BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0324.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Farmers' market; Incentive program; SNAP benefits; Double-up Food Buck; Incentive tracking system
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:53:21 CET)
Acceptance of SNAP benefits has increased in farmers’ markets (FM) over the years. However, getting SNAP recipients to take up the opportunity of extra dollars for healthy food options remains a challenge. Thus, we tracked the use of the Double-up Food Buck (DUFB) program among SNAP recipients who visit participating FMs in Utah to understand the unique characteristics of the program users. Our results identified varying types of program users (multiple and single market shoppers, more frequent and less frequent shoppers). While our findings indicate a higher DUFB transaction in token value among frequent users, larger markets are more likely to have higher DUFB transactions with a higher number of market visits compared to smaller ones. In conclusion, while all types of users may add to the total revenue generated by participating FM, additional initiatives are required to encourage frequent visits and uptake of the program for better access to healthy foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0133.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: economic sustainability; mini hydroelectric plants; tariff; incentive; climate change
Online: 19 March 2021 (14:41:06 CET)
The feasibility of hydroelectric plants depends on a variety of factors: water resource regime, geo-graphical, geological and environmental context, available technology, construction cost and eco-nomic value of produced energy. Choices about the building or renewal of hydroelectric plants should be based on the forecast of the future trend of these factors at least during the project life of the system. Focusing on the economic value of the produced energy this paper examines its influ-ence on the feasibility of hydroelectric plants. Analysis, referred to Italian case, were based on three different phases: i) the economic sustainability of small-scale hydroelectric plants under a minimum price guaranteed to the hydroelectric operator; ii) the estimate of the incentives to reach the thresholds of "acceptability" and "bankability" of the investment; iii) the analysis of results ob-tained in the previous phases using a model of the evolution of the electricity price in the period 2014-2100.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: COVID-19; origin; incentive factors of the outbreak; systematic perspective
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:31:35 CEST)
The new coronavirus is very likely to already exist in the complex system of human society, including the population and the surrounding environments. Therefore, the research focus of the origin of COVID-19 should be shifted from how wild animals spread it to humans to how it was triggered by complex natural, social, and living systems. We advocate three levels of attribution (i.e., the source of the virus), inducement (i.e., the incentive factors triggering the outbreak), and cause (i.e., the birth of the virus) to reveal the origin of COVID-19 from the shallower to the deeper. It not only meets the urgent needs of short-term prevention and control, but also provides technical weapons for the long-term fight against emerging viruses.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: chinese pension system; new rural pension scheme (nprs); fiscal subsidies; incentive pension; matching subsidy
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:38:57 CET)
This paper studies the impact of fiscal subsidies on the sustainability of China’s rural pension system. We first provides an overview of China’s rural pension system and explains the formulas used to calculate the pension payments. We then examines how fiscal subsidies, in forms of basic pension, incentive pension, and matching subsidy, affect participation rates and individual contributions. Our study shows that the rural residents’ participation rates can be improved significantly by increasing basic pension or by providing incentive pension, but not by matching subsidy. However, none of these fiscal subsidies has significant effects on the amount of individual contributions. Overall, our results imply that incentive pension is an effective mechanism in encouraging rural residents to participate in the pension programs, but current level of matching subsidies are not sufficient enough to improve participation or increase contributions. Our study suggests the needs to increase the fiscal subsides in China’s rural pension system, and can provide useful implications in designing the effective pension system for rural residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: density incentive; earthcraft; energystar; green premium; hedonic pricing; LIHTC; rehabilitation
Online: 15 October 2019 (04:00:55 CEST)
In the year 2017, about 89 percent of the total energy consumed in the US was produced using non-renewable energy sources, and about 43 percent of tenant households were cost-burdened. Local governments are in a unique position to facilitate green affordable housing that could reduce cost burdens, environmental degradation, and environmental injustice. Nonetheless, limited studies have made progress on costs and benefits of green affordable housing to guide decision-making, particularly in small communities. This study investigates density bonus options for green affordable housing by analyzing construction costs, sale prices, and spillover effects for green certifications and affordable housing units. The authors employ construction costs and sale data from 422 Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) projects and 11,418 Multiple Listing Service (MLS) transactions in Virginia. Using hedonic regression analyses controlling for mediating factors, we find that the new construction of market-rate green certified houses is associated with small upfront costs but large and statistically significant price premiums. The construction of market-rate green certified houses has large and statistically significant spillover effects on existing non-certified houses. Existing non-certified affordable housing units show small and statistically insignificant negative price impacts on transactions of surrounding properties. The magnitude of social benefits associated with green building justifies the local provision of voluntary programs for green affordable housing where housing is expensive relative to its basic costs of production to promote sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Contract Theory; Incentive Mechanism; Cooperative NOMA; SWIPT; Full Duplex
Online: 2 August 2021 (10:03:27 CEST)
Cooperative Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) communication can effectively improve the spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency of the wireless networks with extend coverage. An important design issue is to incentivize a relaying center user to participate in the cooperative process and achieve a win-win situation to both the BS and the center user. Some private information of the center users are hidden from the BS in the networks. We apply a contract theory-based incentive mechanism under such asymmetric information scenario to incentives center user to join the cooperative communication to maximize the BS profit utility and to guarantee the center user’s expect payoff. A match theory-based Gale-Shapley algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal strategy with low computation complexity. Simulation results indicated the network performance of our proposed cooperative transmission is much better than the conventional NOMA transmission and the benefit utility of the BS with the stable match strategy is nearly close to the complete channel state information multi-users scenario while the center users get the satisfied expect payoffs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: green logistics; negative externality of logistics; internalization of logistics negative external cost; incentive mechanism
Online: 20 December 2016 (10:37:21 CET)
The implementation of green logistics can reduce the increasingly serious environmental damage and improve the operating efficiency of logistics enterprises. In this paper, through quantitative calculation of logistics negative external costs, including traffic accidents, atmospheric pollution, noise pollution, and pollution caused by packaging, we build accounting standards to calculate the negative external cost of logistics enterprises that mainly generate pollution from transportation and packaging. Then, assuming the impetus provided by government implementing incentive mechanisms in a free market economy, we establish a ‘Logistics Negative External Cost Internalizing’ model, which quantitatively analyzes the relationships among freight rate, freight volume, investment of enterprise for implementing green logistics, and the subsidy given by government, under the comparison of the two modes ‘enterprise operates first’ and ‘government subsidizes first’. The results show that the introduction of ‘government subsidizes first’ incentive mechanism and increasing freight rate are helpful in promoting the process of logistics market greening.