REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1360.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Collective Impact; Social Impact Assessment; Community Capital Framework
Online: 19 May 2023 (02:45:16 CEST)
Community co-creation is increasingly crucial to the building of sustainable societies. Communities must proactively and independently create value chains in the face of many wicked problems. However, practical frameworks and tools for facilitating community co-creation require further development. As such, for this paper, we propose a theoretical framework for analyzing community co-creation value chain mechanisms based on a narrative review of literature on Collective Impact, social impact assessment, and Community Capital from the perspective of collective impact, a framework with a fair amount of previous research. We argue for the importance of applying knowledge of social impact assessment, particularly for the collective impact conditions of common agenda and shared measurement system. We discuss its relationship with the Theory of Change and the use of systems thinking to mitigate the subjectivity and arbitrariness of design thinking. Furthermore, we emphasize the value of employing the community capital concept as a framework for analyzing interrelationships among elements. By integrating multiple concepts, we enhance the collective impact framework and outline potential avenues for future research on analyzing and effectively implementing co-creation value chain mechanism in a community-based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0971.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Business model; scaling social impact; social entrepreneurship; social impact; scale; society
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:36:48 CEST)
This paper examines the Business Model (BM) from a socioeconomic system perspective to discern key factors, and understand its interactions resulting in the Scaling of Social Impact (SSI) in Social Entrepreneurship (SE). Previously, studies have explained the importance of BM in relation to SE. However, there is a lack of empirical studies on how BM’s transitions through participation of various actors result in SSI. This research applies qualitative analysis on a single case study of a Japanese social startup, “mymizu”, the first water refill application platform in Japan. The findings show that collaboration amongst different stakeholders on the initial phase of the BM could increase awareness of responsible consumption, convert into actual users for sustainability, and change their behavior. Secondly, members of the society could take on dual roles, both as users and collaborators in the BM, which results in an exponential scaling effect of the social impact. This paper contributes towards adding a participatory stakeholder (PS) to the ecosystem of SSI and building a “regenerative” BM that is relevant in SE towards sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; EVD; HPAI; Socio-economic impact; Public health impact; Measurements
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:36:21 CEST)
Concurrent waves of Coronavirus disease, Ebola virus disease, avian influenza A and black fungus are jeopardizing the lives in some parts of Africa and Asia. From this point of view, this review aims to summarize both socio-economic and public health implications of these parallel outbreaks along with their best possible management approaches. Various online databases were used to collect the necessary information regarding these outbreaks. Based on the reports published and analyses done so far, the long-lasting damages caused by these simultaneous outbreaks on global socio-economical and public health status can be conceived from the past experiences of outbreaks, especially the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, prolonged restrictions by the local government may lead to food insecurity, global recession, and an enormous impact on the mental health of people of all ages, specifically in developing countries. Such overwhelming effects already have been reported to be declining national growth of the economy as well as increasing political insecurity and shortage of basic needs. Although various actions have already been taken including vaccination, clinical management, and further research, social distancing, and lockdown, etc. to improve the situation, the emerging variants and associated genetic mutations may make the containment difficult worsening the situation again. Considering the current mutational dynamics of the pathogens and the past experiences, perpetual preparedness along with updated clinical management backed by epidemiological studies and innovating scientific effort are inevitable to combat the simultaneous waves of multiple infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0340.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: drop-weight impact; unidirectional carbon composites; orientation angle; internal defect; impact
Online: 12 November 2020 (10:16:23 CET)
.With the increasing use of carbon fiber reinforced plastics in various area, carbon fiber composites based on prepregs have attracted attention in industries and academia research. However, prepreg manufacturing processes are costly, and the strength of structures varies depending on the orientation and defects (pores and delamination). For non-contact evaluation of internal defects, we proposed lock-in infrared thermography to investigate orientation angles after a compression test. We also conducted a drop-weight impact test to study the behaviour of the composites after impact according the fibers orientation for composite fabricated using unidirectional carbon fiber prepregs. Using CAI tests, we determined the residual compressive strength and confirmed the damage modes using a thermal camera. The results of the drop weight impact tests show that the specimen laminated at 0° suffered the largest damage because of susceptibility of the resin to impact. In contrast, the specimens oriented in of 0°/90° and +45°/–45° directions transferred more than 90% of the impact energy back to the impactor because of the lamination of fibers in the orthogonal directions. Furthermore, the specimens that underwent complete damage in the impact tests were subjected to the lock-in method and showed internal delamination and cut fibers. With the finite elements analysis, the damage of each ply could be observed. Moreover, the temperature differences in the residual compression tests were not significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0064.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: coin toss; probability; impact
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:03:42 CEST)
Considering that a fair coin has two sides and a cylindrical edge, the probability that it would fall on its edge is calculated, yielding the probability of heads or tails less than 50%. Theoretical models for a static case and for five dynamic cases, without and with rebounds, show that there is a small probability that the coin does not fall on its head or tail, depending on initial toss conditions, the coin geometry and conditions of the coin and landing surfaces. For the dynamic model with rebounds, it is found that the probability that a 50 Eurocent coin thrown from a normal height with common initial velocity conditions and appropriate surface conditions will end up on its edge is in the order of one against several thousand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0559.v1
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:30:24 CEST)
We have modelled the energy consumption of prototype and real buildings under present and future climatic conditions with the EnergyPlus model to develop a better understanding of the relationship between changing climate conditions and energy demand. We have produced detailed meteorological information with 50 meters of spatial resolution through dynamical downscaling process combining regional, urban and computational fluid dynamics models which include the effects of the buildings on urban wind patterns. The city of Madrid has been chosen for our experiment. The impact on energy demand and their respective economic cost are calculated for year 2100 versus 2011 based on two IPCC climate scenarios, RCP 4.5 (stabilization of emissions) and RCP 8.5 (not reduction of emissions). Findings show that climate change will have a significant impact on the energy demand for buildings. Space heating demand will be increased by the RCP 4.5 and cooling demand will be increased for the RCP 8.5 in the analysed buildings.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0420.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic multipliers; remote work; local economies; business impact; economic stimulus; catalytic impact
Online: 7 September 2023 (05:04:45 CEST)
The advent of remote work has ushered in a new era of economic transformation, redefining the dynamics of local economies, and unleashing the multiplier effect on a national scale. This abstract explores the profound implications of remote work on local economies, dissecting how the multiplier effect operates within a nation's economic landscape. The multiplier effect is a fundamental economic concept that highlights how changes in spending and investment can create a ripple effect, leading to a magnified impact on an economy. This concept gains new significance in the context of remote work, as it triggers a chain reaction of economic activities that radiate from remote workers to their local communities. The increased flexibility and reduced geographical constraints of remote work have reshaped the allocation of resources. The continued reliance on remote work may lead to a reduction in demand for commercial real estate in urban centers, necessitating adaptive urban planning strategies. In conclusion, the rise of remote work has initiated a transformative era for local economies, driven by the multiplier effect. By amplifying the impacts of spending and investment, remote work fosters job diversification, innovation, and infrastructure development within communities. As remote work continues to reshape the landscape of work and life, understanding and harnessing its multiplier effect remains paramount for policymakers, businesses, and local communities alike. The multiplier effect is a concept in economics that illustrates how changes in spending can lead to larger impacts on a nation's economy through a chain reaction of economic activities. It demonstrates that an initial injection of spending, whether from government expenditure, investment, or consumption, doesn't just have a one-time impact. Instead, it sets off a series of interconnected spending and income-generation processes that result in a larger overall increase in economic activity. t's important to note that the multiplier effect can work in reverse as well. If there's a decrease in spending, it can lead to a decrease in economic activity and income through the same chain reaction process. This concept highlights the interconnected nature of economic activities and emphasizes the significance of changes in spending patterns on a nation's overall economic health. The magnitude of the multiplier effect is influenced by factors such as the marginal propensity to consume (the proportion of additional income that households spend), leakages (savings and taxes that reduce the multiplier effect), and the extent to which additional spending creates additional production capacity within the economy. Understanding the multiplier effect is essential for policymakers, as it helps them gauge the potential impacts of changes in fiscal and monetary policies on the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0266.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change impact; ecosystem functionality; freshwater ecosystems; UKCP09; hydroecological impact; river health
Online: 24 December 2018 (04:37:17 CET)
Climate change represents a major threat to lotic freshwater ecosystems and their ability to support the provision of ecosystem services. England’s chalk streams are in a poor state of health, with significant concerns regarding their resilience, the ability to adapt, under a changing climate. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change on hydroecological response, the health of the river, for the River Nar, a SSSI in the south-east of England. To this end, we apply a coupled hydrological and hydroecological modelling framework, with the UKCP09 probabilistic climate projections serving as input (A1B high emissions scenario). Results show that, from 2021 to the end of the century, hydroecological response becomes more heterogeneous. Despite the limited range of the functional feeding groups on the baseline, the River Nar has been able to adapt to extreme events due to inter-annual variation. In the future, this variation is greatly reduced, raising real concerns over the resilience of the river ecosystem under climate change. These new insights into the health of the River Nar, and chalk streams more generally, highlights the necessity of further study and the real need to for changed river management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0528.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community onset ESBL -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae; Urinary tract infection; Clinical impact; Economic impact
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:08:23 CET)
Objective: To analyze the clinical and economic impact of community-onset urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring hospitalization. Methods: A retrospective cohort study included all adults with UTI caused by K. pneumoniae admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Barcelona, Spain, between 2011 and 2015. Demographic, clinical and economic data were analyzed. Results: One hundred and seventy-three episodes of UTI caused by K. pneumoniae were studied; 112 were non-ESBL-producing and 61 ESBL-producing. Multivariate analysis identified ESBL production, acute confusional state associated with UTI, shock, and time to adequate treatment as risk factors for clinical failure during the first 7 days. Economic analysis showed differences between ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae for the total cost of hospitalization per episode (mean 6,718 € vs 3,688 € respectively). Multivariate analysis of the higher costs of UTI episodes found statistically significant differences for ESBL production and time to adequate treatment. Conclusion: UTI caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae requiring hospitalization, and time to adequate antimicrobial therapy are associated with worse clinical and economic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1034.v1
Online: 15 November 2023 (15:53:04 CET)
The existence of insecurity in a state necessitates immediate government attention and action as it poses a risk to human life and property and impedes socio-economic development. The study aims to evaluate insecurity and its impact on socio-economic development in Oyo state. It will also determine the major causes of insecurity problems and offer data that can help develop effective security strategies and policies. The study population consisted of residents who were randomly selected from the Ibarapa North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey method was adopted and analyzed with the Chi-square technique. According to this research, there is a negative correlation between insecurity and the state's socio-economic development. The study recommends good governance and inclusive government policies to curb insecurity and ensure the state's socio-economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0283.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: information technology; impact; society; future
Online: 13 September 2022 (08:27:14 CEST)
As we are aware Information Technology had its cutting-edge lifestyle from the overdue sixties of the remaining century whilst the Arpanet become introduced, funded with the aid of using the branch of protection of the USA. After that, the IT enterprise has come a protracted manner to its cutting-edge form in which its miles gambling a dominant function in each sphere of life. It has made innovative modifications in facts amassing and dissemination and worldwide communication. It is growing into a surely paperless painting environment. Also, we can now ship a message very without difficulty to everywhere withinside the international in seconds. From a schooling factor of view, we can have a digital elegance in which the teacher ought to take a seat down in any part of the arena and his college students scattered in all exceptional elements of the arena via video convention with the presentation of look at substances in addition to query and solution sessions. A health practitioner now sitting in any part of the arena ought to carry out a surgical procedure in which the affected person is mendacity in some other part of the arena. These work examples display where we stand these days compared to what has become 1/2 of a century back. But as we recognize, nothing on this international is only correct as the whole thing has a darkish side. In this paper, we might speak about the deserves and demerits of enforcing IT globally and in which we are heading withinside the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0129.v1
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:26:57 CEST)
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country like Bangladesh is enormous. A research conducted by South Asian network of Economic Modelling predicted that the pandemic could double the poverty. But it is not that only the socioeconomic condition is dropping in Bangladesh, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic is manifold. The poor condition of Bangladesh's health sector has also been exposed due to the pandemic. People are not getting proper treatment due to lack of isolation beds, oxygen, ICU etc. The health sector of Bangladesh is not much developed and now with this pandemic it has become impossible to provide treatment facility for all the patients. Education sector, which is the backbone of a country,has also been greatly affected by the pandemic. We know that different types of cultural occasions are an inherited tradition of Bangladesh, COVID-19 have not even spared these traditions, all the cultural programes and festivals have been cancelled due to this pandemic.In this paper, our aim is to present the present status of all these sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0377.v1
Online: 27 May 2018 (11:21:52 CEST)
The aim of this study was to examine the post-injury psychological impact looking for to avoid sources of health issues. We have analyzed differences in the stress, anxiety and depression levels between male and female football players who have suffered at least one injury during the last season played respect to similar players who have not been injured. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The participants were 187 football players and data on the player’s injuries were collected. A Self-reported Questionnaire collected number, type and severity of injuries sustained during the previous sports season (twelve months), and also the player’s current situation being injured or not injured. To evaluate the psychological variables, the DASS-21 questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the male injured players presented anxiety levels higher than those who were non-injured. When we observe the female players’ data, the stress levels of the non-injured ones are higher than those of the injured players. Regarding the non-injured athletes, results showed that the female non-injured players presented values in anxiety higher than those corresponding to the non-injured male players. Thus, sport injury affects mental health issues such as anxiety and stress, and in a different way regarding gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0274.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall impact; impact resistance; hollow thin-walled bridge pier; response surface model; dura-bility assessment
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:04:48 CEST)
Continuous rigid frame bridges across valleys are often at the risk of rockfalls caused by heavy rainfalls, earthquakes and debris flows in a mountainous country. Hollow thin-walled bridge piers (HTWBP) in valleys are exposed to the threat of the impact of accidental rockfalls. In the current research, ANSYS/LS-DYNA is used to establish a high-precision rockfall-HTWBP model. The rockfall-HTWBP model is verified against a scaled impact test of a previous research. A mesh independence test is also performed to obtained an appropriate mesh size. Based on the rockfall-HTWBP model, the impact force, damage and dynamic response characteristics of HTWBP under the rockfall impact are studied. In addition, a damage assessment criteria is proposed based on the response surface model combined with Central Composite Design method and Box-Behnken Design method. The main conclusions are as follows: 1）The impact force of rockfall has a substantial impulse characteristic, and the duration of the impulse load is approximately 0.01s. 2）The impacted surface of the pier is dominated by the final elliptic damage with the conical and strip damage areas as the symmetry axis. The cross-sectional damage mode is compression failure in the impact area and shear failure at the corner. 3）The maximum displacement occurs in the middle height of the pier. The maximum displacement increases with impact height, impact velocity and rockfall diameter and decreases with the uniaxial compressive strength of the concrete. 4) The initial impact velocity and diameter of the rockfall are the most significant parameters affecting the damage indices. In addition, a damage assessment method with a damage zoning diagram based on the response surface method is established for the fast assessment of the damage level of impacted HTWBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: normalized indicators; correlation analysis; Source Normalized Impact per Paper; SNIP; Field-Weighted Citation Impact; FWCI
Online: 1 August 2018 (05:57:55 CEST)
Recently, more and more countries are entering the global race for university competitiveness. On the one hand, global rankings are a convenient tool for quantitative analysis. On the other hand, their indicators are often difficult to quickly calculate, they often contradict each other. We thought about using widely available indicators for a quick analysis of the University's publication strategy. We opted for the normalized citation indicators available in SciVal analytical tool, i.e. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) and Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI). We have demonstrated the possibility of applying the correlation analysis to the impact indicators of a document and a journal on the sample of the social and humanitarian fields at Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Particular attention was paid to the application of the results in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1856.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; suicide; accident; pandemic; impact
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:07:16 CEST)
Globally 703 000 people commit suicide (4th leading cause of mortality among 15-29 year-olds, 1.4% of all deaths globally) every year, which have a negative effect on families, colleagues, and societies. India accounts for 36.6 percent of global suicide in women and 24.3 percent among men, while having only 17.8 percent of the global population, also remarkable fact is that the suicide ratio for female is 14.7 per 100,000 compared to 21.2 per 100,000 of male which is 2.1 times the global average in female, while 1.4 times higher for men. COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) pandemic has certainly affected the physical, mental, economical and social well being of global population directly or indirectly in different ways. Deteriorating physical, mental, economical and social health of an individual could increase the suicidal tendency, leading to accidents and suicide. This study tried to find out the COVID-19 pandemic situation impact on accidental death as well as suicide rates in India. The study period is from 1st January 1967 to 31st December 2021, to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic situation on suicide and accidental death rates. This study revealed that the suicide deaths percentage among males increased significantly in comparison to females in COVID-19 era and actual count and incidence also increased. This study revealed that the mean accidental death and suicide both increased during COVID period of study as compared to pre-pandemic whole period from 1967 by 25.47 % and 30.61% respectively. Alternatively we can say that the accidental death and suicides increased significantly in India, which is largely preventable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0867.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal insulation; energy efficiency; environmental impact
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:54:19 CEST)
The thermal insulation properties of building walls are critical to the overall energy efficiency and comfort of a building. One important factor that can affect these properties is the type of bricks used in construction. Bricks can vary in their geometry and thermal coefficient, which can impact their ability to transfer heat through the wall. The geometry of a brick can affect its thermal properties by altering the amount of air trapped within it and the surface area available for heat transfer. Hollow bricks or those with complex geometries may have lower thermal conductivity than regular solid bricks due to the air pockets trapped within them. Conversely, larger surface areas on the exterior of the brick can increase heat transfer. The thermal coefficient of clay, a common material used in brick production, is another important factor. Clay has a relatively low thermal conductivity, meaning it is a poor conductor of heat. However, the quality of the clay, as well as the firing temperature and duration used in brick production, can impact its thermal coefficient. Higher firing temperatures and longer firing times can result in a more compact and dense clay brick, which can improve its thermal properties. In summary, the thermal insulation properties of building walls can be significantly affected by the type of bricks used in their construction. It is important to consider the geometry and thermal coefficient of the bricks when designing a building to achieve the desired level of thermal insulation. By selecting bricks with appropriate properties, designers can help to improve the energy efficiency and comfort of the building while reducing its environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0776.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Ecotourism; Participations; Perceptions; Impact; Protected area
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:07:16 CEST)
This study aims to examine households' perceptions of the socio-cultural, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism in the protected area, focusing on Simien Mountain National Park, North west Ethiopia. Using a mixed research approach with a sequential explanatory design, we collected data through a single-round cross-sectional survey, interviews, focus groups, discussions, and secondary sources of information. Three districts were selected using a multi-stage sampling method, and 397 respondents were surveyed. We analyzed the quantitative data using percentages, averages, t-tests, ANOVA, and regression models, and examined the qualitative data using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that households living in the park generally perceived the social, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism as favorable. However, the study also revealed that the benefits of tourism are not being fully utilized, indicating the potential for further development. We found significant differences in how people perceived ecotourism based on their gender, education, and residence location. Specifically, men and respondents with higher levels of education were more likely to perceive ecotourism positively. The logistic regression model revealed a statistically significant direct cause-and-effect relationship between three demographic factors of household respondents' participation in ecotourism (dependent variable) and gender (B = 1.85, p = 0.023), educational attainment (B = 0.23, p = 0.003), and location (B = 0.42, p = 0.041). In light of these findings, the authors recommend that the local government and the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Agency should develop sustainable plans for tourism that will benefit nearby communities and improve living conditions in the park.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; transmission; meteorological impact
Online: 19 July 2022 (04:05:25 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known globally as COVID-19, originated in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province in China and has rapidly spread across the globe ever since. The first recorded case in sub-Saharan Africa was in Nigeria, on the 25th February, 2020. The virus continues to spread, and new variants of the disease have emerged, the number of deaths and new infections in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa has been relatively low compared to predictive models. This could be due to several factors, such as slower transmission dynamics of the virus, a lower-case fatality rate, or a lack of testing or reliable data. Whilst this may also, in part, be due to the robustness of the nations' public health responses, there is scarce reporting on the specifics of this. However, emerging research has demonstrated that various environmental factors could influence virus transmission. The study adopted collected meteorological data that was critically analysed and discussed. The impact of three factors in the context of sub-Saharan African nations: temperature, ultraviolet (UV) exposure and pre-existing infection with Plasmodium (malaria) were discussed. These factors were discussed critically in light of the reduced rates of transmission and mortality observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0115.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tourism; islands; impact; economic development; sustainability
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:45:35 CET)
Tourism may not sustainably support territories with limited natural resource stock as islands. The volume in visitor arrivals and the industry investments can increase the pressure even beyond sustainable levels. There is an evident and unresolved tension between these two great polarities, sustainability and economic growth driven by tourism. The aim for policymakers is to find an acceptable equilibrium between these two dimensions. This paper investigates the tourism evolution between 2007 and 2019 in 15 Mediterranean islands, comparing the tourism pressures through statistical indicators. The analysis will compare tourism demand and supply trends in these contexts. The performances will be evaluated to identify the Islands positioning between sustainability needs and tourism development opportunities considering post-covid-19 challenges.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Determinants; Impact; Mammary gland; Mastitis; Pathogens
Online: 21 August 2020 (11:07:07 CEST)
Abstract Mastitis is a common disease of dairy animals. The source of mastitis infection may be regarded as contagious or environmental. A wide range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and the toxins of these pathogens can cause the disease. Mastitis is generally associated with poor hygienic and husbandry practices. The primary reservoir of infection is the mammary gland. The infectious agent enters through the milk canal, interacts with the mammary tissue/cells and multiplies. Most contagious mastitis causing pathogens are spread during milking. Most other species are opportunistic invaders from the cow's environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0458.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; socio-economic; impact; Bangladesh
Online: 25 April 2020 (10:31:39 CEST)
The COVID-19 has caused gigantic negative effects on populace wellbeing, society, education, and the economy in Bangladesh. The aim is to deliver a comprehensive overview of the observed and the possible impacts that could appear in the coming days. The study is based on secondary information. During the early period, due to a lack of accurate facts about the case affected and death tension up-and-down among the nations. The total number of confirmed cases is increasing following geometric patterns in Bangladesh. Dairy farmers, vegetable producers, pharmaceuticals, poultry farmers are in deep crisis due to lower prices. Also, the pandemic has seriously affected educational systems, banking, FDI, ready-made garments, remittances, etc Finally, it is not possible to mitigate the effects of pandemic individually but the integrated effort from the state authority as well as concern people of all sectors need to come forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: aflatoxins; Mozambique; impact; health; economy; regulation
Online: 20 June 2018 (09:50:00 CEST)
Aflatoxins are a known cause of primary liver cancer in Mozambique since pre-independence epidemiological studies. However, their impact goes beyond the public health, affecting the country’s economy and raising legal concerns. As a developing country endemic for Aspergillus, the nation has been struggling to keep pace with external trade quality demands, delicate policy making, still dealing with the farmers’ limitations to control the contamination. The contamination shows variations over time, space and the different commodities. Considering the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius, the major crops will be highly implicated unless there is major intervention from the authorities to control the toxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: precision agriculture; durum wheat; Italy; case study; economic impact; agro-environmental impact; sustainability; nitrogen efficiency; profitability
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:32:28 CEST)
The European Green Deal has set a concrete strategic plan to increase farm sustainability. At the same time, the current global challenges, due to climate change and fuels and commodity market crisis, combined with the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing war in Ukraine, comprise the need for quality food, but also the reduction of negative external effects of agricultural production, with fair remuneration for the farmers. In response, precision agriculture has great potential to contribute to the sustainable development. Precision agriculture is a farming management that provides a holistic system approach to managing the spatial and temporal crop and soil variability within a field to improve the farm’s performance and sustainability. However, farmers are still hesitant to adopt it. On these premises, the study aims to evaluate the impacts of precision agriculture technologies on farm profitability, agronomic and environmental management by farmers adopting (or not) these technologies, using the case study method. In detail, the work focuses on the period 2014-2022 for two farms that cultivate durum wheat in Central Italy. The results suggest that the implementation of precision technologies can guarantee economic and agri-environmental efficiency. Results could serve as a basis for developing a program to start training in farms as well as suggest policy strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: perceived-impact of climate change; climate change adaptation; ordered probit regression; determinants of climate change impact
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:31:37 CET)
This paper identifies the characteristics of the farmer that affect the degree of farmer’s perceived-impact of climate change (CC). We use data from the Indonesian Rice Farm Household survey consisting of 87,330 farmers. An ordered probit regression model was used to estimate the effect of each variable on the degree of perceived-impact of CC. The results of this study confirm the previous empirical studies. Several variables that have been identified as having a positive effect on farmer adaptation practices such as farmer education, land tenure, irrigation infrastructure, cropping system, chemical fertilizer application, access to extension services and participation in farmer group affect the degree of CC perceived-impact negatively. However, a different result was found in the estimation of the gender variable. We found that female farmer has a higher resilience toward CC than the male farmer does. Furthermore, the female farmer has a more positive perception about future farming conditions than the male does. Finally, we suggest that the implementation of national adaptation policy should prioritize more to the farmer with insecure land tenure and utilize and expand the channel of agricultural extension services to deliver the planned adaptation policy.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corona virus; environmental degradation; hydrogen economy; clean energy; renewable sources; non renewable sources; economic impact; environmental impact.
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:49:50 CET)
Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has slow down the world economic system. The pandemic has cleared the roads, close factories and grounded planes causing severe economic challenges. The damaging impact of the pandemic amid lockdown has been a blessing in guise for the environment because of significant drop in pollution level as transport and industrial sectors shutdown. Transport and industrial sectors are major contributors to environmental degradation through various emissions as a result of fossil fuel consumption. Energy consumed by transport and industrial sectors will have to shift to viable, readily available, economically and environmentally friendly with no carbon build up post Covid-19 pandemic. Hydrogen energy remains the best alternative option technologies containing green house gas emission and pollutions of several forms. Hydrogen holds the potential to provide a clean, reliable, renewable and economical source of energy for meeting the growing and unending global energy needs post pandemic. The present paper explores the economic feasibility and potential of hydrogen to serve as a competitive fuel option post pandemic. In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier hydrogen economy structure, potential of hydrogen economy, hydrogen production methods, hydrogen application and the economic and environmental importance of hydrogen as a viable fuel option post covid-19 pandemic were discussed. There will be a surge in demand and investment for hydrogen economy post Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1941.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Impact; ChatGPT; Maladaptive Learning Habits; Mixed-Method
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:27:29 CET)
This mixed-methods research article explores the influence of ChatGPT, a state-of-the-art AI language model, on the development of maladaptive learning habits in users. The study combines quantitative and qualitative data to provide a comprehensive understanding of how engaging with ChatGPT may inadvertently foster detrimental learning behaviors. Findings suggest that while ChatGPT can be a valuable learning tool, it has the potential to exacerbate or create bad learning habits if not used mindfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1741.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Impact; ChatGPT; student; learning behavior; experimental research
Online: 27 October 2023 (05:19:25 CEST)
The advent of artificial intelligence has ushered in a new era of digital tools, including chatbots and virtual assistants, for educational purposes. ChatGPT, an advanced language model, has gained popularity as an educational aid. However, concerns have emerged regarding its potential negative impact on student learning behavior. This experimental research study investigates the influence of ChatGPT on student learning behavior and offers insights into its potential drawbacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0653.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: UAV; alcohol impact; flight precision; UAV control
Online: 11 September 2023 (11:16:49 CEST)
This study examines the impact of alcohol concentration on the precision of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations. While the impact of alcohol impairment on various activities is well documented, its specific influence on drone piloting accuracy remains less studied. To address this, we carried out empirical research using an original methodology and a real-world environment. The study involved a group of 35 participants performing a series of flights using a selected drone (DJI Mavic2 Pro) on a bespoke obstacle route. Between each flight series, participants consumed a measured amount of alcohol, designed to incrementally increase their blood alcohol concentration monitored via breath tests. The precision of the drone pilot was evaluated by comparing various parameters from successive test flights, such as time, distance, average speed, and incident frequency, against a baseline trial executed with zero alcohol concentration. Our results indicate a noticeable decline in UAV piloting precision corresponding with increasing alcohol concentration. Parameters such as flight time, distance, speed, and incident frequency all demonstrated this trend. We conclude that alcohol consumption detrimentally affects the accuracy of drone operations. These findings underscore the need for clear policies and guidelines regarding the operation of UAVs under the influence of alcohol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0193.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: artificial intelligence; job market; automation; economic impact
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:37:39 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands as an emerging technology poised to reshape various facets of our daily lives, with a particularly noteworthy influence on the labor market. In Morocco, AI adoption has commenced in diverse sectors, including finance, insurance, and telecommunications, opening up fresh avenues for employment. Nevertheless, this technological shift also ushers in challenges for Moroccan workers, necessitating training and upskilling to effectively engage with AI-driven systems. Within this article, we delve into the burgeoning impact of AI on the Moroccan economy and job landscape, delving into both the opportunities and obstacles that accompany its proliferation. Furthermore, we explore strategies that authorities and businesses can employ to harness the benefits of AI while mitigating its potential adverse effects on Morocco's workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: austenitic steel; hydrogen charging; impact toughness; tribology
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:36:17 CEST)
In this work a solution-annealed AISI 316H grade austenitic stainless steel was studied in terms of investigating the electrolytic hydrogen charging effects on the resulting Charpy impact toughness and dry sliding tribological behavior. Conventional Charpy impact bending tests were employed to study the mechanical response of the investigated material to dynamic loading conditions, whereas dry linear sliding tribological tests were used to study the material friction and wear behavior. The obtained mechanical and tribological properties were correlated with corresponding fracture and tribological mechanisms determined from morphological observations of fracture surfaces and tribological tracks. The applied testing procedures were individually carried out for the non-hydrogenated, hydrogen-charged, and dehydrogenated material conditions. The observed changes of individual properties due to applied hydrogen charging were rather small which indicated good resistance of the solution-annealed AISI 316H steel against material degradation in currently used electrolytic hydrogenation conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biomechanics; martial arts; impact force; maximum velocity
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:01:17 CEST)
Impact force and maximum velocity are important indicators of kick efficiency in fighting activities. Therefore, this systematic review compared the front kick (FK) and roundhouse kick (RK), including maximal and impact force, maximum velocity, maximum angular velocity, and execution time, at different target types and experience levels. The Web of Science, SportDiscus, and PubMed were systematically searched from January 1982 to May 2022, according to PRISMA guidelines. The normalized kicking values were compared using one-way ANOVA. Eighteen articles, including FK with a pooled sample of 113 elite men, 109 sub-elite men, and 46 novices, and 25 articles, including RK with a sample of 238 elite men, 143 sub-elite men, and 27 novice men, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The primary findings were that the impact forces of FK were higher than RK for the novice, sub-elite, and elite groups by 47% (p<0.01), 92% (p<0.01), and 120% (p<0.01), respectively. Moreover, the maximum foot velocity of RK was faster than FK for the sub-elite and elite groups by 44% (p<0.01) and 48% (p<0.01), respectively. The Elite group had 65% (p<0.01) higher knee extension angular velocity within RK than FK, and 138% (p<0.01) higher hip extension angular velocity within FK than RK.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0980.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Ultrasonic impact treatment; strengthening effect
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:54:18 CEST)
Metal fabrications experience complex physical metallurgical processes during additive manufacturing, leading to residual stress and coarse microstructure with directional growth. It significantly affects the comprehensive performance of the fabrications, which limits the application of additive manufacturing. Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT), as a strengthening means to assist additive manufacturing, can effectively improve the stress state and refine the microstructure and the comprehensive performance. This paper introduces the effect of UIT on AM metal fabrications on microstructure morphology, stress distribution, surface roughness, internal defects, and comprehensive performance to gain a deeper understanding of the role of UIT on additively manufactured metal fabrications, which is based on the working principle and effect of process parameters. In addition, the strengthening mechanism of UIT in additive manufacturing is described from the perspective of surface plastic deformation and substructure formation, providing support for the shape and property control of metal fabrications in the process of additive manufacturing assisted by UIT. Finally, the issues that need to be studied in depth on UIT in additive manufacturing are summarized, and an outlook on future research directions is taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1722.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Research impact; engineering; Mexico; article citation analysis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:11:55 CEST)
Engineers make things, make things work, and make things work better and easier. This kind of knowledge is crucial for innovation, and much of the explicit knowledge developed by engineers is embodied in scientific publications. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of publications and citations in Engineering in a middle-income country such as Mexico. Using a database of all Mexican publications in Web of Science from 2004 to 2017, we explore the characteristics of publications that tend to have the greatest impact; this is the highest number of citations. Among the variables studied are the type of collaboration (no collaboration, domestic, bilateral, or multilateral), the number of coauthors and countries, the language of the article, controlling for a coauthor from the USA and the affiliation institution of the Mexican author(s). Our results emphasize the overall importance of joint international efforts and suggest that publications with the highest number of citations are those with multinational collaboration (coauthors from three or more countries), written in English, and when one of the coauthors is from the USA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0047.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Anthropization; Environmental impact; Water resource; Land-use.
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:28:44 CET)
The suppression of natural spaces due to the urban sprawl and increase of the built and agricultural environments has impacted the water resources quality, especially in areas with high population density, as the metropolitan regions. Considering the advance in Brazilian environmental legal framework, the present study aims to verify whether land use has still significantly affected water quality, through a case study in the Stones River watershed, a peri-urban river basin at a metropolitan region, Brazil. Analysis of physical-chemical indicators, collected at several sample points with different land-use (urban areas, commercial forestry, riparian forestry, mixed vegetation, pasture, and sugar cane plantation) at different seasons of the year (dry and rainy) were carried out. As a result, it was verified some statistically significant spatiotemporal effects on the of water quality caused associated to the land-use. In conclusion, in spite of the advances in the Brazilian law, land-use has still significantly affected the water quality, demanding public policies and decisions, so that effective compliance with legal guidelines is ensured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: piezo actuator; impact actuator; freely moveable masses
Online: 1 August 2022 (03:35:09 CEST)
We present the prototype and analytical model of a miniaturized impact actuation mechanism, providing a fast out-of-plane displacement to accelerate objects against gravity, allowing for freely moving objects and hence for large displacements without the need of cantilevers. To achieve the necessary high speed, we chose a piezo electric stack actuator driven by a high-current pulse generator, connected to a rigid support and a rigid three-point contact with the object. We describe this mechanism with a spring-mass model and compare various inertial masses, all of them spheres, from different diameters and materials. As expected, we found that larger flight heights are achieved by harder projectiles, achieving, e.g., approx. 3 mm displacement for a 3 mm steel sphere using a 3x3x2 mm³ piezo stack.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Configuration effect; QCA; Burdensome impact; Digital tool
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:36:10 CEST)
[Research Objective] In the context of the rapid development of digital governance, understanding and analyzing the burden level of digital tools in the process of serving digital governance from multiple perspectives is an important prerequisite for improving the capacity and accuracy of government digital governance, promoting sustainable public participation, and maximizing digital value in the new era. [Research Method] By constructing a model of the burden of digital tools caused by technical, organizational and environmental factors on the public based on the TOE framework, using SPSS for data testing based on 275 research questionnaires, and using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to explore the linkage ways and paths of the burden-increasing effect of digital tools in a holistic perspective. [Research findings] does not constitute a necessary condition for high levels of digital tool affordances under a single condition, but improving users' digital literacy plays a more general role in optimising the efficiency of digital tool use. According to the results, there are five dominant patterns that have a significant impact, i.e. the driving paths that lead to high levels of digital tool affordability are characterised by a "homogeneous approach". In the cross-group study, significant differences were found in the driving paths of high digital tool affordability by group, depending on the level of digital tool mastery. This paper suggests that the government should continue to pay attention to affordability levels, rationalise the use of financial resources, improve the level of digital tool adaptation, and innovate the existing performance evaluation system for digital governance indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0400.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: gauging weirs; impact; swimming performance; hydraulic barriers
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:05:33 CET)
The monitoring of river discharge is vital for the correct management of water resources. A worldwide facility used for measuring discharge are flat-V gauging weirs. These structures consist of a small weir, with a triangular cross-section and a flat “V”-shaped notch. Their extensive use is a consequence of their utility in the measurement of both low and high flow conditions. However, depending on their size, local morphology and river discharge can act as full or partial hydraulic barriers to fish migration. To give answer to this question, the present work studies fish passage performance over flat-V weirs considering their hydraulic performance. For this, radio-tracking and video monitoring observations were combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in two flat-V weirs, using Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) as target species. Results show that fish passage is conditioned by both hydraulic and behavioral processes, providing evidences about the scenarios where flat-V weirs may act as full or partial barriers to upstream movements. For the studied flat-V weirs, a discharge range of 0.27-8 m3/s, with a water drop difference between upstream and downstream water levels lower than 0.7 m and a depth downstream the weir higher than 0.30 m can be considered as an effective passage situation for barbels. These findings are of interest to quantify flat-V weir impacts, for engineering applications and to establish managing or retrofitting actions when required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: bibliometrics; publication statistics; open Access; citation impact
Online: 29 August 2018 (10:32:21 CEST)
Based on the total scholarly article output of Norway, we investigated the coverage and degree of openness according to three bibliographic services 1) Google Scholar, 2) oaDOI by Impact Story and 3) 1findr by 1science. According to Google Scholar, we find that more than 70% of all Norwegian articles are openly available. However, degrees are profoundly lower according to oaDOI and 1findr, respectively 31% and 52%. Varying degrees are mainly caused by different interpretations of openness, with oaDOI being most restrictive. Furthermore, open shares vary considerably by discipline, with the Medcine and Health sciences at the upper and the Humanities at the lower end. We also determined the citation frequencies using Cited-by values as of Google Scholar, applying year and subject normalization. We find a significant citation advantage for open articles. However, this is not the case for all types of openness. In fact, the category Open Access journals was by far lowest cited, indicating that young journals with a declared open access policy still lack recognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0460.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Climate Change; Ecosystem Services; Impact; adaptation; Nepal
Online: 27 August 2018 (12:55:03 CEST)
Ecosystem services (ES) are increasingly recognized as a means to adapt to the ongoing impact of climate change and associated impacts. However, these ES itself are facing adverse impact of climate change especially in developing countries where most of the people are dependent on these services for their livelihood. Very little is known about the relationship between the climate change and ES. Here we assess the impact of climate change on ecosystem services in ES rich landscape of Panchase Mountain Ecological Region of western Nepal. The study area was divided into three ecoregions from lowland through midland to the upland region. Focus group discussion, and key informant interview were used to elicit the required data for the study, which was further supported by transect walk, field observation and secondary source of information. Major impacts of climate change were observed are, reduced availability of water, reduced food production, forest ecosystem, shifting species composition in forest ecosystem, farmland abandonment, and their associated ecosystem services. We recommend to initiate the management actions to help ES adapt to climate change, and which in return could support the ecosystem itself and people dependent on the ES in adaptation to climate change by providing various goods and services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Landfill, Waste, Socio-environmental impact, Hematologic diseases
Online: 4 October 2016 (09:03:17 CEST)
We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that alongside with physical, social and economic developments is having a significant impact on population’s health. Due to higher apprehensions of pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to measure the socio-environmental and hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill – “Bairro Espírito Santo” by using the contextualization of the studied area. The research method is Observational type and from Retrospective cohort and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC region. The study determined a socio environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The full blood counts analysis was performed, indicating that the blood counts of residents living near the landfill led to positive hematological changes and diseases like Leukopenia, Anemia, Neutropenia and lymphocytosis were the most common changes. However it is considered that the proof of the relation of cause- effect to environmental exposures that may trigger chronic manifestations in humans requires specific studies that are often complicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0245.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Disease; Diffusion; Health; Health Impact Fund; Impact Rewards; Incentives; Innovation; Monop-oly Rewards; Pandemic; Patents; Pharmaceuticals; Poverty; Vaccines
Online: 19 May 2022 (03:19:21 CEST)
Globalized in 1995 through the TRIPs Agreement, humanity’s dominant mechanism for encouraging innovations involves 20-year product patents, whose monopoly features enable innovators to reap large markups or licensing fees from early users. Exclusive reliance on this reward mechanism in the pharmaceutical sector is morally problematic for two main reasons. First, it imposes a great burden on poor people who cannot afford to buy patented treatments at monopoly prices and whose specific health problems are therefore neglected by pharmacological research. Second, it discourages pharmaceutical firms from fighting diseases at the population level with the aim of slashing their incidence. These problems can be much alleviated by establishing a supplementary alternative reward mechanism that would enable pharmaceutical innovators to exchange their monopoly privileges on a patented product for impact rewards based on the actual health gains achieved with this product. Such an international Health Impact Fund (HIF) would create powerful new incentives to develop remedies against diseases concentrated among the poor, rapidly to provide such remedies with ample care at very low prices, and to deploy them strategically to contain, suppress, and ideally to eradicate the target disease. By promoting innovations and their diffusion together, the HIF would greatly enlarge the benefits, and thereby also the cost-effectiveness, of the pharmaceutical sector, in favor of the world’s poor especially.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0230.v1
Subject: Sustainable Science And Technology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: subtropics; plateau region; environmental impact; life cycle assessment
Online: 5 December 2023 (04:47:37 CET)
Although agricultural crops production systems in subtropical plateau regions currently pose high environmental risks, especially in developing countries, their environmental impacts and emission-reduction potentials remain unclear, and the development potential of such systems is likely huge. We conducted a case study in Yunnan Province, China, to quantify the environmental impacts from crop production during 2002–2021. The life cycle assessment method was employed to identify factors driving the environmental impacts, and potential mitigation strategies were proposed. The yield and total nutrient input of grain crops in Yunnan Province increased over the 20-year period, and environmental footprint of crops production in Yunnan Province was higher than that of other regions. Average annual mean greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and soil acidification potentials (AP) and water eutrophication potentials (EP) of crops production during 2002–2021 were 732 kg CO2-eq·Mg-1, 15.8 kg SO2-eq·Mg-1, and 2.7 kg PO4-eq Mg-1, respectively. GHG emissions from g crops mainly originated from applying agricultural materials during the crop life cycle. There was a significant correlation between surplus nitrogen and environmental impacts. Scenario testing showed that through crop sowing, nutrient regulation, and crop management, the crop yield could be increased and environmental costs could be reduced. The greatest reductions were found in wheat production: 53.1%, 67.9%, and 67.7% for GHG emissions, AP, and EP, respectively. Adopting comprehensive agricultural management measures could reduce the negative impact of crops production on the environment in subtropical plateau areas and achieve sustainable agricultural development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1790.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: superhydrophobic substrate; droplet impact; spreading dynamics; contact time
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:25:52 CET)
The phenomenon of droplet impact on moving surfaces is widely observed in fields such as transportation, rotating machinery, and inkjet printing. Droplets exhibit non-axisymmetric behavior due to the motion of solid surfaces which significantly determines core parameters such as contact time, maximum spreading radius, and bounding velocity, thereby affecting the efficiency of related applications. In this study, we focus on kinetics and morphology of the non-axisymmetric bouncing behaviors for droplets impacting on a moving superhydrophobic surface (SHPS) within the normal (Wen) and tangential (Wet) Weber numbers. Considering the influences of moving surface on the contact area and contact time, the previous scaling formula for the horizontal velocity of droplets has been improved. Based on the velocity superposition hypothesis, we establish a theoretical model for the ratio of the maximum spreading radius at both ends depending on Wen and Wet. This research provides both experimental and theoretical evidence for understanding and controlling the non-axisymmetric behavior of droplets impacting on moving surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0755.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: indexers; impact factor; inequality; Matthew effect; citations; journals
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:55:31 CET)
The inclusion of scientific journals in prestigious indexers is often associated with higher citation rates; journals included in such indexers are significantly more acknowledged than those that are not included in them. This phenomenon refers to the Matthew effect on journal citations, according to which, journals in exclusive rankings tend to be increasingly cited. This paper shows the opposite: that the inclusion of journals in local indexers ruled by inclusive logic reduces the Matthew effect on journal citations, since it enables them to be equally exposed. Thus, we based our arguments on the comparison of 68 Brazilian journals before and after they were indexed in the Scientific Periodicals Electronic Library (Spell), which ranks journals in the Brazilian management field based on local citations. Citation impact indicators and iGini (a new individual inequality analysis measure) were used to show that the inclusion of journals in Spell has increased their impact factor and decreased their citation inequality rates. In addition, the results indicated that the effect between ranking and inequality has declined after journals were included in Spell; this outcome indicates that the database has reduced the Matthew effect on journal citations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2089.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: avoided impact; digital; ICT services; life cycle assessment
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:50:13 CET)
Certain services can help avoid environmental impact in larger contexts. However, there is no commonly agreed bottom-up methodology for calculation of the total net reduction effect of specific digital services. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a common denominator for most methodologies. The most common method is the Attributional LCA (ALCA), and recently the emerging handprint ALCA estimating so-called positive environmental impacts. Moreover, Consequential LCA (CLCA) can be used to capture market effects. The third conceptual approach is Input-Output LCA. The purpose is to propose and test a new method based on some of the existing ones. The existing concepts are compared and a synthesis is made to create a practical but still useful method. The new method is applied to two illustrative cases in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) domain; the introduction of a 5G enabled drone for pipe inspection and the 5G enabled health consultation. Compared to simplified ALCA, the difference between the absolute score for the baseline system and the target system changes up to 15% when the proposed simplified CLCA (SCLCA) method is used. The results show that SCLCA, when combined with analytical methods for expressing digital ICT services’ own impact, is a fruitful approach which is both practical and feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0399.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: drop; impact; experiment; fine structure; cavity; substance transfer
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:07:54 CEST)
Registration of the flow pattern fine structure and the matter distribution of a free falling liquid drop in a target fluid at rest in the impact mode of coalescence, when the kinetic energy of the drop exceeds its available potential surface energy (APSE), was carried out by photo and video recording. The main attention was paid to the study of the flow structure at the initial stage of the cavity formation. To carry out color registration, the flow pattern was illuminated by several matrix LED and fiber optic sources of constant light. The planning of experiments and interpretation of the results were based on the properties of the complete solutions of the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics system, including the transfer and conversion of energy processes. Complete solutions of the system of equations describe large-scale flow components that are waves or vortices as well as thin jets (ligaments, filaments, fibers, trickles). In experiments, the jets are accelerated by the converted available potential surface energy (APSE) when the free surfaces of merging fluids were eliminated. The experiments were performed with the coalescence of water, solutions of alizarin ink, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate or iron sulphate drops in deep water. In all cases, at the initial contact, the drop begins to lose its continuity and breaks up into a thin veil and jets, the velocity of which exceeds the drop contact velocity. Small droplets, the size of which grows with time, are thrown into the air from spikes at the jet tops. On the surface of the liquid, the fine jets leave colored traces that form linear and reticular structures. Part of the jets penetrating through the bottom and wall of the cavity forms an intermediate covering layer. The forming layer jets are separated by interfaces of the target fluid. The processes of molecular diffusion equalize the density differences and form an intermediate layer with sharp boundaries in the target fluid. All noted structural features of the flow are also visualized when a fresh water drop isothermally spreads in the same tap water. The fast-changing and finely structured diffuse boundary of merging fluids, which at the initial stage has a complex and irregular shape, is gradually smoothed out by molecular diffusion processes. The similar flow patterns were observed in all performed experiments, however the geometric features of the flow depend on the individual thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the contacting fluids.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mobile; addiction; child psychology; mental health; social impact
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:58:56 CEST)
The relationship between child psychology and the widespread usage of mobile devices in the modern day is examined in "The Mobile Dilemma: Child Psychology and the Era of Technological Dependence." The abstract serves as a brief synopsis of the work, highlighting its important ideas and arguments. Concerns concerning the effects of excessive time spent on mobile devices on children's mental health and development have arisen in this age of technology dependency. The essay opens by pointing out the importance of investigating the psychological effects of kids' exposure to mobile gadgets. The effects of mobile phone addiction on learning, memory, and social and emotional health are investigated. The neurodevelopmental implications are explored further in the abstract, with a focus on the impact of mobile technology on brain plasticity and the formation of the developing brain. It offers advice on how to establish appropriate limits for children's screen time, encourages the development of digital literacy, and promotes responsible behavior.The pros and cons of using mobile devices in the classroom are also examined, along with their effects on students' ability to study and the risks and difficulties that could arise from implementing such a strategy. The emotional and social impacts of mobile device addiction are discussed in the abstract. This includes the impact on one's social life, empathy, ability to communicate, and sense of self-worth. The abstract also stresses the importance of interdisciplinary efforts involving parents, teachers, psychologists, and legislators to combat mobile device addiction through intervention and preventative techniques. Future directions are highlighted, with a focus on topics such as mobile technology development, digital well-being, privacy protection, mental health implications, screen time limits, digital literacy, and the impact of cultural and socioeconomic variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: covid 19; urban life; behaviour; change; impact; pandemic
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:26:39 CEST)
During the Covid 19 pandemic, we saw a huge impact on the lives of individuals in cities. The way people responded was controlled and limited. The lockdown restricted a lot of movements in the cities as well as contained the citizens in their houses. Through a semi-structured interview, the research aims to understand the change in behaviour and response of individuals across various cities. The paper aims to understand how people change their day-to-day life in cities during the pandemic and while the restrictions getting released post the first wave. The paper also understands how the pandemic impacted urban spaces and what value they hold for people. By interviewing individuals from different cities, the data were transcribed and analysed to understand this behavioural change and the attitude of people. The outcome of the research was derived as a concept map through the codes generated during the research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: E-waste management; environmental impact; environmental sustainability; WEEE
Online: 10 March 2023 (11:36:12 CET)
This article aims to investigate gaps in the law and policies on e-waste management in communi-ties of Thailand and suggests a guideline for improving, developing, and designing legal measures and state policies for more effective enforcement of the law on e-waste management in communities. The findings reveal that the currently applicable law of Thailand lacks effective approaches and rules for e-waste management. Also, there is not any implementation of key envi-ronmental principles for e-waste management in communities, such as the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) that requires manufacturing companies to take part in being responsible for disposal ex-penses or the Public Participation principle that requires users, manufacturers, distributors, and government agencies to take parts in disposing e-waste. As a result, problems of e-waste in com-munities of Thailand have been continuously increasing. According to such problems, the authors suggest that legal measures on e-waste management in communities should be specifically de-signed by implementing key environmental principles as a basis in determining formats and guidelines of e-waste management, especially participation of all sectors that can help in solving and reducing e-waste in communities that is harmful to health, sanitation, and environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0423.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment; bioassays; ecotoxicological hazard; pesticides; Oxadiazon
Online: 22 November 2022 (11:56:44 CET)
Despite laws and directives for the regulation and restriction of pesticide in farming, the large use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) in paddy fields is a relevant worldwide cause of contamination of the environment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the environmental impact due to the use of PPPs by using an integrated approach based on chemical analyses and ecotoxicological hazard assessment, supported by statistical tools, in order to overcome the issues related to the traditional tabular evaluation. Samples of soil and water of seven conventional and organic paddies located in Northern Italy have been examined for two years by extensive chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. The results evidenced a direct relationship between the presence of Oxadiazon in water and bioassays responses as the main cause of the toxicity measured. This phenomenon affected both biological and conventional rice fields, due to the free circulation of water through irrigation canals. Therefore, the implementation of organic districts with a water circulation isolated from conventional fields represents a simple and effective countermeasure to safeguard the agricultural practices of organic crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SWMM; Low-impact development; Satellite observations; Temporal downscaling
Online: 20 January 2022 (10:13:05 CET)
Urban floods are typical urban disasters that threaten the economy and development of cities. Sponge cities can improve the flood resistance ability and reduce the floods by setting low-impact development measures (LID). Evaluating the floods reduction benefits is the basic link in the construction of sponge cities. Therefore, it is of great significance to evaluate the benefits of sponge cities from the perspective of different rain patterns. In this study, we investigated the urban runoff of various rainfall patterns in Mianyang city using the Strom Water Management Model (SWMM). We employed 2–100-year return periods and three different temporal rainfall downscaling methods to evaluate rain patterns and simulate urban runoff in Mianyang, with and without the implementation of sponge city measures. After calibration, model performance was validated using multi-source data concerning flood peaks and inter-annual variations in flood magnitude. Notably, the effects of peak rainfall patterns on historical floods were generally greater than the effects of synthetic rainfalls generated by temporal downscaling. Compared to the rainfall patterns of historical flood events, the flood protection capacities of sponge cities tended to be overestimated when using the synthetic rainfall patterns generated by temporal downscaling. Overall, an earlier flood peak was associated with better flood sponge city protection capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0469.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic impact; uncertainty; COVID-19, productive system, Spain
Online: 18 March 2021 (10:50:16 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Spanish economy hard. The result is an unprecedented economic and social crisis due to uncertainty about the remedy, and due to the socio-economic effects on people’s lives. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the macro-economic impact of COVID-19 in 2020, using the principal indicators of the Spanish economic and productive model. National statistics were examined in the search for impacts or anomalies occurring since the beginning of the pandemic. To estimate the strength of the impact on each of the indicators analysed, we used Bayesian structural time series. Results: In 2020, the cumulative impact on the Gross Domestic Product was of -11.41% [95% credible interval: -13.46; -9.29]. The indicator for Business Turnover fell by -9.37% [-12.71; -6.07]. The reduction in business activity was related to the sharp fall in demand. The Spanish employment market was strongly affected; our estimates showed a cumulative increase of 11.9% [4.27; 19.45] in the rate of unemployment during 2020. The autonomous communities which are economically the most heavily dependent on the services sector were those which recorded the worst indicators. Conclusions: Our estimates portray a dramatic situation in our country, and show all too clearly the fragility of a productive system which has to make the behavioural changes that are necessary to confront the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ostracod; biomimetics; transparency; scatch resistance; impact resistance; armory
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:27:26 CET)
In this study we mimic the unique, transparent protective carapace (shell) of myodocopid ostracods, through which their compound eyes see, to demonstrate that the carapace ultrastructure also provides functions of strength and protection for a relatively thin structure. The bulk ultrastructure of the transparent window in the carapace of the relatively large, pelagic cypridinid (Myodocopida) Macrocypridina castanea was mimicked using thin film deposition of dielectric materials to create a transparent, 15 bi-layer material. This biomimetic material was subjected to the natural forces withstood by the ostracod carapace in situ, including scratching by captured prey and strikes by water-borne particles. The biomimetic material was then tested in terms of its extrinsic (hardness value) and intrinsic (elastic modulus) response to indentation along with its scratch resistance. The performance of the biomimetic material was compared with that of a commonly used, anti-scratch resistant lens and polycarbonate that is typically used in the field of transparent armoury. The biomimetic material showed the best scratch resistant performance, and significantly greater hardness and elastic modulus values. The ability of biomimetic material to revert back to its original form (post loading), along with its scratch resistant qualities, offers potential for a biomimetic eye protection coating that could enhance material currently in use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0258.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation; Sociality; Economic Impact; Labor Dynamics; Urban Density
Online: 13 January 2021 (16:21:31 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 changed the way we interact and engage in commerce at a fundamental level. Social distancing and stay-at-home orders leave businesses and cities wondering what economic activity will look like in the future. Given a likely reduction in face-to-face interactions, it is important to better understand how social interactivity influences economic outcomes. Here we measure the effect of social interactions in the workforce on patent production and economic efficiency. We decompose U.S. occupations into individual work activities, determine which of those activities are associated with face-to-face interactions, and reaggregate the labor force of each U.S. metropolitan statistical area (MSA) into a metric of social interactiveness. We then calculate each MSA’s density of social work activities and find that this measure is more highly correlated with an MSA’s per capita patent production than simple population density. This suggests that density of face-to-face interactions is the important driver of a city’s rate of invention. We close by exploring analogies between the development of cities and the development of stars, suggesting ways these analogies may help frame future research on cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0164.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: impact factor; scientific significance; heavy tails; sleeping beauties
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:02:52 CET)
This article is devoted to discussing the famous Impact factor citation suited to indicate the published scientific result's significance. Considering this problem based on the available statistical data, we demonstrate that: Impact factor follows a distribution having a heavy power tail that may lead to inconsistency in scientifically comparable journals' evaluation. Further, we remark that many papers recognized as sleeping and seemingly sleeping beauties are not considered when calculating. This makes the impact factor unsuitable in evaluating the original, groundbreaking discoveries and their consequences. Due to permanent changes in the composition of the underlying datasets, the impact factor can not be considered as a reliable indicator and to be used as a consistent evaluation metric. Overall, discussing all represented impact factor obstacles and other appropriate considerations, we conclude that the considered index can hardly be used as a reliable estimator of the publication's significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social context; food value chains; impact assessment; Zimbabwe
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:34:50 CEST)
Investments in digital infrastructure in marginalised communities are set to increase in the next decade. These are premised on the potential of digital technologies to contribute towards solving societal problems, including the fragility of food value chains in rural areas. Although there are mixed empirical findings on the impact of these digital infrastructure investments, huge investments are continuing amid changing ICT policies in most developing countries. This paper, using a case study of a local livestock value chain in a rural community in Zimbabwe, argues for the application of non-conventional approaches towards digital infrastructure transformation impact assessment. Using selected theories and frameworks (socio-ecological systems framework, choice framework and technology affordances theory) as well as empirical data from a project in a rural community, the paper shows that real-time impact assessment using context-specific metrics may reveal hidden digital infrastructure transformation impacts, positive and negative, that are often overlooked when traditional impact assessment approaches are employed. The findings of this study contribute towards improving approaches towards ICT impact assessment. Practitioners engaging in impact assessment are challenged to move beyond dependence on traditional metrics (e.g. access) to the adoption of participatory processes to decipher context-appropriate metrics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: microcredit; social mobility; impact; socio-economic; class position
Online: 23 June 2020 (13:38:58 CEST)
In Bangladesh, microcredit program has been in function for almost half a century. Though popularly termed as a tool for poverty alleviation and women empowerment, criticism about microcredit program’s actual effectiveness isn’t new. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of such programs by measuring borrowers’ social mobility. Using a multidimensional approach, indicators like household income, economic susceptibility, living conditions, consumption pattern, children’s education, healthcare facilities, women’s participation in decision-making were taken into account for measurement. Quantitative method was used. Based on a non-probability sampling, 107 microcredit borrowers were selected for conducting interview schedules who live in a rural, a semi-urban and an urban area. Statistical analysis of data reveals that those who have been taking loans for several number of years have all managed to increase their income level to a variety of extent, but only those have gained some sort of mobility who have been taking loans for more than 4-5 years and have taken 5 times or more. Few of them have actually moved from microcredit to become a microfinance client by taking bigger amount of loans and having savings. Positive responses about the indicators being used in the study were found among the handful of those who have mobilized significantly. In true sense, most of the borrowers are stuck at the bottom end of socio-economic ladder and are struggling to manage a better living standard.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0461.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Economy; GDP; Global; Impact; Market; Pandemic
Online: 29 May 2020 (12:27:24 CEST)
The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus obstructed the Chinese economy and has expanded to the rest of the world at a rapid pace affecting at least 215 countries, areas and territories. The advancement of the disease and its economic repercussions is profoundly ambiguous, making it challenging for policymakers to formulate suitable microeconomic and macroeconomic policy responses. The scenarios in this paper illustrate how an outbreak could significantly affect the global economy in the short run. It has been estimated that each additional month of crisis would cost from about 2.5-3% of the global GDP and that the GDP growth would take a blow, reaching about 3-6%, depending on the country. Scenarios also suggest that GDP can drop by more than 10% and even exceed 15% in some countries. Via addressing the economic consequence of COVID-19 in different industries and countries, the paper presents assessments of the likely global economic costs of COVID-19 and the GDP growth of different countries. Economies will be negatively affected because of the high number of jobs at risk. Countries highly dependent on foreign trade are more negatively affected. Given that disease and its economic influence are highly unpredictable in numerous aspects, the global economy at the moment is the most critically threatened in history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bicycle; helmet; brain injury; EPS foam; impact; safety
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:10:36 CEST)
This study evaluates various safety aspects of standardized impacts that cyclists may suffer while wearing a bicycle helmet, by combining a partially validated finite element model of the cranio-cervical region and a newly developed bicycle helmet model. Under EN 1078 standardized impact conditions, the results of simulated impact tests show that the helmet can absorb 40% to 50 % of the total impact energy at impact velocities above 4 m/s. Further, based on a relationship between Head Injury Criterion and the risk of injury from field data, the results of the simulations suggest that minor injuries may occur at impact velocities of 10 km/h, serious injuries at 15 km/h, and severe injuries at 20 km/h. Fatal injuries will likely occur at impact velocities of 30 km/h and higher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Dimensionless number; Similarity; Scaling; Geometric distortion; Structural impact
Online: 26 February 2020 (12:28:04 CET)
A framework of similarity laws, termed oriented-density-length-velocity (ODLV) framework, is suggested for the geometric distorted structures subjected to impact loading. The distinct feature of this framework is that the newly proposed oriented dimensions, dimensionless numbers and scaling factors for physical quantity are explicitly expressed by the characteristic lengths of three spatial directions, which overcome the inherent defects that traditional scalar dimensional analysis could not express the effects of structural geometric characteristics and spatial directions for similarity. The non-scalabilities of geometrical distortion as well as other distortions such as different materials and gravity could be compensated by the reasonable correction for the impact velocity, the geometrical thickness and the density, when the proposed dimensionless number of equivalent stress is used between scaled model and prototype. Three analytical models of beam, plate and shell subjected to impact mass or impulsive velocity are verified by equation analysis. And a numerical model of circular plate subjected to dynamic pressure pulse is verified in more detail, form the view of point of space deformation, deformation history and the components of displacement, strain and stress. The results show that the proposed dimensionless numbers have attractively perfect ability to express the dimensionless response equations of displacement, angle, time, strain and strain rate. When the proposed dimensionless numbers are used to regularize impact models, the structural responses of the geometrically distorted scaled models can behave the completely identical behaviors with those of the prototype on space and time —not only for the direction-independent equivalent stress, strain and strain rate but also for the direction-dependent displacement, stress and strain components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0069.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mining; non-energy mineral resources; environmental impact assessment
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:56:46 CET)
The article focuses on mining of non-energy mineral resources with minimum environmental impacts. It issues from research results of a project Competence Centre for Effective and Ecological Mining of Mineral Resources implemented at the Faculty of Mining and Geology at VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Geological Survey, a company Watrad ltd., a state enterprise Diamo, a company RPS Ostrava plc and a company Sedlecký kaolin plc. The paper starts with a partial analysis of the existing legal norms related to mining and processing of mineral resources. Next, it analyses mineral resource mining options free of negative environmental impacts. The fundamental tool to assess potential environmental impacts of mining is the implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process for a given mineral resource. In the Czech Republic environmental impact assessment is carried out by course of Act 100/2001 Coll. Its important amendment is Act 39/2015 Coll. claiming, inter alia, that the environmental impact assessment is rigidly connected with other permits and procedures, such as the zoning process and building construction permits. The article describes the environmental impacts of mining of non-energy mineral resources, including the following factors: appropriation of land, impacts on surface water, ground water and soil, noise, influence on the landscape character, and air pollution. The paper also includes a case study summarizing information on the environmental factors that may play a role in potential underground mining of graphite in the deposit Český Krumlov - Městský Vrch and the deposit Lazec - Křenov.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0174.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: child-centred care; agency; participations; decision making; communication; impact
Online: 3 November 2023 (03:36:46 CET)
Although child-centred care is increasingly referred to within the nursing literature, a clear definition of child-centred care and clarity around the concept is yet to be achieved. The objectives of this review were to examine: 1) What constitutes the concept of child-centred care in healthcare? 2) How has the concept of child-centred care developed? 3) What is the applicability of child-centred care and what are its limitations? and 4) How does the concept of child-centred care benefit and inform children’s healthcare? In total, 2984 papers were imported for screening, following removal of duplicates and screening, 21 papers were included in the scoping review.The findings suggest that child-centred care is an emerging, ambiguous, poorly defined concept; no clear consensus exists about what constitutes child-centred care. Although it seems antithetical to argue against child-centred care, little robust evidence was identified that demonstrates the impact of, and benefit from, child-centred care. If child-centred care is to be a sustainable, convincing model to guide practice and compete with other models of care it needs to establish robust evidence of its effectiveness, impact on children and their families as well as the wider impacts on the healthcare system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0726.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Impact-centered design; sustainable design; positive experience; design model
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:11:03 CEST)
The pursuit of sustainable wellbeing is one of the research objectives of positive experience design. Driven by this goal, the purpose of this paper is to provide an impact-centered sustainable positive experience design model. Firstly, the literature review method was used to define the research status and concept of impact-centered sustainable design. Secondly, an impact-centered sustainable positive experience design model was constructed, and relevant formulas for concept generation and concept evaluation were proposed. Thirdly, design verification was conducted through a workshop. Finally, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) questionnaire was used to evaluate and discuss the design model. An impact-centered sustainable positive design model was proposed, which includes the important impact dimensions of sensory experience and meaningful experience on users’ quality of life at different levels: healthy living (pleasure index, health behavior), harmonious community (social connectivity, social contribution), and livable environment (living environment, environmental contribution). Based on positive experience related theory, this study takes long-term impacts as the starting point for sustainable positive experience design, which helps designers to generate design concepts from a systematic and long-term perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1967.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: Music’s Multidimensional Impact; Post-Pandemic World; Psychological Well-being
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:43:17 CEST)
In conclusion, this qualitative exploration has unveiled the profound and essential impact of music on psychological well-being, especially in the post-pandemic world. Through in-depth literature reviews, informal interviews, and observations with thirty CAS participants from SMC, the researcher uncovered ten salient themes that collectively illustrate music's multifaceted role as a potent remedy. These findings showcase how music serves as an emotional outlet, a cognitive enhancer, and a source of inspiration. The emotional depth and spiritual resonance participants associate with music underscore its capacity to address diverse human needs, making it an indispensable tool in navigating the complexities of our post-pandemic reality. Moreover, the cognitive benefits observed, such as improved concentration and focus, are particularly pertinent in the context of remote work and education, highlighting music's necessity in our daily lives. Additionally, this study emphasizes the vital role of virtual music communities in fostering social connections, even amidst physical isolation, further underscoring the enduring relevance of music in these challenging times. This research contributes to the expanding knowledge of music's impact on well-being, offering a holistic perspective encompassing spiritual, emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions. It enriches existing music psychology theories and invites further exploration into the mechanisms underpinning music's diverse effects. These insights have practical implications for fields such as mental health, education, and remote work, where music can be utilized as an essential tool for stress reduction and emotional regulation. This is highlighted further in the Suggested songs that can help sought the mind, body, spirit and soul. Looking ahead, future research could delve deeper into the long-term impact of music engagement on well-being and explore the universality of music's benefits through cross-cultural studies. Overall, music, as illuminated by this study, stands as a timeless and indispensable companion, offering solace, inspiration, vitality, and connection in the face of any contemporary challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: subway tunnel; formation deformation; numerical simulation; impact analysis; TBM
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:34:22 CEST)
To solve the problem of deformation and stress in segments when a full-face hard rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) tunnel for an urban subway passes through existing buildings, a three-dimensional mechanical calculation model of TBM tunneling under existing buildings was established based on numerical analysis to comprehensively study the spatial attributes of tunnel segments during TBM tunneling. The Qingdao Metro Line 1 TBM tunnel in the hard rock stratum of Xiaobei District passes through existing buildings. The results indicated that (1) the stress and deformation of the segments were different at different positions. The horizontal and vertical stress and displacement of the segments in front of the building were significantly affected by the building. When the segment was not in the area below the horizontal plane of the building, the vertical stress of the segment was significantly greater than the two stresses in the horizontal direction. (2) The vertical displacements of the vault and the arch bottom were the largest, and the influence of vertical accessories was stronger when the segment was closer to the building.(3) When the tunnel was excavated to approximately one tunnel diameter in front of the building, the building was affected. If the surrounding rock is unstable, the excavation face may collapse and the ground surface may sink, possibly leading to inclination, cracking, and uneven settlement of the building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Uzbekistan, health spending, economic impact, Wagner’s Law, economic geography.
Online: 17 July 2023 (16:19:50 CEST)
In this research, we investigate the healthcare expenditure patterns in Uzbekistan, analyze their economic implications, and provide policy recommendations. The study focuses on the time frame from 2000 to 2019, employing quantitative data analysis, theoretical frameworks such as Wagner’s Law, and an economic geography perspective. Our objective is to gain insights into the relationship between economic development and healthcare spending, identify spatial disparities, and forecast future trends. The findings reveal fluctuations in per capita healthcare spending, emphasizing the necessity for sustainable financing mechanisms and preventive measures. Ultimately, our study underscores the significance of aligning healthcare expenditure decisions with economic objectives while prioritizing the well-being of the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1734.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: PV power systems; environmental impact; land use; CO2 emission
Online: 26 June 2023 (04:26:48 CEST)
In response to the problem of increasing climate change and energy security, investment in renewable energy sources has increased significantly both in Europe and globally. Wind and solar power plants are expected to be the largest contributors to global decarbonization, ranking first and second in projected capacity by 2050. Since all power plants have some impact on the environment, this also applies to photovoltaic power plants. Because of the large capacities projected for PV installed capacity, their environmental impacts should be evaluated. The environmental impacts of PV power plants change over time. Improving the manufacturing technology of PV system components, increasing the efficiency of solar cells, and using materials that are less harmful to the environment will reduce these impacts. Manufacturing PV system components is a highly energy-intensive process that involves greenhouse gas emissions. As new renewable energy capacity is built, the amount of "green" electricity on the grid increases, reducing CO2 emissions per kWh consumed. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current status of the environmental impact of PV power plants under these changing conditions in terms of CO2 emissions, land use, pollutant and noise emissions, and water consumption. The capacity installed to date will reach the end of its lifetime by 2050, which means that the amount of waste associated with it will increase over time. This can have a significant impact on the environment, which is why part of the work is dedicated to this problem. In addition to the available information from the literature, in the part related to land use, the authors also made their own estimates based on data on newly installed PV power plants and PV modules available on the market. The results of the analysis show that there is enough land both in Europe and worldwide to install the planned capacities of rooftop and ground-mounted PV power plants. CO2 emissions are at the same level as for concentrated solar power, with a decreasing trend. Pollutant emissions, noise and water consumption are not a major problem compared to other types of power plants. Overall, it can be concluded that the expansion of PV capacity has a very positive impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Similarity; Scaling; Geometric distortion; Anisotropic elastic materials; Structural impact
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:52:19 CET)
Although the similarity laws were widely used in impact fields, the scaling relations of anisotropic elastic structures often were broken when the geometric distortion (not equal scaling in different spatial directions) and the material distortion (different materials used for scaled model and full-size prototype) were considered. To overcome the difficulty of geometric and material distortion, a directional framework of similarity laws, termed as oriented-density-length-velocity (ODLV) system, is proposed for the anisotropic elastic structure under impact loads. Different from previous similarity law systems using scalar dimensional analysis, the directional similarity law framework mainly considers spatial anisotropy for structural geometry and material parameters. Based on the oriented dimensional analysis and the orthotropic Hooke's law, directional dimensionless numbers and directional scaling relations with geometric power properties for the elastic modulus and the Poisson's ratio are presented systematically. By selecting the dominant material parameters controlling similarity, three important scaling techniques with correction of geometric width and thickness are proposed to compensate for the difficulty of distortion. A clamped square plate with different anisotropic and isotropic elastic materials subjected to dynamic pressure pulse is verified numerically and discussed in detail. The results show that the thin square plate prototype must be scaled to be the thinner/thicker rectangular plate, and the components of displacement, stress and strain between scaled model and full-scale prototype behave good consistency in both spatial and temporal fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: citation distribution; impact factor distribution; essential randomness; Sibuya distribution.
Online: 21 April 2022 (09:37:01 CEST)
A toy model for the distribution of the impact factor (IF) of a journal is proposed. The model demonstrates the presence of a heavy tail for the IF distribution, which occurs due to some random non-scientific circumstances. Therefore, the use of IF as an indicator of the quality of scientific papers seems to be inadequate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: sharing activity; Covid-19 impact; core elements; sustainable development
Online: 3 February 2022 (09:58:24 CET)
Sharing activity is getting higher attention due to increasing popularity in recent years. In the paper, the authors investigated the main elements affecting the sharing activity. (1) Literature review: The theoretical part starts from the revision of definitions of sharing activity; description of the links between sharing and sustainable development, policy recommendations and relevant regulation in the field; later on, the study emphasises the key elements important for sharing. Finally, the authors investigated how the Covid-19 pandemic affected sharing activity; (2) Methods: During empirical research, the authors revised the list of 37 variables. The study uses data for each of the 27 EU countries from 2011 to 2020. The authors investigated correlation between macroeconomics variables to determine key variables for the regression model; (3) Results: The authors constructed a dynamic regression model that can be applied to predict the number of participants visiting sharing platforms in the European Union (EU); (4) Conclusions: The study shows that seeking to forecast the number of visits to sharing platforms it is necessary to use values of main macroeconomic variables such as consumer price index, productivity index, total unemployment rate, the number of users and households connected to the Internet, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: clinker; used tires; pollutant gases; energy savings; environment impact
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:11:16 CEST)
The objective of this work is to compare how the gases emitted during the manufacture of the clinker vary in a cement plant, using two types of fuel: petroleum coke and unusable tires (UTs). The study is based on a case study using real time data on more than 40 process variables. Gases are analysed from two points of the production process: Sintering Kiln, main focus of emission to the atmosphere by chimney, and Preheater. The variation of CO and NOx depending on the oxygen and fuel type is studied. The SO2 levels are also analyzed, observing a decrease when using the UTs. The quality of the Clinker has been compared depending on the fuel type. The results are compared, on the one hand, with the quality of the clinker, determined by the content of the majority (C3S, Alite) and minority (Free CaO) phases, and, on the other hand, with the Kiln sintering temperature, the most influential parameter in the productive process. It is verified that Clinker quality is maintained, regardless of the type of fuel used. Concluding that the use of UTs as fuel can generate an important economic and environmental benefit for cement companies and their environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0547.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Developing countries; Environmental Impact Assessment; Rapid urbanization; Smart strategies
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:01:36 CEST)
One of the main drivers behind the urbanization process is attributed to economic fundamentals of urban growth, which boost migration from rural to urban context. This migration can be studied geographically, with increasing rates of population as the main component in developing countries, over Asia and Africa, specifically. Research has been focusing in creating models and adaptative schemes to manage and plan cities to promote sustainable development for housing large quantities of population and preserve a long-term living environment. The approach from a smart city perspective, adjusted to the rapid urbanization condition can be helpful to deal urban issues by convergence and interaction between urban agents and information technology. At academia, few works have addressed the role of Smart Cities to face the challenge of rapid urbanization. The aim of this study is to research and analyze if strategies with smart city vision can lessen environmental impacts at cases with rapid urbanization, and how can we leverage technology to promote environmental sustainability at rapid urbanization phenomena occurring at developing countries using RIAM environmental assessment method in the case of Beijing, China'.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0683.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: bike sharing; public transport; cycling; user analysis; impact analysis
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:26:12 CEST)
We report the experiences of the bike sharing system in Ningbo, China. To analyze the impact of the system, system log data are collected for the whole month of May 2014 (with more than 1.7 million usage records), supplemented by questionnaire data from 1,856 respondents. Our results show that public bike usage follows the same pattern as road traffic, with morning and evening peaks on week days. In terms of mode substitution, 16% of public bike trips would have been made by private cars. In average, each public bike is used 3.7 times per day, with each trip lasting around 23 minutes and covering around 3.5 kilometre. This translates into a reduction of car travel by more than 11 million kilometre per year, a significant contribution to the sustainability of urban transport in Ningbo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0530.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic impact; Population mobility data; Prediction; Assess; Covid-19
Online: 21 December 2020 (14:28:50 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 poses a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy and lifestyle. Establishing accurate and real-time models to predict and assess the impact of the epidemic on the economy is instructive. We have designed a new model to quantitatively assess the impact of the COVID-19 on the economy of China’s mainland. The nominal GDP in the Q1 of 2020 that we predicted for China’s mainland with the Baidu Mi-gration Data is RMB 20,785.7 billion, which is less by 3.59% than that in 2019. The estimated val-ue is confirmed roughly by the official report released in April 17, 2020 (RMB 20,650 billion, 6.8% year-on-year declined). Strict control measures during the epidemic have greatly reduced Chi-na's economic activity and had a serious impact on the country's economy. Orderly promotion of population mobility plays a decisive role in economic recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0521.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: economic impact; ornamental horticulture; fruits and nuts; vegetables; flowers
Online: 19 November 2020 (20:47:53 CET)
This paper summarizes opinions on the economic impacts of horticulture research and extension at MSU Coastal Research and Extension Center. More than 8,400 horticulture producers, master gardeners, research and extension staff, and non-profit organizations participated in horticulture events during the last five years. Qualitative assessments of horticulture research and extension performed by the faculty and staff were solicited during voluntary surveys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0481.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: food insecurity; food provision; food assistance program,; impact assessment
Online: 18 November 2020 (14:16:49 CET)
Introduction In 2016 the European Union setup its first structured food provision program to combat food insecurity. We aimed to measure the program’s capacity in assisting its beneficiaries to achieve a healthy diet and measure their satisfaction. Methods A computational study was carried out to calculate daily food provision per person under the program for January 2016-December 2017. A cross sectional survey in 3942 beneficiaries took place in December 2017-June 2018 collecting anthropometric, sociodemographic and program satisfaction data. Descriptive statistics were performed and reported as relatively frequencies, mean ± standard deviation. Results Dairy, fresh meat, legumes, sugar, olive oil and tomato concentrate were the most commonly procured items. The program’s contribution to vegetable, dairy and cereal intake was the lowest (3.4%, 6.1%, 6.0% respectively) as opposed to free sugars (12.2%) and oils (24.5%). The program’s algorithm favors greatly (almost 3-fold) single person applications compared to 4+ persons applications. The monetary value was estimated at 21.23±23.4 euros/food provision, however 64.4% of beneficiaries reported a high positive impact on the household budget. 50.7% and 41.6% reported high positive impact on feelings of anxiety and security, respectively. ~70% of the beneficiaries were highly satisfied with the foods provided, with lower scores for quality and shelf-life (50.7% and 58.8% high respectively). Conclusions The program is met by high beneficiary satisfaction and is perceived as a substantial assistance. Increases in the amounts and variety of foods delivered, with a focus on fruit, vegetables and fish should be considered, to further improve the program’s dietary impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar PV; power grid; impact; frequency response; grid code
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:44:45 CET)
Due to the high solar irradiance or energy price, certain regions in the U.S. may reach 100% PV penetration and experience degradation of frequency response greater than the interconnection as a whole. Therefore, in this section, the 100% PV penetration region in each interconnection is simulated to study the local high PV penetration effects. The study was performed by quantifying RoCoF, frequency nadir, and settling frequency at different regional PV penetration levels. The impact of high regional PV penetration on the compliance of grid code on frequency response is also studied.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pharmaceutical waste; Sources; Cost of disposal; Management; Impact; Pharmacists
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:34:54 CEST)
Introduction: Pharmaceutical products are inevitable for human health. Owing to the growing need for pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical companies introduce drugs annually into the market in addition to the extensive collection of existing pharmaceutical products. Households, farms, health facilities, and pharmaceutical industries release pharmaceutical waste into the environment at low concentrations through routine pharmaceutical use, damage, and expiry. The effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) on non-target species in the environment are not known. Over the years, pharmaceuticals such as diclofenac and ibuprofen in trace amounts have been detected in public water systems, ground and surface water. Unwanted medicines should be safely disposed of at a reduced financial cost to mitigate the public and environmental health risks. Lack of general knowledge of how to dispose of unused pharmaceuticals leads to improper disposal resulting in accidental toxicity, rising healthcare costs, landfills pilfering/scavenging, water supply pollution, anti-microbial resistance, and death. To mitigate such effects, pharmacists should raise public awareness about safe disposal practices. Objective: This review aims to examine the sources of pharmaceutical waste, disposal costs, secure disposal methods, the effects of inappropriate disposal, and the role of pharmacists in the disposal. Method: The information on the stated objectives was gathered from available sources through a comprehensive literature review. Conclusion: Many countries contain tons of pharmaceutical waste that are expensive to destroy. Because of improper disposal, pharmaceutical waste has been found at trace amounts in drinking and surface water. A practical, environmentally sustainable approach to pharmaceutical waste management, with policies and guidelines, and public awareness campaigns, are necessary to address the problem of safe waste disposal. The national drug regulatory bodies should conduct environmental risk assessment resulting from the disposal of unwanted pharmaceuticals. Pharmacists should facilitate extensive training on sustainable drug use and proper pharmaceutical waste disposal at all levels to reduce the risks associated with improper disposal. Reduction of pharmaceutical waste generation at each step of a drug’s lifecycle, implementing takeback options, collection at approved sites, and modern technology to treat wastewater are highly recommended to reduce the effects of unwanted pharmaceuticals on human health and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0151.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Hertz impact dynamics; exact solution; numerical solution; inversion; Maple
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:20:09 CEST)
This paper revisits a classic problem in physics - Hertz elastic dynamics of two colliding elastic spheres. This study obtains impact period in terms of hypergeometric function and successfully combines Deresiewicz's three segmental solutions into one single solution. Our numerical investigation confirms that Deresiewicz's inversion is a good approximation. As an essential part of this study, a general Maple code is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: conservation; biodiversity; human rights; livelihood; forest-dependent community; impact
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
Background and Research Highlights: Despite all the concerns and initiatives, natural resources like forests, as well as biodiversity are decreasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Conservation is considered as one of the major tools to prevent such loss and rapid degradation. Evidence around the world shows the adverse effects of conservation laws and policies on indigenous peoples and other local communities. Objectives: This study was conducted in one of the forest-dependent communities situated in Sundarban (world’s largest mangrove forest) to understand the impact of conservation laws and policies on their livelihood. Materials and Methods: A qualitative methodology was designed to collect data, using focus group discussions and case study with community people, and individual interviews with the personnel from NGOs and relevant government departments. Findings: Strict conservation policies and restrictions in accessing forest resources made lives and livelihoods of the local community insecure and unstable, thus putting the community in a vulnerable situation. The had to leave their traditional mode of income and look for alternative livelihood options. Almost no evidence was found in relation to upkeeping their rights in conservation activities. Prohibited movement, provision of punishment for entering into the forest without proper permission and struggles in everyday life were some of the highlighted issues. They had no participation in conservation activities, management of alternative livelihood options, and even they were not sensitized before putting restrictions. Although they had a history of emotional and physical attachment with the forest, existing activities did not consider these issues. In addition, corruption and abuse of power by law enforcement agencies towards the local community intensified the sufferings. Conclusion: This study argues that the realization of human rights in conservation activities and the sensitization of the implementing stakeholders are prerequisites for ensuring the sustainability of both biodiversity and the affected people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: cookstove; emissions; emission factor; efficiency; global warming impact; Ghana
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:00:53 CEST)
In Ghana, about 73% of households rely on solid fuels for cooking. Over 13,000 annual deaths are attributed to exposure to indoor air pollution from inefficient combustion. In this study, assessment of thermal efficiency, emissions and total global warming impact of three cookstoves commonly used in Ghana was completed using IWA water boiling test (WBT) protocol. Statistical averages of three replicate tests for each cookstove were computed. Thermal efficiency results were: wood-burning cookstove 12.2% (Tier 0), traditional charcoal cookstove 23.3% (Tier 1-2) and improved charcoal cookstove 30% (Tier 2-3). The wood-burning cookstove emitted more CO, CO2 and PM2.5 than charcoal cookstove (coalpot) and improved cookstove. Emission factor for PM2.5 and emission rate for the wood-burning cookstove (Tier 0) were over four times higher than the traditional charcoal cookstove (Tier 3) and improved cookstove (Tier 2). On the basis of WBT, annual global warming impact potential for emissions are estimated at 4 tonnes of CO2e for the wood-burning cookstove, 1.5 tonnes of CO2e for charcoal cookstove (coalpot) and 1 tonne of CO2e for improved cookstove. We conclude that there is the need for awareness, policy and incentives to enable end-users switch to improved cookstoves for increased efficiency, reduced emissions/global warming impact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1384.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: economic impact of artificial intelligence; economy with artificial intelligence; the transformative economic impact of artificial intelligence; business and artificial intelligence; ai; artificial intelligence
Online: 22 November 2023 (08:48:33 CET)
ackground: The swift assimilation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) across multiple industries is altering the worldwide economic terrain. Unprecedented opportunities and difficulties are brought about by this revolutionary technology, which has an impact on innovation, trade, labor markets, and security. Objective: The goal of this study is to thoroughly investigate the economic effects of AI by exploring how it may affect labor markets, innovation, trade internationally, and security. The goal is to offer insights that support strategic decision-making and policy formation by examining current trends, opportunities, and difficulties. Results: The research highlights the dual character of artificial intelligence's influence, highlighting both its potential to spur economic expansion and its drawbacks, including the loss of jobs, a lack of standards, and security issues. The study highlights how crucial cooperation is to overcoming these obstacles and realizing AI's full potential. Conclusion: The balancing opportunities and risks becomes critical as AI continues to change the economic landscape. The report promotes proactive steps including ethical AI design guidelines, ongoing worker retraining, and flexible regulatory strategies. As we shape an AI future that puts inclusion, creativity, and responsible governance first, collaboration emerges as a key theme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0479.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Nutria; ecological impact; health status; public health; Toxoplasma gondii; zoonoses.
Online: 8 November 2023 (08:34:24 CET)
Myocastor coypus is a pest animal present in Africa, Europe, North America, and Asia that causes agricultural and ecological damages. Moreover, it has to be considered as a potential risk for public health. Forty-four Nutrias from the “Parco Naturale La Mandria” (Piedmont region, Northwest Italy) have been analysed. A complete necropsy and a whole histological evaluation of liver, kidney and lung have been carried out on all the animals. Moreover, the positivity to Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Francisella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum have been investigated. None of the animal resulted positive for HEV, EMCV, Francisella spp. or Neospora caninum. Two animals tested positive for Toxoplasma gondii. A high presence of histological lesions has been identified in different organs, suggesting that lesions could be induced by different pathogens. As previously reported, Nutria can act as a host for several pathogens, including important agents for human and animal health, and surveillance is necessary, to fully understand the biological role and the importance of coypu as a disease reservoir in our country.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1755.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: obesity; cancer, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance. psychosocial impact; sleep apnea
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:51:21 CEST)
Obesity, characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat, contributes to a multitude of physiological dysfunctions. This paper explores the complex relationship between obesity and various risk factors and complications, shedding light on critical health implications. Obesity triggers alterations in insulin, leptin, adiponectin, cytokines, and insulin-like growth factors, fostering conditions conducive to cancer initiation. Aberrations in nutrient-dependent intracellular signaling pathways, driven by the excess nutrition characteristic of obesity, contribute to the neoplastic transformation of cells. The Body Mass Index (BMI) correlates directly with adiposity, underlining its significance in cancer risk. Furthermore, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, notably IGF-2, play pivotal roles in this relationship. The expression of IR-A receptors is elevated in cancer. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases share a strong association. Obesity elevates the risk of fatal events like myocardial infarction. High cholesterol levels contribute to atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary arteries. The severity of coronary artery disease is influenced by plaque formation characterized by calcium deposits. Obesity is also linked to hypertension and increased ventricular mass, exacerbating cardiovascular risks. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension correlate with a high Body Mass Index (BMI). Obesity is intricately connected to insulin resistance, particularly evident in childhood obesity. It entails a gradual decline in insulin sensitivity, leading to elevated insulin levels in the bloodstream. Insulin resistance is a central factor in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Obesity also results in elevated triglyceride levels and reduced high-density lipoproteins, contributing to atherogenic dyslipidemia and a heightened risk of atherosclerosis. Additionally, obesity is associated with various other disorders, including epilepsy, depression, and neuropsychological problems. Beyond its physiological impact, obesity is associated with significant psychosocial challenges. Studies indicate that individuals with obesity face a higher risk of depressive symptoms, often related to overeating and unhealthy dietary patterns. The social withdrawal tendencies of obese individuals exacerbate these symptoms, with higher rates of depression observed in this group. OSA, a sleep disorder characterized by intermittent breathing cessation during sleep, is strongly correlated with obesity. Approximately 58% of obese individuals experience OSA, with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) associated with an increased risk. Weight reduction has been found to mitigate the severity of OSA and related arrhythmias. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy demonstrates effectiveness in reducing visceral fat accumulation and leptin levels. This comprehensive review underscores the intricate web of health implications associated with obesity, emphasizing the critical need for preventive measures and intervention strategies to address the multifaceted challenges posed by this global health concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0446.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: flood; sediment deposition; bridge deck; impact pressure; fluctuation; model experiment
Online: 7 September 2023 (04:54:34 CEST)
This paper investigates the impact of sediment deposition and inflow conditions on horizontal impact pressure and frequency analysis of bridge deck vibrations during flooding. Flooding-induced pressure and vibrations contribute to bridge collapse, and sediment deposition influences water flow and impact pressure. The study explores the relationship between sediment deposition height and impact pressure, revealing a significant increase as sediment approaches 50% of bridge deck clearance. Sediment amplifies impact pressure response to flow velocity changes. The dimensionless sediment deposition height has a greater influence on impact pressure compared to the inflow Froude number. Two distinct frequencies, dominant and secondary, are identified for impact pressure and water level fluctuations. Dominant frequencies positively correlate with sediment deposition height and Froude number, indicating an increasing trend. Secondary frequencies remain stable (0.31-0.58 Hz). These findings enhance understanding of flow dynamics and bridge-flow interaction in sediment-deposited channels, providing theoretical support for evaluating and managing disasters related to bridges in such environments. Overall, this research contributes to the field of bridge engineering and supports improved design and maintenance practices for bridges exposed to sediment-deposited channels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0239.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Social Impact; Fear Response; Healthcare; Restriction; Control Measures
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:45:23 CEST)
Covid-19 has had a significant impact on the lives of populations across the world. Since the first reported case of the coronavirus in Wuhan, China, the world faced a situation of dealing with a novel virus. While the physical health effects of the coronavirus was the center of focus for much of the pandemic, Covid-19 was accompanied with significant social and psychological consequences on the world populations. In this review, we aim to assess how the coronavirus pandemic has affected the African continent at large, highlighting the socio-psychological consequences. Through citing some examples of a few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the review will detail the experiences of the populations within this region which remain plagued with economic and health vulnerabilities that were further exposed by the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1573.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Artificial intelligence; environmental impact assessment; strategic environmental assessment; biodiversity; digitalisation
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:46:03 CEST)
The opportunities and potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Environmental Assessment (EA) are often mentioned. However, do we in the EA field understand the implications of what is happening in other biological sciences, and are we preparing for the changes that are coming? This interdisciplinary letter focuses on AI-driven developments in biodiversity data and analysis as a starting point for stimulating discussion about what AI means in practice for the field of EA. We highlight implications for training, transformation of practice and decision making as first steps in a research agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0850.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Single Parenting; Adolescent Girls; Economic Impact; Academic Performance; Gambella; Ethiopia
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:12:11 CEST)
Single parenting is a social phenomenon that has always been in existence and is as old as mankind, and today the number of single-parent families has been rampantly increasing. As a result, the researcher conducted a study in the Gambella region of Ethiopia to investigate the economic and educational implications of single parenting on female adolescent students. The study employed a qualitative research approach with a case study research design. The researchers used the purposive sampling technique to select the research area and research participants for in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and eleven interviewees, seventeen participants in focus group discussions within two groups, and seven key informants participated. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, and thematically analyzed. Interviews with research participants revealed that adolescent girl students from single-parent homes experience financial difficulties. The study also explored that students with single parents are more likely to be absent from school, to come late to school, to score low marks, and to drop out of school. Therefore, having an understanding of the benefits of having intact parents for the well-being of adolescents and raising children together should be advocated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1801.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: slurry; drop impact; maximum spreading; coal particle; PIV; velocity field
Online: 27 June 2023 (02:31:08 CEST)
The effect of coal hydrophilic particles in water-glycerol drops on the maximum diameter of spreading along a hydrophobic solid surface is experimentally studied by analyzing the velocity of internal flows by Particle Image Velocimetry. The grinding fineness of coal particles was 45-80 μm and 120-140 μm, their concentration was 0.06 wt.% and 1 wt.%. The impact of particle-laden drops on a solid surface occurred at Weber numbers (We) from 30 to 120. It is revealed the interrelated influence of We and the concentration of coal particles on changes in the maximum absolute velocity of internal flows in a drop within the kinetic and spreading phases of the drop-wall impact. A physical model is formulated for internal convective flows in the longitudinal section of a drop parallel to the plane of the solid wall. The kinetic energy of translational motion of coal particles in a spreading drop compensates for the energy expended by the drop on sliding friction along the wall. At We=120, the inertia-driven spreading of the particle-laden drop is mainly determined by the dynamics of the deformable Taylor rim. An increase in We contributes to more noticeable differences in the convection velocities in spreading drops. When the drop spreading diameter rises at the maximum velocity of internal flows, a growth of the maximum spreading diameter occurs. The presence of coal particles causes a general tendency to reduce the drop spreading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1521.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Gorgonians; benthic assemblages; fishing impact; global change; conservation; Mediterranean Sea
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:06:21 CEST)
Mass mortality events and anthropogenic impacts were increasingly documented affecting Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826) during the last decades. These impacts enhance the settling of epibiontic organisms on the injured colonies. The epibiosis was studied by photographic sampling carried out on the granitic outcrops of the Tavolara Channel within the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area (NE Sardinia) between 2017-2023 at 35-55 m. The number of colonies and percent surface involved in epibiosis, the specific richness of the epibiontic community and the temporal evolution of the phenomenon were investigated. Almost all the investigated gorgonians (93%) showed parts involved in epibiosis, with a high percentage of covering (one-third of the surface). Out of the 37 epibiontic species recorded, the most recurrent described an ecological succession dominated by hydrozoans, sponges, bryozoans, serpulids and the parasitic soft coral Alcyomiun coralloides. Nevertheless, single colonies studied through time revealed the unpredictability of the colonization process. The peculiar habitat of a high naturalistic value of the granitic outcrops hosting the P. clavata forests demonstrates a widespread suffering condition, supported both by environmental and anthropogenic sources of stress. Such considerations make it necessary to review the current zonation of the area, where the actual vulnerability and usability evaluations are based on obsolete information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0615.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: marble; small-scale mining; blast impact; fragments size characterization; WipFrag,
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:44:49 CEST)
Blast charge initiation procedures have a significant impact on both mining safety and production rates. In this study, the inventory benefit of an electric initiation system was investigated to assess its influence on both fragmentation and blast-induced damages. The Wipfrag software's was used to examine the size distribution and productivity of 12 small-scale blasts initiated by both non-electric and electric detonators. All blast rounds was initiated with plain type of electric and NONEL detonators. The average burden, spacing, stemming length, and charge weight were, respectively, 0.85 m, 1.10 m, 0.66m, and 1.1kg. The results showed that the mesh through which 80% of the blast fragments will pass for the electric blast is smaller than the mesh through which the material products from the NONEL blast will pass. The results also demonstrate that the generated blast-induced ground vibration (PPV) from all blast rounds for electric blast varies from 0.4–1.2 mm/s and 80–105dB, while that for non-electric blast ranges from 0.05–0.2mm/s and 72–95dB. As a result, the electric blast initiation technique was found to produce good fragmentation, with a higher percentage of optimum fragment sizes on spec than non-electrically initiated blasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: PageRank; gender inequality; citation impact; scientific research; research productivity; scientometrics
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:02:12 CEST)
The article's purpose is a citation analysis of the impact of scientific publications by authors of different gender compositions. The PageRank method was chosen to calculate the citation impact of scientific publications, and the citation has also estimated the impact of scientific publications based on the number of citations. The normalized citation impact of scientific publications is calculated according to nine subsets of scientific publications that correspond to patterns of different gender compositions of authors. Also, these estimates were calculated for each country with which the authors of the publications are affiliated. The Citation database was chosen for the scientometric analysis Network Dataset ( ver . 13). The dataset includes more than 5 million scientific publications and 48 million citations. The main subject areas of scientific publications in this database are computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, engineering, etc. The results indicate that articles with a predominantly male composition are cited more than articles with a mixed or female composition of authors in this direction. Analysis of advantages in dynamics indicates that in the last decade for developed countries, there has been a decrease in the connection between the citation impact of scientific publications and the gender composition of their authors. However, the obtained results still confirm the presence of gender inequality in science, which may be related to socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, natural homophily, and other factors that contribute to the appearance of gender gaps. An essential consequence of overcoming these gaps, including in science, is ensuring the rights of people in all their diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0866.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Scarf patch; Film adhesive; Secondary bonding; Impact loading; Failure analysis
Online: 25 April 2023 (02:49:42 CEST)
This experimental study investigates the effect of scarf geometry in restoring the impact response of scarf patched 3 mm thick glass-fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) matrix composite laminates. Traditional circular along with rounded rectangular scarf patch configurations considered as repair patches. Experimental measurements revealed that the temporal variations of force and energy response of the pristine specimen are close to that of circular repaired specimens. The predominant failure modes were witnessed only in repair patch which include the matrix cracking, fibre fracture, delamination and no discontinuity in adhesive interface was witnessed. When compared with the pristine samples, the top ply damage size of the of the circular repaired specimens is larger by 9.91 %, while that of the rounded rectangular repaired specimens is larger by 434.23 %. The results show that circular scarf repair is more suitable choice of repair approach under the condition of 37J low-velocity impact event even though the global force-time response is similar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0457.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: affective prosody; bibliometric analysis; research impact; research trend; thematic hotspots
Online: 27 February 2023 (07:58:35 CET)
Affective prosody is an indispensable cognitive cue that moderates social activities, and has become a prevailing research topic in psychology-related disciplines. The present study conducts the first bibliometrics-based visualization analysis concerning affective prosody to evaluate the influential cases, including countries/regions, institutions, publication venues, academic articles, and disciplinary contributions, and the diachronic changes of publication trends and research hotspots. With the combination of statistical results and a qualitative literature inspection, limitations of extant studies and promising research directions were also proposed. The present study extracted the bibliographic data of 1,624 articles retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection, which were published over the past 25 years (1997-2021). Statistical results revealed four leading powers (the U.S., Germany, England, and Canada) and four emerging fronts (China, France, Netherlands, and Switzerland), and identified three primary research themes in this field, including clinical implication, measurable index, and modality-specific issues. Literature inspection demonstrated current limitations in individual characteristics control and experiment-related influential factors, and proposed two prosperous research directions. Findings of the present study could facilitate academic retrieval of affective prosody research, help concerned researchers identify thematic hotspots and seek appropriate collaboration, and provide convenience for research policy and management in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0244.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; food insecurity; psychological impact; socioeconomics; food access; Nigeria
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:05:34 CET)
The COVID-19 disease has infected many countries with generalised impacts on the different income categories. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a survey among households (n = 412) representing different income groups in Nigeria. We used validated food insecurity experience and socio-psychologic tools. We analysed the data obtained using descriptive and inferential statistics. The earning capacities of the respondents range from US$145/month for the low-income earners to US$1945/month for high-income earners. A total of 173 households (42%) ran out of food during the COVID-19 pandemic. All categories of households have experienced increasing dependency from the general public and perception of increasing insecurity, with the high-income earners having the greatest shift. In addition, increasing levels of anger and irritations have been experienced with all categories. Of the socio-demographic variables, only gender (p = 0.012), level of education of household head (p = 0.000), work hours per day (p = 0.006), and family income based on society class (p = 0.000) were significantly associated with food security and hunger due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Household heads with medium (OR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.64 – 7.21, p < 0.001) and high (OR: 30.27, 95% CI: 3.99 – 229.90, p < 0.001) family income based on society class were more likely to have satisfactory experience on food security and hunger than respondents with low family income. Irrespective of the social class of the respondents, some respondents had negative experiences such as movement/change of location within the same city (17.68%), begin a new relationship (14.43%), recent change of job/loss of job (11.55%), movement to another city (10.81%), and separation from spouse or long-term relationship (10.07%). However, 231 (60.16%) reported satisfaction with their jobs despite the pandemic. Psychological stress due to impact of COVID-19 was observed to be more in the low income earning group than others. It is recommended that socio-economic groups should be mapped and support systems should target each group as per the needed support in terms of health, social, economic, and mental wellness; the government should show political commitments and transparency in food security and counselling supports. National authorities should prioritize empirical-based interventions on resources allocation during crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0060.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Impact; board of directors; endogeneity; cross-sectional dependence; firm performance
Online: 6 October 2022 (09:22:17 CEST)
The objectives of the research are to investigate the characteristics of the board of directors on the financial performance of the enterprise. Using a sample data from 52 construction and real estate enterprises listed on Vietnam stock exchange in the period 2006-2020. Using typical regression methods such as pooled OLS, FEM, REM and assessing the defects of the research model, the FGLS method is selected. At the same time, due to the existence of endogenous phenomena and the nature of interdependence among enterprises in Vietnam, research using the instrumental variables two-step generalized method of moments (IV-GMM) in order to correct for cross-sectional dependence, autocorrelation, endogeneity, and heteroskedasticity in the analysis. Research results suggest that board size, female board members, meeting frequency, and board members' education have a positive influence on financial performance. Moreover, the independence of the Board of Directors increases, the business efficiency decreases. The research also found a positive relationship of tangible fixed assets, and a negative relationship between capital structure choice, firm size and corporate financial performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0448.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: preprint; citations; scholarly communication; open science; peer review; impact factor
Online: 16 April 2021 (16:45:49 CEST)
Preprints are regularly cited in peer reviewed journal articles, books and conference paper. Are preprint citations somehow less important than citations to peer reviewed research papers? This study investigates citation patterns between 2017 and 2020 for preprints published in three preprint servers, one specializing in biology (bioRxiv), one in chemistry (ChemRxiv), and another hosting preprints in all disciplines (Research Square). As evaluation of scholarship continues to largely rely on citation-based metrics, this analysis and its outcomes will be useful to inform new research-based education in today’s scholarly communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Internet-assisted; English reading teaching; innovative designs; impact; constructivism theory
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:55:44 CEST)
With the development of Internet technology, teachers are constantly seeking innovative teaching methods to match the potential of enhanced technology. Although many studies have been performed before , they aren’t enough in this field. The purpose of this paper is to explore innovative teaching designs and examine the impact of Internet-assisted English teaching of reading based on constructivism. The case is carried out in NO.9 middle school of Bengbu, a underdeveloped area of China, most of students aren’t interested in learning English .We compared Internet-assisted with traditional textbook literature methods to improve the reading proficiency of students, using a questionnaire survey,pre-test and post-tests comparisons. The result showed Internet-assisted English reading teaching is better than textbook. It can arouse students' interest and motivation,reading proficiency and exam result of students have been improved significantly, created a positive learning situation.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: EigenAnt; parameter impact analysis; intensification and diversification balance; routing networks
Online: 17 June 2019 (04:06:33 CEST)
The EigenAnt algorithm has been proposed to find the shortest path between two nodes with a proof of convergence. Two novel features are noticeable in EigenAnt compared to the conventional ant colony optimization algorithms. Pheromone evaporation in the EigenAnt algorithm is done locally for the selected path and it does not use heuristic information in its selection phase. On the other hand, a simple version of ant colony optimization that also does not use heuristic information has been used for analyzing convergence, considering parameter impact analysis, in the problem of finding the shortest path for 1-node binary chain problems. In this paper, we propose to improve the EigenAnt algorithm by adding additional parameters in such a way as to be able to take advantage of the analysis developed for the simple ant colony optimization algorithm. We demonstrate through our analysis that since the Improved EigenAnt algorithm has one parameter more than ant colony optimization algorithms, tuning of convergence speed is decoupled from tuning of convergence features in the algorithm. Thus, IEigenAnt, which can be interpreted as having two uncorrelated intensification and diversification components, makes it possible to achieve a balance between intensification and diversification. In order to illustrate the advantages of this decoupling, we present experimental results for the routing network problem.