REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0034.v1
Online: 1 June 2023 (05:10:32 CEST)
The oncological outcomes are improving in gastrointestinal cancer with advancement in systemic therapies, and there is notable potential in combining immunotherapy and radiation therapy (RT)to allow for further improvements in outcomes. Various preclinical and early phase II studies have shown promising synergy with immunotherapy and RT in gastrointestinal cancer. Consolidative nivolumab in esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) and complete resection has recently been approved as standard treatment after improved disease free survival in phase III study. Immunotherapy has shown promising results in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer as well. We have reviewed the published and ongoing studies of the combinations of immunotherapy and RT in gastrointestinal cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CAR-T; TCR; cancer immunotherapy; immunotherapy clinical trials
Online: 8 July 2021 (11:04:10 CEST)
Chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor (CAR-T/TCR) cellular immunotherapies have shown remarkable success in the treatment of some refractory B-cell malignancies, with potential to provide durable clinical response for other types of cancer. In this paper, we look at all available FDA CAR-T/TCR clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, and analyze them with respect to different disease tissues, targeted antigens, products, and originator locations. We found that 627 of 1,007 registered are currently active and of those 273 (44%) originated in China and 280 (45%) in the US. Our analysis suggests that the rapid increase in the number of clinical trials is driven by the development of different CAR-T products that use a similar therapeutic approach. We coin the term bioparallels to describe such products. Our results suggest that one feature of the CAR-T/TCR industry may be a robust response to success and failure of competitor products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0072.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immunotherapy; Biomarkers; Melanoma
Online: 5 July 2022 (12:21:56 CEST)
Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Blockade (ICB) constitutes the current limiting factor for the optimal implementation of this novel therapy that otherwise demonstrates durable responses with acceptable toxicity scores. This limitation is exacerbated by a lack of robust biomarkers. In this study, we have dissected the basal TME composition at the gene expression and cellular levels that predict response to Nivolumab and prognosis. BCR, TCR and HLA profiling were employed for further characterization of the molecular variables associated with response. The findings were validated using a single-cell RNA-seq data of metastatic melanoma patients treated with ICB and by multispectral immunofluorescence. Finally, machine learning was employed to construct a prediction algorithm that was validated across eight metastatic melanoma cohorts treated with ICB. Using this strategy, we have unmasked a major role played by basal intratumoral plasma cells expressing high levels of IGKC in efficacy. IGKC, differentially expressed in good responders, was also identified within the Top response-related BCR clonotypes, together with IGK variants. These results were validated at gene, cellular and protein levels; CD138+ Plasma-like and Plasma cells were more abundant in good responders and correlated with the same RNA-seq defined fraction. Finally, we generated a 15-genes prediction model that outperformed the current reference score in eight ICB-treated metastatic melanoma cohorts. The evidenced major contribution of basal intratumoral IGKC and plasma cells in good response and outcome in ICB in metastatic melanoma is a groundbreaking finding in the field beyond the role of T lymphocytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Tumor Microenvironment; Immunotherapy; Oncometabolites
Online: 3 November 2023 (10:48:58 CET)
The TME, consisting of immune cells, fibroblasts, vessels, and the extracellular matrix, regulates tumor progression and therapy responses. TME-targeted therapies aim to transform this environment from supporting tumor growth to impeding it and fostering an effective immune response. This review examines the metabolic disparities between immune cells and cancer cells, their impact on immune function and therapeutic targeting, the TME components, and the complex interplay between cancer cells and non-tumoral cells. The success of TME-targeted therapies highlights their potential in achieving better cancer control or even a cure.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC; Complete Response; Immunotherapy
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:53:55 CEST)
(1) Background and introduction: Lung cancer is a prevalent and deadly disease globally. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common subtype, comprising 85% of cases. (2) Case report: A 65-year-old ex-smoker man presented to our facility with nocturnal cough. Various investigations revealed that he had metastatic NSCLC, for which he underwent chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine, followed by immunotherapy with Nivolumab. He achieved a complete response to the therapy and has remained free from recurrence for over 7 years since the initial diagnosis. (3) Discussion and Conclusion: The treatment of metastatic NSCLC remains a significant therapeutic challenge, but the implementation of new therapeutic techniques has expanded the possibilities of achieving complete and durable eradication of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1811.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: advanced melanoma; pembrolizumab; immunotherapy
Online: 26 June 2023 (12:07:15 CEST)
Introduction: pembrolizumab showed to increase survival in patients with metastatic melanoma, Con-sidering the numerous oncoming studies, we decided to conduct a narrative review of the latest efficacy evidence regarding the use of pembrolizumab, alone or in combination, in patients with metastatic melanoma. (2) Methods: A search was conducted on Pubmed using "pembrolizumab," and "metastatic melanoma" as keywords, considering studies from 2022 onward. (3) results: we reviewed pembroli-zumab and associations, cost-effectiveness, virus, advanced acral melanoma, long-term outcomes, re-al-life data, biomarkers, obesity, and vaccines (4) Conclusions: pembrolizumab is a fundamental op-tion in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. However, a certain group of patients do not respond and therefore new combination options need to be evaluated. In particular, the use of vaccines tailored to tumor epitopes could represent a breakthrough in the treatment of resistant forms. Further studies with larger sample numbers are needed to confirm preliminary results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: malignant pleural mesothelioma; immunotherapy; biomarkers
Online: 17 November 2023 (14:27:32 CET)
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a locally aggressive disease related to asbestos exposure with a median survival for untreated patients of 4-8 months. The combination of chemotherapy based in platinum and antifolate is the standard treatment and the addition of bevacizumab adds two months of gain in median survival. Recently in first-line treatment, immunotherapy combining nivolumab with ipilimumab has been shown to be superior to chemotherapy in the CheckMate-743 study in terms of overall survival (18.1 months), leading to its approval by the FDA and EMA. The positive results of this study represent a new standard of treatment for patients with MPM, however, not all patients will benefit from immunotherapy treatment. In an effort to improve the selection of patient candidates for immunotherapy in different tumors, biomarkers that have been associated with a greater possibility of response to treatment have been described. MPM is a type of tumor with low mutational load and neo-antigens, making it a relatively non-immunogenic tumor for T cells and possibly less susceptible to responding to immunotherapy. Different retrospective studies have shown that PD-L1 expression occurs in 20-40% of patients and is associated with a poor prognosis; however, the predictive value of PD-L1 in response to immunotherapy has not been confirmed. The purpose of this work is to review state of art of MPM treatment in the year 2023 focusing in the efficacy results of first-line or subsequent immunotherapy studies in patients with MPM and possible chemo-immunotherapy combination strategies. Additionally, potential biomarkers of response to immunotherapy will be reviewed, such as histology, PD-L1, lymphocyte populations, and TMB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Probiotics; Cancer; tumors; treatment; immunotherapy
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:19:08 CEST)
Probiotics are now being looked at as a possible addition to cancer treatments in both study and clinical settings. This study tries to give an overview of probiotic research as it relates to cancer, with a focus on how it might help avoid cancer, treat it, and improve the health of cancer patients. We look at developmental studies that use cell culture and animal models to look at how well probiotics work in cancer. We focus on how probiotics change the immune system, inflammation, and gut bacteria. The results of clinical studies that looked at probiotics as an add-on therapy for cancer patients are looked at to see how they affected the treatment success, side effects, and quality of life of the patients. We look at the possible benefits of probiotics for certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and stomach tumors. We also find the best probiotic strains for each type of cancer. We also look at the synergistic benefits of combining probiotics with standard cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy to improve the effectiveness of treatment and lower side effects. Lastly, we talk about the present problems and future directions of probiotic research for cancer. We focus on personalized methods, ideal doses and treatment plans, finding signs of treatment success, and making probiotic-based therapies. By learning more about how probiotics could be used to treat cancer, we can create personalized, successful, and well-tolerated probiotic treatments to improve cancer outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1971.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: DC-CIK; immunotherapy; colorectal cancer
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:03:40 CEST)
Background Successful treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who failed to response to first-line treatment has been a challenge due to their low response rate for later-line treatment and poor progression free survival and overall survival. The application of dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) immunotherapy combined with conventional treat-ment, either surgical resection or chemotherapy, showed improvement in survivals in first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the benefit of dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) immunotherapy for patient with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods A total of 20 patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer receiving cell-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) immunotherapy were enrolled to this study. Among these patients, 11 patients responded to the treatment and the remaining 9 patients did not. All patients were followed for at least one years and the determination of treatment response was mainly based on image study at 6 months after the completion of treatment. Data were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results The treatment response rate of the study group is 55% (11/20). The median progression free sur-vival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) of responsive patients was 7 months and 12 months, respectively. The median overall survival of irresponsive patients was 9.5 months. Four responsive patients received subsequent metastectomy or cytoreduction plus hyperthermic in-traperitoneal chemotherapy surgery (CRS + HIPEC). Conclusion DC-CIK cell-based immunotherapy may provide benefits for patients with refractory mCRC with improved response rate and progression free survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0707.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: adenosine; cancer; immunotherapy; signalling; CD73
Online: 30 October 2018 (06:45:05 CET)
The immune system plays a major role in the surveillance and control of malignant cells, with the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlating with better patient prognosis in multiple tumor types. The development of ‘checkpoint blockade’ and adoptive cellular therapy has revolutionized the landscape of cancer treatment and highlights the potential of utilizing the patient’s own immune system to eradicate cancer. One mechanism of tumor-mediated immunosuppression that has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target is the purinergic signaling axis, whereby the production of the purine nucleoside adenosine in the tumor microenvironment can potently suppress T and NK cell function. The production of extracellular adenosine is mediated by the cell surface ectoenzymes CD73, CD39 and CD38 and therapeutic agents have been developed to target these as well as the downstream adenosine receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, A3R) to enhance anti-tumor immune responses. This review will discuss the role of adenosine and adenosine receptor signaling in tumor and immune cells with a focus on their cell-specific function and their potential as targets in cancer immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1892.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncolytic virus; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:58:30 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer care and shown remarkable efficacy clinically. This efficacy is, however, limited to subsets of patients with significant infiltration of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment. To extend their efficacy to patients who fail to respond or achieve durable responses, it is now becoming evident that complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to extend efficacy to patients with immunologically “cold” tumours. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to selectively replicate within and kill tumour cells resulting in the induction of immunogenic cell death and the augmentation of anti-tumour immunity and have emerged as a promising modality for combination therapy to overcome the limitations seen with ICIs. Pre-clinical and clinical data has demonstrated that OVs can increase immune cell infiltration into the tumour and induce anti-tumour immunity, thus changing a “cold” tumour microenvironment that is commonly associated with poor response to ICIs, to a “hot” microenvironment which can render patients more susceptible to ICIs. Here, we review the major viral vector platforms used in OV clinical trials, their success when used as a monotherapy and when combined with adjuvant ICIs, as well as pre-clinical studies looking at the effectiveness of encoding OVs to deliver ICIs locally to the tumour microenvironment through transgene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: LAG-3; immuncheckpoints; immunotherapy; breast cancer
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:50:19 CEST)
Background: Monoclonal antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 are established in clinical practice for the treatment of both early and advanced/metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Beyond the established immune checkpoints (ICPs) (PD-1 and CTLA-4) additional ICPs such as lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) are subject of current research. In the present retrospective gene ex-pression analysis, we evaluated the prognostic significance of LAG-3 in 461 patients with early breast cancer. In addition, we examined whether there was a correlation between the different ICPs and CD8 expression. Methods: Using microarray-based gene expression analysis, we examined the prognostic signif-icance for metastasis-free survival (MFS) of LAG-3 mRNA expression in the whole cohort of 461 breast cancer patients and among different molecular subtypes. Correlations were analyzed us-ing Spearman-Rho correlation coefficient. Results: In the whole cohort, LAG-3 expression had no significant impact on MFS (p = 0.712, Log Rank). In the subgroup analyses, there was a trend, that higher LAG-3 expression was associated with favorable outcome in the luminal B (p = 0.217), basal-like (p = 0.370) and HER2 (p = 0.089) subtypes, although significance was not reached. In contrast, in multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, tumor size, axillary nodal status, histological grade of differentiation and the proliferation marker Ki-67, LAG-3 showed a significant influence on MFS (HR 0.574; 95% CI 0.369–0.894; p = 0.014). High LAG-3 significantly correlated with CD8 ( = 0.571; p < 0.001). Conclusion: LAG-3 expression had an independent impact on MFS. In addition to PD-1 and PD-L1, further immune checkpoints such as LAG-3 could serve as therapeutic targets in breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: abscopal effect; radiotherapy; immunotherapy; mathematical model
Online: 13 September 2018 (06:33:37 CEST)
Synergy of radiation and immune system is currently receiving significant attention in oncology as numerous studies have shown that cancer irradiation can induce strong antitumor immune responses. It remains unclear, however, what are the best radiation fractionation protocols to maximize the therapeutic benefits of this synergy. Here, we present a novel mathematical model that can be used to predict and dissect the complexity of the immune-mediated response at multiple tumor sites after applying focal irradiation and systemic immunotherapy. We successfully calibrate the proposed framework with published experimental data, in which two tumors were grown in mice at two spatially separated sites from which only one was irradiated using various radiation fractionation protocols with and without concurrent systemic immunotherapy. The proposed model is calibrated to fit the temporal dynamics of tumor volume at both sites and can predict changes in immune infiltration in the non-irradiated tumors. The model was then used to investigate additional radiation fractionation protocols. Model simulations suggest that the optimal radiation doses per fraction to maximize antitumor immunity are between 10-13 Gy, at least for the experimental setting used for model calibration. This work provides the framework for evaluating radiation fractionation protocols for radiation-induced immune-mediated systemic antitumor responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immunotherapy; immune-checkpoint inhibitor; response prediction; men and women; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; atezolizumab; ECOG; CRP; chemo-immunotherapy
Online: 24 November 2021 (09:02:46 CET)
Men with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a more favorable response to immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) monotherapy, while women especially benefit from ICI-chemotherapy (CHT) combinations. To elucidate such sex differences in clinical practice, we retrospectively analyzed two cohorts treated with either ICI monotherapy (n=228) or ICI-CHT combination treatment (n=80) for advanced NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS), influencing variables were evaluated using Cox-regression analyses. No significant sex differences for PFS/OS could be detected in either cohort. Men receiving ICI monotherapy had a statistically significant independent impact on PFS by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG) ≥2 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-3.29, p=0.021), higher C-reactive protein (CRP; HR 1.06, 95%CI: 1.00-1.11, p=0.037) and negative programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) status (HR 2.04, 95%CI: 1.32-3.15, p=0.001), and on OS by CRP (HR 1.09, 95%CI: 1.03-1.14, p=0.002). In men on ICI-CHT combinations, multivariate analyses (MVA) revealed squamous histology (HR 4.00, 95%CI: 1.41-11.2, p=0.009) significant for PFS; ECOG≥2 (HR 5.58, 95%CI: 1.88-16.5, p=0.002) and CRP (HR 1.19, 95%CI: 1.06-1.32, p=0.002) for OS. Among women undergoing ICI monotherapy, no variable proved significant for PFS, ECOG≥2 had a significant interaction with OS (HR 1.90, 95%CI 1.04-3.46, p=0.037). Women treated with ICI-CHT had significant MVA findings for CRP with both PFS (HR 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.16, p=0.007) and OS (HR 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19, p=0.004). Although men and women responded similarly to both ICI mono- and ICI-CHT treatment, predictors of response differed by sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1658.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CD274; ferroptosis; immunotherapy; breast cancer; basal; TNBC
Online: 27 November 2023 (09:03:50 CET)
(1) Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a distinct subgroup of breast cancer presenting high level of recurrence and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is beneficial in its therapy management. Anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy improves effect of neo-adjuvant therapy in TNBC. (2) Methods: Immune-modulation and ferroptosis related R-packages were developed for integrative transcriptome to analyze transcriptome datasets: TNBC cells stimulated with ferroptosis inducers (GSE173905, GSE154425), breast tumors with clinical data (TCGA and METABRIC cohorts). Protein level validation was investigated through protein atlas proteome experiments. (3) Results: Erastin/RSL3 ferroptosis inducers up-regulate CD274 in TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231 and HCC38). In breast cancer, CD274 expression is associated to overall survival. Breast tumors presenting high expression of CD274 up-regulated some ferroptosis drivers associated to prognosis: IDO1, IFNG and TNFAIP3. CD274-ferroptosis-driver score computed on breast tumor transcriptome stratified patients on their prognosis: low score was observed in basal subgroup with higher level of recurrent risk scores: oncotypeDx, ggi and gene70 scores. In METABRIC cohort, CD274, IDO1, IFNG and TNFAIP3 were found overexpressed in TNBC subgroup. CD274-ferroptosis-driver score was found associated to overall survival independently of TNM classification and age diagnosis. Tumor expression of CD274, TNFAIP3, IFNG and IDO1 in biopsy of breast ductal carcinoma was confirmed at protein level (4) Conclusion: Ferroptosis inducers up-regulate PD-L1 in TNBC cells, known as effective target of immunotherapy in high risk early TNBC which received neo-adjuvant therapy. Basal and TNBC tumors highly expressed CD274 and ferroptosis drivers: IFNG, TNFAIP3 and IDO1. CD274-ferroptosis driver score is associated to prognosis and to the risk of recurrence in breast cancer. A potential synergy of ferroptosis inducers with anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy is suggested in recurrent TNBC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0447.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Cancer; ncRNA; LncRNA; immune response; biomarkers; immunotherapy
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:39:42 CEST)
The noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are small transcript sequences that do not encode proteins but participate in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level playing important biological roles such as proliferation and differentiation. In the tumor microenvironment, the dysregulated immunological response can participate in the progression and negative phenotype of cancer, the variability of switch cell differentiation and activation of the different immune cell lineages showed differential regulation by the type of cancer. Recent evidence showed that the upregulation of lncRNA can be used as a biomarker and predictive indicator for cancer progression. The use of lncRNA to turn off the tumor immune response and activate the anti-tumoral immune response is day by day a promising reality for the control of cancer. However, is imperatively elucidated the role of each ncRNA identified as well as its respective molecular pathways regulated, including the immune checkpoints, before its application at the clinical level. The correct delivery of lncRNA or mimics to inhibit its expression using the most efficient carriers to the cell or cellular organelle is a science that should continue to be developed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0956.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC,; Immunotherapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Special populations
Online: 13 June 2023 (16:01:04 CEST)
Over the last decade, the therapeutic scenario for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a major paradigm shift. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown a meaningful clinical and survival improvement in different settings of the disease. However, the real benefit of this therapeutic approach remains controversial in selected NSCLC subsets, such as those of the elderly with active brain metastases or oncogene-addicted mutations. This is mainly due to the exclusion or underrepresentation of these patient subpopulations in most of the pivotal phase III studies; this precludes the generalization of the ICI efficacy in this context. Moreover, no predictive biomarkers of ICI response exist that can help with patient selection for this therapeutic approach. Here, we critically summarize the current state of ICI efficacy in the most common “special” NSCLC subpopulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PD-L1; CTCs; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:28:01 CEST)
The approval of monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death protein (PD1), has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. To date, many Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic cancer as well as locally recurrent advanced cancer. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) of ICIs highlight the need for biomarker analysis with strong predictive value. Liquid biopsy is an important tool for clinical oncologists to monitor cancer patients and administer or change appropriate therapy. CTCs frequently express PD-L1 and this constitutes a clinically useful and non-invasive method to assess PD-L1 status in real time. This review summarizes all the latest findings about the clinical significance of CTC for the management of cancer patients during administration of immunotherapy and mainly focuses on the assessment of PD-L1 expression in CTCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: TIGIT; Immune checkpoint; FoxP3; Human Glioma; Immunotherapy
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:21:32 CET)
Background: Diffuse glioma is a malignant human brain cancer that is hard to overcome. This represents a high risk of mortality. The current challenge is limited to the control of tumor progression and survival improvement. Immunotherapy consists of stimulating the immune system in order to eliminate the non-self-elements that damage the human body, including cancer cells. However, in human glioma, the current immunotherapeutic targets did not show significant benefit. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the expression and potential role of a new immunosuppressive molecule, TIGIT in glioma patients. Methods: A cohort of 667 patients from the TCGA database along with a cohort of 53 Moroccan patients, were analyzed in order to assess the role of TIGIT in human glioma progression and to estimate whether blocking this immune checkpoint molecule would be of a potential therapeutic benefit. Real time RT-PCR from fresh human biopsies and RNAseq data analysis were performed in this study. Results: Our results showed that high expression of TIGIT had prognostic value with some known clinical glioma risk factors such as sex, age and IDH mutation status. High expression of TIGIT was positively associated with advanced grades of glioma. Interestingly, elevated rates of TIGIT were significantly associated to elevated levels of other inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules (PD-1, VISTA and Tim-3) in human glioma patients, also TIGIT showed strong association with Treg cell-secreted cytokines (TGF-beta and IL-10), indicating the high potential involvement of TIGIT in immunosuppression in human glioma. Moreover, we reported that high TIGIT expressing CD8 T-cells displayed more surface inhibitory molecules and, elevated levels of Treg cells and FoxP3 were linked to higher rates of TIGIT, supporting the likely involvement of TIGIT in the suppression of the intra-tumoral immune cells. Finally, high expression of TIGIT was significantly linked to advanced histological subtypes of glioma and was associated with poor overall survival in human glioma. Conclusion: TIGIT blockade might be of valuable therapeutic benefit in patients with advanced glioma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microbiome; melanoma; immune checkpoint inhibitor; diet; immunotherapy
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:19:54 CEST)
Gut microbiota is considered a key player modulating the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The study investigated the association between response to the anti-PD-1 therapy and the baseline gut microbiome in the Polish cohort of melanoma patients, alongside selected agents modifying the microbiome. Sixty-four melanoma patients enrolled for the anti-PD-1 therapy and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. Response to the treatment was assessed according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, and patients were classified as responders or non-responders. The association between selected extrinsic factors and response was investigated using questionnaire-based analysis, and metataxonomics of the microbiota. The Bacteroidota to Firmicutes ratio was higher, and the richness was decreased in the responders. The abundance of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides uniformis was related to the response, whereas non-responder gut microbiota was enriched with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Desulfovibrio intestinalis, and some unclassified Firmicutes. Dietary patterns, including plant, dairy, and fat consumption, but also gastrointestinal tract functioning were significantly associated with the therapeutic effects of the therapy. The specific gut microbiota alongside diet were found associated with response to the therapy in the Polish population of melanoma patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibody; immunotherapy; CRISPR/HDR; FC optimization; hybridoma
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:10:26 CEST)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major drivers behind immunosuppressive mechanisms and present a major hurdle for cancer therapy. Tregs are characterized by high expression of CD25, which is a potentially valuable target for Treg depletion to alleviate immune suppression. The preclinical anti-CD25 (αCD25) antibody, clone PC-61, has met with modest anti-tumor activity, due to its capacity to clear Tregs from circulation and lymph nodes but not those that reside in the tumor. Optimization of the Fc domain of this antibody clone has been shown to enhance intratumoral Treg depletion capacity. Here, we generated a stable cell line that produces optimized recombinant Treg depleting antibodies. A genome engineering strategy in which CRISPR-Cas9 was combined with homology directed repair (CRISPR-HDR) was utilized to optimize the Fc domain of the hybridoma PC-61 for effector functions by switching it from the original rat IgG1 to a mouse IgG2a isotype. In a syngeneic tumor mouse model the resulting αCD25-m2a antibody mediated effective depletion of tumor resident Tregs leading to a high effector T cell (Teff) to Treg ratio. Moreover, combination of the αCD25-m2a with αPD-L1 treatment augmented tumor eradication in mice, demonstrating the potential for αCD25 as a cancer immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: P53; mutant p53; targeting therapy; immunotherapy; cancer
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:34:14 CET)
TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor activated by stressful stimuli and upregulates target genes involved in growth suppression, cell death, DNA repair, metabolism, among others. P53 is the most frequently mutated gene in tumors with mutations not only leading to loss-of-function (LOF), but also gain-of-function (GOF) which promotes tumor progression, and metastasis. The tumor-specific status of mutant p53 protein has suggested it is a promising target for cancer therapy. We summarize the current progress of targeting wild-type and mutant p53 for cancer therapy through biotherapeutic and biopharmaceutical methods for 1) boosting p53 activity in cancer, 2) p53-dependent and p53-independent strategies for targeting p53 pathway functional restoration in p53-mutated cancer, 3) targeting p53 in immunotherapy, and 4) combination therapies targeting p53, p53 checkpoints, or mutant p53 for cancer therapy.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Epigenetics; Immunotherapy; Tumor microenvironment; Therapy; Bladder cancer
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:33:21 CET)
Epigenetic alterations are known contributors to cancer development and aggressiveness. Additional to alterations in cancer cells, aberrant epigenetic marks are present in cells of the tumor microenvironment, including lymphocytes and tumor-associated macrophages, which are often overlooked but known to be a contributing factor to a favorable environment for tumor growth. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to give an overview of the epigenetic alterations affecting immune cells in the tumor microenvironment to provoke an immunosuppressive function and contribute to cancer development. Moreover, immunotherapy is briefly discussed in the context of epigenetics, describing both its combination with epigenetic drugs and the need for epigenetic biomarkers to predict response to immune checkpoint blockage. Combining both topics, epigenetic machinery plays a central role in generating an immunosuppressive environment for cancer growth, which creates a barrier for immunotherapy to be successful. Furthermore, epigenetic-directed compounds may not only affect cancer cells but also immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, which could be beneficial for the clinical response to immunotherapy. Thus, modulating epigenetics in combination with immunotherapy might be a promising therapeutic option to improve the success of this therapy. Further studies are necessary to (1) understand in-depth the impact of the epigenetic machinery in the tumor microenvironment; (2) how the epigenetic machinery can be modulated according to tumor type to increase response to immunotherapy and (3) find reliable biomarkers for a better selection of patients eligible to immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0652.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CAR T cells; immunotherapy; pediatric neuroblastoma; strategy
Online: 30 October 2020 (16:00:41 CET)
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is one of the curative immunotherapeutic approaches that exploit the antigen specificity and cytotoxicity function of potent immune cells against cancers. Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumors with diverse comportment, could be a promising candidate for using CARs therapies. Several methods harness CARs modified cells in neuroblastoma to increase therapeutic efficiency, albeit the assessment has still been less successful. Regarding the improvement of CARs, various trials have been launched to overcome insufficient capacity. However, the reason behind the inadequate response against neuroblastoma of CARs modified cells are still not well understood. It is essential to update the present reveal of comprehension of CARs to improve the efficiency of CARs therapies. This review summarizes the crucial features of CARs and its design for neuroblastoma, discusses challenges that impact the outcomes of the immunotherapeutic competence, and focuses on devising strategies currently investigated to improve the efficacy of CARs for neuroblastoma immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer immunotherapy; Prostate Cancer; CAR-T; PSMA
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:16:04 CEST)
Despite advances in the understanding of its molecular pathophysiology, prostate cancer remains largely incurable, highlighting the need for novel therapies. We developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer, which expression involves neovasculature of several tumor entities, thus envisaging an additional antiangiogenic effect. To optimize the CAR design, we compared two CARs with signaling domains containing one or two T cell costimulatory elements, in addition to CD3ζ. Conversely, what has been described for other CARs, a third-generation CAR (containing CD28 and 41BB co-signaling domains) induced a potent antitumor effect similar to a second-generation CAR (containing CD28 co-signaling domain), though we observed a detrimental effect of the additional costimulatory domain that was attributed to increased activation-induced cell death (AICD). This “super-stimulation” resulted in exhaustion of cells, higher frequencies of cell death and, more importantly, the impossibility of sufficiently expanding the CAR cells to obtain the minimum number of cells requested for in vivo therapies. While the superiority of 2nd and 3rd generation over 1st generation CAR T cells has been clearly shown in both preclinical and clinical studies, the optimal combination of costimulatory domains for 3rd generation CAR-T cells must still be defined and should be evaluated case-by-case in order to fine-tune immunotherapy approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; Immunotherapy; Immunomodulator; Antibody; Plasma; Immunoglobulins
Online: 5 July 2020 (17:01:31 CEST)
Since the outbreak of SARS CoV-2 infection (Covid-19), healthcare professionals worldwide have been trying to find disease management and control alternatives to encourage immunotherapies. Immunotherapy is an efficient therapeutic option used against comparable viral contaminations such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The aim of the current study is to assess the existing knowledge associated with SARS-CoV-2 immunotherapy. Information available in published articles and their quality highlights the importance of following strict scientific rules for clinical outcomes. Thus, these studies have shown enough data to confirm that immunomodulation is the main topic investigated in research about Covid-19 therapy. Therefore, it is possible saying that immunotherapy is certainly the appropriate option against this virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Influenza A virus, immunology, immunotherapy, receptor; tumors
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:16:49 CEST)
Dewetting transition - a concept borrowed from fluid mechanics - is a physiological process which takes place inside the hydrophobic pores of ion channels. This transient phenomenon causes a metastable state which forbids water molecules to cross the microscopic receptors’ cavities. This leads to a decrease of conductance, a closure of the hole and, subsequently, severe impairment of cellular performance. We suggest that artificially-provoked dewetting transition in ion channels’ hydrophobic pores could stand for a molecular candidate to erase detrimental organisms, such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. We describe a novel type of high-affinity monoclonal antibody, which: a) targets specific trans-membrane receptor structures of harmful or redundant cells; b) is equipped with lipophilic and/or hydrophobic fragments that prevent physiological water flows inside ion channels. Therefore, we achieve an artificial dewetting transition inside receptors’ cavities which causes transmembrane ionic flows discontinuity, channel blockage and subsequent damage of morbid cells. As an example, we describe dewetting monoclonal antibodies targeting the M2 channel of the Influenza A virus: they might prevent water to enter the pores, thus leading to virion impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0561.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: poly I:C; adjuvant; antigen; melanoma; polyethylenimine; immunotherapy
Online: 30 July 2018 (06:13:44 CEST)
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive type of cancer that requires radical treatment strategies to inhibit the cancer cell progression and metastasis. In recent years, preclinical research and clinical trials on melanoma treatment are considerably focused on the adjuvant-based immunotherapy for enhancing the immune response of innate immune cells against cancer cells. However, the clinical outcome of these adjuvant-based treatments are inadequate due to improper delivery system for these immune activators to reach the target site. Hence, we developed a vaccine formulation containing tumor lysate protein (TL) and poly I:C (PIC) complexed with positively charged poly (sorbitol-co- polyethylenimine (PEI)(PSPEI). The resulting ionic PSPEI-polyplexed antigen/adjuvant (PAA) (PSPEI-PAA) nanocomplexes were stable at the physiological condition, non-toxic and enhanced intracellular uptake in immature dendritic cells. In murine B16F10 tumor xenograft model, PSPEI-PAA nanocomplexes significantly suppressed tumor growth and did not exhibit any noticeable sign of toxicity. Additionally, the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) assay involving co-culturing of splenocytes isolated from the PSPEI-PAA-treated mice with that of B16F10 cells significantly revealed enhanced cancer killing by the TL-reactivated CTLs compared to untreated control mice bearing tumor. Therefore, we strongly believe that PSPEI-PAA nanocomplexes could be an efficient antigen/adjuvant delivery system and also enhance the antitumor immune response against melanoma tumor in the future clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mites; Allergen Immunotherapy; Molecular Allergology; Allergens; Allergic Phenotype
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:45:35 CET)
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) with aeroallergens is the only disease modifying treatment for patients with different allergic conditions. Despite the effectiveness of AIT has been evidenced in both randomized controlled trials and real word studies, it remains underused in less than 10% of subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or asthma (A). We aimed to determine the current eligibility for house dust mite (HDM) AIT by means of a Precision Allergy Molecular Diagnosis (PAMD@) model in a selected cohort of youngsters with different allergic phenotypes according to the available evidence. A complex response to both HDM and storage mite allergens was depicted regardless of the subjects´ basal atopic condition. No solely specific IgE binding responses to Der p 1, Der p 2 and/or Der p 23 were found in the studied cohort. Despite patients with A and atopic dermatitis showed significantly higher serum titers to 6 mite allergens than subjects with AR, no specific molecular profile could be regarded as disease specific. Given the increasing complexity of specific IgE responses to the local prevailing aeroallergens, the identification and presence of such molecules are needed in commercially available AIT in the era of precision medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: allergic rhinitis; childhood; biomarkers; dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; subcutaneous immunotherapy
Online: 3 November 2023 (07:57:10 CET)
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials of childhood allergic rhinitis (AR). Currently, there is a lack of some generally accepted biomarkers that may predict the clinical response to SCIT to eventually achieve personalized therapy. In this study, 28 children with AR received Der p SCIT for 26-30 months at baseline, and four efficacy endpoints, serum interleukin (IL)-5, periostin, Der p-specific IgE (sIgE), and Der p sIgG4, were measured by ELSIA. Clinical symptoms and characteristics were assessed by questionnaires, and the associations among periostin, Der p 2 sIgE and clinical efficacy were analyzed. The results showed that SCIT demonstrated a significant reduction in Der p 1 sIgE (P < 0.05) and Der p 2 sIgE (P < 0.01), an increase in Der p sIgG4 (P < 0.001) and an improvement in clinical efficacy at the fourth efficacy endpoint compared with that at baseline. A positive linear correlation was found in serum periostin and Der p sIgE (Pearson correlation=0.8868, P=0.045), Der p sIgG4 (Pearson correlation=-0.9025, P=0.036), and clinical efficacy. Importantly, the concentration of serum Der p 2 sIgE showed a positive linear correlation with clinical efficacy and serum periostin (Pearson correlation=0.9581, P=0.010). These results suggest that SCIT can result in reduced type 2 cytokines and Der p sIgE and has long-term efficacy in children with AR. Der p 2 sIgE has a positive linear correlation with clinical efficiency and serum periostin and may be a useful biomarker for the prediction of SCIT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0857.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Gut Microbiome, Biomarkers; Therapeutic Target; Immunotherapy
Online: 14 September 2023 (02:27:34 CEST)
The microbiome is pivotal in maintaining health and influencing disease by modulating essential inflammatory and immune responses. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), ranking as the third most common cause of cancer-related fatalities globally, is influenced by the gut microbiome through bidirectional interactions between the gut and liver, as evidenced in both mouse models and human studies. Consequently, biomarkers based on gut microbiota represent promising non-invasive tools for the early detection of HCC. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the composition of the gut microbiota may play a role in the efficacy of immunotherapy in different types of cancer, thus it could be used as a predictive biomarker. In this review, we will dissect the gut microbiome's role as a potential predictive and diagnostic marker in HCC and evaluate the latest progress in leveraging the gut microbiome as a novel therapeutic avenue for HCC patients, with a special emphasis on immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0571.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immunotherapy, EGFR mutation, non-small cell lung cancer
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:51:50 CEST)
EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the preferred initial treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR mutations. However, remission is transient, and no further effective treatment options are available for EGFR-TKI-advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLCs. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) induces sustained cancer remission in a subset of NSCLCs. However, ICI therapy exhibits limited activity in most EGFR-mutant NSCLCs. Mechanistically, the strong oncogenic EGFR signaling in EGFR-mutant NSCLCs contributes to the non-inflamed tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), characterized by a limited number of CD8+ T cell infiltration, a high number of regulatory CD4+ T cells and a high number of inactivated infiltrated T cells. Besides, EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients are generally non-smokers with low levels of PD-L1 expression and tumor mutation burden. However, current understanding only partially explains why a small population of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs durably respond to ICI therapy, resulting in many researchers actively working in this field. This review reviews the hope seen from pre-clinical studies and clinical trials which may be adopted to improve the outcome of ICI therapy in EGFR-mutant NSCLCs. Besides, the underlying mechanisms leading to the inferior clinical outcome of ICI therapy in EGFR-mutant NSCLCs are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Melanoma; BRAF mutations; BRAF inhibitors; MEK inhibitors; Immunotherapy
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:46:20 CEST)
Skin cancer is a prevalent and heterogenous disease with several subtypes, such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Among them, melanoma is the most aggressive subtype, with a higher propensity to spread compared to most solid tumors. The application of OMICS approaches has revolutionized the field of melanoma research by providing comprehensive insights into the molecular alterations and biological processes underlying melanoma development and progression. This review aims to offer an overview of melanoma biology, covering its transition from primary to malignant melanoma, as well as the key genes and pathways involved in the initiation and progression of this disease. Utilizing online databases, we extensively explored the general expression profile of genes, identified the most frequently altered genes, and gene mutations, and examined genetic alterations responsible for drug resistance. Additionally, we studied the mechanisms responsible for immune checkpoint inhibitors resistance in melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1829.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: anaphylaxis; angioedema; dogs; Hymenoptera allergy, urticaria; venom immunotherapy
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:54:49 CEST)
Hymenoptera allergens are the main triggers for anaphylaxis in susceptible dogs and humans. Hymenoptera venom specific immunotherapy (VIT), the only disease-modifying treatment, has the potential to prevent future life-threatening reactions in human patients. Prospective clinical data on VIT efficacy in dogs are currently lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show that VIT is not only safe but also efficacious in preventing anaphylaxis in dogs allergic to Hymenoptera. This uncontrolled prospective clinical trial included 10 client-owned dogs with a history of anaphylaxis following repeated Hymenoptera stings. The sensitization to bee and wasp allergens was demonstrated by intradermal testing (IDT) and allergen-specific IgE serology. For VIT induction (induction phase), dogs received a shortened rush immunotherapy protocol with aqueous allergens, which was then followed by monthly injections of 100 g of alum-precipitated allergen (maintenance phase). VIT efficacy was determined by observing patients’ clinical reactions to re-stings. No systemic adverse events were seen during the induction and maintenance phase. From the seven re-stung dogs, only one developed a mild angioedema at the site of the sting; the remaining dogs were asymptomatic. These results show that VIT represents a safe and effective treatment option for Hymenoptera-allergic dogs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biomarker; cancer testis antigen; cancer hallmarks; PRAME; immunotherapy
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:53:56 CEST)
Preferentially expressed Antigen in Melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer testis antigen (CTA) that is selectively expressed in certain somatic tissues, predominantly in the testis and is overexpressed in various cancers. PRAME family proteins are leucine rich repeat proteins, that are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm, with multifaceted roles in immunity, during gametogenesis and in the overall reproduction process. It is a widely studied CTA and has been associated with the prognosis and therapeutic outcome in patients with epithelial and non-epithelial tumors. PRAME has also been studied extensively as a therapeutic target. Moreover, it has been found to play a role in most of the well-known cancer hallmarks. Interestingly, the role of PRAME in tumorigenesis is paradoxical. Over the last decade, PRAME has garnered substantial interest as a target for immunotherapy. There are multiple clinical trials and pre-clinical studies targeting PRAME alone or in combination with other tumor antigens. This review article is an attempt to update our knowledge and understanding of the context-dependent oncogenic functions of PRAME in various carcinomas, and the current immunotherapeutic strategies, challenges, and perspectives on developing newer strategies to target PRAME for a better outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Gliomas; Tumour Microenvironment; Immunotherapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Vaccines
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:39:07 CEST)
Gliomas are aggressive, primary central nervous system tumours arising from glial cells. Glioblastomas are the most malignant. They are known for their poor prognosis or median overall survival. Current standard of care is overwhelmed by the heterogeneous, immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment promoting immune evasion and tumour proliferation. The advent of immunotherapy with its various modalities – immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, chimeric antigen receptor T cells and NK cells have shown promise. Clinical trials incorporating combination therapies of the above have overcome the microenvironment resistance and yielded survival and prognostic benefit. Rolling these new therapies out in the real-world scenario in a low cost, high throughput manner is the unmet need of the hour. These will bring practice changing implications to the glioma treatment landscape. In this review article, we focus on describing the hallmarks of the glioma microenvironment and its interplay with the different emerging modalities of immunotherapy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Liquid biopsy; PD-L1; plasma cfRNA; immunotherapy; NSCLC
Online: 19 June 2023 (12:57:52 CEST)
Tissue programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein is the recognized predictive immune biomarker of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment benefit in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, tissue PD-L1 protein testing can be limited by tumor heterogeneity and fraught with tissue acquisition difficulties. A plasma PD-L1 assay potentially overcomes these tissue limitations. Patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line ICI-based treatment and available results of plasma cfRNA PD-L1 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and tissue PD-L1 protein PD-L1 with the Dako 22C3 monoclonal antibody were retrospectively assessed for median and landmark 3-year overall survival (OS). OS was identical whether positive plasma cfRNA PD-L1 expression or positive tissue PD-L1 protein expression (median OS 15 months; 3-year landmark OS 30%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.97; 95% CI, 0.44-2.10). Positive plasma cfRNA PD-L1 patients also demonstrated a numerically longer median and higher 3-year OS compared to patients lacking PD-L1 expression (median 15 months versus 8 months; 3-year landmark OS 30% versus 15%; HR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.27-1.17). Plasma cfRNA PD-L1 expression by RT-PCR was similarly predictive of ICI-based treatment benefit as tissue PD-L1 protein expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma; neoadjuvant; adjuvant; perioperative; systemic therapy; immunotherapy
Online: 19 June 2023 (10:59:03 CEST)
The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to pose a significant global health problem. Several systemic therapies have recently been shown to improve survival for patients with unresectable disease. However, evidence is limited to support the use of neoadjuvant or adjuvant systemic therapies in patients with resectable disease, despite the high risk of recurrence. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapies are being investigated for their potential to reduce recurrence after resection and improve overall survival. Our review identified various early-phase clinical trials showing impressive preliminary signals of pathologic complete response in resectable disease and others suggesting neoadjuvant therapies, particularly when combined with adjuvant strategies, may convert unresectable disease to resectable and cause significant tumor necrosis, potentially decreasing recurrence rates. The role of adjuvant therapies alone may also have a role in the management of these patients, particularly in reducing recurrence rates. Heterogeneity in trial design, therapies used, patient selection, and a scarcity of randomized phase III trials necessitate the cautious implementation of these treatment strategies. Future research is required to identify predictive biomarkers, optimize the timing and type of therapeutic combinations, and minimize treatment-related adverse effects, thereby personalizing and enhancing treatment strategies for patients with resectable and borderline resectable HCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple negative breast cancer; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; limitations; nanotechnology
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:58:25 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a negative expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2). The survival rate for TNBC is generally worse than other breast cancer subtypes. TNBC treatment has made significant advances, but certain limitations remain. Treatment for TNBC can be challenging since the disease has various subtypes. Individualized therapy is recommended rather than generalized therapy, given the genetic variations among these TNBC subtypes. A precise and effective treatment for TNBC requires identifying prognostic markers. Depending on the type and stage of TNBC, patients are treated with various therapeutic interventions. A variety of treatment options are available, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Chemotherapy is the most common of these options. TNBC is generally treated with systemic chemotherapy using drugs such as anthracyclines and taxanes in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings. Developing resistance to anticancer drugs and off target toxicity are the primary hindrances to chemotherapeutic solutions for cancer. It is imperative that researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical companies work together to develop effective treatment options for TNBC. Several studies have suggested nanotechnology as a potential solution to the problem of suboptimal TNBC treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1937.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Tumour Immunology; Clinical trials; Adverse effects
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:16:17 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a class of drug that produces durable and sustained anti-tumour responses in a wide variety of malignancies. The exponential rise in their use has been mirrored by a rise in immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Knowledge of such toxicities, as well as effective management algorithms for these toxicities, is essential to optimize clinical efficacy and safety. Currently, the guidelines for management of the irAEs are based largely on retrospective studies and case series. In this article, we review the current landscape of clinical trials investigating the management of irAEs with an aim to develop standardized, randomized controlled trial-based management algorithms for ICI-related toxicities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Africa; cancer; immunotherapy; oncology; Tanzania; therapeutic; tumor microenvironment
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:30:46 CEST)
The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a critical role in cancer progression and treatment outcomes. Despite advances in cancer research, many therapeutic strategies have failed to provide the desired clinical outcomes. In this integrated review, aimed to explore the role of TME in cancer biology and develop novel therapeutic strategies that target not only cancer cells but also the surrounding microenvironment. Study conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for articles published between 2016 and 2022. Inclusion of articles that discussed the impact of TME on cancer development and progression, as well as articles that proposed novel therapeutic strategies targeting the TME. The analysis of the literature revealed that the TME plays a crucial role in cancer development and progression by promoting cancer cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and by interfering with the efficacy of cancer therapies. The TME is composed of a complex network of non-cancerous cells, extracellular matrix components, and signaling molecules that interact with cancer cells. Several novel therapeutic strategies have been proposed based on the modulation of TME components. One of the most promising approaches is the use of immunotherapy, which aims to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and attack cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, and immune-stimulatory monoclonal antibodies have been approved for the treatment of different cancer types. These approaches have shown promising results in preclinical studies and clinical trials. The TME plays a critical role in cancer development and progression, and targeting its components represents a promising avenue for cancer therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies such as immunotherapy, extracellular matrix-targeting drugs, and nanoparticle-based therapies have shown promising results in preclinical studies and clinical trials. However, further research is needed to identify the most effective strategies and to overcome the challenges associated with TME targeting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; Immunotherapy; Microbiome; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor; Immunology; Therapy
Online: 7 September 2022 (12:42:28 CEST)
Abstract: The gut microbiome refers to microorganisms and their genetic material influencing local and systemic inflammation. Inflammation is known to contribute to cancer development, progression, and treatment. Evidence suggests that modulating the gut microbiome may affect responses to various cancer therapies. The gut microbiota has been suggested to have an impact on immunotherapy efficacy, especially the currently widely used immune checkpoint inhibitors in various malignancies. Microbial Interventions like fecal microbiota transplantation, various probiotics, or even antibiotics can increase or de-crease the tumor's sensitivity to immunotherapy. However, not all tumors react in the same manner, highlighting the tumor microenvironment heterogeneity across tumor types and the influence this has on the crosstalk between the microbiome and therapy outcomes. In this study, we intend to review the association between the gut microbiota and immunotherapy response in cancer patients and the factors regulating this interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Circular RNA; Cutaneous Melanoma; Immunotherapy; metastasis; LncRNA; ecRNA
Online: 11 July 2022 (14:14:53 CEST)
Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is the most lethal form of skin cancer if it becomes metastatic, where treatment options and survival chances decrease dramatically. Immunotherapy treatments based on the immunologic checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1 and CTLA4) constituted a main breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic CM, particularly in the long-term benefit. However, several molecular pathways are responsible for the failure of this strategy in about 50-70% of CM patients. Some Long Non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNA) are implicated in triggering pro- and antitumorigenic responses to various cancer treatments. The relationship between lncRNA, circRNA and Immune Checkpoint Blockade (ICB) immunotherapy is not extensively explored in cutaneous metastatic melanoma (CMM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential role of both circRNA and lncRNA as a predictive immunotherapy biomarker in CMM. RNA-seq from 12 FFPE samples from the metastatic biopsy of metastatic melanoma patients treated with Nivolumab were analyzed. Our findings indicate that specific lncRNA and circRNA are involved in regulatory networks of the immune response against metastatic melanoma under treatment with nivolumab. Moreover, we have established a risk score that allows the prediction of Overall survival (OS) and Progression-free survival (PFS) of CMM patients with high accuracy. This proof of principle work provides a possible insight on the function of ceRNA, contributing to decipher the complex molecular mechanism of ICB cancer treatment response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; immunotherapy; biomarker; microenvironment; microbiome; flow cytometry; cytokine
Online: 28 December 2021 (11:13:13 CET)
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that are used to treat over one in three cancer patients. While they have changed the natural history of disease, prolonging life and preserving quality of life, they are highly active in less than 40% of patients, even in the most responsive malignancies such as melanoma, and cause significant autoimmune side effects. Licenced biomarkers include tumour Programmed Death Ligand 1 expression by immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, and Tumour Mutational Burden, none of which are particularly sensitive or specific. Emerging tumour and immune tissue biomarkers such as novel immunohistochemistry scores, tumour, stromal and immune cell gene expression profiling, and liquid biomarkers such as systemic inflammatory markers, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, circulating immune cells, cytokines and DNA are discussed in this review. We also examine the influence of the faecal microbiome on treatment outcome and its use as a biomarker of response and toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: drug delivery; allergen; glycyrrhizic acid; allergen-specific immunotherapy
Online: 10 December 2021 (08:50:57 CET)
The most effective method of treating allergic diseases, aimed not at relieving symptoms, but at eliminating the cause of the disease, is allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). To reduce the risk of side effects and improve the delivery of allergens to the mucosa, various delivery systems, such as liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, etc., can be used. To date, there are data on the creation of delivery systems based on glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and its derivatives, but such a delivery system has not been used for allergen-specific therapy until now. At the same time, it is known that GA has an anti-inflammatory effect, shifts the balance towards Th1, and increases the number of Treg cells, which means that in the future it can enhance the anti-allergic effect of AIT and reduce the risk of unwanted side effects. Thus, the study of the immunomodulatory effect of supramolecular complexes (micelles) of GA with extracts of allergens seems to be very promising for the development of new drugs for AIT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: prostate cancer, renal cancer, urothelial cancer, vaccines, immunotherapy
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:43 CEST)
Background: In the last years, many new treatment options have widened the therapeutic scenario of genitourinary malignancies. Immunotherapy has shown efficacy, especially in the urothelial and renal cell carcinomas, with no particular relevance in prostate cancer. However, despite the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, there is still high morbidity and mortality among these neo-plasms. Cancer vaccines represent another way to activate the immune system. We sought to summarize the most recent advances in vaccine therapy for genitourinary malignancies with this review. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Database for clinical trials conducted in the last ten years, focusing on cancer vaccines in the prostate, urothelial and renal cancer. Results: Various therapeutic vaccines, including DNA-based, RNA-based, peptide-based, dendritic cells, viral vectors, and modified tumor cells, have been demonstrated to induce specific immune responses in a variable percentage of patients. However, these responses rarely corresponded to significant survival improvements. Conclusions: Further pre-clinical and clinical studies will improve the knowledge about cancer vaccines in genitourinary malignancies to optimize dosage, select targets with a driver role for tumor development and growth, and finally overcome resistance mechanisms. Combination strategies represent possibly more effective and long-lasting treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0465.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: food allergy; oral immunotherapy; IgE, reaction; anaphylaxis; pediatrics
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:20:56 CET)
The prevalence of food allergy has increased in recent years, especially in children. Food allergen avoidance and symptomatic drugs in case of an allergic reaction remain the standard of care in food allergy. Nevertheless, increasing attention has been given to the possibility to treat food allergy, through immunotherapy, particularly oral immunotherapy (OIT). Several OIT protocols and clinical trials have been published. Most of them focus on children allergic to milk, egg, or peanuts, although recent studies developed protocols for other foods, such as wheat and different nuts. OIT efficacy in randomized controlled trials is usually evaluated as the possibility for patients to achieve desensitization, while the issue of a possible long-term sustained unresponsiveness has not been completely addressed. Here, we evaluated current OIT knowledge, focusing on the results of clinical trials and current guidelines. Specifically, we wanted to highlight what is known in terms of OIT efficacy and effectiveness, safety, and impact on quality of life. For each aspect, we reported the pros and the cons, inferable from published literature. In conclusion, even though many protocols, reviews and meta-analysis have been published on this topic, OIT remains a controversial therapy and no definitive generalized conclusion may be drawn so far. It should be an option provided by specialized teams, when both patients and their families are prone to adhere to the proposed protocol. Efficacy, long-term effectiveness, possible role of adjuvant therapies, risk of severe reactions including anaphylaxis or eosinophilic esophagitis, and impact on the quality of life of both children and caregivers are all aspects that should be discussed before starting OIT. Future studies are needed to provide firm clinical and scientific evidence, which should also consider patient reported outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pediatric AML; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; leukemia stem cell (LSC)
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:22:24 CET)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia in the pediatric and adolescent population but causes disproportionate morbidity and mortality in this age group. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens for AML have changed very little in the past 3-4 decades, but addition of targeted agents in recent years have led to improved survival in select subsets of patients as well as a better biologic understanding of the disease. One key paradigm of bench-to-bedside practice in the context of adult AML currently is the focus on leukemia stem cell (LSC)-targeted therapies. Here we review current and emerging immunotherapies and other targeted agents that are in clinical use for pediatric AML, through the lens of what is known (and not known) about their LSC-targeting capability. Based on a growing understanding of pediatric LSC biology, we also briefly discuss potential future agents on the horizon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1757.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma; Epidemiology; Immunotherapy; Prevalence rate; Mortality rate
Online: 27 October 2023 (05:18:31 CEST)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), alternative term for kidney cancer, is becoming more common worldwide each year, and there are many different contributing factors. Among all cancers, RCC is the 14th most prevalent; and it ranks as the 14th and 9th most prevalent cancer overall for women and men respectively. RCC cases increased by more than 430,000 in 2020. While disease burdens are highest in Eastern Europe (Belarus and Russia) and North America (Canada and the United States), Africa, Asia, and Latin America are predicted to report increase in prevalence as these regions embrace change in lifestyle. The majority of RCC cases are accidentally found on imaging, and survival is greatly impacted by the disease stage at diagnosis, with a metastatic cancer having a 5-year survival rate of 12%. As a consequence of early discovery and more improved treatments, RCC mortality has declined. The key epidemiologic variables of RCC include vast regional and geographical heterogeneity in prevalence rates, and the cause is largely unclear. Recognized risk factors include smoking, being overweight, having previous episodes of hypertension, and suffering chronic renal illness. Unexpectedly swift, RCC diagnosis and therapy have advanced. RCC prevalence continues to rise although survival rates have sharply improved. Cancer survival and treatment have improved, and more gains are projected as a result of clinical and translational research. In this review, kidney cancer statistics and recent literatures are examined on a global scale. It covered aspects of kidney cancer, including its epidemiology, causes, risk factors, current immunotherapy, chances for prevention, and future planning.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0648.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: in-situ-vaccination, Immunotherapy, cyclical-intermittent-SBRT, vascular-normalization
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:15:10 CEST)
Immunotherapy with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), low-dose antiangiogenics, immune adjuvants, nanomedicine, or other combinations will likely play a lead role in managing malignancies soon. Presently, its benefit extends to about 12% to 20% of patients, in the background of possible recurrence eventually and the toxicities, including in non-responders. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) not only eliminates the indexed lesions, but recently, the evidence is accumulating about its systemic abscopal effects. It needs to be evolved to a dependable in situ therapeutic vaccine production and to activate short- and long-term memory immune lymphocytes. The in-situ immune cascade happens with the ability of SBRT to generate Tumor-specific neoantigens and neoepitopes, which enhance the activation of antigen-presenting cells, invoke and restore the competence of Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, resulting in cancer cell lysis. This cell lysis, in turn, can generate further neoantigens and epitopes, imparting a virtuous cycle that is the hallmark of effective vaccines. Additionally, SBRT can synergistically enhance the other in situ vaccination strategies, concurrent in vitro vaccines or nanomedicines, making it a primary tool for sensitizing even the “cold” tumors for immunotherapy. The present proposed hypotheses, primarily based on a preclinical literature review, focus on the critical aspects of the in-situ vaccination generation capability of SBRT when used in pulsed, cyclical, or intermittent endothelial-sparing single dose schedules along with immunotherapy and other supportive measures. This schedule is categorized as in situ vaccine dose (ISVD) radiotherapy (RT) (distinguishable from the standard therapeutic SBRT schedule) in metastatic cancer settings after standard /first-line therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibitors; new therapeutic landscapes
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:36:13 CEST)
In the last years, molecularly targeted agents and immune based treatments (ITs) have deeply changed the landscape of anti-cancer therapy. Indeed, ITs proved to be very effective in metastatic solid tumors, where outcomes were extremely poor with standard approaches. Such a scenario has been only partially reproduced in hematologic malignancies. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as innovative drugs are eagerly awaited in relapsed/refractory setting, different ITs have been explored, but the results are still unsatisfactory. In this work, we will discuss the most important clinical studies to date adopting ITs in AML, providing the bases to understand how this approach, although still in its infancy, may represent a promising therapeutic tool for the next future treatment of AML patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CAR-T therapy, Immunosuppression, Tumor microenvironment, adrenergic stress,; immunotherapy
Online: 18 July 2023 (10:29:29 CEST)
The microenvironment of most tumors is complex, comprising numerous aspects of immunosuppression. Several studies have indicated that the adrenergic system is vital for controlling immunological responses. In the context of tumor microenvironment, Nor-Adrenaline (NA) is poured-in by innervating nerves and tumor tissues itself. The receptors for nor-adrenaline are present on the surface of cancer and immune cells and are often involved in activation of pro-tumoral signaling pathways. β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is an emerging class of receptors that are capable of modulating the functioning of immune cells. β2-AR is reported to activate the regulatory immune cells and inhibit the effector immune cells. Blocking β2-AR increases activation, proliferation and cytokine release of T lymphocytes. Moreover β2-AR deficiency during metabolic reprograming of T cells increases mitochondrial membrane potential and biogenesis. In the view of available research data, immunosuppressive role of β2-AR in T cells presents it a targetable checkpoint in CAR-T cell therapies. In this review, we have abridged contemporary knowledge about adrenergic stress mediated β2-AR activation on T lymphocytes inside tumor milieu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0566.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: patient-derived xenograft; humanized mice; targeted therapy; immunotherapy; melanoma
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:59:13 CEST)
Current methodologies for developing patient-derived xenografts (PDX) in humanized mice in preclinical trials to test response to immune-based therapies are limited by graft versus host disease. Here we compared two approaches for establishing PDX tumors in humanized mice: 1) PDX are first established in immune-deficient mice; 2) PDX are initially established in humanized mice, before transplanting established PDX’s to a larger cohort of humanized mice for preclinical trials. With the first approach, there was rapid wasting of PDX-bearing humanized mice with high levels of activated T cells in the circulation and organs, indicating immune-mediated toxicity. In contrast, with the second approach, toxicity was less of an issue and long-term human melanoma tumor growth and maintenance of human chimerism was achieved. Pre-clinical trials from the second approach revealed that rigosertib, but not anti-PD-1, increased CD8/CD4 T cell ratios in spleen and blood and inhibited PDX tumor growth. Resistance to anti-PD-1 was associated with limited infiltration of CD8+ T cell into the tumor. Our findings suggest that it is essential to carefully manage immune editing by first establishing PDX tumors in the presence of human immune cells before expanding PDX tumors into a larger cohort of humanized mice to evaluate therapy response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: acetylcholine; adoptive immunotherapy; α7; dupα7; GTS-21; nAChR; Treg
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:33:48 CEST)
Immune cells such as T cells and macrophages express α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs), which contribute to the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Earlier findings suggest α7 nAChR activation promotes the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mice. Using human CD4+ T cells, we investigated the mRNA expression of the α7 subunit and the human-specific dupα7 nAChR subunit, which functions as a dominant-negative regulator of ion channel function, under resting conditions and T cell receptor (TCR)-activation. We then explored the effects of the selective α7 nAChR agonist GTS-21 on proliferation of TCR-activated T cells and Treg development. Varied levels of mRNA for both the α7 and dupα7 nAChR subunits were detected in resting human CD+ T cells. mRNA expression of the α7 nAChR subunit was profoundly suppressed on days 4 and 7 of TCR-activation as compared to day 1, whereas mRNA expression of the dupα7 nAChR subunit remained nearly constant. GTS-21 did not alter CD4+ T cell proliferation but significantly promoted Treg development. These results suggest the potential ex vivo utility of GTS-21 for preparing Tregs for adoptive immunotherapy, even with high expression of the dupα7 subunit.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0801.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immunotherapy; lung cancer; PET; response to therapy; PD-L1
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:32:06 CEST)
Aim: to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing literature concerning the applications of positron emission tomography (PET)-radiomics in lung cancer patients candidates or undergoing immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted on databases and web sources. English-language original articles were considered. The title and abstract were in-dependently reviewed to evaluate study inclusion. Papers duplicate, out-of-topic, review or edi-torials articles and letters to editors were excluded. For each study, the radiomics analysis was assessed based on the relies on radiomics quality score (RQS 2.0). The review was registered on the PROSPERO database with the number CRD42023402302. Results: 15 papers were included, 13 were qualified as conventional radiomics approaches, and two were as Deep Learning radiomics. The content of each study was different, indeed, 7 papers investigated the potential role of radiomics to predict PD-L1 expression and tumor microenvironment before starting immunotherapy. Moreo-ver, 2 were relative to the prediction of response and 4 investigated the utility of radiomics to predict the response to immunotherapy. Finally, 2 papers were relative to the prediction of adverse events due to the immunotherapy. Conclusions: radiomics is promising in the evaluation of TME and for the prediction of response to immunotherapy, but some limitations should be overpassed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: allergic rhinitis; subcutaneous immunotherapy; clinical benefit; cost-saving benefit
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:42:37 CEST)
Background. Until now, cost of allergy treatment in insured public health care system and non-insured self-financing private health care system in Indonesia has not been well documented and published, as well as the cost of allergy treatment with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Objective. To evaluate the clinical and cost benefits of allergic rhinitis treatment in children with subcutaneous immunotherapy in non-insured self-financing private health care system. Methods. A retrospective cohort study conducted from 2015 until 2020, compared clinical improvement and health care costs over 18 months in newly diagnosed AR children who received SCIT versus matched AR control subjects who did not receive SCIT, with each group consisting of 1,098 subjects Results. Decrease of sp-HDM-IgE level (kU/ml) from 20.5 + 8.75 kU/ml to 12.1 + 3.07 kU/ml had been observed in the SCIT group. To reduce the symptom score of allergic rhinitis by 1.0 with SCIT it costs IDR 21,753,062.7 per child, for non SCIT it costs IDR 104,147,878.0 per child. Meanwhile, to reduce the medication score (MS) by 1.0 with SCIT it costs Rp. 17,024,138.8 while with non SCIT it costs Rp. 104,147,878.0. Meanwhile, to lower combination symptoms and medication score (CSMS) by 1.0, with SCIT it costs IDR 9,550,126.6, while with non SCIT it costs IDR 52,073,938.9. Conclusion. In conclusion, this first Indonesia-based study demonstrates substantial health care cost savings associated with SCIT for children with AR in an uninsured private health care system and provides strong evidence for the clinical benefits and cost-savings benefits of AR treatment in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0624.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: medical record systems; cutaneous malignant melanoma; survival analysis; immunotherapy
Online: 29 October 2020 (16:02:44 CET)
Background: Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is one of the most aggressive types of skin cancer. Currently, innovative approaches such as target therapies and immunotherapies have been introduced in clinical practice for the treatment of metastatic CMM. Data of clinical trials and real life studies that evaluate the outcomes of these therapeutic associations are necessary to establish their clinical utility. The aim of this study is to investigate the types of oncological treatments employed in the real-life clinical management of patients with advanced CMM in several Italian centers which are part of the Clinical National Melanoma Registry (CNMR), and the oncological outcomes obtained. Methods: CNMR collects data of patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of primary CMM treated in one of the 38 Italian institutions (hospitals, research institutes, etc.) participating in the network. Melanoma-specific survival and Overall survival were calculated. Kaplan-Meier curves and medians of OS and 95% CI are presented overall and by immunotherapy and target treatments. The Log-rank test compared curves by treatments. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios adjusting for confounders and other prognostic factors. Results: The median follow-up time was 36 months (range 1.2-185.1). 787 CMM were included in the analysis with completed information about therapies.Global immunotherapy showed a significant improved survival compared with all other therapies (p=0.001). 75% was the highest reduction of death reached by nivolumab/pembrolizumab immunotherapy (anti-PD1 HR=0.25 95% CI 0.14-0.42), globally immunotherapy was significantly associated with improved survival, either for anti-CTL A4 monotherapy or combined with anti-PD1 (HR=0.47;95% CI 0.33-0.66 and HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.15-0.46, respectively). Conclusions: The nivolumab/pembrolizumab and the combination of ipilimumab can be considered the best therapy to improve survival in a real-world-population. The CNMR can complement clinical registries with the intent of improving cancer management and standardizing cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; neutralizing antibodies; immunotherapy; vaccine
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:52:17 CEST)
We review aspects of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID- 19 pandemic. The topics we cover are relevant to immunotherapy with plasma from recovered patients and with monoclonal antibodies against the viral S-protein. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, an essential public health tool, will also be informed by an understanding of the antibody response in infected patients. Although virus-neutralizing antibodies are likely to protect, antibodies could potentially trigger immunopathogenic events in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients or enhance infection. An awareness of these possibilities may benefit clinicians and the developers of antibody-based therapies and vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0273.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: adenovirus; oncolytic; targeting; virotherapy; cancer; αvβ6 integrin; immunotherapy; tropism
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:14:24 CEST)
The licensing of talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec) represented a landmark moment for oncolytic virotherapy, since it provided unequivocal evidence for the long-touted potential of genetically modified replicating viruses as anti-cancer agents. Whilst T-Vec is promising as a locally delivered virotherapy, especially in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, the quest continues for a virus capable of specific tumour cell killing via systemic administration. One candidate is oncolytic adenovirus (Ad); it’s double stranded DNA genome is easily manipulated and a wide range of strategies and technologies have been employed to empower the vector with improved pharmacokinetics and tumour targeting ability. As well characterised clinical and experimental agents, we have detailed knowledge of adenoviruses’ mechanisms of pathogenicity, supported by detailed virological studies and in vivo interactions. In this review we highlight the strides made in the engineering of bespoke adenoviral vectors to specifically infect, replicate within, and destroy tumour cells. We discuss how mutations in genes regulating adenoviral replication after cell entry can be used to restrict replication to the tumour, and summarise how detailed knowledge of viral capsid interactions enable rational modification to eliminate native tropisms, and simultaneously promote active uptake by cancerous tissues. We argue that these designer-viruses, exploiting the viruses natural mechanisms and regulated at every level of replication, represent the ideal platforms for local overexpression of therapeutic transgenes such as immunomodulatory agents. Where T-Vec has paved the way, Ad-based vectors now follow. The era of designer oncolytic virotherapies looks decidedly as though it will soon become a reality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; immune surveillance; galectins; immunotherapy; immune checkpoints; stroma
Online: 4 December 2017 (05:17:15 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most frequent type of pancreatic cancer, is one of the main unfinished businesses in the biomedical and clinical fields, with still discouraging 5 year survival rates and poor therapy efficiency. PDA abundant desmoplasia has for long played the lead in the mechanisms involved in poor drug performance, being the main source of cytokines and chemokines orchestrating rapid and silent tumor progression and guilty of isolating tumor cells into a extense fibrotic reaction resulting in inefficient drug delivery. However, since immunotherapy was proclaimed the breakthrough of the year back to 2013, the focus in the stroma of pancreatic cancer has interestingly moved from activated fibroblasts to the immune compartment, trying to understand the immunosuppressive factors that play part in the strong immune evasion that characterizes PDA. PDA microenvironment is highly immune-suppressive, being basically composed of T regulatory cells (Tregs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), which boycott CD8+ T-cell duties in tumor recognition and clearance. Interestingly, preclinical data have highlighted the importance of this immune evasion as the source of resistance to single checkpoint immunotherapies and cancer vaccines and point at pathways inhibiting the immune attack as the key to solve the therapy puzzle. Here, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in PDA immune escape as well as the state of the art of the PDA immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1355.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: cancer; NK cells; macrophages; T cells; immunotherapy; molecular characterization
Online: 21 November 2023 (15:27:16 CET)
Tumors are complex tissues of malignant cells surrounded by a diverse cellular micro-environment with which they interact. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of cancer cells have been increasingly understood during the last few decades. Nonetheless, a great deal remains unknown regarding the ways in which tumour cells modify their surroundings and impact the organisation and makeup of cells. This review aims to concentrate on recent advancements in molecular characterization of tumor cells and its immunology, provides recent and general insight into cancer immunity and immunotherapy, and discusses the immunobiology of human adaptive and innate immunity to malignant growth of cancer cells, the mechanisms that support human immune response from beneath, an up-to-date scientific development to cancer immunotherapy, and how tumor and host responses can Encircle as a military tactic effective anti-cancer immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1806.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Biobran; biological response modifier; polysaccharide; immunomodulator; MGN-3; immunotherapy; chemotherapy
Online: 30 October 2023 (07:58:17 CET)
Background: The effect of rice bran arabinoxylan compound (RBAC), a plant-based immunomodulator, on the quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients and underlying physiological pathways remains unclear. Trial design: The RBAC-QoL study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled pilot feasibility study. The aim is to determine RBAC’s effects on QoL and the associated action mechanisms. Primary outcomes are the EORTC QLQ-C30 functional, symptom, and global QoL scores with inflammatory, nutritional, and cytokine parameters as secondary and exploratory outcomes. Methods: Recruitment targets adults diagnosed with solid organ tumours (≥ stage II) undergoing active treatment in several outpatient centres in New South Wales, Australia. Interventions are RBAC or matched placebo at 3g/day for 24 weeks allocated through stratified randomisation with participants, oncologists, and data collectors blinded. Data is collected from five study visits six weeks apart. The trial is ongoing. An interim intention-to-treat analysis was performed using repeated measure ANOVA with pairwise comparisons where statistical significance is observed and adjusted with covariates. Results: Global QoL scores from currently available data (n = 16; RBAC = 7, placebo = 9) were statistically different between groups (F[1,8] = 8.6, p = 0.019, eta2[g] = 0.267). Pairwise comparisons found significant differences at week 6 (p = 0.032, Cohen’s d = 1.454) and marginally at week 12 (p = 0.069, d = 1.427). Age-adjusted analysis showed a continuous upward trend in QoL improvement over time with RBAC, while the placebo group did not deviate from baseline QoL. Significant elevations of serum white blood cell count (week 18) and total protein (weeks 12 and 18) were detected in the RBAC group compared to placebo. The total protein levels correlated highly with white blood cell count (Pearson’s r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and moderately with the global QoL scores (r = 0.338, p = 0.01). No intervention-related adverse events were reported in both groups. Conclusions: RBAC improves QoL beyond placebo during active cancer treatment, possibly through the immuno-nutritional pathway. These findings are preliminary but valuable for future research. Funding and registration: Daiwa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Japan; BioMedica Nutraceuticals Pty Ltd., Australia. ANZCTR Reg No: ACTRN12619000562178p.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; immunotherapy; tertiary lymphoid structures; lymphocytes; prognostic factors; biomarkers
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:20:01 CEST)
This narrative review aims to clarify the role of tertiary lymphoid structures in breast cancer. We examine their development, composition, prognostic value and current ways of recognising them. A comprehensive literature review was performed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE databases. A significant area of interest in breast cancer research involves targeting immune checkpoint molecules, particularly in the triple-negative subtype, where treatment options remain limited. However, existing biomarkers have limitations in accurately predicting treatment response. In this context, tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) emerge as a prognostic biomarker and also as a promising predictive marker for response. TLS are ectopic lymphoid formations or neo-organogenesis that can develop after prolonged exposure to inflammatory signals mediated by chemokines and cytokines. Their presence is inversely correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) expression, but positively associated with a higher pathologic complete response rate and improved overall survival. In certain scenarios, TLS-positive tumors were associated with improved outcomes regardless of the presence of PDL-1 (programmed cell death ligand 1) expression or and TILs (tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myeloma; daratumumab; bispecific antibodies; chimeric antigen receptor T-cells; immunotherapy
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:28:58 CEST)
The landscape of therapeutic measures to treat multiple myeloma has undergone a seismic shift since the dawn of the current century. This has been driven largely by the introduction of new classes of small molecules, such as proteasome blockers (e.g., bortezomib) and immunomodulators (e.g., lenalidomide), as well as by immunotherapeutic agents starting with the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab in 2015. Recently, other immunotherapies have been added to the armamentarium of drugs available to fight this malignancy. These include the bispecifics teclistamab, talquetamab, and elranatamab, and the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell products idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel) and ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel). While the accumulated benefits of these newer agents have resulted in a more than doubling of the disease’s five-year survival rate to nearly 60% and improved quality of life, the disease remains incurable, as patients become refractory to the drugs and experience relapse. This review covers the current scope of anti-myeloma immunotherapeutic agents, both those in clinical use and in development. Included in the discussion are additional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), bi- and multi-targeted mAbs, and CAR T-cells and emerging natural killer (NK) cells, including products intended for “off-the-shelf” (allogeneic) applications. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of each along with the challenges that need to be surmounted if MM is to be cured.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Immunotherapy; autoimmune diseases; monoclonal antibodies; bispecific antibodies; CAR-T cells
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:17:18 CEST)
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAIDs) such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are fully related to the unregulated innate and adaptive immune systems involved in their pathogenesis. They have similar pathogenic characteristics including the interferon signature, loss of tolerance to self-nuclear antigens, and enhanced tissue damage like necrosis and fibrosis. Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants, which have limited specificity and are prone to tolerance, are used as the first-line therapy. A plethora of novel immunotherapies have been developed including monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, and other biological agents to target cellular and soluble factors involved in disease pathogenesis such as B cells, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokines or their receptors, and signalling molecules. Many of these have shown encouraging results in clinical trials. CAR-T cell therapy is considered the most promising technique for curing autoimmune diseases, with recent successes in the treatment of SLE and SSc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1611.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Natural Killer; Immunotherapy; Chimeric Antigen Receptor; Allogenic
Online: 23 August 2023 (08:48:43 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) has witnessed improved patient outcomes through advancements in therapeutic approaches. Notably, allogeneic stem cell transplantation, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies have contributed to enhanced quality of life. Recently, a promising avenue has emerged with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), expressed widely on MM cells. To mitigate risks associated with allogenic T cells, we investigated the potential of BCMA CAR expression in natural killer cells (NKs), known for potent cytotoxicity and minimal side effects. Using the NK-92 cell line, we co-expressed BCMA CAR and soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) employing the PiggyBac transposon system. Engineered NK cells (CAR-NK-92-TRAIL) demonstrated robust cytotoxicity against a panel of MM cell lines and primary patient samples, outperforming unmodified NK-92 cells with a mean difference in viability of 45,1% (± 26,1%, depending on the target cell line). Combination therapy was explored with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ) and γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI), leading to a significant synergistic effect in combination with CAR-NK-92-TRAIL cells. This synergy was evident in cytotoxicity assays where a notable decrease in MM cell viability was observed in combinatorial therapy compared to single treatment. In summary, our study demonstrate the therapeutic potential of the CAR-NK-92-TRAIL cells for the treatment of MM. The synergistic impact of combining these engineered NK cells with BZ and GSI supports further development of allogeneic CAR-based products for effective MM therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1462.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: inflammatory breast cancer (IBC); review; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; tumor microenvironment
Online: 21 July 2023 (12:39:42 CEST)
(1) Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that poses unique management challenges. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on IBC, focusing on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, while highlighting recent advances and ongoing issues in patient management.; (2) Methods: We outline the typical clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria of IBC. Additionally, we detail the main therapeutic strategies, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, targeted therapies, hormonal therapies, and emerging treatments such as immunotherapy. The review is based on a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature.; (3) Results: Despite advancements in systemic therapy and a better understanding of IBC biology, the prognosis for patients with IBC remains poor. The overall survival rate has shown only marginal improvement over the past few decades. Future research directions, including the identification of novel biomarkers for early detection and personalized medicine strategies, are identified. The need for more high-quality clinical trials to address the challenges in IBC management is emphasized.; (4) Conclusions: Managing IBC is a complex task that necessitates multidisciplinary care and patient-centered communication. This review provides clinicians and researchers with a comprehensive overview of the current challenges and future directions in IBC management. The goal is to guide treatment decisions and inform further research, ultimately improving patient outcomes and prognosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ALL; immunotherapy; antibody-drug conjugate; CAR-based therapies, targeted therapies
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:03:11 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a blood cancer that primarily affects children but also adults. It is due to the malignant proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells that invade the bone marrow and can spread to extramedullary sites. ALL is divided into B cell (85%) and T cell lineages (10 to 15%); rare cases are associated with the natural killer (NK) cell lineage (<1%). To date, the survival rate in children with ALL is excellent while in adults continues to be poor. Despite the therapeutic progress, there are subsets of patients that still have high relapse rates after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and an unsatisfactory cure rate. Hence, the identification of more effective and safer therapy choices represents a primary issue. In this review, we will discuss novel therapeutic options including bispecific antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates,chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based therapies, and other promising treatments for both pediatric and adult patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biomarkers; immunotherapy markers; advanced serous ovarian carcinoma; immunohistochemistry; p53; MSI
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:39:48 CEST)
Abstract: Advanced high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is a serious malignant neoplasm with a late diagnosis and high mortality rate. Even when treated with standard therapy, such as surgery followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy, the prognosis remains unfavorable. Im-munotherapy is a treatment alternative that requires further study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the expression of the immunotherapy markers: PD-1, PD-L1, CD8, MSI (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2), and p53 in the paraffin samples of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. A retrospective study of 28 southern Brazilian patients with advanced serous ovarian carcinoma (EC III or IV) was conducted between 2009 and 2020. The expression of these proteins was evaluated using im-munohistochemistry, and the results were correlated with the patients' clinicopathological data. At diagnosis, the mean age was 61 years, and the most common clinical stage (60%) was EC III. Among the cases, 84.6% exhibited p53 overexpression, 14.8% had MSI, 92.0% were sensitive to platinum, and more than 50.0% relapsed after treatment. Patients with MSI had a lower CD8/PD-1 ratio and more relapses (p=0.03). In conclusion, analysis of immunotherapeutic markers in paraf-fin-embedded samples of advanced serous ovarian carcinoma is feasible and may assist in prog-nosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virome; microbiota; cancer; bacteriophages; fecal microbiota transplantation; checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:30:14 CET)
Viral infections as well as changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and virome have been linked to cancer. Moreover, the success of cancer immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has been correlated with the intestinal microbial composition of patients. The transfer of feces – which contains mainly bacteria and their viruses (phages) – from immunotherapy responders to non-responders, known as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), has been shown to be able convert some non-responders to responders. Since phages may also increase the response to immunotherapy, for example by inducing T cells cross-reacting with cancer antigens, modulating phage populations may provide a new avenue to improve immunotherapy responsiveness. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the human virome and its links to cancer, and discuss the potential utility of bacteriophages in increasing the responder rate for cancer immunotherapy.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: spontaneous regression; tumors; cancer; bacterial therapy; Coley; immunotherapy; hyperthermia; oncology
Online: 19 April 2021 (21:03:16 CEST)
Neither tumor growth nor regression is truly spontaneous, but both may under special circumstances be driven by similar events. We describe a sequence of processes that typically leads to tumor progression but may on occasion inadvertently result in regression. A possible procedure for reducing tumor mass through a controlled intervention is also outlined.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint therapy; radionuclide therapy
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:26:23 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of the disease with poor clinical outcomes and limited therapeutic options. Immune checkpoint blockade (CP) has surged to the forefront of cancer therapies with widespread clinical success in a variety of cancer types. However, the percentage of TNBC patients that benefit from CP as a monotherapy is low and clinical trials have shown the need for combined therapeutic modalities. Specifically, there has been interest in combining CP therapy with radiation therapy where clinical studies primarily with external beam have suggested their therapeutic synergy, contributing to the development of anti-tumor immunity. Here, we have developed a therapeutic platform combining radionuclide therapy (RT) and immunotherapy utilizing a radiolabelled biomolecule and CP in an E0771 murine TNBC tumor model. Survival studies show that while neither monotherapy is able to improve therapeutic outcomes, the combination of RT + CP extended overall survival. Histologic analysis showed that RT + CP increased necrotic tissue within the tumor and decreased levels of F4/80+ macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis of the peripheral blood also showed that RT + CP suppressed macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, both of which actively contribute to immune escape and tumor relapse.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: adenovirus; oncolytic; virotherapy; targeting; immunotherapy; immunogenic cell death; αvβ6 integrin
Online: 3 November 2020 (08:19:31 CET)
More people are surviving longer with cancer. Whilst this can be partially attributed to advances in early detection of cancers, there is little doubt that the improvement in survival statistics is also due to the expansion in the spectrum of treatments available for efficacious treatment. Transformative amongst those are immunotherapies, which have proven effective agents for treating immunogenic forms of cancer, though immunologically “cold” tumour types remain refractive. Oncolytic viruses, such as those based on adenovirus have great potential as anti-cancer agents and have seen a resurgence of interest in recent years. Amongst their many advantages is their ability to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) of infected tumour cells, thus providing the alluring potential to synergize with immunotherapies by turning immunologically “cold” tumours “hot”. Additionally, enhanced immune mediated cell killing can be promoted through the local overexpression of immunological transgenes, encoded from within the engineered viral genome. To achieve this full potential requires the development of refined, tumour selective “precision virotherapies” that are extensively engineered to prevent off-target up take via native routes of infection, and targeted to infect and replicate uniquely within malignantly transformed cells. Here, we review the latest advances towards this holy grail within the adenoviral field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment; metabolic pathway
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:00:41 CEST)
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has long been viewed as the first-line chemotherapy for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, many patients with UC have been classified as “cisplatin-ineligible patient”, which requires alternative chemotherapy due to their poor responses. In fact, vast majority of those who initially responded to cisplatin-based chemotherapy eventually progressed. Understanding of UC tumor immunology provided an immunopathogenic bases for immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, to treat cisplatin ineligible metastatic UC and patients with platinum-refractory metastatic UC. In 2020, data from the trail further showed that PD-L1 inhibitors benefit prolonged survival and progression-free survival as maintenance therapy. Besides immune-targeting therapies, manipulation of tumor microenvironment via metabolic pathways alternation, such as inhibiting tumor glycolysis, lactate accumulation and exogenous glutamine uptake, has been investigated in the past few years. In this comprehensive review, we started by introducing traditional chemotherapy of UC, and summarized current evidences supporting the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and highlighted ongoing clinical trials. Lastly, we reviewed the tumor metabolic characteristic and the anti-tumor treatments targeting metabolic pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: carbon ions; particle therapy; radiotherapy; radiobiology; hypoxia; RBE; immunotherapy; metastasis
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:16:34 CEST)
Radiotherapy using accelerated charged particles is rapidly growing worldwide. About 85% of the cancer patients receiving particle therapy is irradiated with protons, which have physical advantages compared to X-rays but similar biological response. In addition to the ballistic advantages, heavy ions present specific radiobiological features that can make them attractive for treating radioresistant, hypoxic tumors. An ideal heavy ion should have lower toxicity in the entrance channel (normal tissue), and being exquisitely effective in the target region (tumor). Carbon ions have been chosen because they represent the best combination in this direction. Normal tissue toxicities and second cancer risk are similar to those observed in conventional radiotherapy. In the target region, they have increased relative biological effectiveness and reduced oxygen enhancement ratio compared to X-rays. Some radiobiology properties of densely ionizing carbon ions are so distinct from X-rays and protons that they can be considered as a different “drug” in oncology, and may elicit favorable responses such as increased immune response and reduced angiogenesis and metastatic potential. The radiobiological properties of carbon ions should guide patient selection and treatment protocols to achieve optimal clinical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Cutaneous Melanoma; Immunotherapy; Lymphocytes; Monocytes; Macrophages; RNAseq; tumor immune microenvironment
Online: 11 September 2020 (04:02:03 CEST)
Background: Cutaneous Melanoma (SKCM) is characterized by significant heterogeneity in its molecular, genomic, and immunologic characteristics. Methods: Whole transcriptome RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas of SKCM (n=328) was utilized. The immune microenvironment was characterized using CIBERSORTX to identify immune cell type composition. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed based on immune cell type content. Samples were separated into those obtained from the primary tumor site and regional skin or soft tissue (locoregional), or distant metastasis and regional lymph node (metastatic). Analysis of overall survival (OS) was performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox-regression multivariable analyses. Results: Four immune clusters were identified, largely defined by lymphocyte:monocyte (L:M) ratio, monocyte-enrichment, and M0-macrophage-enrichment (L:MLow, MonocyteHigh, M0High; L:MLow, MonocyteMid, M0Low; L:MMid, MonocyteLow, M0Low; L:MHigh, MonocyteLow, M0Low). The L:MLow, MonocyteHigh, M0High cluster demonstrated significantly worse OS than clusters 2-4 in the locoregional group (HR 2.804, 95% CI 1.262–6.234, p=0.0114). Membership in the L:MLow, MonocyteHigh, M0High cluster was an independently poor prognostic factor for survival (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.12–8.20, p=0.029). The L:MLow, MonocyteHigh, M0High cluster correlated with higher rates of metastasis and decreased predicted response to immune checkpoint blockade compared to the other clusters as determined by the Tumor Immune Dysfunction and Exclusion tool (TIDE). Conclusion: Distinct tumor immune clusters with a M0-macrophage-enriched, L:M ratio low phenotype in the primary melanoma tumor site independently characterize an aggressive phenotype that may differentially respond to treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; prostate cancer; CAR; PSMA; NK-92 cell line
Online: 15 May 2020 (17:39:20 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the most common tumor among males in Europe and the USA. Adoptive immunotherapy appears as a promising strategy to control the advanced stages of the disease by specific targeting the tumor, in particular through chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy. Despite the advancements of CAR-T technology in the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors still represent a challenge. To overcome current limits, other cellular effectors than T lymphocytes are under study as possible candidates for CAR-engineered cancer immunotherapy. A novel approach involves the NK-92 cell line, which mediates strong cytotoxic responses against a variety of tumor cells but has no effect on non-malignant healthy counterparts. Here, we report a therapeutic approach against PCa based on engineering of NK-92 cells with a CAR recognizing the human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is overexpressed in prostatic neoplastic cells. Upon CAR transduction, NK-92/CAR cells acquired high and specific lytic activity against PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells in vitro, and also underwent degranulation and produced high levels of IFN-γ in response to antigen recognition. Lethal irradiation of the effectors, a safety measure requested for the clinical application of retargeted NK-92 cells, fully abrogated replication but did not impact on phenotype and short-term functionality. PSMA-specific recognition and antitumor activity were retained in vivo, as adoptive transfer of irradiated NK-92/CAR cells in prostate cancer-bearing mice restrained tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-PSMA CAR-modified NK-92 cells represent a universal, off-the-shelf, renewable and cost-effective product endowed with relevant potentialities as a therapeutic approach for PCa immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immunogenic cell death; DAMPs; cell death resistance; immunotherapy; combination therapy
Online: 13 March 2020 (10:04:56 CET)
Cell death resistance is a key feature of tumor cells. One of the main anti-cancer therapies is increasing the susceptibility of cells to death. Cancer cells have developed a capability of tumor immune escape. Hence, restoring the immunogenicity of cancer cells can be suggested as an effective approach against cancer. Accumulating evidence proposes that several anticancer agents provoke the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are determinants of immunogenicity and stimulate immunogenic cell death (ICD). It has been suggested that ICD inducers are two different types according to their various activities. Here, we review the well-characterized DAMPs and focus on the different types of ICD inducers and recent combination therapies that can augment the immunogenicity of cancer cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: oncolytic virotherapy; combination therapy; mathematical model; immune system; cancer; immunotherapy
Online: 17 July 2017 (13:01:09 CEST)
After decades of research, oncolytic virotherapy has recently advanced to clinical application, and currently a multitude of novel agents and combination treatments are being evaluated for cancer therapy. Oncolytic agents preferentially replicate in tumor cells, inducing tumor cell lysis and complex anti-tumor effects, such as innate and adaptive immune responses and the destruction of tumor vasculature. With the availability of different vector platforms and the potential of both genetic engineering and combination regimens to enhance particular aspects of safety and efficacy, the identification of optimal treatments for patient subpopulations or even individual patients becomes a top priority. Mathematical modeling can provide support in this arena by making use of experimental and clinical data to generate hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying complex biology and, ultimately, predict optimal treatment protocols. Increasingly complex models can be applied to account for therapeutically relevant parameters such as components of the immune system. In this review, we describe current developments in oncolytic virotherapy and mathematical modeling to discuss the benefit of integrating different modeling approaches into biological and clinical experimentation. Conclusively, we propose a mutual combination of these fields of research for more efficient development and effective treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: advanced melanoma; immunotherapy; target therapy; lysine histone methyl transferase inhibitors; UNC0642
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:35:45 CEST)
Advanced cutaneous melanoma is considered the most aggressive type of skin cancer with variable rates of treatment response. Nowadays, there are available some classes of immunotherapy and target therapy for its treatment. Immunotherapy can inhibit tumor growth and its recurrence by triggering host's immune system, while targeted therapy acts inhibiting specific molecules or signaling pathways. However, melanoma response to these treatments are highly heterogenous, and frequently become resistant. Epigenome (DNA/histone modification) contribute to cancer initiation and progression. Epigenetic alterations are divided into four levels of gene expression regulation: DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs regulation. The deregulation of lysine methyltransferase enzymes is associated with tumor initiation, invasion, development of metastases, changes in immune microenvironment and drug resistance. The study of lysine histone methyltransferase (KMT) inhibitors is important to cancer epigenetic mechanisms understanding and to biological processes. In addition to immunotherapy and target therapy, the research and development of KMT inhibitors is ongoing. Many studies are exploring the therapeutic implications and possible side effects of these compounds, besides their adjuvant potential to the approved current therapies. Importantly, as with any drug development, safety, efficacy, and specificity are crucial considerations when developing KMT inhibitors for clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Disulfidptosis; Osteosarcoma; Tumor immune microenvironment; Immunotherapy; Prognostic model; CAPZB; Intercellular communication
Online: 27 June 2023 (13:28:20 CEST)
Background: Disulfidptosis, a recently identified form of cell death triggered by excessive cysteine accumulation and subsequent disulfide stress, has emerged as a novel mechanism of cell death. Despite its significance, the role of disulfidptosis in the tumor microenvironment (TME) remains poorly understood. Methods: In this study, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing data from 100,987 cells of 11 osteosarcoma (OS) patients. Using the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm, we performed dimensionality reduction analysis to identify distinct subtypes characterized by 14 disulfidptosis-related genes across major cell types within the TME. Subsequently, we assessed the prognosis and immunotherapy response associated with each disulfidptosis-related subtype, leveraging publicly available databases comprising osteosarcoma data and immunotherapy cohorts. Results: We identified distinct subtypes within tumor-associated fibroblasts, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and macrophages, which we named and annotated based on their characteristic genes. Furthermore, we observed a close association between disulfidptosis-related genes and key biological features of immune cells within the TME, elucidating inferred pseudotime trajectories. Notably, integrating bulk-seq data of osteosarcoma patients, we observed significant differences in overall survival rates among the disulfidptosis-related subtypes. Particularly, the disulfidptosis-related subtype within tumor-associated fibroblasts exhibited superior discriminatory ability in predicting the response of patients undergoing immunotherapy, surpassing other cell subtypes. Our cell-cell communication analysis highlighted extensive and specific interactions between disulfidptosis-related subtypes and osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, we confirmed the histological localization of the CAPZB+CAF subtype within osteosarcoma tissue and osteoclastoma using immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. Conclusions: Collectively, our study sheds light on the intercellular communication facilitated by disulfidptosis in the TME, underscoring its involvement in the biological functions and immunotherapy response of osteosarcoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Fatty Acid Metabolism; Immunotherapy; Breast cancer; Tumor microenvironment; Single-cell sequencing
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:40:33 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: Cancer immune escape is associated with the metabolic reprogramming of TME, and combining metabolic targets with immunotherapy has great potential to improve clinical outcomes. Among all metabolic processes, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acid (FA) metabolism, has a huge role in cancer cell survival, migration, and proliferation, but its mechanism and role in the tumor immune microenvironment remain to be investigated. (2) Methods: We comprehensively analyzed 309 fatty acid-related genes, screened 121 different genes, and used one-way COX regression to select 15 genes with prognostic impact. Systematically evaluated the correlation between FMGs modification patterns and Tumor Microenvironment Infiltration, prognosis, and Immunotherapy. The FMGs-Score was constructed to quantify the FMGs modification patterns using principal component analysis. (3) Results: Three clusters based on FMGs-related genes were demonstrated in breast cancer, with three patterns of distinct immune cell infiltration and biological behavior. An FMGsScore signature was constructed to reveal that patients with a low FMGsScore had higher immune checkpoint expression, higher immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) scores, increased immune microenvironment infiltration, better survival advantage, and were more sensitive to immunotherapy than those with a high FMGsScore. Finally, the expression and function of the signature key gene NDUFAB1 were examined by in vitro experiments. (4) Conclusions: This study significantly demonstrates the non-negligible role of FMGs in the immune microenvironment of breast cancer, and that FMGsScores can be used to guide the prediction of immunotherapy in breast cancer patients. In in vitro experiments, knockdown of the NDUFAB1 gene resulted in reduced proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cell lines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: NSCLC 1; KRAS G12C mutation 2; targeted therapy 3; immunotherapy 4
Online: 26 November 2021 (11:34:27 CET)
The KRAS mutant population has been undruggable for 40 years. G12C inhibitors and immunotherapy are the beginning of success. It is necessary to summarize the successful experience of the existing treatment model and explore the direction of the next treatment. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in targeted therapy and immunotherapy for KRAS-mutation NSCLC, aiming to provide direction or enlightenment for future treatment strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Angiosarcoma; biomarkers; tumor microenvironment; immunotherapy, next generation sequencing, whole transcriptome sequencing.
Online: 2 July 2021 (15:43:54 CEST)
We performed a comprehensive analysis of angiosarcoma (AS) genomic biomarkers and their associations with the site of origin. We aimed to describe the genomic landscape of AS in a cohort of 143 cases of AS profiled by Caris Life Sciences. Data of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) with a 592 gene panel was available for the entire cohort. Fifty-three cases had data of Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) which we used to study the microenvironment phenotype. Immuno-therapy (IO) response biomarkers: Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB), Microsatellite Instability (MSI) and PD-L1 status were included. IO-response markers were present in 36.4% of the cohort and in 65% of head and neck AS (H/N-AS) (p<0.0001). H/N-AS cases had predominantly muta-tions in TP53 (50.0%, p=0.0004), POT1 (40.5%, p<0.0001) and ARID1A (33.3%, p=0.5875). In breast AS, leading alterations were MYC amplification (63.3%, p<0.0001), HRAS (16.1%, p=0.0377), and PI3KCA (16.1%, p=0.2352). A microenvironment with a high immune signature, associated with better response to IO, was present in 13% of the cases. This signature was evenly distributed among different primary sites. We found that the molecular biology for AS varies significantly according to the primary site. Our findings can facilitate the design and optimiza-tion of therapeutic strategies for AS to overcome resistance to IO and targeted therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Cancer Vaccine; Cancer Antigens; CRISPR-Cas9; Engineered T Cells.
Online: 7 May 2021 (11:10:13 CEST)
The mechanisms involved in immune responses to cancer have been extensively studied for several decades and, considerable attention has been paid to harnessing the immune system's therapeutic potential. Cancer immunotherapy has established itself as a promising new treatment option for a variety of cancer types. Various strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), adoptive T-cell-cancer therapy and immune test therapy have gained prominence through immunotherapy. However, it remains to be accomplished the full potential of cancer immunotherapy. In spite of having startling aspects, the cancer immunotherapies have some difficulties including the inability to effectively targeting the cancer antigens and the abnormalities in patient response. With the advancement of technology, this system has changed the genome-based immunotherapy process in the human body including generation of engineered T cells. Due to its high specificity, CRISPR-Cas9 has become a simple and flexible genome-editing tool to target nearly any genomic locus. Recently, the CD19-mediated CAR-T cell (chimeric antigen receptor T cell) therapy has opened a new avenue for the treatment of human cancer, though low efficiency is a major drawback of this process. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the CAR-T cell (engineered T cells that induce the chimeric antigen receptor) by using CRISPR-Cas9 technology could be a better weapon to fight against the cancer. In this review, we have broadly focused on the use of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for the modification of the T-cell, which can specifically recognize cancer cells and be used as immune therapeutics against cancer. We have also demonstrated the other potential strategies for the treatment of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cell signaling; signaling pathways; single-cell sequencing; immunotherapy; hallmarks cancer; cancer
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:28:51 CET)
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. It is theorized that underlying genetic and epigenetic changes enable cells to proliferate out of control by escaping regulatory mechanisms. Although traditional molecular profiling techniques, i.e., bulk sequencing, can identify common mutations and gene expression patterns in cancer cells, they cannot detect tumour heterogeneity. However, single-cell technology has provided an ample opportunity to overcome this difficulty. Since this technology allows us to detect the heterogeneous properties of all cancer cells, this can further our knowledge of the signaling pathways in cancer cells. Indeed, single-cell transcriptomics technology has paved the road for identifying novel biomarkers and signaling pathways, which can serve as targets. This study aims to review the current knowledge about pathways involved in developing cancer cells and shed light on single-cell studies as promising therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0456.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Human primary T cells; Cancer immunotherapy; Gene delivery; Protamine sulfate; Transfection
Online: 28 May 2020 (11:33:47 CEST)
The development and optimization of an effective non-viral gene delivery method for genetic manipulation of primary human T cells is a major challenge in clinical immunotherapy researches. According to the low transfection efficiency of conventional methods in human primary T cells, there is an effort in order to increase the transfection rate in these cells. Protamine is an FDA-approved compound with a documented safety profile that enhances DNA condensation for gene delivery. In this study, the effect of protamine on the transfection efficiency of standard transfection reagents, TurboFect, and Lipofectamine 2000 was evaluated in order to transfect primary human T cells. Results demonstrated that protamine condenses DNA and increases the positive charge of DNA/Cargo complex efficiently without any cytotoxic effect on the primary human T cells. The results also revealed that the DNA/Protamine/Cargo complexes effectively transfect human primary T cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: anti-IgLON5 disease; sleep disorders; tau protein accumulation; immunotherapy; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 2 May 2020 (16:26:03 CEST)
The objective of this review is to do an overview about the current knowledge of Anti Iglon5 Syndrome, a disease that was first described in 2014. The IgLON proteins are a family of cell adhesion molecules and the presence of antibodies against IgLON5 are crucial for diagnosis of Anti IgLON5 Syndrome. This syndrome has an expanded clinical spectrum that involves prominent sleep disorder, progressive bulbar dysfunction, gait instability with abnormal eye movements reminiscent and cognitive deterioration sometimes associated with chorea. The main neuropathological finding is the neuronal loss with hyperphosphorylated tau (p-Tau) protein accumulation at hypothalamus, brainstem tegmentum, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray matter, medulla oblongata and upper cervical cord. The exact pathogenesis is still unclear and involves a neurodegenerative process and autoimmune response. The early diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary tests and prevent complications. Important resources for diagnosis are the antibody testing of serum and CSF for IgLON5-IgG. The mortality of anti IgLON5 syndrome is high and new studies published described a good response to immune therapy. However, the response to immune therapy depends of some clinical and analytical characteristic. In addition, future studies are needed to thoroughly study the aspects of pathogenesis and treatment of this important pathological syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0457.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Anti-angiogenic; HIF-1 α; Normalization-window; research; hypoxia; resistance; SBRT; Immunotherapy
Online: 7 October 2022 (09:45:53 CEST)
Multiple biological pathways manifest and latent, meant for human survival, become a liability in cancer cure. With an increasing understanding of innumerable complex paths, cancer progression and development of resistance is no surprise. For the three “vasculature-immune-phenotypic” fundamental changes, hypoxia is the maestro orchestrating the whole gamut of changes (through the master manipulator - HIF-1 α), simultaneously transactivating hundreds of pro-angiogenic genes. Such a complex molecular bio-network begs the question, “Is our cancer research caught in such a tangled web that we have lost sight of the Spider?”. Hypoxia is this Spider weaving compensatory webs with every intervention/ obstruction. Anti-angiogenic (AAG) research has been conducted mainly in silos – exploring independent paths. This review conceptualizes a convergence of a multitude of research worldwide to a single theme of normalizing vasculature as a primary baseline for overcoming resistance to AAGs or their combinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; immunotherapy; radiotherapy; brain cancers; radioimmunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors; temozolomide; durvalumab; immunoradiotherapy.
Online: 10 May 2022 (13:22:16 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor. Due to high resistance to treatment, local invasion, and high risk of recurrence, GBM patient prognoses are often dismal, with median survival around 15 months. The current standard of care is threefold: surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ). However, patient survival has only marginally improved. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a fourth modality under clinical trials and aims at combining immunotherapeutic agents with radiotherapy. Here, we develop in vitro assays for rapid evaluation of RIT strategies. Using a standard cell irradiator and an Electric Cell Impedance Sensor, we quantify cell migration following the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy with TMZ and RIT with durvalumab, a PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor. We measure cell survival using a cloud-based clonogenic assay. Irradiated T98G and U87 GBM cells migrate significantly (p < 0.05) more than untreated cells in the first 20-40 hours post-treatment. Addition of TMZ increased migration rates for T98G at the 20 Gy (p < 0.01). Neither TMZ nor durvalumab significantly changed cell survival in 21 days post-treatment. Interestingly, durvalumab abolished the enhanced migration effect, indicating possible potency against local invasion. These results provide parameters for rapid supplementary evaluation of RIT against brain tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Programmed death ligand-1; Natural products; Immunotherapy; Neoenactin B1; Molecular dynamics simulation
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:08:19 CEST)
Several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are approved by FDA against the PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1) immune checkpoint, which has been a great success in cancer treatment. However, existing therapeutics, including small molecules inhibitors against PD-L1 checkpoint have certain drawbacks such as high cost and drug resistance that challenge the current available anti-PD-L1 therapy. Thereof, this study presents the screening of 32552 compounds from Natural Product Atlas database against PD-L1, including three steps of structure-based virtual screening and binding free energy refinement for the selection of potent PD-L1 inhibitors. Subsequently, five natural compounds, i.e., Neoenactin B1, Actinofuranone I, Cosmosporin, Ganocapenoid A, and 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)phenyl]-5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one, were collected based on the ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) profiling and binding free energy (>-70 kcal/mol) for further computational investigation by comparison to co-crystallised ligand, i.e. JQT inhibitor. Based on interaction mapping, explicit 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation, and post binding free energy calculations, all the compounds exhibited intermolecular interactions (hydrogen and hydrophobic) with essential residues and substantial complex stability by comparison to the JQT inhibitor. Collectively, the calculated results advocate the selected natural compounds as the putative potent inhibitors of PD-L1 and, therefore, can be considered for further development of PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor in cancer immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; ovarian cancer; 2021 update; novel targeted therapies; immunotherapy
Online: 3 February 2022 (13:02:11 CET)
This review of the meaningful data from 2021 on cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers aims to provide an update of the most clinically relevant studies presented at important oncologic congresses during the year [the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) Annual Meeting]. Despite the underlying existence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the last year has been notable in terms of research, with significant and promising advances in gynecologic malignancies. Several major studies reporting the effects of innovative therapies for patients with cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers might change the medical practice in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; checkpoint inhibitors; ICIs; immunotherapy; PARP; avelumab; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; bevacizumab; platinum
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:01:35 CEST)
Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) represents the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among the female population. In the advanced setting, chemotherapy represents the first-choice treatment, despite a high recurrence rate. In the last ten years, immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has profoundly modified the therapeutic scenario of many solid tumors. We sought to summarize the main findings regarding the clinical use of ICIs in the OC. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Databases, and conference abstracts from international congresses (such as ASCO, ESMO, SGO) for clinical trials, focusing on ICIs both as monotherapy and as combinations in the advanced OC. Results: 20 studies were selected, of which 16 were phase I or II and 4 phase III trials. ICIs targeting PD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), PD-L1 (avelumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab), and CTLA4 (ipilimumab, tremelimumab) were employed. No significant survival improvement was achieved; conversely, early terminations due to futility or toxicity were recorded. Combinations with chemotherapy, anti-VEGF, and, overall, PARP-inhibitors seem feasible and enhance the response rate and survival, notwithstanding a worse safety profile. Conclusions: The identification of biomarkers with a predictive role for ICIs’ efficacy is mandatory. Moreover, genomic and immune profiling of the OC might lead to an improved treatments selection and design of tailored trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0302.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immune checkpoint; HVEM; BTLA; monoclonal antibody; cancer immunotherapy; humanized mice; prostate cancer
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:26:57 CEST)
The Herpes Virus Entry Mediator (HVEM) delivers a negative signal to T cells mainly through the B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA) molecule and thus, could represent a novel immune checkpoint during an anti-tumor immune response. A formal demonstration that HVEM can be targeted for cancer immunotherapy is however still lacking. Here, we first show that HVEM and BTLA were associated to a worse prognosis in patients with prostate adenocarcinomas, indicating a detrimental role for this pair of molecule during prostate cancer progression. We then show that a monoclonal antibody to human HVEM significantly impacted the growth of a prostate cancer cell line in immuno-compromised NOD.SCID.gc-null mice reconstituted with human T cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we showed that HVEM expression by the tumor was mandatory to observe the therapeutic effect. Mechanistically, tumor control was dependent on CD8+ T cells and was associated to an increase in the proliferation and number of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Accordingly, the expression of genes belonging to various T cell activation pathways were enriched in tumor infiltrating leukocytes, whereas genes associated with immuno-suppressive pathways were decreased, possibly resulting in modifications of leukocyte adhesion and motility. Finally, we developed a simple in vivo assay in humanized mice to directly demonstrate that HVEM was an immune checkpoint for T-cell mediated tumor control. Our results show that targeting HVEM is a promising strategy for prostate cancer immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV immunotherapy; photoimmunotherapy; photodynamic Therapy; porphyrin; phthalocyanine; HIV-infected cell; monoclonal antibody
Online: 23 October 2020 (14:55:47 CEST)
Different therapeutic strategies have been investigated to target and eliminate HIV-1-infected cells by using armed antibodies specific to viral proteins, with varying degrees of success. Herein, we propose a new strategy by combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with HIV Env-targeted immunotherapy, and refer to it as HIV photoimmunotherapy (PIT). A human anti-gp41 antibody (7B2) was conjugated to two photosensitizers with different charges through different linking strategies; “Click” conjugation by using an azide-bearing porphyrin attached via a disulfide bridge linker with a drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of exactly 4, and “Lysine” conjugation by using phthalocyanine IRDye 700DX dye with average DARs of 2.1, 3.0 and 4.4. These photo-immunoconjugates (PICs) were compared via biochemical and immunological characterizations regarding the dosimetry, solubility, and cell targeting. Photo-induced cytotoxicity of the PICs were compared using assays for apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), photo-cytotoxicity, and confocal microscopy. Targeted phototoxicity seems to be primarily dependent on the binding of PS-antibody to the HIV antigen on the cell membrane, whilst being independent of the PS type. This is the first report of the application of PIT for HIV immunotherapy by killing HIV Env-expressing cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Prostate Cancer; Immunotherapy; Radiation Therapy; Macrophages; RNAseq; tumor immune microenvironment; plasma cells
Online: 28 May 2020 (16:14:57 CEST)
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is characterized by significant heterogeneity in its molecular, genomic, and immunologic characteristics. Methods: Whole transcriptome RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas of prostate adenocarcinomas (n=496) was utilized. The immune microenvironment was characterized using the CIBERSORTX tool to identify immune cell type composition. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed based on immune cell type content. Analyses of progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastases, and overall survival (OS) were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox-regression multivariable analyses. Results: Four immune clusters were identified, largely defined by plasma cell, CD4+ Memory Resting T Cells (CD4 MR), M0 and M2 macrophage content (CD4 MRHighPlasma CellHighM0LowM2Low, CD4 MRLowPlasma CellHighM0LowM2Low, CD4 MRHighPlasma CellLowM0HighM2Low, and CD4 MRHighPlasma CellLowM0LowM2High). The two macrophage-enriched/plasma cell non-enriched clusters (3&4) demonstrated worse PFS (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.46–3.45, p=0.0002) than the clusters 1&2. No metastatic events occurred in the non-macrophage-enriched clusters. Comparing clusters 3 vs 4, in patients treated by surgery alone, cluster 3 had zero progression events (p<0.0001). However, cluster 3 patients had worse outcomes after post-operative radiotherapy (p=0.018). Conclusion: Distinct tumor immune clusters with a macrophage-enriched phenotype and reduced plasma cell enrichment independently characterize an aggressive phenotype in localized prostate cancer that may differentially respond to treatment.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Cold atmospheric Plasma; sterilization; Plasma-activated medium; Nitric oxide; Immunotherapy; COVID-19
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:34:11 CEST)
The recent pandemic has greatly stressed supply chains, treatment modalities, and medical resources. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been used for a wide range of applications in biomedical engineering due to its many components including electrons, charged particles, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), free radicals, ultraviolet (UV) photons, molecules, electromagnetic fields, physical forces, and electric fields. In this manuscript, we develop CAP devices for COVID-19. Our manuscript indicates the advantages of highlydeployable CAP devices for both sanitation and treatment, without the need for supply chains of special consumables such as hand sanitizers and the like. We hope that this timely research will help engage the broader community of engineers that wish to help the medical community with this pandemic and to prevent and treat future outbreaks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: innate lymphoid cells; cell therapy; cancer; immunotherapy; antitumor immune response; adoptive cell therapy
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:17:36 CEST)
Although the first cancer immunotherapy was given in the clinic more than a century ago, this line of treatment has remained more of a distant goal than a practical therapy due to limited understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the mechanisms at play within it, which lead to failures of numerous clinical trials. However, in the last two decades, the immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapies have revolutionized the treatment of cancer and provided proof-of-concept that immunotherapies are a viable option. So far, immunotherapies have majoritarily focused on utilizing T cells, however T cells are not autonomous but rather function as part of, and therefore are influenced by, a vast cast of other immune cells, including innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Here, we summarize the role of ILCs, especially helper ILCs, in tumor development, progression and metastasis, as well as their potential to be used as immunotherapy for cancer. By reviewing the studies that used helper ILCs as adoptive cell therapy, we highlight the rationale behind considering these cells as novel adoptive cell therapy for cancer as well as identify open questions and areas for future research.