ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial exoskeleton design; industrial exoskeleton control; human-robot collaboration; optimal control; empowering fuzzy control
Online: 9 May 2019 (12:53:59 CEST)
Exoskeleton robots are a rising technology in industrial contexts to assist humans in onerous applications. Mechanical and control design solutions are intensively investigated to achieve a high performance human-robot collaboration (e.g., transparency, ergonomics, safety, etc.). However, the most of the investigated solutions involve high-cost hardware, complex design solutions and standard actuation. In the presented work, an industrial exoskeleton for lifting and transportation of heavy parts is proposed. A low-cost mechanical design solution is proposed, exploiting compliant actuation at the shoulder joint to increase safety and transparency in human-robot cooperation. A hierarchic model-based controller is then proposed (including the modeling of the compliant actuator) to actively assist the human while executing the task. An inner optimal controller is proposed for trajectory tracking, while an outer fuzzy logic controller is proposed to online deform the task trajectory on the basis of the human’s intention of motion. A gain scheduler is also designed to calculate the optimal control gains on the basis of the performed trajectory. Simulations have been performed in order to validate the performance of the proposed device, showing promising results. The prototype is under realization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: academy; drug development; industrial pharmacy; pharmaceutical technology; research method-ology
Online: 17 March 2022 (01:56:47 CET)
The aim of this review is to present the Quality by Design (QbD) model as a suitable methodology to perform research in the academic Costa Rican institutions that teach Pharmacy. Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were screened for original and review papers, as well as short communications published not more than 10 years ago. Publications were screened by title and abstract. Relevant references were used to develop three important themes: The University’s Research Model in Costa Rica, QbD Model, and QbD as a Research Methodology for Industrial Pharmacy in the Academy. In this sense, the QbD model is a great methodology for carrying out research projects regarding Pharmaceutical Sciences but especially for Drug Development. Academic research based on this model enables training and developing practical, scientific, and leadership skills in pharmacy students. The generated knowledge can be shared in the classrooms, which represents an ideal environment to communicate their research results and to foster collaborative work between researchers, professors, and students. The participation of all these actors allows a high level of commitment to research work, which benefits the scientific advancement of the university and society. It is important to visualize the student body as potential key actors in the research process, encouraging in them the desire to become trained scientific researchers who want to pursue a career in the academy, giving continuity to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery; power density; limiting current; cell geometry; mass transfer; electrolyte mixing; static mixer; industrial design; multidisciplinary research; energy transitions
Online: 26 March 2020 (01:51:17 CET)
The world is moving to the next phase of the energy transition with high penetrations of renewable energy. Flexible and scalable redox flow battery (RFB) technology is expected to play an important role in ensuring electricity network security and reliability. Continuous performance improvements will further enhance their value by reducing parasitic losses and maximizing available energy conversion over broader operating conditions. Concentration overpotentials from poor internal reactant distribution at high and low states of charge (SOC) limit power densities and are thus an important area of investigation. However, efforts to address these coupled electrochemical phenomena can compromise mechanical performance. Modelling and simulation of cell design innovations have shown it is possible to reduce losses from pump energy while increasing the availability of active species where required. The combination of wedge-shaped cells with static mixers investigated in this paper can reduce pressure drop and improve energy efficiency. Toroidal vanadium redox flow battery (VRB/VRFB) designs incorporating this innovation are presented for further development to improve community engagement with the technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: business turbulence; industrial connections; industrial connections climate; industrial connections instruments; organizational performance
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:02:46 CEST)
The year 2022 was characterized by several major events that impacted the business world in Indonesia and even globally after the COVID-19 pandemic devastated all business sectors in Indonesia and the world. The current business environment is experiencing accelerating turbulence characterized by increasing intensity of business competition, rapid changes in the market, and industrial connections climate. The industrial connection climate of an institution can be measured by the pattern of relationships that occur between workers and management. Industrial connections are fundamental to the sustainability of an organization and are understood as an important factor in influencing institutional performance. This research aims to look at the impact of the existence of industrial connections instruments, turbulence in the business environment on the industrial connections climate. Besides, how the industrial connections climate relates to firm performance. The research design is an inferential quantitative, using sampling and snowball sampling methods with total sample are 406. The data collected were analyzed using Structural Equation Model using LISREL version 8.70. This research used a survey to build an SEM model that tested the effect of organizational turbulence and industrial connections instruments on organizational climate directly, and tested mediation on organizational performance. All related indicators have outer loading more than 0.5 and T-value more than 1.96. Therefore, the conclusion is that all measurements are valid. Composite Reliability (CR) and VE for all indicators are >0.7 and >0.5 respectively. This research shows that industrial assosiation climate has a positive effect on business turbulence and industrial connections instruments. However, industrial connections instruments show a greater impact on the assosiation climate. This is because industrial connections instruments are the media used in the implementation of industrial connections in organizations. This research also confirms that industrial assosiation climate is positively related to organizational performance. The result of the indirect influence (IE) of 0.20 with t value is 8.47 means that the climate of Industrial connections is able to mediate the influence of Industrial connections Facilities on Organizational Performance.
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: wastewater treatment; electrocoagulation; electrokinetics; industrial wastewater; industrial size experiment
Online: 25 December 2019 (09:30:22 CET)
The environmental policy is compelling industries to treat their wastewater to a level that can be released into the domestic sewer system or even for reuse. However, many industrial branches are lacking space for traditional wastewater plant. Hence, electrokinetics wastewater treatment is a viable alternative as it is fast and does not require large space. However, the electrokinetics wastewater treatment is still mostly tested in the laboratory. In the current study, a prototype of electrokinetics wastewater treatment industrial-size device has been designed, constructed and tested under real conditions. In this paper the device is described and the results obtained from the operation of the device are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: SBM model; industrial specialization; industrial clustering; urban land utilization efficiency
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:14:45 CEST)
In this paper, a land utilization efficiency evaluation model, which takes environmental loss into consideration, has been structured via taking advantage of the slack-based measure (SBM) model. Meanwhile, based on the panel data from 280 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2013, the paper thoroughly probed into, and discussed, the effect imposed by industry clustering and specialization on the utilization efficiency of urban land. Research results indicate several conclusions, as follows: (1) Taking environmental loss into account, the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is generally low. During the research period, the average value of the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is only 0.349, with, first, a declining trend, and then a rise. Geographically speaking, the land utilization efficiency presents a “depression in the center” phenomenon which means the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in the central China are relatively lower than in the east and west. Now, the difference among the urban land utilization efficiency in China significantly reflects the distinctions among Eastern, Western, and Central China. Moreover, the contribution degree of the difference of the land utilization efficiency among cities of central China to the aggregation difference shows an ascending momentum. Additionally, the relation between the population scale and land utilization efficiency in cities manifests as a U shape; (2) theoretically speaking, the relation between industry clustering and urban land utilization efficiency presents an inverted-U shape. However, this kind of relation is not significant in Western and Central China and medium-sized cities. Moreover, most of cities are still relatively far away from the inflection point or the critical value; and (3) the industry professional level has imposed a positive influence on urban land utilization efficiency. However, that influence is not significant in Eastern China and large cities. Consequently, strengthening the industry professional development of Western and Central China and small and medium-sized cities, facilitating diversified development of industries in Eastern China and large cities, and accelerating industrial clustering, all of these measures above will be conducive to improving urban land utilization efficiency in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0198.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radioactive waste; radioactive waste recycling; industrial slag; industrial ash; aerospace industry
Online: 16 May 2022 (07:50:42 CEST)
The article discusses an alternative way of recycling radioactive waste (RW), presented in the form of radioactive building materials - concrete and reinforced concrete structures and metal fittings, with the further use of materials, obtained during recycling, in the space industry. That is, it is supposed to send radioactive waste into space not as a passive ballast, but as a payload that will operate in space under conditions of increased radiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: industrial cluster; Taobao Village; expansion mechanism
Online: 16 June 2022 (05:20:09 CEST)
China’s rural e-commerce has been developing rapidly. Taobao Villages are combination of e-commerce and rural industries. When rural e-commerce coverage evolves from Taobao village to Taobao town, the scale of industrial clusters has been expanding synchronously. This paper investigates flower and seedling industrial cluster in Xinhe Town, Yanji Town and Miaotou Town of Shuyang County, China, and conducts the econometric analysis of the expansive determinants of flower and seedling industrial cluster of Taobao Villages. An effective sample of 263 was obtained through a face-to-face survey of e-merchants of flower and seedling in the Shuyang County of Jiangsu Province. Bases on the structural equation modeling, series of test results show that the data can be used to calculate the path regression. The outcomes shows that creation of e-merchants of flower and seedling, integration of e-commerce platform, supply chain friendliness, involvement of e-commerce service providers, and governmental policy guidance are driving expansion of flower and seedling industrial cluster together, moreover, the five forces interact with each other. This implies that expansion of flower and seedling industrial cluster is a systematic process, each stakeholder needs to pay attention to the role of other forces, and five forces achieve a balanced situation in the cluster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0797.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: industrial robot; condition monitoring; health indicator
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:46:07 CEST)
Condition monitoring of industrial robots has the potential to decrease downtimes in highly automated production systems. We suggest a new health indicator based on vibration data measurements and compare its performance with state-of-the-art health indicators regarding different criteria. This evaluation is based on different data sets from robot test rigs. We find that the proposed health indicator can detect different faults, has low temperature sensitivity and works in instationary velocity regimes. A discussion of the validity of the results rounds up our contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0362.v1
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:31:39 CEST)
Though the share of the world population living in extreme poverty declined to 10 percent in 2015, from 16 percent in 2010 and 36 percent in 1990, data shows that the world is not on track in achieving the target of less than 3 percent of people living in extreme poverty by 2030. Hence the study sought to investigate the influence of AI on poverty reduction. Using content analysis one of the unobtrusive research techniques, the study found out that, the availability of relevant data is making AI be able to deliver value to humanity and AI has a strong influence on poverty in areas of relevant data collection through poverty maps, its ability to revolutionize agriculture, education, and the financial sector through digital financial inclusion. The study also discovered that many countries especially developing nations are not collecting as much data to identify the number of poor people and the regions where these people are located. However, the existence of AI is assisting to change this, or instance the study discovered that the research team at Stanford University is using satellite images to provide an alternative to map poverty, to identify the regions where poverty is more concentrated. Also, various robotics and AI programs such as Google and Stanford University’s Sustainability and Artificial Intelligence Lab, are coming forth with AI programs in agriculture which are doing a lot to improve farming, through the identification of diseases, prediction of crop yields, and location of areas prone to a scarcity among several other notable signs of progress in education. Therefore, the study recommends that governments, development institutions and other organizations that are striving to fight poverty to invest more in AI as well as adopting and scaling up its use as it presents benefits in the quest to ensure that poverty is reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0683.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), fault diagnosis, wavelet transform, support vector machine, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:51:44 CET)
Machine fault diagnosis systems need to collect and transmit dynamic monitoring signals, like vibration and current signals, at high-speed. However, industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are generally based on low-speed wireless protocols, such as ZigBee and IEEE802.15.4. To address this tension when implementing machine fault diagnosis applications in IIoT, this paper proposes a novel IWSN with on-sensor data processing. On-sensor wavelet transforms using four popular mother wavelets are explored for fault feature extraction, while an on-sensor support vector machine classifier is investigated for fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the presented approach is evaluated by a set of experiments using motor bearing vibration data. The experimental results show that compared with raw data transmission, the proposed on-sensor fault diagnosis method can reduce the payload transmission data by 99.95%, and reduce the node energy consumption by about 10%, while the fault diagnosis accuracy of the proposed approach reaches 98%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MTS; MTO; logistics strategy; advanced industrial engineering
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:25:16 CEST)
Strategic management sets the direction of a company for several years ahead. Managers and business owners who create strategy must anticipate and have the ability to see systemically—the paper deals with creating a logistics strategy for a company operating in the industrial sector. The first section summarises the theoretical background for strategy and logistics and current trends affecting logistics processes. The second chapter analyses the current state of the art in logistics strategy development and summarizes its problem areas. The central part of the paper is the proposal of a methodology for logistics strategy development in the industrial area by a progressive approach. The methodology is divided into 5 phases - preparatory, analytical, formulation, implementation, and evaluation and control phases. The methodology is partially validated. The created variants of the logistics strategy include the introduction of such elements that will lead to the gradual development of the Industry 4.0 trend in the given company. This is mainly the first variant called "automation," which includes the introduction of an automatic tractor for material import, the introduction of an automatic system for transport and storage of work in progress, and the introduction of a new logistics information system that will make greater use of already established barcodes (transparency, data in real-time).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0095.v1
Online: 4 November 2021 (08:57:00 CET)
The threat of fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5) is increasing globally, Tackling this issue requires an accurate understanding of its trends and drivers. The article investigates the PM2.5 characteristics of 285 prefecture-level cities in China from 2000-2018 based on multiscale geographically weighted regression(MGWR), and the results show that（1）previous studies based on classical MGWR models may be somewhat unstable, while MGWR can reflect the scale of influence of different variables on the dependent variable, and its regression results are more reliable.（2）PM2.5 is very sensitive to carbon emission(CE) factors, and there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, and the influence scale of location is the smallest among all variables, close to the municipal scale.（3）In 2000, the constant term all, IS, OFT, CE, and LT positively affect PM2.5, while GDP (jurisdiction) and UR negatively affect PM2.5; in 2010, the constant term all, GDP (jurisdiction), IS, OFT and LT positively affect PM2.5, while UR and CE negatively affect PM2.5; in 2018 the constant term all, IS, OFT and CE factors positively affect PM2.5, and GDP (jurisdiction), UR and LT negatively affect PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: intrusion detection; ethernet/ip; industrial control networks
Online: 12 December 2019 (12:35:07 CET)
Standard Ethernet (IEEE 802.3 and the TCP/IP protocol suite) is gradually applied in industrial control system (ICS) with the development of information technology. It breaks the natural isolation of ICS, but contains no security mechanism. A modified intrusion detection system (IDS), which is strongly correlated to specific industrial scenario, is necessary for modern ICS. On the one hand, this paper outlines attack models, including infiltration attacks and our creative forging attack. On the other hand, we proposes a hierarchical IDS, which contains a traffic prediction model and an anomaly detection model. The traffic prediction model, which is based on autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), can forecast the traffic of ICS network in the short term and precisely detect the infiltration attacks according to abnormal changes in traffic pattern. The anomaly detection model using one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) is able to detect malicious control instructions by analyzing the key field in EtherNet/IP packets. The experimental results show that the hierarchical IDS has an outstanding performance in detecting infiltration attacks and forging attack compared with other two innovative IDSs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0260.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Pancasila; Millennial Generation; Industrial Revolution; human capital management
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:20:18 CEST)
Introduction: The imbalance between technological development and ideological strengthening has resulted in the fading of the Pancasila ideological values of millennials. Technology that accompanies everyday life seems to be the main character in human life. Yet if humans themselves do not use technology wisely, technology can be a threat to both individuals and the life of the nation and state. If technology is increasingly out of control, threats to the Pancasila ideology are very likely to occur, such as in the G 30S PKI incident. Therefore, it is necessary to take action both from the government and the community as individuals to safeguard the development of technology to be used wisely. That way, we can prevent the threat to the Pancasila ideology together. Writing this article aims to analyze how the role and influence of the Pancasila ideology on the millennial generation in the 4.0 industrial revolution and to find solutions so that the values of Pancasila remain attached to the next generation of the Indonesian nation. Method: Writing This article uses a qualitative method by using literature reviews from the results of related research journals that have been published online through websites and other online media. Results: Thirteen journals and one book have met the criteria for the inclusion of a predetermined review. Research is based on the stigma of society regarding technological developments in the Industrial revolution 4.0. Therefore, the government is expected to be more severe in implementing human capital management. Conclusion: By procuring human capital management, it will be possible that Human Resources (HR) in Indonesia will be able to carry out the ideals of a golden Indonesian generation with Pancasila values inherent in the hearts of the people and the nation's future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SCRaMbLE; genome evolution; industrial yeast strains
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:30:45 CET)
Genome-scale engineering and custom synthetic genomes are reshaping the next generation of industrial yeast strains. The Cre-recombinase mediated chromosomal rearrangement mechanism of designer synthetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes, known as SCRaMbLE, is a powerful tool which allows rapid genome evolution upon command. This system is able to generate millions of novel genomes with potential valuable phenotypes, but the excessive loss of essential genes often results in poor growth or even the death of cells with useful phenotypes. In this study we expanded the versatility of SCRaMbLE to industrial strains, and evaluated different control measures to optimise genomic rearrangement, whilst limiting cell death. To achieve this, we have developed RED (Rapid Evolution Detection), a simple colorimetric plate-assay procedure to rapidly quantify the degree of genomic rearrangements within a post-SCRaMbLE yeast population. RED-enabled semi-synthetic strains were mated with haploid progeny of industrial yeast strains to produce stress tolerant heterozygous diploid strains. Analysis of these heterozygous strains with the RED-assay, genome sequencing and custom bioinformatics scripts demonstrated a correlation between RED-assay frequencies and physical genomic rearrangements. Here we show that RED is a fast and effective method to evaluate optimal SCRaMbLE induction times of different Cre-recombinse expression systems for the development of industrial strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0203.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: SAW; sensors; wireless; delay lines; industrial application; 2.45GHz
Online: 20 June 2019 (17:56:06 CEST)
It is since long known, that SAW devices, resonators as well as delay lines, can be used as passive wireless sensors for physical quantities like temperature and pressure as well as gas sensors or ID-Tags. The sensors are robust, work passively without battery, can be applied at high temperatures and provide a high resolution. Nevertheless, if the devices should be readout wirelessly in an industrial environment, several constraints have to be taken into account, especially when more than one quantity or device needs to be measured at the same time. The paper addresses the challenges that have to be tackled when establishing multi-sensor-wireless-readout for industrial applications. Major issues here are the legal ISM-band regulations, as well as sampling time and costs, which impose severe restrictions to any system design. We describe several design approaches and their constraints. We have successfully designed sensors based on reflective delay lines that allow the parallel readout of four independent temperature sensors in the 2.45 GHz ISM-band. These devices have been fabricated, positively tested and demonstrate the applicability of SAW sensors for industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: industrial policy; stock price volatility; China’s power market
Online: 1 May 2018 (05:37:39 CEST)
China combines green energy and industrial policy in its power market reform with various policy initiatives, including price support scheme for electricity from renewable sources and subsidies in the push for broader use of greener energy. This study focuses on the impacts of power market reform on the stock price volatility of listed power companies: 1) we use the Iterative Cumulative Sums of Squares (ICSS) algorithm to identify structural break points in stock prices; 2) we analyze the characteristics of stock price volatility based on the GARCH model; 3) we report the impact of power regulation on stock price fluctuations based on the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. The result suggests three structural breaks in China’s power stock price volatility were related to the promulgation of power market reform policies. We find that industrial policies promote the reduction of power stock price fluctuations and its impact on power stock price volatility is consistent in the long run. However, our study also indicates the recent policies related to renewable energy do not have a very significant impact on the power stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0101.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: toxicity; biodegradability; industrial solvents; ionic liquids; freshwater organisms
Online: 19 December 2016 (11:18:39 CET)
Solvents are widely-used in all aspects of chemical sciences. One of the disadvantages of conventional solvents is attributed to the adverse impacts they pose on human health and ecological systems. Emerging class of solvents such as ionic liquids have been proposed to alleviate this problem. In this study, aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of two common industrial solvents are compared to those of two ionic liquids. Results from this study highlight the importance of solvent selection considering the information on the toxicity, biodegradability and fate and transport properties of selected solvents altogether.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Mine Tailings; Industrial Waste; Geopolymer; Durability; Microstructure; Thermal; Leaching
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:45:36 CEST)
The mining sector generates a substantial quantity of stone waste and tailings, which constitutes an environmental risk. The most prevalent method for disposing of this industrial waste is dumping, which contributes to soil deterioration and water contamination while acquiring precious land. It can be recycled using a number of processes, such as the promising geopolymerization technique, which transforms waste into value. This study reviews current developments in the manufacturing of mine tailings-based geopolymer composites from industrial waste as a possible sustainable building material. This paper also gives in-depth studies on the characteristics and behaviors of mine tailings composites used in geopolymer manufacturing, including durability, microstructure, thermal and leaching properties. This review also identifies knowledge gaps that must be filled in order to advance mine tailings composites for geopolymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0372.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HIV; stigmatizing attitudes; women migrant workers; industrial zones; Vietnam
Online: 29 March 2022 (03:36:48 CEST)
Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0123.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fly ash waste; platinum nanoparticles; industrial dyes; adsorption; photodegradation
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:03:12 CET)
New materials are obtained by transforming fly ash wastes into a valuable composite, with tandem adsorption and photodegradation properties. Mild hydrothermal synthesis, from titanium dioxide, Platinum nanoparticles and zeolite materials obtained from a waste, fly ash, as support, was involved in the composite preparation. The Platinum nanoparticles extended the photocatalytic activity of the composite in Visible range (Eg = 2.1 eV). The efficiency of tandem adsorption and photocatalytic activity of the new composite were evaluated to 80.70% for Bemacid Blau and 93.89% for Bemacid Rot, after 360 min, the irradiation time, with H2O2 addition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eco-friendly; water-based nanolubricant; industrial-scale; hot rolling
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:52:21 CEST)
Eco-friendly and low-cost water-based nanolubricants containing rutile TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for accelerating their applications in industrial-scale hot steel rolling. The lubrication performance of developed nanolubricants was evaluated in a 2-high Hille 100 experimental rolling mill at a rolling temperature of 850 ℃ in comparison to that of pure water. The results indicate that the use of nanolubricant enables to decrease the rolling force, reduce the surface roughness and the oxide scale thickness, and enhance the surface hardness. In particular, the nanolubricant consisting of 4 wt% TiO2, 10 wt% glycerol, 0.2 wt% sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and 1 wt% Snailcool exhibits the best lubrication performance by lowering the rolling force, surface roughness and oxide scale thickness up to 8.1%, 53.7% and 50%, respectively. The surface hardness is increased by 4.4%. The corresponding lubrication mechanisms are attributed to its superior wettability and thermal conductivity associated with the synergistic effect of rolling, mending and laminae forming that are contributed by TiO2 NPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: industrial agglomeration; FDI; green total factor productivity; spillover effect
Online: 16 May 2018 (10:54:56 CEST)
This paper studies the influence mechanism of industrial agglomeration and foreign direct investment (FDI) on green total factor productivity (GTFP). We use the SBM Directional Distance Function to measure the GTFP of Chongqing's manufacturing industry from 1999 to 2015. The results show that the level of GTFP in Chongqing's manufacturing industry is relatively low, which is contrary to the current green development mode. By clarifying the conduction path of industrial agglomeration and FDI on GTFP, we use the panel Tobit model to study the effect of industrial agglomeration and FDI on GTFP. The main findings are: the higher the level of industrial agglomeration, the more beneficial it is to increase GTFP. FDI has an inhibitory effect on GTFP. The spillover effect of FDI on GTFP is not significant. At the same time, FDI counteracts the role of industrial agglomeration in promoting GTFP. The findings in a present study indicate that, according to Chongqing's experience, the "pollution haven" is established. Therefore, relying solely on foreign technology to promote the development of the manufacturing industry has many drawbacks clearly. Only by improving the ability of independent innovation is the reliable way to enhance GTFP effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: advanced industrial engineering; strategy; management; business performance; key performance indicators
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:43:32 CEST)
The paper deals with the design of a systematic procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes for a project-oriented production type of organization. In the first part of the contribution, a summary of the theoretical starting points for the field of strategic management and change management is presented. In the second part, the contribution deals with the analysis of the current situation in the area of the impact of the change of strategy on the management of business processes. In the last part, the proposal of the procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes and the verification results are presented. The proposed procedure includes steps where the selection and verification of key performance indicators at individual levels of management plus the quantification of the impact of the change in strategy on the processes takes place. The management can thus monitor and evaluate the chosen processes in accordance with the fulfilment of the chosen strategy of the company. The last chapter presents the verification of the proposal for the systematic introduction of changes into the processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Circular Economy; Built Environment; Reuse; Upcycling; Industrial Waste; Urban Waste
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:14:42 CET)
The growing concern about climate change and the recognition of the planet’s limits led society to look for alternatives that promote the balance between the natural and the built environment. The circular economy emerges as an alternative to the linear economic model, inspired by natural metabolisms, by circulating resources in continuous loops, where their intrinsic value is maintained and improved. This research proposes a closed-loop strategy in the built environment by studying innovative constructive solutions that aim to find use, value, and inspiration in what is considered waste. A literature review is conducted on the circular design strategies, re-use and recycle typologies, and waste transformation processes. Then, the development of a methodology for qualitative evaluation and selection of re-used and upcycled construction materials from post-consumer waste and by-products is presented and then applied to thirty-five cases of constructive solutions from plastic, wood, paper, steel, aluminium, and agricultural waste. The research reports that the developed framework is adequate. The analysed alternative materials have good environmental performance and can be used as building materials despite their functional limitations, reflecting the enormous potential of waste as a resource for the construction industry.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: service quality; Kano; TRIZ; catering industrial; mobile catering car; TOPSIS
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:57:33 CET)
This purpose of the study presented in this article is to comparing different service quality measurements between Kano and TRIZ that plays the critical roles in the catering industrial. Data collected from a DINESERV questionnaire comprises service-quality standards to increase customer satisfaction of mobile dining car. Finally, the TRIZ is standardized measure designed to improve the idealization of strategy for selecting the most appropriate service quality model. In addition, the preferences of more than one decision maker are internally aggregated into the TOPSIS procedure. All these things provide several important theoretical and practical implications for developing a successful mobile catering app.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0437.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: industrial revolution 4.0; enterprise; e-commerce; 3D web marketing model
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:17:04 CEST)
Marketing is one of the important stages, the decisive factor affecting the success of production and business activities of every business. Therefore, marketing is considered to be the first and most important stage in the process of introducing, bringing products to market and branding of businesses, especially in the period when the disease situation is taking place very complicated worldwide. This study provides both qualitative and quantitative results for the following research objectives. Firstly, the study will assess the situation and analyze the appropriateness of marketing models in the current market situation trend. Secondly, the study proposes an approach in building a new type of marketing model, which is 3D web-based marketing applied in e-commerce to support the modeling of enterprise products in the form of Interactive 3D products are similar to real products. Thirdly, testing and evaluating 3D e-commerce web marketing model at Truong Hai Auto Showroom, Thai Nguyen City branch. This study also proposes a number of solutions for the research and deployment of 3D web marketing model application for businesses in the current market situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0051.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: industrial informatics; automation; machine learning; paper grammage classification; paper mills
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:26:15 CET)
Automation is at the core of modern industry. It aims to increase production rates, decrease production costs, and reduce human intervention in order to avoid human mistakes and time delays during manufacturing. On the other hand, human assistance is usually required to customize products and reconfigure control systems through a special process interface called Human Machine Interface (HMI). Machine Learning (ML) algorithms can effectively be used to resolve this tradeoff between full automation and human assistance. This paper provides an example of the industrial application of ML algorithms to help human operators save their mental effort and avoid time delays and unintended mistakes for the sake of high production rates. Based on real-time sensor measurements, several ML algorithms have been tried to classify paper rolls according to paper grammage in a white paper mill. The performance evaluation shows that the AdaBoost algorithm is the best ML algorithm for this application with classification accuracy (CA), precision, and recall of 97.1%. The generalization of the proposed approach for achieving a cost-effective mill construction by reducing the total number of the required physical sensors will be the subject of our future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Environmental regulation, Industrial structure upgrade, Economic fluctuation, Dynamic panel threshold
Online: 13 November 2018 (15:11:13 CET)
This paper utilizes dynamic panel threshold technology to conduct a nonlinear test on the direct effect between environmental regulation and economic fluctuations and the effect of industrial structure upgrading by taking 35 industrial sectors in China from 2003 to 2016 . The research has found that there is an inverted "U" relationship between environmental regulation and economic fluctuations, with the enhancement of environmental regulations, the economic fluctuation increases first and then decreases. The cross-terms of environmental regulation and industrial structure rationalization or industrial structure upgrading are significantly negative, which indicates that the enhancement of environmental regulation is conducive to promoting industrial structure upgrading and reducing the economic fluctuations. While the rationalization factors of industrial structure and advanced industrial structure are significantly negative, indicating that both forms of industrial structure upgrading are conducive to reducing the economic fluctuations. Environmental regulation has technical innovation thresholds for industrial structure upgrading and economic fluctuations, but there are no human capital or FDI thresholds. In the rationalization model of industrial structure, there is a nonlinear "U" relationship between environmental regulation and economic fluctuations when the proportion of scientific research expenditure is more than 1.35%. With the enhancement of environmental regulation, the economic fluctuation reduces first and then increases, and the corresponding inflection point value is 2.398% of the environmental regulation level. At the same time, the environmental regulation can indirectly reduce economic fluctuations by pushing down the industrial structure upgrades. In the advanced model of industrial structure, there is a “U” relationship between environmental regulation and economic fluctuation when the proportion of scientific research expenditure is greater than 1.26%. With continuous enhancement of environmental regulation, the economic fluctuation reduces first and then increases. The corresponding inflection point value is 1.78% of the environmental regulation level, and environmental regulation can indirectly reduce economic fluctuations by promoting the industrial structure at the same time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: CFD simulation; industrial furnace; heat flux; forging industry; thermal analysis
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:47:21 CEST)
Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumptions, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study reported in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of the steel in furnaces and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and mechanical machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for the insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of the lost energy is crucial for the development of operating or mechanical systems able to contain this dispersion. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that at the door opening, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient, turbulences are generated. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 minutes for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that a reduction of the opening time of the door allows energy savings and limits pollutant emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0033.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: industrial pollutant emissions; urbanization; the spatial panel model; Chinese case
Online: 14 July 2016 (12:12:25 CEST)
Urbanization is considered as a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, are troubled by its negative effect — the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have indicated that rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of industrial production scale and increased industrial pollutant emissions. However, this judgement contains a grave deficiency in that urbanization not only expands industrial production scales but can also increase industrial labour productivity and change the industrial structure. To modify this deficiency, we first decompose the influence which urbanization impacts on industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects’ impacts by applying the spatial panel model with data from 282 Chinese cities between 2003 and 2013. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between Chinese urbanization rate and its industrial pollutant emissions; (2) the scale effect and the structure effect have aggravated Chinese industrial waste water discharge, sulphur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions, while the intensive effect has generated a decreasing and ameliorative impact on that aggravated trend. The definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions depends on the combined influence of the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of industrial pollutant emissions between Chinese cities, but the spatial spillover effect from other cities does not aggravate local urban industrial pollutant emissions, we offer an explanation to this contradiction that the vast rural areas surrounding Chinese cities have served as sponge belts and have absorbed the spatial spillover of cities’ industrial pollutant emissions. According to the results, we argue that this type of decomposition of the influence into three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively helps to meet relative policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0016.v1
Subject: Keywords: Industrial Laborers, Accident rate, Artificial neural network, Human factor, Predictive models
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:17:53 CEST)
This paper attempts to compare two different approaches to solve the problem of accident rates prediction based on human factors for industrial workers. One of the methods has already been done using Fuzzy c-Means Clustering and proved to be working with decent results. The second method which will be covered in this paper is using Artificial Neural Networks. The primary goal of this work is to insure that ANN will work efficiently in such prediction problem. The second goal is to reveal the fact that which one of the two selected methodologies is better at defining the estimation of accident rates among people who work in different industrial fields. The purpose has been achieved when the outcome of the ANN was obtained and compared accordingly with the output of the research previously carried out with Fuzzy c-means clustering method. Comparing the outcomes of these two different methods gave an immense insight on which features are more important than others when it comes to laborers properties with completely different background such as varying levels of health, knowledge, experience, training and physical properties. At the end of the research, it becomes clear that accident rates estimation for laborers with properly trained Artificial Neural Network gives better results when it is compared with Fuzzy c-Means Clustering method. Standard deviation method was used to calculate the validity of ANN technique. The result was compared with Fuzzy c-mean clustering technique. Impressive improvement of 8.8% in the accident rate prediction was achieved using Tailored-Made-ANN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sustainable concrete; wastewater; industrial waste management; sustainable development; sustainable construction materials
Online: 19 February 2021 (10:04:58 CET)
Concrete, as one of the essential construction materials is responsible for a vast amount of emissions. Using recycled materials and gray water can considerably contribute to the sustainability aspect of concrete production. Thus, finding a proper replacement for fresh water, in the production of concrete, is significant. The usage of industrial wastewater, instead of water in the concrete can is considered in this paper. In this study, 450 concrete samples are produced with different amounts of wastewater. The mechanical parameters such as slump, compressive strength, water absorption, tensile strength, electrical resistivity, rapid freezing, half-cell potential, and appearance are investigated. The results showed that the usage of industrial wastewater does not significantly change the main characteristics of concrete. Although, increasing the concentration of the wastewater can decrease durability and strength features nonlinearly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; Ultrasonic measurements; Long Short-Term Memory; Industrial Digital technologies
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:31:43 CET)
Beer fermentation is typically monitored by periodic sampling and off-line analysis. In-line sensors would remove the need for time-consuming manual operation and provide real-time evaluation of the fermenting media. This work uses a low-cost ultrasonic sensor combined with machine learning to predict the alcohol concentration during beer fermentation. The highest accuracy model (R2=0.952, MAE=0.265, MSE=0.136) used a transmission-based ultrasonic sensing technique along with the measured temperature. However, the second most accurate model (R2=0.948, MAE=0.283, MSE=0.146) used a reflection-based technique without the temperature. Both the reflection-based technique and the omission of the temperature data are novel to this research and demonstrate the potential for a non-invasive sensor to monitor beer fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0224.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: soil; groundwaters; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); industrial complex; ecological risk; contamination
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:24:28 CET)
Research subjects of this study are four representative locations in the industrial complex, in the city of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (∑16PAHs), humus and pH were determined. The main objective of the paper is to determine the concentration levels, to assess the probable sources of PAHs contamination in soil and groundwater and to determine the ecological risk. The ∑16PAHs in soil (at depths of 30 cm, 100 cm, 200 cm, 300 cm and 400 cm) ranged from 0.99 to 2.24 mg/kg, from 0.34 to 0.46, from 0.24 to 0.32, from 0.13 to 0.27 and from 0.13 to 0.47, with mean values of 1.70 mg/kg, 0.40 mg/kg, 0.28 mg/kg, 0.20 mg/kg and 0.26 mg/kg, respectively. The ∑16PAHs in groundwater ranged from 0.23 to 4.50 mg/m3, with a mean value of 1.42 mg/m3. Surface soil and groundwater are heavily contaminated. All values of ∑PAHs in soil layers were lower in the depths of the soil. Factor analysis indicates three sources of contamination, i.e. principal component (PC) PC1 (pyrogenic), PC2 (petrogenic) and PC3 (biomass), with 52.39%, 26.14% and 8.46% of the total variance, respectively. ∑PAH and PAHs indicate high ecological risk for most PAHs, which decreases with soil depth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: industrial policy, endogenous economic growth, new combinations, Schumpeter, technology, stimulant factor
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:28:07 CET)
In this study, the prevalent methodology for design of the industrial policy in developing countries was critically assessed, and it was shown that the mechanism and content of classical method is fundamentally contradictory to the goals and components of the endogenous growth theories. This study, by proposing a new approach, along settling Schumpeter's economic growth theory as a policy framework, designed the process of entering, analyzing and processing data as the mechanism of the industrial policy in order to provide "theoretical consistency" and "technical and Statistical requirements" for targeting the growth stimulant factor effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0066.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cyber physical systems; cybercrime; risk mitigation; risk management; industrial control systems
Online: 5 April 2018 (06:10:06 CEST)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) is the integration of computation and physical process that makes a complete system such as the physical components, networked systems, embedded computers and software and linking together of devices and sensors for information sharing. Cyber Physical Systems are Smart Systems that comprises of the merging and integration of Industry Control Systems, Critical Infrastructures, Internet of Things (IoT) and Embedded Systems. Major industries such as the Chemical and Industrial Plants, Aviation Systems, National Grid, the Stock Exchange, Military Systems, and others depends heavily on these Cyber Physical Systems for financial and economic growth. The benefits of CPS nationally and globally are in the areas of Manufacturing, Energy, Transport, Healthcare and Communication. Cyber Physical Systems incorporates Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements on network infrastructures to provide interactive systems. However, these three key components the Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements may have inherent threats and vulnerabilities on them that may run the risk of being compromise, exploited, attacked or hacked. Cybercriminals in their quest to bring down these systems and may cause disruption of services either for fame, revenge, political motive, economic war, cyber terrorism and cyber war. The study seeks to review the risks that are associated with these three key components Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements. The study considered four main risk mitigation goals for this purpose, and these are Business Value, Organizational Requirements, Threat Agent and Impact based on the review results. We used Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) to determine the relative importance of these goals that contributes to developing cybercrime and rich in CPS. For the results, the prioritized goals are then used to assess the risks using a semi-quantitative approach to determine the net threat level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0174.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable architecture; industrial building; indoor environment; lighting conditions; computational simulation; luminance
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:05:05 CET)
This paper highlights the problems associated with daylight use in industrial facilities. In a case study of a multi-story textile factory, we report how to evaluate daylight (as part of integral light) in the production halls marked F and G. This study follows the article in the Buildings journal, where Hall E was evaluated (unilateral daylight). These two additional halls have large areas that are 54 × 54 meters and are more than 5 meters high. The daylight is only on the side through the attached windows in envelope structures in the vertical position. In this paper, we want to present two case studies of these two production halls in a textile factory in the eastern part of Slovakia. These are halls that are illuminated by daylight from two sides through exterior peripheral walls that are against or next to each other. The results of the case studies can be applied in similar production halls illuminated by a ‘double-sided’ (bilateral) daylight system. This means that they are illuminated by natural illumination through windows on two sides in a vertical position. Such a situation is typical for multi-storied industrial buildings. The proposed approximate calculation method for the daylight factor can be used to predict the daylight in similar spaces in other similar buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0428.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: ethanol stress; ethanol tolerance; industrial yeast strains; high-gravity fermentation; TRP1; MSN2
Online: 25 August 2022 (07:39:56 CEST)
The stress imposed by ethanol to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are one of the most challenging limiting factors in industrial fuel-ethanol production. Consequently, the toxicity and tolerance to high ethanol concentrations has been the subject of extensive research, allowing the identification of several genes important for increasing the tolerance to this stress factor. However, most studies were performed with well characterized laboratory strains, and how the results obtained with these strains work in industrial strains remains unknown. In the present work we have tested three different strategies known to increase ethanol tolerance by laboratory strains in an industrial fuel-ethanol producing strain: overexpression of the TRP1 or MSN2 genes, or overexpression of a truncated version of the MSN2 gene. Our results show that the industrial CAT-1 strain tolerates up to 14% ethanol, and indeed the three strategies increased its tolerance to ethanol. When these strains were subjected to fermentations with high sugar content and cell-recycle, simulating the industrial conditions used in Brazilian distilleries, only the strain with overexpression of the truncated MSN2 gene showed improved fermentation performance, allowing the production of 16% ethanol from 33% of total reducing sugars present in sugarcane molasses. Our results highlight the importance of testing genetic modifications in industrial yeast strains under industrial conditions in order to improve the production of industrial fuel ethanol by S. cerevisiae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: independent learning independent campus; educational ecosystem; link and match; industrial revolution 4.0
Online: 24 February 2022 (08:02:46 CET)
Independent Learning Independent Campus (MBKM) is a program to develop an educational ecosystem that is in harmony with learning in higher education and the needs of industry. The limited link and match between universities and the business and industrial world in Indonesia are obstacles in realizing Indonesia as a developed country in the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the Independent Learning Independent Campus (MBKM) program on improving the performance of Ibn Khaldun University Bogor. The method used in this study is descriptive statistics with quantitative analysis. The sample that participated in this study consisted of all active students, lecturers, and administration staff. The research data was obtained through distribution to 6100 students, 233 lecturers, and 150 education staff. The research stages include socializing the understanding of MBKM, filling out the survey, calculating the distribution of respondents' filling, and concluding the assessment category using the weighted mean score (WMS) method. Based on the result, the implementation of MBKM in University of Ibn Khaldun Bogor based on all indicators can conclude that MBKM improve the performance of Ibn Khaldun Bogor University in the good category with an average percentage assessment criteria above 75%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0534.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Industrial green technology innovation efficiency; Dagum Gini coefficient; spatial econometrics; Regional differences
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:34:49 CET)
Industrial green technology innovation has become an important content in achieving high-quality economic growth and comprehensively practicing the new development concept in the new era. This paper measures the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation and regional differences based on Chinese provincial panel data from 2005 to 2018, using a combination of the super-efficient SBM model for considering undesirable outputs and the Dagum Gini coefficient method, and discusses and analyses the factors influencing of the industrial green technology innovation efficiency by constructing a spatial econometric model. The results show that: firstly, the industrial green technology innovation efficiency in China shows a relatively stable development trend, going through three stages: " stationary period", " recession period " and "growth period ". However, the efficiency gap between different regions is obvious, specifically in the eastern > central > western regions of China, and the industrial green technology efficiency innovation in the central and western regions is lower than the national average. Secondly, regional differences in the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation in China are evident but tend to narrow overall, with the main reason for the overall difference being regional differences. In terms of intra-regional variation, variation within the eastern region is relatively stable, variation within the central region is relatively low and shows an inverted 'U' shaped trend, and variation within the western region is high and shows a fluctuating downward trend. Thirdly, the firm size, government support, openness to the outside world, environmental regulations and education levels contribute to the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation. In addition, the industrial structure hinders the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation, and each influencing factor has different degrees of spatial spillover effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0485.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Metal Organic Framework; Cu (II) ion- industrial waste water; pH; time; adsorption
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:16:57 CEST)
Copper is a heavy metal used in many industries and known for its negative impacts on the environment and human’s health. A novel structured metal organic framework (MOF) was used for copper adsorption for this work. SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR were done to confirm the structure of MOF prepared. MOF of 0.05 gm was used to examine its ability in Cu+ 2 removals with different initial concentrations of Cu+2 and pH values (5, 7 and 9). The prepared MOF was able to achieve Cu removal with 94.6%, 93%, 91.5%, and 92.5 % for the initial concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm respectively. It also performed very well for pH 5 and 7 with average removal ranging from 93.9%-95% for pH 5 and 7 for the initial concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 respectively which indicate that the prepared MOF is of high ability in Cu+ 2 removal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Digital Economy; Industrial Structure Upgrade; High-Quality Economic Development; Mediation Effect Model
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:04:09 CEST)
Based on panel data of 31 provincial-level administrative units (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China from 2015 to 2019, using fixed effect model and mediation effect model, this paper makes an empirical analysis on the interaction among digital economy, industrial structure upgrade and high-quality economic development. The results show that, from the overall effect, the digital economy can significantly promote the high-quality development of the economy, and there are regular regional differences, and the relationship between the promotion intensity and the development level of the digital economy is proportional. From the mediation effect, in the relationship between digital economy and high-quality economic development, the upgrade of industrial structure has played a significant part of the mediation effect, the proportion of mediation effect is 25.17% . In addition, the mediation effect of industrial structure upgrade has obvious regional difference, the western area is the strongest, the eastern area is the second, the central area is the weakest. Based on the above research,the concrete policy suggestions are given to promote the development of digital economy and upgrade the level of industrial structure to promote the high-quality development of economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0320.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Carbon neutral; Equator Principle; Industrial Bank; "Three Principles"; Factor Analysis; Carbon neutral
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:32:36 CEST)
The Equator Principle is the goal of promoting the harmonious development of my country's economy and society. It promotes the green transformation and upgrading of the industrial structure by strictly controlling the flow of commercial bank funds, so as to achieve the goal of environmental protection and the coordinated development of the national economy. This paper uses factor analysis to reduce the dimensions of 10 financial indicators and non-financial indicators that measure the operating performance and development potential of joint-stock commercial banks, and then compares the comprehensive operating performance, liquidity, and safety of Industrial Bank and comparable banks. And the level of profitability, analyze the difference in comprehensive operating performance of joint-stock commercial banks joining the Equator Principles compared with commercial banks that have not joined the Equator Principles. The results of the study found that joining the Equator Principles of joint-stock commercial banks can improve comprehensive operating performance in the short term. In the long run, the development trend of Industrial Bank will be similar to that of comparable banks in the same category. Joining the Equator Principles of Industrial Bank can improve its liquidity and profitability, but it will not in the long run. Conducive to the improvement of the asset quality of joint-stock commercial banks. In this regard, the government, enterprises and financial institutions should work together to help commercial banks achieve an effective balance between operating performance and social responsibility, so as to achieve the goals of "carbon peak" and "carbon neutral".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; sustainable agro-industrial sector; sewer connection permit
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:53:12 CET)
This study investigated the efficacy of advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the reduction of pollution loads in mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) in Nablus city, Palestine. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Initial results on direct applications of Fenton’s process on mixed agro-food wastewater (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) were unsatisfactory. Hence, the performance of the Fenton process was applied on three mixed wastewater samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h), and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Preceded with lime, Fenton`s process (Sample C) was most effective in the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen (89% COD; 80% TKN). The removal efficiency in inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) were achieved under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH = 3). The adoption of AOP technology by agro-food industries could ensure compliance with municipal by-laws and acquire connection permits to sewerage networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0816.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: heavy metals; industrial wastewater; natural wetlands; phytoremediation; Wadi Zomer restoration; water quality
Online: 31 December 2020 (13:46:33 CET)
This paper investigated the effectiveness of natural wetlands (Phragmites australis) along Wadi Zomer in reducing the organic and inorganic pollution loads from diverse industrial discharges including occasional emergency discharges from Nablus West Sewage Treatment Plant (NWSTP), Palestine. We monitored physical and chemical parameters at four selective sampling stations (S1-S4) along Wadi Zomer with a length of 5 km downstream of NWSTP to assess the purification capacity of Wadi Zomer treatment wetlands (water, sediment, and vegetation) with Phragmites australis in pollution loads reduction. The results showed that S2 (0+0.5 km) and S3 (0+3.0 km) reflected an increase in pollution loads due to illicit industrial discharge and sewer overflow discharge from NWSTP during emergency conditions. BOD values varied significantly along the sampling sites from 6.64 mg/l (S1) to 437.10 mg/l (S3). The BOD at S1 and S2 in water samples were below the Palestinian Water Standard (PWS) compared to S3 and S4 with 437.1 and 333.9 mg/l, respectively. Water samples from all sites (S1-S4) showed a decreasing tendency in heavy metals concentrations (Fe>Cu>Zn>Cr >Ni) and were below the PWS limits, sediment samples followed the same decrease pattern for Zn, Cr, and Ni content with Wadi Zomer flow course. The concentration of Fe (6687 mg/kg) and Cu (1384.7 mg/kg) were highest in the sediment samples (S1-S4); this might be due to non-point sources of pollution. The research demonstrated that phytoremediation is a sustainable nature-based technology for the restoration of heavily polluted surface water bodies in Palestine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0455.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: KINECT; industrial robot; vision system; RobotStudio; Visual Studio; gesture control; voice control
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:57:07 CEST)
The paper presents the possibility of using KINECT v2 module to control an industrial robot by means of gestures and voice commands. It describes elements of creating software for off-line and on-line robot control. The application for KINECT module was developed in C# language in Visual Studio environment, while the industrial robot control program was developed in RAPID language in RobotStudio environment. The development of a two-threaded application in RAPID language allowed to separate two independent tasks for the IRB120 robot. The main task of the robot is performed in thread no. 1 (responsible for movement). Simultaneously working thread no. 2 ensures continuous communication with the KINECT system and provides information about the gesture and voice commands in real time without any interference in thread no. 1. The applied solution allows the robot to work in industrial conditions without negative impact of communication task on the time of robot’s work cycles. Thanks to the development of a digital twin of the real robot station, tests of proper application functioning in off-line mode (without using a real robot) were conducted. Obtained results were verified online (on the real test station). Tests of correctness of gesture recognition were carried out, the robot recognized all programmed gestures. Another test carried out was the recognition and execution of voice commands. A difference in the time of task completion between the actual and virtual station was noticed - the average difference was 0.67 s. The last test carried out was to examine the impact of interference on the recognition of voice commands. With a 10dB difference between the command and noise, the recognition of voice commands was equal to 91.43%. The developed computer programs have a modular structure, which enables easy adaptation to process requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Landscape Agroecology, MuSIASEM, Multi-EROI, Circular bioeconomy, Barcelona Metropolitan Region, industrial agriculture
Online: 24 October 2018 (16:30:08 CEST)
The paper analyses how between 1956 and 2009 the agrarian metabolism of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) has become less functional, losing circularity in biomass flows and in relationship to its landscape. We do so by adopting a Multi-EROI and flow-fund (MuSIASEM) analyses and its nexus with landscape functional structure. The study of agricultural flows of Final Produce, Biomass Reused and External Inputs is integrated with that of land use, livestock, power capacity and population changes between 1956 (at the beginning of the Green Revolution) and 2009 (fully industrialized agriculture). A multi-scale analysis is conducted at the landscape scale (seven districts within the Barcelona metropolitan region) as well as for the functions deployed, within an agroecosystem, by the mutual interactions between its funds (land-uses, livestock and farming population). A complex nexus between land, livestock, dietary patterns and energy needs is shown; we conclude that from the perspective of the circular bioeconomy the agrarian sector has gone worse hand in hand with the landscape functional structure. Therefore, a novel perspective in landscape agroecology is opened
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: inverse problem; industrial tomography; machine learning, sensors, cyber-physical system, Industry 4.0
Online: 29 August 2018 (05:56:49 CEST)
The article presents a cyber-physical system for acquiring, processing and reconstructing images from measurement data. The technology was based on process tomography, intelligent measurement sensors, machine learning, Big Data, Cloud Computing, Internet of Things as a solution for Industry 4.0. Industrial tomography enables observation of physical and chemical phenomena without the need of internal penetration and allows real-time monitoring of production processes. The application includes specialized intelligent devices for tomographic measurements and dedicated algorithms for solving the inverse problem. The work focuses mainly on electrical tomography and image reconstruction using deterministic methods and machine learning, the reconstruction results were compared, different measurement models were used. The researches were carried out for synthetic data and laboratory measurements. The main advantage of the proposed system is the possibility of spatial data analysis and their high processing speed. The presented research results show that the process tomography gives the possibility to analyse the processes taking place inside the facility without disturbing the production, analysis and detection of obstacles, defects and various anomalies. Knowing the characteristics of a given solution, the application allows you to choose the appropriate method to reconstruct the image.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0277.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Real-time systems; Industrial networks; calibration; measurements; access point; IEEE 802.11; WLAN
Online: 30 March 2018 (16:33:11 CEST)
In factory automation systems, hybrid wired/wireless networks are often deployed to connect devices of difficult reachability such as those mounted on mobile equipment. A widespread version of these networks makes use of Access Points (APs) to implement wireless extensions of Real--Time Ethernet (RTE) networks via the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN). Unfortunately, APs may introduce random delays in packet forwarding, mainly related to the their internal behaviors (e.g. code processing times) that negatively impact on the whole performance of the automation systems. Consequently, the knowledge of these delays represent a crucial design information. This paper presents an original and effective method to measure the delays introduced by APs, exploiting a hybrid loop-back link and a simple set-up with moderate instrumentation requirements. The method, which requires an initial calibration by means of a reference AP, has been successfully tested on some commercial APs. As it will be shown, the proposed measurement procedure is general and, as such, can be profitably adopted in even different scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: environmental inequality; environmental justice; industrial pollution; prefectures; demographic and socioeconomic factors; China
Online: 10 October 2017 (11:47:20 CEST)
In China, environmental pollution generated via industrialization as well as the profound changes in the social structure and gradual maturation of the social hierarchy have jointly contributed to the Chinese people's increased environmental consciousness and appeals for environmental justice (EJ). Because of the absence of an EJ theory and a lack of empirical research focused on China, this paper proposes a ‘Pyramid Model’ for China’s EJ research that involves the following three factors: basic demographic and socioeconomic factors, U.S.-based EJ principles, and Chinese characteristics. A nationwide pilot analysis of environmental inequity at the prefecture level is conducted by empirically studying the association of demographics and socioeconomic status with sources of industrial pollution in China. The prefecture-based results are shown to be robust and indicate that areas inhabited by ethnic minorities and western regions in China carry disproportionate environmental burdens. However, a different picture for migrants is presented, revealing that Chinese migrants are not currently exposed to greater levels of industrial pollution, and relevant interpretations of these findings are provided. The results also show that environmental inequality associated with income level, which is observed in the U.S., does not occur in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0091.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: tropospheric emissions; CTM; tropospheric ozone; industrial emissions; biomass buring; vegetation emissions; simulation
Online: 20 June 2017 (04:28:19 CEST)
In this work, we examined the effect of tropospheric emissions on tropospheric ozone (O3) by conducting three-dimensional (3D) chemistry transport model (CTM) simulations. For the control run, the CTM model simulates tropospheric O3 levels with a complete set of anthropogenic, biomass burning, and vegetation emissions . For the no-emission simulation, all anthropogenic, biomass burning, and vegetation emissions were turned off. Comparisons of results from these two simulations exhibit the emission impacts on the tropospheric O3. In the no-emission simulation, distinctive low surface O3 with concentrations less than 5 ppbv prevail over the Amazon basin, tropical South America, tropical South Africa, Southeast Asia. Transport of air from these land areas downwind contributes to the low O3 over the remote marine boundary layer. In contrast, elevated O3 levels over the extra-tropical remote marine boundary layer are less supported by the anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions but more sustained by the downward transport of O3 from the stratosphere. These results demonstrate that the northern hemisphere continental areas (north of 30◦N ), polar regions, and tropical continental regions are more sensitive to the tropospheric emissions. The northern hemisphere winter is mostly dominated by the stratospheric processes, while the tropospheric emissions dominate over the southern hemisphere tropical continental areas from tropics to 30◦S latitudinal bands. The northern hemisphere continental regions are increasingly dominated by tropospheric emissions from spring, to reach maxima in summer, and started to reduce in autumn months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Digital Manufacturing; Sensors; Machine Learning; Industry 4.0; Optical; Cotton Lint; Industrial Digital Technologies
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:55:26 CEST)
Egyptian cotton is one of the most important commodities to the Egyptian economy and is renowned globally for its quality, which is currently graded by manual inspection. This has several drawbacks including significant labour requirement, low inspection efficiency, and influence from inspection conditions such as light and human subjectivity. This current work uses a low-cost colour vision system, combined with machine learning to predict the cotton lint grade of the cultivars Giza 86, 97, 90, 94 and 96. Unsupervised and supervised machine learning approaches were explored and compared. Three different supervised learning algorithms were evaluated: linear discriminant analysis, decision trees and ensemble modelling. The highest accuracy models (77.3-98.2%) used an ensemble modelling technique to classify samples within the Egyptian cotton grades: Fully Good, Good, Fully Good Fair, Good Fair and Fully Fair. The unsupervised learning technique k-means showed that human error is more likely to occur when classifying lint belonging to the higher quality grades and underlined the need for an intelligent system to replace manual inspection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0574.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: smart materials; drug delivery systems; flame retardant; industrial coatings; filtration membranes; antifouling coatings.
Online: 21 April 2021 (11:47:42 CEST)
Abstract: This review presents current literature on different nanocomposites coatings and surface finishing for different substrates (such as textiles, concrete, plastics, stones, metals and so on). In particular, this study is focused on smart materials, drug delivery systems, and industrial, antifouling and nano/ultrafiltration membrane coatings. Each of these nanostructured coatings shows interesting properties for different fields of application. In this review, particular attention is paid to the synthesis and the consequent physico-chemical characteristics of each coating and, therefore, to the different parameters that influence the substrate deposition process. Several techniques used in the characterization of these surface finishing coatings are also described. In this review, the sol-gel and polymerization method for preparing stimuli-responsive coatings as smart sensor materials is described; functional polymers and nanoparticles sensitive to pH, temperature, phase, light and biomolecules are also treated. Finally, nanomaterials based on phosphorus, borates, hydroxy carbonates and silicones are used and described as flame retardant coatings; organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel coatings for industrial applications are illustrated, together with functional nanofiller (carbon nanotubes, metallic oxides, etc.) and polymers employed for nano/ultrafiltration membrane and antifouling coatings. In the last decades, several research institutes and industries have collaborated for the advancement of nanotechnology by optimizing conversion processes of conventional materials into coatings with new functionalities for intelligent, innovative, eco-sustainable and advanced applications.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive internet of vehicles; automotive; transportation; industrial revolution 4.0; security; intelligent transportation system
Online: 29 November 2019 (06:50:28 CET)
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture’s future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: engineering education; Forth Industrial Revolution; 4IR; skills gap; future of work; e-learning; didactics
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:50:42 CEST)
We are calling for a paradigm shift in engineering education. In times of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (“4IR”), a myriad of potential changes is affecting all industrial sectors leading to increased ambiguity that makes it impossible to predict what lies ahead of us. Thus, incremental culture change in education is not an option any more. The vast majority of engineering education and training systems, having remained mostly static and underinvested in for decades, are largely inadequate for the new 4IR labor markets. Some positive developments in changing the direction of the engineering education sector can be observed. Novel approaches of engineering education already deliver distinctive, student centered curricular experiences within an integrated and unified educational approach. We must educate engineering students for a future whose main characteristics are volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Talent and skills gaps across all industries are poised to grow in the years to come. The authors promote an engineering curriculum that combine timeless didactic tradition, such as Socratic inquiry, project-based learning and first-principles thinking with novel elements (e.g. student centered active and e-learning by focusing on the case study and apprenticeship pedagogical methods) as well as a refocused engineering skillset and knowledge. These capabilities reinforce engineering students’ perceptions of the world and the subsequent decisions they make. This 4IR engineering curriculum will prepare engineering students to become curious engineers and excellent communicators better navigating increasingly complex multistakeholder ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0777.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; agro-industrial wastewater; municipal by-laws; sewer connection permit
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:21:22 CET)
This study investigated the reduction of organic loads from mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) of Nablus city using advanced oxidation process (AOP), a high- rate chemical oxidation reaction. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Direct applications of classical Fenton’s process on mixed raw agro-food wastewater samples (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) revealed unsatisfactory results. The performance of the Fenton process was evaluated using three mixed samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h) allowed, and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Compared with other partial treatments, sample (C), Fenton`s process lime preceded, was the most effective in the removal of organic (89% COD; 80% TKN) and inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH =3). Obtained results comply with Nablus municipal by-law (COD below 2000 mg/l), which help decision-makers within the agro-food industries install pollution reduction systems. Investment in the Fenton-based peroxidation process, allow agro-food industries to obtain connection permits to sewage networks.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Safe physical Human-Robot Collaboration; collision detection; human action recognition; artificial intelligence; industrial automation
Online: 5 November 2020 (11:08:19 CET)
Digital enabled manufacturing systems require high level of automation for fast and low-cost production but should also present flexibility and adaptiveness to varying and dynamic conditions in their environment, including the presence of human beings; However, this presence of workers in the shared workspace with robots decreases the productivity as the robot is not aware about the human position and intention which leads to concerns about the human safety. This issue is addressed in this work by designing a reliable safety monitoring system for collaborative robots (Cobots). The main idea here is, to significantly enhance safety by a combination of recognition of human actions using visual perception and at the same time interpreting physical human-robot contact by tactile perception. Two datasets containing contact and vision data are collected by using different volunteers. The action recognition system classifies human actions using the skeleton representation of the latter when entering the shared workspace and the contact detection system distinguishes between intentional and incidental interactions if a physical contact between human and cobot takes place. Two different deep learning networks are used for human action recognition and contact detection which in combination, are expected to lead to the enhancement of human safety and an increase of the level of cobot perception about human intentions. The results show a promising path for future AI-driven solutions in safe and productive human–robot collaboration (HRC) in industrial automation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen; methane pyrolysis; direct reduced iron; industrial decarbonization; iron and steel; electric arc furnace
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:33:17 CEST)
Reducing emissions from the iron and steel industry is essential to achieve the Paris climate goals. A new system to reduce the carbon footprint of steel production is proposed in this article by coupling hydrogen direct reduction of iron ore (H-DRI) and natural gas pyrolysis on liquid metal surface inside a bubble column reactor. If grid electricity from EU is used, the emissions would be 435 kg CO2/tls without considering methane leakage from the extraction, storage and transport of natural gas. Solid carbon, produced as a by-product of natural gas decomposition, finds applications in many industrial sectors, including as a replacement for coal in coke ovens. Specific energy consumption (SEC) of the proposed system is approximately 6.3 MWh per ton of liquid steel(tls). It is higher than other competing technologies, 3.48 MWh/tls for water electrolysis based DRI, and, 4.3-4.5 MWh/tls for natural gas based DRI and blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) respectively. Utilization of large quantities of natural gas, where the carbon remains unused, is the major reason for high SEC. Preliminary analysis of the system revealed that it has the potential to compete with existing technologies to produce CO2 free steel, if renewable electricity is used. Further studies on the kinetics of the bubble column reactor, H-DRI shaft furnace, design and sizing of components, along with building of industrial prototypes are required to improve the understanding of the system performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: South Africa; fourth industrial revolution’s biological drivers; health and safety; construction occupations; construction-related diseases
Online: 15 November 2022 (11:25:43 CET)
The persistence of diseases that affect construction workforce as a result of activities on construction sites poses a danger to the sustainable development of the industry. This resulted to a huge loss of skilled labour and economic development of the industry and the entire country. The arrival of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) technologies urges an urgent need to assess the effect of the technology’s biological driver on the construction occupation related diseases. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the effect of 4IR on the construction occupation related diseases in Gauteng, South Africa. The study is quantitative in design and questionnaire survey were administered to project and Health and Safety (H&S) managers in Gauteng, South African construction sector using a proportionate simple random sampling technique. For data analysis, the Warp PLS-SEM 8.0 software algorithm was used for the analysis of the collated data. The study found that the effects of the 4IR’s biological driver variables ranges between moderate to high effects for genome sequencing (GENSE) and Neurotechnology (NEURO) respectively. The combined predictive relevance of the two (2) variables predicts 64% of the construction occupation related diseases. This implies that the adoption of the driver would help reduce the causes of construction-related diseases. Hence, implies that continuous deployment of 4IR technologies would ensure that construction occupation related diseases are easily identified and put on alert.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart Energy Grids; Smart Substation Automation; Process Bus; Interoperability Standards; Industrial Communication Networks; TCP/IP
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:27:47 CEST)
The upgrade of energy infrastructure to those of smart grids, necessarily goes through the provision of integrated technological solutions that ensure the interoperability of their business capabilities and reduce the risk of devaluation of the systems used. The heterogeneity of the infrastructures and the dynamics of their operating environment, requires the continuous reduction of the complexity, the faster execution of the processes and the easy addition of innovative counterparts. Also, the integrated management of the overall ecosystem demands the provision of end-to-end interconnection, quality assurance, the definition of strict security policies, collaborative integration and correlation of events. In this respect, every design detail can be critical to the success or failure of a costly and ambitious project, such as that of smart energy networks. This work presents communication operating standards specific to the smart electricity networks applications, which should be taken into account in the process of planning and implementation of new infrastructures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0017.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Printed electronics; industrial automation; information and communication technologies (ICT); monitoring and sensing technologies; environmental impacts
Online: 1 June 2021 (10:34:19 CEST)
Innovations in industrial automation, information and communication technology (ICT), renewable energy, monitoring and sensing fields have been paving the way for smart devices, which can acquire and convey information to the internet, in every aspect of our lives. Since there is ever-increasing demand for large yet affordable production volumes for such devices, printed electronics has been attracting great attention in both industrial and academic research. In order to understand the potential and future prospects of the printed electronics, the present paper summarizes the basic principles and conventional approaches while providing the recent progresses in the fabrication and material technologies, applications and environmental impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0512.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: social sustainability; seasonal migration; circular migration; industrial agriculture; Huelva; Lleida; Romanian migration; temporary migration programs
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:24:46 CET)
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Romanian migrants have become one of the most significant national groups doing agricultural work in Spain, initially coming via a temporary migration program and later under several different modalities. However, despite their critical importance for the functioning of Europe’s largest agro-industry, the study of this long-term circular mobility is still underdeveloped in migration and agriculture literature. Thanks to extensive fieldwork carried out in the provinces of Huelva and Lleida in Spain and in the counties of Teleorman and Buzău in Romania, this paper has two main objectives: first, to identify some of the most common forms of mobility of these migrants and second, to discuss whether this industrial agriculture, hugely dependent on migrant work, is socially sustainable. The case of Romanian migrants in Spanish agriculture will serve to show how a critical sector for the EU and for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations, operates on an unsustainable model based on precariousness and exploitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: industrial wireless sensor networks; IEEE~802.15.4g; smart utility networks; link reliability; adaptive techniques; modulation diversity
Online: 23 March 2020 (04:34:16 CET)
Adaptive mechanisms, such as channel hopping and packet replication, are used in low-power wireless networks to deal with the spatial and temporal variations in the link quality, and meet the reliability requirements of industrial applications (i.e., PDR>99%). However, the benefits of such mechanisms are limited and may have a large impact on end-to-end latency and energy consumption. Hence, in this paper we propose using adaptive modulation diversity, which allows to dynamically select different modulations, to improve link reliability. We present three adaptive modulation diversity selection strategies and validate them using the data derived from a real-world deployment using the IEEE 802.15.4g SUN modulations (i.e., SUN-FSK, SUN-OQPSK and SUN-ODFM) in an industrial environment. The results show that by using adaptive modulation diversity it is possible to improve link reliability regardless of node conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4g; Smart Utility Networks; Low-Power; Wireless; Communications; Dependable; Predictable; Reliable; Available; Industrial; Dataset
Online: 13 February 2020 (14:01:05 CET)
In this article we present a deployment of 11 nodes using the three different SUN (Smart Utility Network) modulation schemes, as defined in the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard. The nodes were deployed in a 110.044 m2 warehouse for 99 days, and the resulting dataset contains a total of 10.710.868 measurements with RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator), CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) and PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) values. The analyzed results show a high variability in average RSSI (i.e., between -82.1 dBm and -101.7 dBm) and CCA (i.e., between -111.2 dBm and -119.9 dBm) values, which are caused by the effects of multi-path propagation and external interference. Despite being above the sensitivity limit for each modulation, this values result in poor average PDR values (i.e., from 65.9% to 87.4%), indicating that additional schemes are required for low-power wireless communications to meet the dependability requirements of industrial applications. For that purpose, we also introduce the concept of modulation diversity, which can be combined with packet repetition to meet such requirements (i.e., PDR>99%) while minimizing the energy expenditure of nodes and meeting regulatory constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Special Economic Zones; Small Medium Enterprises; Joint Ventures; Export Lead Industrialization; Developing Economies; Industrial Clusters
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:10:33 CET)
Over the last three decades, special economic zones (SEZs) have given new impetus to the ever-growing export-oriented industrialization in developing countries. Where various economies have benefited from SEZs, many zones have ended up becoming enclaves with trifling advantage. The SEZs in Pakistan have experienced the same fate and failed to contribute to exports, employment and creating linkages with the domestic economy. Recently under China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), SEZs are proposed to be set up in Pakistan; with a hope to fuel the stuttering economy. However, it is pertinent to first understand the local context and device policies considering stakeholders' perspectives. This study aims to identify the factors for the successful implementation of SEZs derived from the regional context of Pakistan. In-depth interviews are conducted from most relevant stakeholders, who have been involved in the development of SEZs. The results pointed towards the removal of political influence over zones and government taking the lead role in deciding the types of industry to be invited in these zones. Each zone should have a clear vision of development based on its regional advantage. The zone promotions should be based on competitiveness rather than fiscal incentives. Joint ventures and PPP to be encouraged inside the zones for sustainable operations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Industrial green innovation efficiency; Innovation value chain perspective; Super-efficient network SBM model; Spatial Dubin model
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:06:00 CET)
Green innovation has become an important combination of high-quality economic growth and sustainable development of ecological environment. In this paper, the super-efficiency network SBM model is used to measure the two-stage green innovation efficiency of industrial science and technology R&D and achievement transformation in 30 provinces and cities from 2009 to 2019, and exploratory Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial econometric model are used to investigate the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of green innovation efficiency. The results show that: firstly, the overall efficiency of industrial green innovation is low, and the efficiency of scientific research and development and achievement transformation has experienced three stages of "upward-declining-revitalized period". The low efficiency of achievement transformation is an important factor hiding the improvement of the efficiency of industrial green innovation. Secondly, The industrial green innovation efficiency gradually increases from northwest to southeast, forming a centralized "line" and "block" distribution. The high efficiency area is still concentrated in the eastern coastal region, and the balanced development trend is obvious in the central and western regions. Finally, openness has a positive impact on the two-stage green innovation efficiency; Industrial structure and government investment in science and technology have a positive impact on the efficiency of science and technology research and development, but have no significant effect on the efficiency of achievement transformation. Enterprise size has a positive effect on achievement transformation efficiency, but has no significant effect on R&D efficiency. Environmental regulation has a positive impact on R&D efficiency and a negative impact on achievement transformation efficiency.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Everything; Industry 4.0; Digital Industry; Digital Economy
Online: 14 September 2020 (05:47:48 CEST)
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a literature review and taxonomic analysis of complex internet of things (IoT) interconnected and coupled cyber physical systems. There is an increased attention on propositions on models, infrastructures and frameworks of IoT in both academic and technical papers. These reports and publications frequently represent a juxtaposition of other related systems and technologies (e.g. Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Systems, Industry 4.0 etc.). We review academic and industry papers published between 2010 and 2020. The results determine a new hierarchical cascading conceptual framework for analysing the evolution of AI decision-making in cyber physical systems. We argue that such evolution is inevitable and autonomous because of the increased integration of connected devices (IoT) in cyber physical systems. To support this argument, taxonomic methodol- ogy is adapted and applied for transparency and justifications of concepts selection decisions through building summary maps that are applied for designing the hierarchical cascading conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0184.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: particulate pollution; air quality; deposition flux; geostatistics; ordinary kriging; urban-industrial; elemental identification; electronic scanning microscopy
Online: 11 September 2020 (06:01:45 CEST)
This work aimed to assess and characterize the air quality in what concerns particulate pollution in urban-industrial environments. The main objectives were to study the spatial variability of the deposition flux of particulate pollution identifying areas with higher deposition, associate the variability with climatological variables and with possible surrounding emitting sources. The method for collecting the deposited particles was based on the standard NF X 43-007. Sampling for particulate pollution took place between April 2015 and February 2016, through seven sampling campaigns. Maps of the spatial dispersion for the particulate pollution were obtained through statistics and geostatistics techniques. Elemental identification by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used but only in two sampling campaigns. The results show that the sampling campaigns that took place during hot and dry periods, 2nd and 3rd, present higher deposition flux: 2.04 g/(m2 x month) and 1.72 g/(m2 x month), respectively. Lower deposition fluxes were registered in the 6th and 7th campaigns: 0.23 g/(m2 x month) and 0.24 g/(m2 x month), respectively. It was also observed a recurrent high deposition at specific sampling points which may be due to both the nearby road traffic and the presence of chimneys. SEM analysis allowed to associate repetitive element deposition, at the same sampling point, to the same emitting source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial internet of things; random job arrival time; information entropy theory; self-adaption; real-time scheduling
Online: 6 August 2020 (06:00:12 CEST)
In recent years, the individualized demand of customers brings small batches and diversification of orders towards enterprises. The application of enabling technologies in factory, such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Cloud Manufacturing (CMfg), enhances the ability of customer requirement automatic elicitation and the manufacturing process control. The job shop scheduling problem with random job arrival time dramatically increases the difficulty in process management. Thus, how to collaboratively schedule the production and logistics resources in the shop floor is very challenging, and it has a fundamental and practical significance of achieving the competitiveness for an enterprise. To address this issue, the real-time model of production and logistics resources is built firstly. Then, the task entropy model is built based on the task information. Finally, the real-time self-adaption collaboration of production and logistics resources is realized. The proposed algorithm is carried out based on a practical case to evaluate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms three existing algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0275.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: An anthropological study; Agro-industrial food system; Institutional settings; formal and informal institutions; common pool resources
Online: 21 May 2018 (12:59:07 CEST)
Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya’s economy, supporting up to 80% of the rural livelihoods. Kenya’s export horticulture is currently the leading Agriculture subsector in Kenya has evolved from small-holder farming to agro-industrial large-scale export farming dominated by multinational companies. It is regarded as an agro-industrial food system based on the economies of scale producing for mass markets outside of the production area. Much of the food consumed from this food system has undergone multiple transformations and been subject to a host of formal and informal insitutions (rules, regulations, standards, norms and values). An Anthropological study of export horticulture in Northwest Mount Kenya was carried out utilizing qualitative data collection methods in Northwest Mount Kenya region. Data was coded and analysed thematically based on grounded theory approach. The study described the institutional settings of export horticulture from an emic perspective as changing and defining the operations of the food system access and management of common pool resources, namely water and land. With the agro-industrial food system competing for these scarce resources in a semi-arid zone, there is potential for conflict and also reduced production and overall benefits to the different actors in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial automation; autonomous design; multi-agent systems; industry 4.0; biologically inspired techniques; AGV systems; energy efficiency
Online: 1 September 2016 (10:48:48 CEST)
In this paper, modelling, simulation and verification of multi-agent manufacturing system with application of bio-inspired techniques are addressed. To this end, the new solution of abstract architecture for control and coordination decentralized systems - CODESA is suggested. Centralized architecture suffers from various problems, such as rigidity, scalability, low fault-tolerance or very limited flexibility, agility, energy efficiency and productivity. Prime is concrete application of CODESA in manufacturing domain. The undesirable characteristics of emergent behaviour are the problem to achieve optimization and impossibility to predict future states of the system. CODESA-Prime has been tested by simulations for automatic guided vehicle (AGV) systems guided by magnetic tape in Ella Software Platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0010.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainability; Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA); Sassuolo industrial district; Italian ceramic industry; meso-economic level; interpretative method
Online: 3 May 2018 (11:35:10 CEST)
One of the biggest challenges for European industry is to introduce sustainability principles into business models. This is particularly important in raw material and energy intensive manufacturing sectors such as the ceramic industry. The present state of knowledge lacks a comprehensive operational tool for industry to support decision-making processes geared towards sustainability. In the ceramic sector, the economic and social dimensions of the product and processes have not yet been given sufficient importance. Moreover, the traditional research on industrial districts lacks an analysis of the relations between firms and the territory with a view to sustainability. Finally, the attention of scholars in the field of economic and social sustainability, has not yet turned to the analysis of the Sassuolo district. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), as a method that can be a suitable tool to fill this gap, because through a mathematical model it is possible to obtain the information useful for decision makers to integrate the principles of sustainability both at the microeconomic level in enterprises, and at the meso-economic level for the definition of economic policies and territorial governance. Environmental and socio-economic analysis was performed from the extraction of raw materials to the packaging of the product on different product categories manufactured by the Italian ceramic industries of the Sassuolo district (northern Italy). For the first time the LCSA model, usually applied to unitary processes, is extended to the economic and industrial activities of the entire district, extending the prospect of investigation from the enterprise and its value chain to the integrated network of district enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0395.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: decarb-efficiency; decarbonisation; industrial energy saving; cost effectiveness; strategic decision-making; climate neutrality; net-zero; drivers; motivators; resilience
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:36:29 CET)
Already more than 140 countries consider or have pledged to reach net-zero emission targets by 2050 or earlier and the share of global emissions falling into an emission pricing scheme has steeply increased over the past three years. Even where there are no direct implications for industry (yet), there is a series of subtle pressure points driving an increasing number of companies across the globe to work towards climate neutrality and pledging ambitious emission reduction goals. This article sheds light on the pressure points, the subtle triggers, the underlying considerations as well as the hoped-for benefits for industrial companies from achieving net-zero emissions. The observations and ideas presented in this paper are derived from quantitative data obtained via the Energy Efficiency Index of German Industry (EEI) and qualitative data. Not only societal, work force, supply chain and investor expectations play a large role, but also many strategic considerations which have the potential to make the company more resilient and profitable, particularly in time of crisis. Those companies that do not move towards decarbonisation, on the other hand, may face a costly late-mover disadvantage. This piece uncovers subtle interconnections, helping stakeholders from industry and beyond to grasp opportunities and challenges ahead.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bioregenerative life support; closed ecological life support; in-situ resource utilization; lunar industrial ecology; 3D bioprinting; gene editing
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:23:39 CEST)
In this review, we explore a broad-based view of technologies for supporting human activities on the Moon. Primarily, we assess the state of life support systems technology beginning with physicochemical processes, waste processing, bioregenerative methods, food production systems and the robotics and advanced biological technologies that support the latter. We observe that the Moon possesses in-situ resources but that these resources are of limited value in CELSS – indeed, CELSS technology is most mature in recycling water and oxygen, the two resources that are abundant on the Moon. This places a premium on developing CELSS that recycles other elements that are rarified on the Moon including C and N in particular but also other elements such as P, S and K which might be challenging to extract from local resources. Although we focus on closed loop ecological life support systems, we also consider related technologies that involve the application of biological organisms to bioregenerative medical technologies and bioregenerative approaches to industrial activity on the Moon as potential future developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0031.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: industrial building; environment; lighting analysis; building physics; sustainable architecture; computational simulation; integrated lighting; solar radiation; luminance; sky components
Online: 16 June 2017 (12:29:28 CEST)
We present observations from evaluation of internal environmental quality of industrial halls with priority on daylighting in combination with the integral lighting. The physical parameters related to indoor lighting in large industrial halls in winter and summer periods were analyzed using in situ measurements and computational methods. These are part of a comprehensive research on indoor environmental quality of industrial halls with the aims of saving energy and providing a comfortable environment for the workers while improving the productivity. The results showed that the procedures used for evaluation of residential or office buildings may not be used for industrial buildings. We also observed that the criteria of occupants’ comforts for indoor industrial buildings may differ from those of other kinds of buildings. Based on these results, an adequate attention is required for designing the industrial buildings. For this reason, appropriate evaluation methods and criteria should be created. We found the measured values of daylight factor very close to the skylight component of the total illumination. The skylight component was observed on average 30% that of the measured daylight factor values. Although the daylight is not emphasized when designing the industrial buildings and its contribution is small, but it is very important for the workers psychology and physiology. The workers must feel a connection with the exterior environment; otherwise, their productivity decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: circular bioeconomy; biorefinery; waste valorisation; olive mill wastewater (OMWW), bioplastics; PHAs; business canvas; business model, SWOT analysis; industrial symbiosis
Online: 21 October 2022 (13:53:59 CEST)
The concept of biorefinery constitutes a significant contributing factor to the emerging transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy. In such a context, replacing oil and petrochemicals by biomass may involve several feedstocks, platforms, processes, technologies, as well as final products. This paper concentrates in the complex process of transferring the concept of biorefinery from laboratory to industry, and sheds light on the techno-economic, and complexity management dimensions involved in this endeavor. Towards this end, adopting a systems perspective, the paper presents a structured and comprehensive framework, comprising of the definition of the transformation process, business model development, technoeconomic assessment and strategic positioning and viability assessment, which may be employed to facilitate the engineering at-large and launch of a biorefining venture in a circular bioeconomy context. The framework is applied in the context of a biorefinery plant in a specific region in Southern Greece, which is based on the valorisation of olive mill wastewater (a ‘strong’ and quite common industrial waste in Mediterranean Basin), and produces biopolymers (PHAs) and bioenergy (H2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: decarbonisation; climate neutrality; industrial energy saving; strategic decision making; net-zero; roadmapping; energy efficiency; ideal mix; energy efficiency index
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:52:06 CET)
Considering increasingly ambitious pledges by countries, pressure from society, investors, and clients further up the supply chain, the question for companies is not so much whether to take decarbonisation action, but what action and by when. However, determining an ideal mix of measures to apply ‘decarbonisation efficiency’ requires more than knowledge of technically feasible measures and how to combine them to achieve the most economic outcome: In this paper, the author describes seven aspects which heavily influence the composition of an ‘ideal mix’ that executive leadership needs to take a (strategic) position on. These aspects consider underlying motivations and span across (socio-)economic, technical, regulatory, strategic, corporate culture and environmental factors and further underline the necessity of clarity of definitions. How these decisions influence the determination of the decarbonisation-efficient ideal mix of measures, both in principle but also in terms of specific impact is further explored by providing examples. What choices are taken by German manufacturers in several of the aspects is disclosed by insights from about 850 responses to the ‘Energy Efficiency Index of German Industry’. Knowledge of the status quo, and clarity in definitions, objectives, time frames and scope are key.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0242.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin(DT); Industry 4.0; DigiX; Internet of Things(IoT); Industrial IoT (IIoT); Artificial Intelligence; Scenario Analysis; Predictive Maintenance
Online: 8 April 2021 (13:55:32 CEST)
This paper is an attempt to forecast the potential application of Digital Twin in an industrial environment by adopting scenario analysis as part of technology monitoring. In recent years Digital Twin has become one of the most emerging topics in both the tech industry and academia. This field is the latest addition to industry 4.0. It has paved a great growth opportunity in the fields of Healthcare, manufacturing, and smart city areas. The Digital twin can be defined as mirroring the physical entities into a virtual environment where the status, health, and control of these entities can be monitored and controlled. It is a field where Artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things play a major role in the handshake between the two environments. In this paper we have done a thorough analysis to find out the possible future outcome of this technology in the manufacturing industry from the perspective of our fictious company. These scenarios expose various challenges and opportunities our organization may face in our future endeavour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0226.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; electric drive; electric motor control; frequency converter; Industrial Internet of Things; edge computing; Big Data; Key Performance Indicators; KPI; dashboard
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:15:18 CEST)
The article presents a method of generating Key Performance Indicators related to electric motor energy efficiency on the basis of Big Data gathered and processed in frequency converter. The authors proved that using the proposed solution it is possible to specify the relation between the control mode of an electric drive and the control quality-energy consumption ratio in the start-up phase as well as in the steady operation with various mechanical loads. The tests were carried out on a stand equipped with two electric motors (one driving, the other used to apply the load by adjusting the parameters of the built-in brake). The measurements were made in two load cases, for motor control modes available in industrially applied frequency converters (scalar V/f, vector Voltage Flux Control without encoder, vector Voltage Flux Control with encoder, vector Current Flux Control and Vector Current Flux Control with torque control). During the experiments values of current intensities (active and output), the actual frequency value, IxT utilization factor, relative torque and the current rotational speed were measured and processed. Based on the data the level of the energy efficiency was determined for various control modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Digital Economy; Industrial Internet of Things; Industry 4.0; empirical analysis; cyber risk assessment; cyber risk target state
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:25:15 CET)
The world is currently experiencing the fourth industrial revolution driven by the newest wave of digitisation in the manufacturing sector. The term Industry 4.0 (I4.0) represents at the same time: a paradigm shift in industrial production, a generic designation for sets of strategic initiatives to boost national industries, a technical term to relate to new emerging business assets, processes and services, and a brand to mark a very particular historical and social period. I4.0 is also referred to as Industrie 4.0 the New Industrial France, the Industrial Internet, the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the digital economy. These terms are used interchangeably in this text. The aim of this article is to discuss major developments in this space in relation to the integration of new developments of IoT and cyber physical systems in the digital economy, to better understand cyber risks and economic value and risk impact. The objective of the paper is to map the current evolution and its associated cyber risks for the digital economy sector and to discuss the future developments in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.