CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0311.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: virtual reality; biological evolution; immersive reality
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:54:11 CET)
Technological advances made Virtual and Mixed Reality (VMR) accessible at our fingertips. However, only recently VMR has been explored for the teaching of biology. Here, we highlight how VMR applications can be useful in biology education, discuss about caveats related to VMR use that can interfere with learning, and look into the future of VMR applications in the field. We then propose that the combination of VMR with Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence can provide unprecedented ways to visualise how species evolve in self-sustained immersive virtual worlds, thereby transforming VMR from an educational tool to the centre of biological interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2183.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: immersive media; virtual reality; empathy; empathy-building simulations
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:32:34 CEST)
This research paper explores the transformative potential of immersive media, specifically virtual reality (VR), in enhancing empathy among users. Empathy is vital in fostering understanding, compassion, and social cohesion. Immersive media, with its ability to transport individuals into simulated environments and perspectives, offers unique opportunities to bridge the empathy gap. This paper examines how VR can boost empathy, including perspective-taking, emotional connection, experiential learning, breaking down barriers, and empathy-building simulations. It discusses existing studies and empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of VR in promoting empathy. The paper acknowledges the ethical considerations and challenges associated with using VR for empathy enhancement, such as avoiding stereotype reinforcement and ensuring inclusive design. By highlighting the potential of immersive media in cultivating empathy, this research paper contributes to the growing field of empathy research and provides insights for the development and application of VR experiences aimed at fostering empathy and understanding in diverse contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: virtual reality; automotive industry; marketing research; immersive car clinic
Online: 9 November 2021 (11:01:16 CET)
Virtual reality (VR) can play a key role in automotive marketing research, lowering costs and shortening the time it takes to bring a new product to market. However, there are still few VR applications that support automotive customers' experiences during the early stages of product development. Through a systematic review of literature and patents, this study aims to identify the challenges and opportunities for the application of virtual reality in car clinics, and to categorize them into attributes. We searched through the knowledge databases of PatentScout, ScienceDirect, Springer, and IEEEXplore. We found 72 patents with a high concentration in a few inventors. The United States of America presented the greatest number of records and the most common applications related to the apparatus for automatically reading respondents' reactions in a virtual environment. In terms of articles, we found 19 research papers that discussed sixteen categories identified as challenges and opportunities for automotive marketing research: 1) cost, 2) location to customers, 3) flexibility in interactions, 4) model transportation, 5) depth perception, 6) haptic perception, 7) motion, 8) movement perception/ physical collision, 9) color and texture, 10) sound feedback, 11) product interaction/manipulation, 12) visual-spatial, 13) graphic quality, 14) intuitiveness, 15) cybersecurity and 16) cybersickness. We conclude that the automotive industry can employ virtual reality for marketing research, but relevant elements such as hardware and software definition, stimulus quality, and research objectives, among others, must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0130.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: virtual reality; immersive; trends; techniques; timeline; technologies
Online: 9 July 2019 (05:39:44 CEST)
The rising popularity of virtual reality has seen a recent push in applications, such as, social media, educational tools, medical simulations, entertainment and training systems. With virtual realitythe ability to engage users for specific purposes, provides opportunities to entertain, develop cognitive abilities and technical skills outside of the standard mediums (e.g., the television or theclassroom) thereby optimizing exposure with realistic (live) opportunities. However, before these applications of virtual reality become more widespread, there are a number of open questions andissues that must be addressed including limitations, challenges, relationships between fidelity, multi-modal cue interaction, immersion, and knowledge transfer and retention. In this article, we begin with a brief overview of virtual reality methods, followed by a discussion of virtual reality and its applications (both historically, currently and in the future). We review virtual reality trends both from the early artistic days through to current day state of the art technological advancements. We explore emerging and futuristic breakthroughs - and their applications in virtual reality - showing how virtual reality will go way beyond anything we could envision. Infact, after reading this article, we hope the reader will agree, that virtual reality, is possibly one of the most powerful mediums of our time. While the earliest mechanistic virtual reality prototypes (e.g., Sensorama) allowed us to view stereoscopic 3D images accompanied by stereosound, smells, as well as wind effect - set the foundation and direction for future pioneers - there have been spearheaded developments which have continually pushed the concept of virtual reality to new domains. As virtual reality evolves, many new and yet-to-be-imagined applications will arise, but we must have understanding and patience as we wait for science, research andtechnology to mature and improve. The article ends with a short overview of future directions based upon recent breakthroughs in research and what this will mean for virtual reality in the coming years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0715.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: augmented reality; immersive virtual classroom; synchronous remote learning
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:05:46 CEST)
Previous research has explored different models of synchronous remote learning environments supported by videoconferencing and virtual reality platforms. However, few studies have evaluated the preference and acceptance of synchronous remote learning in a course streamed in an immersive or augmented reality platform. This case study uses ANOVA analysis to examine the engineering students´ preferences for receiving instruction during the COVID19 pandemic in three classroom types: face-to-face, conventional virtual (mediated by videoconferencing) and an immersive virtual classroom (IVC). Likewise, structural equation modeling, was used to analyze the acceptance of the IVC perceived by students, this includes four latent factors: ease of receiving a class, perceived usefulness, attitude towards IVC and IVC use. The findings showed that the IVC used in synchronous remote learning has a similar level of preference to the face-to-face classroom, and higher than the conventional virtual one. Despite the high preference for receiving remote instruction in IVC, aspects such as audio delays that affect interaction still need to be resolved. On the other hand, a key aspect for a good performance of these environments is the dynamics associated with the teaching-learning processes and the instructor´ qualities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: virtual reality; immersive learning; haptics; chemistry education; organic chemistry; hydrocarbons; middle school science; introductory chemistry; hands-on learning; gamification
Online: 5 April 2018 (05:59:19 CEST)
Human-Computer Interaction, including technology-aided instruction, is beginning to focus on virtual reality (VR) technology due to its ability to support immersive learning, teaching through simulation, and gamification of learning. These systems can deliver high-level multisensory learning experiences that are important in the teaching of many subjects, especially those involving abstract concepts or requiring spatial skills, such as organic chemistry. Haptic experiences with VR, however, remain a challenge. In addition, development have focused on general entertainment/gaming; VR systems in chemistry implement simulations of the chemistry laboratory and other advanced systems whereas those that support safe, game-like, immersive and multisensory learning of organic chemistry with haptics at pre-university education levels are scarce. We developed the VR Multisensory Classroom (VRMC) as an immersive learning environment within a VR head-mounted display, where learners employ hand movements to build hydrocarbon molecules and experience haptic feedback through gloves with built-in sensors and hand-tracking with the Leap Motion system. We report here the evaluation of the first prototype by learners from diverse backgrounds who reported on the ability of the VRMC to support high engagement, motivation, interest and organic chemistry learning as well as diverse learning styles. The VRMC is a novel VR classroom that supports immersive learning in molecular organic chemistry with haptics for multisensory learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1269.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: immersive unit visualization; augmented reality; hybrid space; immersive analytics; information design; data visualization
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:06:06 CEST)
Immersive Unit Visualization is an emergent form of visualization that arose from Immersive Analytics where, unlike traditional visualizations, each data point is represented by an individual visual mark in an immersive virtual environment. This practice has focused almost exclusively on virtual reality, excluding augmented reality (AR). This article develops and tests a prototype of an immersive Unit Visualization (Floating Companies II) with two AR devices: head-mounted display (HMD) and hand-held display (HHD). Results from the testing sessions with 20 users were analyzed through qualitative research analysis and thematic coding indicating that, while the HHD enabled a first contact with AR visualization on a familiar device, HMD improved the perception of hybrid space by supporting greater stability of virtual content; wider field of view; improved spatial perception; increased sense of immersion; and more realistic simulation, which impacted on information reading and sense-making. The materialization of abstract quantitative values into concrete reality through its simulation in the real environment and the ludic dimension stand out as important opportunities of this type of visualization. This paper investigates the aspects distinguishing two experiences regarding data visualization in hybrid space; and characterizes ways of seeing information with AR, identifying opportunities to advance information design research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: health-oriented physical; immersive virtual reality; virtual reality; intensity of physical activity
Online: 12 August 2019 (14:02:12 CEST)
The aim of the study is to assess enjoyment and intensity of physical exercise while practicing physical activity (PA) in immersive virtual reality (IVR) using innovative training devices (omni-directional Omni treadmill and Icaros Pro flight simulator). The study also contains the results of subjective research on the usefulness of such a form of PA in the opinion of users. In total, 61 adults (10 women and 50 men) took part in the study. To assess the enjoyment level (EL) Interest/Enjoyment subscale of Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was used. Exercise intensity was assessed during 10-minute sessions of active video games (AVGs) in IVR based on heart rate (HR). The average enjoyment level during physical exercise in IVR on the tested training devices was relatively high (Omni 5.74 points, Icaros 5.60 points). In the opinion of the majority of participants, AVGs on IVR training devices constitute a sufficiently useful form of movement to meet the needs of PA practiced in free time, and they can even replace some of the classic forms of movement. Intensity of PA during games on training devices was at the level recommended for health benefits for 92% (Omni) and 84% (Icaros Pro) of its duration. Based on the conducted research, it can be assumed that AVGs in IVR using a multi-directional treadmill and a flight simulator can be an effective tool for increasing participation in health-oriented PA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1511.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Instrumental activities of daily living; immersive virtual reality; Occupational performance
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:56:49 CEST)
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) training is critical in clinical practice of occupational therapy (OT) for stroke patients. In the conventional approaches, the therapists simulate various occupational tasks in their healthcare settings or reach their nearby real circumstances for the training. As an alternative technology, immersive virtual reality (IVR) has been used widely in stroke rehabilitation for years; however, limited research has compared occupational performances between virtual and real environments. Our team has established a novel IVR shopping training system for stroke rehabilitation. We recruited 10 stroke patients from our department to test the system. All patients attempted to implement shopping tasks in the virtual and real environments respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed no significant differences between virtual and real environments in memory capacity and time-consuming for implementing tasks, and memory capacities in virtual and real environments presented excellent correlations with the IADL assessment. This study suggests that IVR shopping tasks can be used as an alternative approach in rehabilitation when there is limited resource for implementing shopping training in a real environment, while the psychometric property, clinical effect and the effect transferred to the real environment induced by virtual training require further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: virtual heritage; immersive environments; courtyard houses; mixed reality; social sustainability; Historic Cairo
Online: 3 July 2023 (09:56:35 CEST)
This paper investigates the physical/virtual dynamics when constructing an immersive environ-ment for medieval courtyard houses in Historic Cairo. Using a VR Lab at a university campus, the paper analyzes a courtyard that symbolizes social resilience and community bonding at the newly rehabilitated Bayt Yakan. The courtyard is reconstructed as a Mixed Object through 3D documentation and scanning the space to develop a photogrammetry and VR experience. The results show that the sense of presence is perceived through a combination of factors and juxta-positions of the real and the virtual including: 1) architectural aesthetics, 2) intangible elements and 3) socio-cultural activities in space. Based on the pilot case study, the paper concludes with proposing a “Geospatial Framework for Immersive Environments and Social Sustainability” that is transdisciplinary, pluralistic and expansive in nature to encompass the multiple narratives of the contested past, and overlay the material and immaterial sustainable features embedded in historical contexts, where the Mixed Reality paradigm becomes an enabler for multiple voices, tools and mediums.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Virtual reality; health professionals; anxiety; immersive therapy
Online: 5 July 2022 (16:01:27 CEST)
Background: Immersive therapy through virtual reality represents a novel strategy used in psychological interventions, but there is still a need to strengthen the evidence on its effects on health professionals’ mental health. Objective: To analyze the results of immersive therapy through virtual reality in the levels of anxiety and secondly, well-being of the health professionals working in a regional hospital in Olot (Spain). Methods: Pilot quasi-experimental study including a group of 35 women (mean age=45.7, SD=8.43) health professionals who undertook immersive therapy for 8 weeks. The intervention was implemented through virtual reality, and its effect on anxiety levels and well-being was evaluated through the Hamilton and Eudemon scales, respectively. Data on age, gender, active pharmacological or psychological treatment, mental health disorders and number of sessions were also collected. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.001) improvement in anxiety and well-being was found, with large and moderate effect sizes (0.90 and 0.63 respectively). In addition, these changes were clinically significant. No significant associations were found between the improvements and the different variables, but a greater trend was identified among the group of professionals with untreated or unidentified levels of anxiety. Conclusion: This group of health professionals showed statistically and clinically significant improvement in anxiety and well-being after the application of immersive therapy using virtual reality. Further studies with a control group are necessary to further analyze this novel intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Accessibility; Guiding Methods; Immersive Media; Subtitling; Virtual Reality; 360º video
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:28:27 CEST)
Every (multimedia) service needs to be accessible. Accessibility for multimedia content is typically provided by means of access services, of which subtitling is likely the most widespread one. Up to date, many recommendations and solutions for subtitling classical 2D audiovisual services are available. Likewise, recent efforts have been devoted to devising adequate subtitling solutions for VR360 video content. This paper, for the first time, goes a step beyond, by exploring two key requirements to fulfill remaining challenges towards efficiently subtitling 3D Virtual Reality (VR) content: presentation modes, and guiding methods. By leveraging insights from earlier work on VR360 content, the paper proposes novel presentation modes and guiding methods to not only deal with the freedom to explore the omnidirectional scenes, but also with additional specificities of 3D VR compared to VR360 content: depth, 6 Degrees of Freedom (6DoF), and viewing perspectives. The obtained results prove that always-visible and a novel proposed comic-style presentation mode are far more appropriate than state-of-the-art fixed-positioned subtitles, mainly in terms of immersion, ease and comfort of reading, and identification of speakers, when applied to professional pieces of content with limited displacement of speakers and with limited 6DoF (i.e. users are not expected to largely navigate around the virtual environment). Likewise, even in such limited movement scenarios, the results show that the use of indicators (arrows), as guiding methods, is well received. Overall, the paper provides relevant insights and paves the way toward efficiently subtitling 3D VR content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: virtual reality (VR); immersive; synesthesia; synesthaesia; artificial synesthesia; pain therapy
Online: 7 August 2018 (05:54:14 CEST)
This paper is an interdisciplinary study of novel applications of techniques and tools of an area of brain science, known as Synesthesia (involving associations and/or confusion between distinct senses), to area of Computer Science known as Immersive Virtual Reality (VR), that makes the subject’s awareness of physical self be diminished by being surrounded in an engrossing artificial environment. Natural Synesthesia has for the last decade been an important emerging area in brain science but is present in only a small proportion of the population. For example a person with Natural Synesthesia, when viewing a grapheme, may perceive a color additionally to be associated to the grapheme. In contrast, Artificial synesthesia (also known as virtual synesthesia or synthetic synesthesia) has been defined as the sensory joining due a cross-modal mapping device, where information of one sense is accompanied by an induced perception in another sense. In particular, we propose use of a multimodal manner of displaying information in VR to increase and concentrate attention. Artificial Synesthesia to synthetically create induced associations between senses, allowing Artificial Synesthesia to be experienced by anyone using a VR system. The paper describes the enhancement of immersive VR by use of Artificial Synesthesia to improve the system’s performance at steering and directing the attention of the user. We describe techniques for an enhanced immersive VR that displays associations between a variety of senses: between colors and characters, also between colors and sounds, and between sounds and the position of tactile sensations. The sense association provided by Artificial Synesthesia allows the system to better capture the user’s attention and better direct that attention. A major application of our work in VR-induced Artificial Synesthesia is to provide an enhanced methodology for controlling the attention of the subject, and to improve the direction of attention of subjects undergoing guided imagery therapies for pain relief. Other potential high-impact applications include improved immersive VR, more programmable human/computer interfaces and other medical therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0693.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intercultural competence; Cross-cultural experiences; Emotional intelligence; Global citizenship; Immersive pedagogy
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:40:01 CEST)
Over recent years globalisation has occasioned a dramatic rise in cross-cultural interactions – until this was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic (OECD 2018, Nelson & Luetz 2021). The ability to competently engage in a multicultural world is often considered the “literacy of the future” (UNESCO 2013, OECD 2018). Global interconnectedness has brought studies into intercultural competence to centre stage (UNDP 2004, Bissessar 2018, Nelson et al. 2019). This has increased the demand for cross-cultural education experiences that facilitate such learning. However, there is a dearth of empirical research into the issues and effects surrounding short-term cross-cultural educational experiences for adolescents. This mixed methods study extends previous research by looking specifically into what impact short-term cross-cultural experiences may have on the formation of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence of Australian high school students. This study used two instruments for measuring intercultural competence and emotional intelligence in a pre- and posttest quasi-experimental design (n=14), the GENE Scale and TEQ. Moreover, it conducted in-depth post experience qualitative interviews (n=7) that broadly followed a phenomenological paradigm of inquiry. The findings suggest that fully embodied cross-cultural immersive experiences offer benefits in areas of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence and can offer meaningful application in areas of current affairs. A greater understanding of the linkages between immersive cross-cultural experiences and intercultural competence offers prospects for policy makers, educators, pastoral carers, and other relevant stakeholders who might employ such experiential learning to foster more interculturally and interracially harmonious human relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Authentic learning; Experiential learning; Real materials; Immersive technologies; Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality
Online: 15 August 2023 (02:40:45 CEST)
Authentic learning opportunities that simulate full scale design and construction experiences using real materials offer ideal experiential learning environments for construction and civil engineering students by challenging students to apply building concepts in practical settings. However, the excessive cost of real building materials required for this mode of education limits access to the vast majority of students. As a result, educational researchers have explored potential alternatives to provide cost-effective experiential learning through activities using mock-up materials (e.g., plastic straws, popsicle sticks) and simulation of experiences using immersive technologies (e.g., virtual reality or augmented reality). While some of these alternatives approximate the environment and others provide physical interaction with mock-up materials, the lack of authenticity in the building materials used introduces some apparent differences between the “authentic” learning environments and their cost-effective approximations. Therefore, this research aims to identify the learning processes reported by students and faculty who participated in authentic learning experiences to understand the ways in which this mode of education offers unique value to construction education. Their interview responses illustrated characteristics of authentic learning experiences that were believed to be critical to the learning process, some of which included: working in groups; interdisciplinary participants; and use of real construction materials. Although some of these characteristics are intrinsically linked to the use of real materials, others do not explicitly refer to interaction with real materials. This may indicate to aspects of the authentic learning processes that educational researchers can strategically target through more cost-effective learning environments like virtual and augmented reality. The contribution of this paper is in identifying the characteristics of authentic learning experiences that may guide educational investment and research innovations that aim to replicate some of these learning experiences through more accessible learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0354.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; Unmanned Traffic management; Geographic Information Systems; Immersive Simulator; Unmanned Aerial Systems
Online: 26 May 2022 (02:58:51 CEST)
This paper presents the design of a digital twin that blends aviation, gaming, simulation, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create a synthetic environment within which strategies, laws and platforms for electric aviation may be tested out. This digital twin has been called Future Urban Synthetic Environment (FUSE). FUSE includes an in-built Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) that can be used to run simulations to test the coordination of all urban traffic. It uses real GIS tagged imagery data and implements it at runtime into the game engine and thus link the optimised imagery loading to the visual performance of the simulation engine. FUSE provides a 3D digital twin of specified areas designed to simulate the effects (in terms of noise, visual impact, privacy) of drones and electric air taxis operating under various operational scenarios (such as number of deliveries allowed per day, maximum payload weight, no-fly areas, position of depots, vertiports, etc.). With so much high-fidelity data it is difficult for any game system to effectively render the environment and do justice to the detail whilst enabling enough of the landscape to be rendered to keep in focus the detail when looking out at the horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: object recognition; image data synthesizing; Human-computer interaction; data synthesizing for immersive HCI; generative adversarial nets; BAGAN
Online: 9 November 2018 (16:00:39 CET)
Augment reality (AR) is crucial for immersive human-computer interaction (HCI) and vision of artificial intelligence (AI). Labeled data drove object recognition in AR. However, manual annotating data is expensive and labor-intensive, and furthermore, scanty labeled data limits the application of AR. Aiming at solving the problem of insufficient training data in AR object recognition, an automated vision data synthesis method called BAGAN is proposed in this paper based on the 3D modeling and GAN algorithm. Our approach has been validated to have better performance than other methods through image recognition task on natural image database ObjectNet3D. This study can shorten the algorithm development time of AR and expand the application scope of AR, which is of great significance to immersive interactive systems.