantly lower than that in period I. There were no differences in the mortality or morbidity between the two periods. Although the transfusion frequency and amount did not have significant differences between the periods, we observed a positive correlation between the transfusion frequency and sampling volume (coefficient: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.08–0.11). (4) Conclusions: The modified blood sampling protocol effectively reduced the iatrogenic blood loss without negatively affecting the neonatal outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: maternal nutrition; placenta telomeres; newborn telomeres; premature birth; preterm infants
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:43:11 CET)
Preterm birth (PTB), a multi-causal syndrome, is one of the global epidemics. Maternal nutrition, but also neonatal and placental telomere length (TL), are among the factors affecting PTB risk. However, the exact relationship between these factors and the PTB outcome, remains obscure. The aim of this review, was to investigate the association between PTB, maternal nutrition and placental-infant TL. Observational studies were sought, with the keywords: maternal nutrition, placenta TL, newborn, TL, and PTB. No study was found that included all keywords simultaneously, and thus, the keywords, were searched in dyads, to reach assumptive conclusions. The findings show that maternal nutrition affects PTB risk, through its influence on maternal TL. On the other hand, maternal TL independently affects PTB risk, and at the same time PTB is a major determinant of offspring TL regulation. The strength of the associations and the extent of the influence from covariates, remains to be elucidated in future research. Furthermore, the question of whether maternal TL, is simply a biomarker of maternal nutritional status and PTB risk, or a causative factor of PTB, to date, remains to be answered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: QTc interval; Torsades de Pointes; neonates; infants; maturational changes; pharmacovigilance
Online: 17 October 2022 (04:09:55 CEST)
QTc interval measurement is a widely used screening tool to assess the risk of cardiac diseases, arrhythmias, and is a useful biomarker for pharmacovigilance. However, interpretation of QTc is difficult in neonates due to hemodynamic maturational changes and uncertainties on reference values. To describe trends in QTc values throughout infancy (1 year of life), and to explore the impact of (non)-maturational changes and medicines exposure, a structured systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42022302296) was performed. In term neonates, a decrease was observed over the first week of life, whereafter values increased until two months of age, followed by a progressive decrease until six months. A similar pattern, with longer QTc values was observed in preterms. QTc is influenced by cord clamping, hemodynamic changes, therapeutic hypothermia, illnesses and sleep, not by sex. Cisapride, domperidone and doxapram result in QTc prolongation in neo-nates. Further research in this age category is needed to improve primary screening practices, earlier detection of risk factors and precision pharmacovigilance.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0402.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Very preterm infants; Z-score on weight; neonatal nutrition; appropriate intrauterine neonatal growth
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:00:25 CEST)
Introduction: In general, everyone believes that the smallest preterm infants should achieve normal intrauterine growth rates, but many thinks that this is not possible with current nutrition guidelines. There is resistance to giving enough nutrition for fear of "toxicity". The difference in weight Z-score between birth and a corrected gestational age (CGA) at discharge is assess in postnatal growth in our unit. Material and methods: An observational study was done between January 2018 and December 2020 where all cases that had ≤ 29 weeks of GA at birth and survived to 36 weeks corrected GA or that were discharged home. An aggressive nutrition protocol including parenteral as well as enteral nutrition was followed. Patients and their weight trajectory was plotted on the Fenton 2013 growth curve. The patients who had had a smaller WZP difference were also plotted. Results: A total of 32 cases were found. The median change in Z-score between birth and discharge of the whole group was -0.52 (IQR 0.53). Six of 32 (19%) had a more than one WZP, all of whom had severe pathologies. The median decline in Z score for this group with poor growth was 1.24 (IQR 0.22). There were 26 cases with a < 1 WZP (81%) and a median Z score fall of 0.39 (IQR 0.55). No important complications secondary to the ingested volumes or parenteral nutrition were reported. Conclusion: The group of cases with a > 1 WZP drop had severe pathologies. All the other cases had adequate growth parallel to normal weight growth charts and a few cases had some catch-up growth. The study showed that it is possible for many preterm infants to achieve normal intrauterine growth rates if they are given enough nutrition, but bigger multicenter studies are needed to confirm these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1869.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Enterocins; Enterococcus; breast-fed infants; bacterial infection; Listeria monocytogenes; selective inhibition; probiotic
Online: 27 September 2023 (09:17:31 CEST)
Enterocins are bacteriocins synthesized by Enterococcus strains that show an interesting antimi-crobial effectiveness against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. The objectives of this study were identify and analyze the expression of enterocin genes of Enterococcus isolated from breast-fed infants and evaluate the ability to inhibit three human isolates of virulent Lis-teria monocytogenes, as well as some probiotic bacteria. The susceptibility of the strains of L. mon-ocytogenes to fifteen antibiotics was tested, detecting resistance to cefoxitin (constitutive-ly resistant), oxacillin and clindamycin. Production of enterocins A, B and P were observed in Enterococcus faecium isolates, and enterocin AS-48 in an Enterococcus faecalis isolate. AS-48 showed antilisterial activity by itself, while the joint action of enterocins A and B, or B and P was neces-sary for inhibiting L. monocytogenes, demonstrating a synergistic effect of those combinations. The presence of multiple enterocin genes does not assured the inhibition of L. monocytogenes strains. However, the expression of multiple enterocin genes showed a good correlation with the inhibition capacity of these strains. Furthermore the potential beneficial strains of lactobacil-li and bifidobacteria examined were not inhibited by any of the enterocins produced individu-ally or in combination, with the exception of Bifidobacterium longum BB536, which was inhibited by enterocin AS-48 and the joint production of enterocins A and B or B and P. The enterocins studied here could be candidates for developing alternative treatments against antibi-otic-resistant bacterial infections. Moreover, these selected enterocin-producing E. faecium strains isolated from breast-fed infants could be used as probiotic strains due to their antilisterial effect as well as the absence of virulence factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0258.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Intraventricular Hemorrhage; Very preterm infants; Epiclatino registry; Obstetric trauma; Minimal manipulation protocol.
Online: 13 September 2022 (13:28:31 CEST)
Introduction: Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) is a devastating condition mostly in preterm infants at < 30 weeks GA with large morbidities and mortality usually in the first 72 hours after birth. Prevention seems to be the only way to completely deal with this problem. The IVH prevention in this age group has been studied and includes some strategies such as prenatal corticosteroids, cesarean delivery, careful extraction among others, but still, it has an unacceptably high incidence in this population. A protocol with the name Drive to Zero IVH Prevention Project that was presented in one of EpicLatino conferences some years ago. As with any quality improvement in practices, we adapted this project to our unit. Objective: To compare the IVH incidence in our unit after the protocol implementation with and historic cohort from the same unit and with all other units un the epilactino network. Material and method: In October 2017 we begun to implement a neuro protection protocol. For this analysis we include every patient born <30 weeks of GA, inborn or outborn but less than 2 days old, that survived at least three days and had a neuroimaging preformed. We include cases until July 2022, and we use the EpicLatino, a Latin-American database, from 2018 to 2020 excluding our own unit for comparison as well as an historical cohort from our unit from 2010-2017. The protocol consists of: Minimal manipulation, low volume ventilation, one routine fiscal exam a day, neutral head position, one blood pressure measured per shift, no keel stick measurements, continuous dim light and low noise level, minimal touch, no vasoactive therapy except in extreme cases, temperature and humidity at 80%, catheters, when possible, fluid restriction followed with diuresis, no PDA therapy or Echo if possible and routine therapy with hydrocortisone, erythropoietin, caffeine, parenteral nutrition, and trophic feeding. e performed a univariate analysis for IVH and groups and a logistic regression model with variables that had statistical significance in the univariate analysis. Results: The study group included 64 cases, the historic cohort 123 and the EpicLatino 1029. Demographic characteristics were similar with few statistically significant differences. We found four grade 1-2 and six grade 3-4 IVH in the study group (some caused by very traumatic delivery with multiples hematomas in head, body, and extremities), all significantly lower that the other two groups. The logistic regression model confirmed the independent statistically significant result in the study group. Conclusion: The hemorrhage during delivery must be prevented by the obstetric team. Afterwards, a set of interventions like very gentle handling with minimal manipulation and unnecessary strict lab managing seams to decrease the incidence of IVH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: glomerular filtration rate; Brenner hypothesis; extreme low birth weight infants; renal outcome
Online: 19 January 2020 (05:12:19 CET)
Different cohort studies documented a lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) neonates throughout childhood when compared to term controls. The current aim is to pool these studies to describe the GFR pattern over the pediatric age range. To do so, we conducted a systematic review on studies reporting on GFR measurements in former ELBW cases while GFR data of healthy age-matched controls included in these studies were co-collected. Based on 248 hits, 6 case-control and 3 cohort studies were identified, with 444 GFR measurements in 380 former ELBW cases (median age 5.3-20.7 years). The majority were small (17-78 cases) single center studies, with heterogeneity in GFR measurement (inulin, Cystatin C or creatinine estimated GFR formulae) tools. Despite this, the median GFR (ml/kg/1.73m2) within case-control studies was consistently lower (-13, range -8 to -25%) in cases, so that a relevant minority (15-30%) has a eGFR<90 mgl/kg/1.73m2). Consequently, this pooled analysis describes a consistent pattern of reduced eGFR in former ELBW cases throughout childhood. Research should focus on perinatal risk factors for impaired GFR and long-term outcome, but is hampered by single center cohorts, study size, and heterogeneity of GFR assessment tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vitamin D; premature infants; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; low birth weight infant; very low birth weight infant
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:28:41 CEST)
Low 25 OH vitamin D (25(OH)D) in preterm infants is a risk factor of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but increased supplementation failed to demonstrate beneficial effect on BPD. In neonatal animal models, deficiency and excessive vitamin D exposure have been associated with increased mortality and lung histological alterations evocative of BPD. Our hypothesis is that 25(OH)D levels ≥ 120nmol/L is also a risk factor for BPD or death. This retrospective single-center cohort study included all infants born <31 weeks gestational age without major malformation with at least a determination of 25(OH)D <36 weeks corrected age and no determination <50 nmol/L. Routine 25(OH)D determination was performed at 1 month and monthly thereafter. A total of 175 infants were included. Infants with BPD or who died had a significantly lower term and weight, but a similar frequency of 25(OH)D ≥120nmol/L (50.5% vs 43.9%, p=0.53). The logistic regression identified weight (OR 0.997, 95%CI [0.995-0.998]) and term (OR 0.737, 95%CI [0.551-0.975]) as significantly associated with BPD or death; the occurrence of excessive 25(OH)D was not significantly associated (OR 1.029, 95%CI [0.503-2.093]). The present study did not demonstrate any significant association between excessive 25(OH)D after one month of age and BPD or death.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0726.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; post-prematurity respiratory disease; preterm infants; noninvasive monitoring; lung oxygenation; near-infrared spectroscopy
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:49:15 CEST)
Definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or post-prematurity respiratory disease (PPRD) aim to stratify the risk of mortality and morbidity, with an emphasis on long-term respiratory outcomes. There is no univocal classification of BPD, due to its complex multifactorial nature and the substantial heterogeneity of clinical presentation. Currently, there is no definitive cure available for extremely premature very-low-birth-weight infants with BPD, and challenges in finding targeted preventive therapies persist. However, innovative stem cells-based postnatal therapies targeting BPD-free survival are emerging, which are likely to be offered in the first few days of life to higher-risk subpopulations of premature infants. Hence the need for easy-to-use noninvasive tools for a standardized, precise and reliable BPD assessment at a very early stage, to support clinical decision-making and to predict the response to treatment. In this non-systematic review, we present an overview of strategies for monitoring preterm infants with early and evolving BPD-PPRD, and make some remarks on future prospects, with a focus on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: early initiation of breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding; anemia; nutritional status; infants under six months; Syrian refugees; Lebanon
Online: 16 September 2022 (02:01:22 CEST)
The objective is to describe infant feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants under six months among Syrian refugees in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Syrian refugee mothers with children under five years (July-October 2018), mothers with infants under six months were included in the analysis (n=114). Additionally, eleven focus groups discussions were conducted to explore supportive factors and barriers associated with early breastfeeding practices. The prevalence of pre-lacteal feeding was high (62.5%), whereas early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) was low (31%), and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) very low (24.6%). About one-fifth of the infants were suffering from anemia (20.5%) and 9.6% were wasted. Supporting factors of adequate infant feeding practices comprised knowledge on maternal nutrition and EBF, in addition to receiving support from healthcare professionals and family members. Identified barriers included preterm delivery, pre-lacteal feeding, an at-risk waist circumference and moderate to severe depression among mothers, bottle feeding, early introduction of food, maternal health reasons, breastmilk substitutes’ distribution, and misinformation offered by mothers-in-law. To address sub-optimal feeding practices documented among Syrian refugees in our study, existing infant and young child feeding policies and programs need to be strengthened and revised to tackle the identified gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: music therapy; preterm infants; family-centered care; parents; self-care; wellbeing; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
Online: 19 November 2018 (08:49:11 CET)
Background: Parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infant’s care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their babies’, a music therapy (MT) self-care group was implemented as part of clinical practice at the hospital Clínica de la Mujer in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The group is provided for both parents twice a week in the NICU. Music guided relaxations, breathing techniques, and self-expression are at the center of the MT group sessions. Parents complete a pre/post self-administered Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) including anxiety levels, stress levels, mood and motivation. Results: Parents highly value the MT self-care group at the NICU. On average there is a 37% improvement in anxiety levels, 28% in stress levels, and 12% in mood, restfulness and motivation. Being able to relax, to distract themselves from their worries and having time for themselves are amongst the most frequently mentioned benefits. Conclusions: Addressing parents’ needs separately form their babies’ treatment with culturally sensitive interventions aimed to improve parental mental health, is essential for continuing the development of family-centered music therapy interventions in the NICU.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0665.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6; Brain; Docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3; Fetus; Maternal diet; Cognitive; Infants; Neurodevelopment; Neurogenesis
Online: 14 June 2021 (14:54:08 CEST)
During the last trimester of gestation and for the first 18 months after birth, both docosahexaenoic acid,22:6n-3 (DHA) and arachidonic acid,20:4n-6 (ARA) are preferentially deposited within the cerebral cortex at a rapid rate. Although, the structural and functional roles of DHA in brain development are well investigated, similar roles of ARA are not well documented. The mode of action of these two fatty acids and their derivatives at different structural-functional roles and their levels in the gene expression and signaling pathways of the brain have been continuously emanating. In addition to DHA, importance of ARA has been much discussed in recent years for fetal and postnatal brain development and the maternal supply of ARA and DHA. These fatty acids are also involved in various brain developmental processes; however, their mechanistic cross talks are not clearly known yet. This review describes the importance of ARA, in addition to DHA to support the optimal brain development and growth and functional roles in the brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0500.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Cow's milk allergy; Infants; Extensively hydrolysed formula; Amino acid-based formula; Soy formula; Rice hydrolysed formula; Probiotic; Prebiotic; Synbiotic
Online: 7 September 2023 (13:25:27 CEST)
The diagnosis and management of cow's milk allergy (CMA) is a topic of debate and controversy. We aimed to compare the opinions of expert groups from the Middle East (n=14) and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) (n=13). These Expert groups voted on statements developed by the ESPGHAN group and published in a recent position paper. The voting outcome was compared. Overall, there was consensus amongst both groups of experts. Most experts agreed that symptoms of crying, irritability and colic, as single manifestations, do not suggest CMA. They agreed that amino-acid-based formula (AAF) should be reserved for severe cases (e.g. malnutrition and anaphylaxis) and that there is insufficient evidence to recommend a step-down approach. There was no consensus on the statement that a cow’s milk-based extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) should be the first choice as a diagnostic elimination diet in mild/moderate cases. Although the statements regarding the role of hydrolysed rice formula as a diagnostic and therapeutic elimination diet were accepted, 3/27 disagreed. The votes regarding soy formula highlight the differences in opinion in the role of soy protein in CMA dietary treatment. Generally, soy-based formula is seldom available in the Middle East region. All ESPGHAN experts agreed that there was no added value of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics to the efficacy of elimination diets, whereas 3/14 of the Middle East group thought there was sufficient evidence. Therefore, there is not a consensus on the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic elimination diet for CMA, but the first-choice elimination diet and the stepwise management approach reveal some differences.