ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0141.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: forensic identification, machine learning, gender identification, lumbar vertebral column
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:40:25 CET)
Identifying skeletal remains has been and will remain a challenge for forensic doctors and forensic anthropologists, especially in disasters with multiple victims or skeletal remains in an advanced stage of decomposition. This study proposes a machine learning method to determine gender starting from morphometric analysis of L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae in a modern Romanian population. The purpose of the present study was to observe whether by using the ML method there is a good predictability of gender in forensic identification based on parameters obtained from the metric analysis of the lumbar spine specific to the Romanian population. This paper offers two models of ML, RF and XGB, each with its own characteristics, and presenting different performance, random forest having the best. For both, we used two metrics (accuracy and roc_auc), the latter being the most used to highlight model performance. The L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae exhibit sexual dimorphism and can be used in gender estimation. Machine learning is more accurate in determining gender than discriminatory function analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: drug discovery; target identification; target validation; lead identification; bioinformatics
Online: 24 October 2023 (04:09:01 CEST)
The integration of bioinformatics in drug discovery has revolutionized the field of pharmaceutical research. The use of computational tools and techniques has enabled researchers to analyze vast amounts of data, identify potential drug targets, and design new drugs with greater precision and efficiency. The integration of bioinformatics has also facilitated the development of personalized medicine, where drugs can be tailored to individual patients based on their genetic makeup. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed, such as the need for more accurate predictive models and the ethical considerations surrounding the use of patient data. Overall, the integration of bioinformatics in drug discovery holds great promise for improving human health and advancing our understanding of disease mechanisms. In this mini-review, we discuss how Bioinformatics plays a crucial role in each step of drug discovery by providing tools and techniques to analyze large amounts of data generated from various sources, as well as the challenges and the opportunities offered by bioinformatics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: identification; manufacturing; transportation; installation
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:31:56 CEST)
Construction of Pontoons is based on multiple elements, dimensions and weight. The study has addressed about how the industry of the floating reinforcement concrete precast (pontoons) installs in the factory with the combinations of utility, electricity services, and Internet service. The pontoon bridges are successfully installed in the road for transport or sea for shops. The installation process for pontoons is successfully attempted in a balanced situation above surface of the sea to the resistant of floating precast (pontoons) to any ambient effects such as weather conditions, the movement of the waves or any others effects. The findings elaborate that it is not just a military solution. Pontoon installation can significantly serve for civil purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: LiDAR; Tree Segmentation; Tree Species Identification; Tree Species Identification; DBN; Forest Parameter
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:35:20 CEST)
The rapid development of LiDAR technology has promoted great changes in forest resource surveys. The airborne LiDAR point cloud can provide precise tree height and detailed vertical structure of the tree stands. Coordinating some representative ground sample plots, LiDAR can be used to estimate key forest resource indicators such as forest stock volume, diameter at breast height, and forest biomass at a large scale. By establishing relationship models between the forest parameters of sample plots and the calculated parameters of LiDAR, these developments may eventually expand the models to large-scale forest resource surveys of entire areas. In this study, eight sample plots in northeast China are used to verify and update the information using point cloud obtained by the LiDAR scanner riegl-vq-1560i. Firstly, the tree crowns are segmented using the profile-rotating algorithm, and dominant trees height are used to check and rectify the tree locations. Secondly, considering the correlation between forestry parameters and tree species, we establish models to distinguish between species using geometric characteristics of tree crowns. Thirdly, when the tree species is known, parameters such as height, crown width, diameter at breast height, biomass and stock volume can be extracted from trees. The prediction models of forestry parameters can also be verified, which can be extended to accurate large-scale forestry surveys based on LiDAR data. Finally, experiment results demonstrate that the F-score of the eight plots in the tree segmentation exceed 0.95, the accuracy of tree species correction exceeds 90%, and the R2 of tree height, east-west canopy width, north-south canopy width, diameter at breast height, above-ground biomass and stock volume are 0.893, 0.757, 0.694, 0.840, 0.896 and 0.891, respectively. The above results indicate that the LiDAR-based estimation of forestry parameters is practical and that these forestry parameter prediction models can be widely applied in forest resource monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; AD; dermatology; target identification; pathway identification; bioinformatics; protein-protein networks
Online: 1 July 2019 (12:47:49 CEST)
The exploration and identification of targets and pathways for Atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment and diagnosis are critical for AD control. The conventional target exploration approach such as the literature review is not satisfying in terms of efficiency and accuracy. Recently, the bioinformatic approach is drawing attention for its unique advantage of high-volume data analysis for target and pathway exploration; Open Targets Platform is the targets source for this study to extract top 200 high-rank proteins from 3122 AD associated proteins. STRING, Cytoscape, CytoHubba, ClueGo, and CluePedia function had been applied for data analysis. The KEGG Mapper search & colour pathway was the pathway map resource for identified pathways; 23 key hub genes (VDR, KIT, BCL2L11, NFKBIA, KRAS, IL13, JAK2, STAT3, IL21, IL4R, REL, PDGFRB, FOXP3, RARA, RELB, EGFR, IL21R, MYC, CREBBP, NR3C1, IL2, JAK1, and KITLG). Additionally, 8 correlated pathways and the biological process had been identified; Through this study, a viable approach for target and pathway exploration had been presented. The identified AD targets and pathways will be tested for upcoming research for traditional Chinese medicinal herb interactions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0530.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: robot tactile; convolution neural network; attribute strength identification; category identification; robot operating system
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:27:35 CEST)
Objectives: In order to solve the problem that most of the existing research focuses on the binary tactile attributes of objects,which ignores the tactile attribute strength and category recognition,an attribute strength and category recognition method based on convolutional neural network matrix-label is proposed. Methods:Firstly,in the data preparation stage,we preprocess the raw data and determine the matrix labels to build the haptic dataset.Secondly,in the feature extraction stage,we fuse the haptic data of two fingers and use the convolutional neural network to extract the attribute strength features.Finally,in the attribute strength and category recognition stage,all channel haptic data is fused to predict the attribute strength and category.Results:We compared with the multi-label convolutional neural network method in terms of elastic strength,hardness strength and category,and compared the attribute strength recognition capabilities of the two methods using novel objects outside the haptic dataset.The results show that the accuracy of the last 20 iterations of the matrix-label method has an average elastic strength of 96.73%,hardness strength of 97.34%,and category of 96.67%.The performance is better.When the Euclidean distance between the prediction of the novel object and the real label is less than 1,the accuracy of the elastic strength is best to reach 100%,and the hardness strength is best to reach 100%.The performance is better. Conclusions:The effectiveness of the method has been verified.Comparing with the convolutional neural network method,our method can effectively recognize the attribute strength and category of objects.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: prokaryotic taxonomy; classification; identification; genomics
Online: 3 March 2022 (17:18:57 CET)
Genomics has put prokaryotic rank-based taxonomy on a solid phylogenetic foundation. However, most taxonomic ranks were set long before the advent of DNA sequencing and genomics. In this concept paper, we thus ask the simple yet profound question: Should prokaryotic classification schemes besides the current phylum-to-species ranks be explored, developed, and incorporated into scientific discourse? Could such alternative schemes provide better solutions to the basic need of science and society for which taxonomy was developed, namely, precise and meaningful identification? A neutral genome-similarity based framework is then described that could allow alternative classification schemes to be explored, compared, and translated into each other without having to choose only one as the gold standard. Classification schemes could thus continue to evolve and be selected according to their benefits and based on how well they fulfill the need for prokaryotic identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0571.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Inductive power transfer (IPT); Mutual inductance parameter identification; Load parameter identification; Rectifier equivalent load.
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:58:54 CEST)
The variation of mutual inductance and load parameters will affect the transmission power and efficiency of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system. The identification of mutual inductance and load parameters is an essential part of establishing a stable and reliable IPT system. This paper presents a joint identification method of load and mutual inductance for LCC-S IPT system, which does not require the establishment of primary and secondary communication and related control. Firstly, the resistance-inductance characteristics of the equivalent load of the rectifier are analyzed by simulation, and then the rectifier and system load are equivalent to the circuit model of resistance and inductance in series. Secondly, the characteristics of the reflected impedance are analyzed, and the functional relationship between the transmitter impedance and the rectifier impedance is established by using the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the reflected impedance, which realizes the decoupling of the load and the mutual inductance. Thirdly, the functional relationship between the equivalent impedance of the rectifier and the load resistance of the system is obtained by data fitting. Then, the equations of the above two functional relationships are combined. By measuring the voltage of the parallel compensation capacitor at the transmitting side, the current of the transmitting coil and the phase difference between the two, the battery load can be solved first, and then the mutual inductance can be calculated, so that the high-precision identification of the load and mutual inductance can be realized. Finally, an experimental platform of LCC-S IPT system is built for experimental verification. The experimental results show that the maximum identification errors of mutual inductance and load are 5.20 % and 5.53 %, respectively, which proves that the proposed identification method can achieve high precision identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: inverse analysis; parameter identification; structural identification; structural optimisation; dynamic modal measurements; historic reinforced concrete bridge
Online: 18 July 2023 (05:34:45 CEST)
In the context of Inverse Analysis in Civil Engineering, parameter identification and model calibration, of a structural system, relying on dynamic measurements, are subjects of a growing research interest. In the present contribution, the topic is tackled with reference both to simplified structural numerical examples and to a specific case study, namely a historical road three-span reinforced concrete arched bridge, with vibrational data previously acquired by standard wired accelerometers on the deck, under operational traffic conditions. In particular, the present work aims at focussing on the identification issues, concerning the definition of a maximum allowable threshold number of sought material parameters (e.g., Young’s moduli and mass densities of different structural components), with respect to the amount of available measurement data, and the investigation of the inverse analysis discrepancy function to be optimised, in order to set the intrinsic issue of multiple “realizations”, in case of a plain use of modal properties, and in view of forming a well–posed optimisation problem. Structural modelling, sensitivity analysis and numerical optimisation approaches are herein combined toward a robust and efficient identification strategy, to be effectively employed in structural assessment and diagnosis, also with respect to originally available or enriched sets of experimental data. The proposed methodology, and collected results, shall outline an efficient identification procedure, in view of automated inverse analysis, practically oriented to the dynamic assessment and structural diagnosis in the Civil Engineering context, as applied e.g. to strategic bridge infrastructures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0512.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: offline handwriting identification; Mongolian; CNN; MOLHW
Online: 8 November 2023 (04:18:44 CET)
Handwriting is a form of biometric behavioral characteristic with evident individual distinctiveness. With the surge of the deep learning trend and the demand for forensic identification, handwriting identification has become one of the focal points of research in the field of pattern recognition. The research on handwriting identification in major world languages has reached a mature stage. However, there is still a notable lack of relevant research in the field of Mongolian handwriting identification, despite the fact that Mongolian is used by over 4 million people in China. This paper embarks on an initial exploration of Mongolian handwriting identification by constructing a convolutional neural network named MWInet-12. In this paper, the model evaluation experiments were conducted using a dataset comprising 156,372 samples contributed by 125 authors from the MOLHW dataset. The dataset was divided into training, validation, and test sets in an 8:1:1 ratio. The final results of the experiments reveal impressive accuracy on the test set, achieving a top-1 accuracy of 89.60% and a top-5 accuracy of 97.53%. Furthermore, through comparative experiments involving Resnet, Fragnet, and GRRNN models, this paper establishes that the proposed model yields the most favorable results for Mongolian handwriting identification.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Dynamic models; identification; UAV; swarm; simulation
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:36:04 CEST)
The article presents the method of identification of dynamic models for different flight states of a rotary-wing UAV. Experimental flights were conducted to obtain data necessary for the identification process. Such models can later be implemented in simulations to represent the behavior of real-life objects. Simulation of UAV swarms is the first stage of developing a swarm system, where prototyping with physical models is problematic. Therefore, obtaining accurate models is crucial for the simulation process to be reliable. Also, verification of obtained models was performed to make sure that they were identified correctly. In particular, the presented method was proven effective and successfully used in some applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: laminate; material properties; identification; guided waves
Online: 18 April 2022 (08:49:59 CEST)
Ultrasonic based inspection of thin-walled structures often requires prior knowledge of their mechanical properties. Their accurate estimation could be achieved in a non-destructive manner employing, e.g., elastic guided waves. Such procedures require efficient approaches for experimental data extraction and processing, which is still a challenging task. An advanced automated technique for material properties identification of an elastic waveguide is proposed in this investigation. It relies on the information on dispersion characteristics of guided waves, which are extracted by applying the matrix pencil method to the measurements obtained via laser Doppler vibrometry. Two objective functions have been successfully tested, and the advantages of both approaches are discussed (accuracy vs computational costs). The numerical analysis employing the synthetic data generated via the mathematical model as well as experimental data shows that both approaches are stable and accurate. The influence of the presence of various modes in the extracted data is investigated. One can conclude that the influence of the corruptions related to the extraction of dispersion curves is not critical if the majority of guided waves propagating in the considered frequency range are presented. Possible extensions of the proposed technique for damaged and multi-layered structures are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: spontaneous plants; metabolites; insecticidal; identification; quantification
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:12:15 CET)
Spontaneous plants metabolites are more widespread for their properties and biological functions. Also, natural products have reminded diverse scientists to take a delight in their medical and insecticidal applications linked to the environmental. A variety of metabolites have a defensive function for the plants. Thus, three spontaneous plants: Caroxylon imbricatum, Tetraena alba and Cotula cinerea collected from two ecotypes and analyzed by two known conventional methods:Gas Chromatography‐Mass Spectrometry GC QTOF(quadrupole time of flight )_MS and Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry LCQTOF(quadrupole time of flight )_MS. The investigation conducted out on the identification and quantification of metabolites revealed the main metabolites which have biological activities as a part of an alternative to synthetic insecticides. The chemical study showed the presence of N-Butylbenzensulfonamide and Sulfoxycaprylicacid in the three plants. N-Carboxy-methionineresidue, Butanoicacid and Valine were found in those of Cotula cinerea and Caroxylon imbricatum (Forssk.). Artomunoxanthentrione, Glycoaldehyde, Indoline, ,Benzensulfonamide and Oxoproline were detected in extracts of Caroxylon imbricatum (Forssk.) and Tetraena alba (L.f.) In addition, Pyrroline is the only compound common in Cotula cinerea and Tetraena alba (L.f.).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1930.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: dragon fruit; stem rot; Fusarium; identification; fungicides
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:14:07 CET)
Dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) constitutes an important economic industry in Guizhou Province, China; however, in recent years, stem rot in this region has become increasingly severe. Moreover, the pathogens responsible for stem rot in Guizhou and their sensitivity to fungicides remain elusive. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the causative pathogens of stem rot in this region and analyze their sensitivity to fungicides. Twenty-four isolates were obtained from diseased tissues, from which H-4 and H-5 were selected and confirmed as pathogens. Based on the morphological characteristics of macroconidia, microconidia, and colony morphology, the polygenic phylogenetic tree constructed using internal transcribed spacer, elongation factor 1-alpha, and retinol-binding protein-2 gene fragments, along with carbon source metabolism using FF microplates, the two pathogens were identified as Fusarium oxysporum and F. concentricum respectively. In addition, the in vitro toxicity of eight fungicides against both pathogens were measured based on mycelium growth rate. The results showed that 75% trifloxystrobin·tebuconazole exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on both isolates, with concentration for 50% of maximum effect values of 0.1262 µg/mL and 0.1385 µg/mL, respectively. This study identified two Fusarium spp. as the causative pathogens of stem rot in dragon fruit, with F. concentricum being reported for the first time, and demonstrated the best fungicide for them. These findings hold significant potential for guiding the effective treatment of stem rot in dragon fruit in Guizhou, China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: damage identification; modal curvature; beamforming algorithms; MVDR
Online: 1 September 2023 (03:34:57 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to damage identification in beams by modal curvatures based on the use of beamforming algorithms. These processors have been successfully used in acoustics for the last thirty years to solve the inverse problems encountered in source recognition and image reconstruction, based on ultrasonic waves. In addition, beamformers apply to a broader range of problems in which the forward solutions are computable and measurable, especially regarding the field of structural vibrations, where the use of such estimators has not received attention to date. In this paper, modal curvatures will play the role of the replica vectors of the imaging field. By means of numerical studies and experimental tests on a steel beam, we motivate the choice of modal curvatures as observed quantities. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the Bartlett and minimum variance distortionless beamformers (MVDR) with an estimator based on the simple minimization of the difference between model and measured data. The results suggest that the application of the MVDR beamformer is highly effective, especially in cases of slight damage between two sensors. MVDR enabled both damage localization, and quantification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1730.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Honey bee; identification; wings; geometric morphometrics; XML
Online: 26 June 2023 (02:58:04 CEST)
Identification of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies is an important aspect of bee breeding and biodiversity conservation. The identification can be based on molecular or morphological markers. For some markers, including the cytochrome c oxidase subunit, there is a well-established methodology allowing consistent subspecies identification in different laboratories. In the case of morphological markers, identification is hindered by a lack of reference data and a standardized methodology to reuse it. We show here that reference data for the identification of honey bees based on geometric morphometrics can be saved in an XML file. The information in this file can be easily extracted by other users for the identification of unknown samples. We illustrate this procedure using ten samples from north India. The samples were identified as A. mellifera; next, they were identified as lineage C; and finally, most of the samples had high similarity to honey bees from Croatia and Slovenia. We explained what data is required for such identification and how it can be reused. The method described here can be applied not only to honey bee wings but also to all data based on landmark coordinates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: EEG; Epileptic Seizure; Seizure Identification; Machine Learning
Online: 16 June 2023 (14:16:45 CEST)
Due to the large interest and need, there has been much recent work in epileptic seizure detection using machine learning models. Using un-intrusive measurements of brain activity such as electroencephalograms (EEG) has allowed for large datasets to be constructed and used for computational intelligence to identify seizure events within EEG data. In this paper, we use a publicly avaibale EEG dataset to develop a lightweight Machine learning supervised model (simple Decision Tree) to classify seizure events from brain waves. The performance of this developed model was compared with a complex ML model (Support Vector Machine). The cross-validated Decision Tree model performed better for seizure event classification with an overall accuracy of 91.17%. This lightweight model will allow for developing mobile applications and user comfort
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Catastrophes; Genetic identification; Kinship analysis; DNA degradation
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:01:25 CEST)
Different types of disasters, whether natural or human character, lead to the significant loss of human lives. In the latter case, the quick action of identification of corpses and human remains is mandatory. There are a variety of protocols to identify victims, however, genetics is one of the tools that allow an exact identification of the victim. However, several factors may interfere with this identification, from the biological samples’ degradation not allowing the analysis of nuclear information, to failure to dispose of biological samples from family members. Access to certain family members could be a determinant of the proper choice of genetic markers that allow the identification of the victim, or his/her inclusion in a given genetic maternal or paternal lineage. With the new advances in the genetic field, it is expected to allow soon the identification of victims from disasters only with his/her biological postmortem samples, being possible to draw a robot portrait and its most likely physical characteristics. In all cases, genetics is the only modern tool with universal character and can be used in essentially all biological samples, giving and identification of more or less accurate statistical character, depending on whether nuclear or lineage markers are used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0120.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Crime Detection; Suspect Identification; ATM; Faces; Protection
Online: 7 March 2023 (02:24:03 CET)
—The number of ATMs in various countries is increasing steadily and rapidly with the number of users increasing very widely. On the other hand, banks have become more interested in finding the best procedures to combat ATM crimes to ensure the safety and security of their customers and other cardholders. This has become an excellent target for some criminals or fraudsters, despite the limited amounts that can be withdrawn from these devices, given a maximum daily limit. We aim at implementing this system inside bank ATMs in order to detect objects like guns, hammers, and knives. Once the suspicious objects and actions are detected, we perform facial recognition to identify whether the suspect is a repeating offender. We use object, face, and action recognition algorithms to achieve our objective. Results showed that using our proposed algorithm is efficient in detecting threatening objects
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: image forensics; camera identification; fingerprint; forgery; PRNU
Online: 1 February 2023 (01:30:04 CET)
In the field of forensic imaging, it is important to be able to extract a “camera fingerprint” from one or a small set of images known to have been taken by the same camera (image sensor). Ideally, that fingerprint would be used to identify an individual source camera. Camera fingerprint is based on certain kind of random noise present in all image sensors that is due to manufacturing imperfections and thus unique and impossible to avoid. PRNU (Photo-Response Non-Uniformity) has become the most widely used method for SCI (Source Camera Identification). In this paper, we design a set of “attacks” to a PRNU based SCI system and we measure the success of each method. We understand an attack method as any processing that alters minimally image quality and that is designed to fool PRNU detectors (or, generalizing, any camera fingerprint detector). The PRNU based SCI system was taken from an outstanding reference that is publicly available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: accidents; geographic information system; highway; hotspots; identification
Online: 1 June 2022 (03:58:13 CEST)
This study identified high-risk locations (hotspots), using geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis. Five years of accident data (2013-2017) for the Lokoja-Abuja-Kaduna highway in Nigeria were used. Accident concentration analysis was carried out using the mean center analysis and Kernel density estimation method. These locations were further verified using Moran’s I Statistics (Spatial Autocorrelation) to determine their clustering with statistical significance. Fishnet polygon and Network spatial weight matrix approaches of Getis-Ord Gi* statistic for hotspot analysis were used for the hotspot analysis. Hotspots exist for 2013, 2014, and 2017 with a significance level between 95% - 99%. However, no hotspots exist for 2014 and 2015 since the pattern is random. The spatial autocorrelation analysis of the overall accident locations with a z-score = 0.0575, p-value = 0.9542, and Moran's I statistic = -0.0089 showed that the distribution of accidents on the study route is random. Thus, preventive measures for hotspot locations should be based on a yearly hotspot analysis. The average daily traffic values of 31,270 and 16,303 were obtained for the Northbound and Southbound directions of the Abaji-Abuja section. The results show that hotspot locations with high confidence levels are at points where there are geometric features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Machine learning; ALS; Classification; Interpretation; Target Identification
Online: 4 October 2021 (12:50:04 CEST)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a prototypical neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons to severely effect the functionality to control voluntary muscle movement. Most of the non additive genetic aberrations responsible for ALS make its molecular classification very challenging along with limited sample size, curse of dimensionality, class imbalance and noise in the data. Deep learning methods have been successful in many other related areas but have low minority class accuracy and suffer from the lack of explainailbilty when used directly with RNA expression features for ALS molecular classification. In this paper we propose a deep learning based molecular ALS classification and interpretation framework. Our framework is based on training a convolution neural network (CNN) on images obtained from converting RNA expression values into pixels based on DeepInsight similarity technique. Then we employed Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) to extract pixels with higher relevance to ALS classifications. These pixels were mapped back to the genes which made them up. This enabled us to classify ALS samples with high accuracy for a minority class along with identifying genes that might be playing an important role in ALS molecular classifications. Taken together with RNA expression images classified with CNN, our preliminary analysis of the genes identified by SHAP interpretation demonstrate the value of utilising Machine Learning to perform molecular classification of ALS and uncover disease-associated genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biological invasions; fish; DNA; barcoding; primers; identification
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:28:46 CEST)
Reliable species identification is critical for detection and monitoring of biological invasions. In this study, we propose four sets of primers for efficient amplification of several loci, including the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-c (COI) subunit I gene which is a basis for DNA barcoding. This set of primers gives a shorter product which can be used in high-throughput sequencing systems for metabarcoding purposes. Another mitochondrial locus encoding the large ribosomal subunit (16S) may be useful to study the population structure and as an additional source of information in the metabarcoding of communities. We propose to use a set of primers for the nuclear locus of the small ribosomal subunit (18S) as a positive control and to verify the results of the barcoding. Our proposed sets of primers demonstrate a high amplification efficiency and a high specificity both for freshwater alien and indigenous fishes. The proposed research design makes it possible to carry out extremely cheap studies on the assessment of biological diversity using genetic analysis without expensive equipment, and with the technique for conducting laboratory work and processing of the results available to any researcher. The paper also presents original data on the genetic polymorphism of all mass alien fish species in the Volga-Kama region. High efficiency of DNA identification based on our primers is shown as compared to traditional monitoring of biological invasions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ricin; marker peptides; unambiguous identification; mass spectrometry
Online: 11 June 2019 (08:27:32 CEST)
Both ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), belonging to the type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs-Ⅱ), are derived from the seeds of castor bean plant. They share very similar amino acid sequences, but ricin is much more toxic than RCA120. It is urgently necessary to distinguish ricin and RCA120 in response to public safety. Currently, mass spectrometric assays are well established for unambiguous identification of ricin by accurate analysis of differentiated amino acid residues after trypsin digestion. However, diagnostic peptides are relatively limited for unambiguous identification of trace ricin, especially in complex matrices. Here, we demonstrate a digestion strategy of multiple proteinases to produce novel peptide markers for unambiguous identification of ricin. LC-HRMS was used to verified the resulting peptides, among which only the peptides with uniqueness and good MS response were selected as peptide markers. Seven novel peptide markers were obtained from tandem digestion of trypsin and endoproteinase Glu-C in PBS buffer. From the chymotrypsin digestion under reduction and non-reduction conditions, eight and seven novel peptides were selected respectively. Using pepsin under pH 1~2 and proteinase K digestion, 6 and 5 peptides were selected as novel peptide markers. In conclusion, the obtained novel peptides from the established digestion methods can be recommended for the unambiguous identification of ricin during the investigation of illegal use of the toxin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: eyewitness identification; feedback; recollection; metacognition; metamemory; recognition
Online: 3 December 2018 (08:36:54 CET)
Little theoretically-informed research investigates how non-standard eyewitness identification tasks or metacognitive instructions might improve identification accuracy. We used a continuous dual-process model of recognition to explain familiarity-based identification errors and design modified lineup tasks and metacognitive instructions that increased eyewitness recollection and discriminability. In four studies we examined identification performance across lineups (standard simultaneous, elimination, delayed-choice) and instructions (task-related, phenomenological, standard). Participants viewed photos of targets and made identification decisions about a lineup for each target. Instructions about memory phenomenology improved discriminability in delayed-choice lineups, while task-related instructions were ineffective. Metacognitive instructions about how to better evaluate memory quality in modified lineup tasks could improve recollection for greater identification accuracy even when memory is poor. While immediate post-decision confidence is a good predictor of identification accuracy, lineup modifications that improve eyewitness memory use would provide better evidence of suspect guilt or innocence. We discuss implications for lineup theory and design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Quad-rotor; Parameters identification; CIFER; Adaptive LADRC
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:49:15 CET)
In accordance with problems such as difficulty in obtaining aerodynamic parameters of a quad-rotor model, the change of model parameters with external interference affects the control performances, an aerodynamic parameter estimation method and an adaptive attitude control method based on LADRC are designed. Firstly, the motion model, dynamics model and control distribution model of quad-rotor are established by using the aerodynamic and Newtonian Euler equations. Secondly, the identification tool CIFER is used to identify the aerodynamic parameters with large uncertainties in frequency domain and a more accurate attitude model of the quad-rotor is obtained. Then an adaptive attitude decoupling controller based on LADRC is designed to solve the problem of poor anti-interference ability of the quad-rotor, so that the control parameter b0 can be automatically adjusted to identify the change of the moment of inertia in real time. Finally, a semi-physical simulation platform is used for simulation verification. The results show that the adaptive LADRC attitude controller designed can effectively estimate and compensate the system's internal and external disturbances, and the tracking speed of the controller is faster and the precision is higher which can effectively improve system's anti-interference and robustness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0455.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Gonocaryum calleryanum; secoiridoid; structure identification; anti-inflammatory.
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:42:36 CEST)
Three new secoiridoid constituents Gonocarin A-C (1-3) and a new derivative Gonocarin A monoacetate (4), along with two known lignins pinoresinol (5) and paulownin (6) were isolated from the seed of Gonocaryum calleryanum (Baill.) Becc. The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, particularly mass spectroscopy and 2D NMR (1H–1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy. When mouse macrophages RAW264.7 were treated with compounds 1-6 together with LPS -stimulated, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) productions were detected. The results confirmed that the Gonocaryum calleryanumrrg could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Modal-based model updating, Bayesian model updating, System identification, Damage identification, Operational health monitoring, I-girder, Bridge, Aging.
Online: 15 December 2022 (10:10:39 CET)
The average age of in-service bridges has increased in recent years in the United States. To address this issue, structural health monitoring and damage identification approaches can be employed to prioritize maintenance/replacement of aging bridges. Among the damage identification and operational health monitoring approaches, finite element (FE) model updating methods can offer a solution to evaluate the mechanics-based characteristics of bridges. However, in a real-world setting, unidentifiability and mutual dependency between model parameters, modeling errors, especially due to boundary conditions, as well as ill-conditioning of updating algorithms can pose challenges to the application of FE model updating methods. To address these challenges, this study presents a two-step FE model updating approach. In the first step, modal-based model updating is used to estimate linear model parameters mainly related to the stiffness of boundary conditions and material properties. In the second step, in order to refine parameter estimation accounting for nonlinear response behavior of the bridge, a time-domain model updating is carried out. In this step, boundary conditions are fixed at their final estimates using modal-based model updating. To prevent the convergence of updating algorithm to local solutions, the initial estimates for nonlinear material properties are selected based on their corresponding final estimates in the modal-based model updating. To validate the applicability of the two-step FE model updating approach, a series of forced-vibration experiments are designed and carried out on a pair of decommissioned and deteriorated prestressed bridge I-girders. After carrying out the two-step FE model updating, the final estimates of concrete compressive strength are shown to provide reasonable assessment of the damage extent in the girders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element model updating; soil-structure interaction; system identification; joint system and input identification; Bayesian estimation; Millikan Library
Online: 22 November 2022 (04:23:22 CET)
We present a finite element model updating technique for soil-structure system identification of the Millikan Library building using the seismic data recorded during the 2002 Yorba Linda earthquake. A detailed finite element (FE) model of the Millikan Library building is developed in OpenSees and updated using a sequential Bayesian estimation approach for joint parameter and input identification. A two-step system identification approach is devised. First, the fixed-base structural model is updated to estimate the structural model parameters (including effective elastic modulus of structural components, distributed floor mass, and Rayleigh damping parameters) and some uncertain components of the foundation-level motion. Then, the identified structural model is used for soil-structure model updating wherein the Rayleigh damping parameters, the stiffness and viscosity of the soil subsystem (modeled using a substructure approach), and the foundation input motions (FIMs) are estimated. The identified model parameters are compared with state-of-practice recommendations. While a specific application is made for the Millikan Library, the present work offers a framework for integrating large-scale FE models with measurement data for model inversion. By utilizing this framework for different civil structures and earthquake records, key structural model parameters can be estimated from the real-world recorded data, which can subsequently be used for assessing and improving, as necessary, state-of-the-art seismic analysis and structural modeling techniques. This paper presents an effort towards using real-world measurements for large-scale FE model updating in the soil and structure, uniform soil time domain for joint parameter and input estimation, and thus paves the way for future applications in system identification, health monitoring and diagnosis of civil structures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1746.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: EEG; Construction; hazard identification; Worker safety; Adverse reaction
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:41:11 CET)
Construction safety is especially important because the construction industry is so important to a country's development. Significant research and practice have been conducted to mitigate potential risks during construction and improve worker efficiency. With the rapid advancement of cognitive neuroscience and the incorporation of medical technology in recent years, various wearable monitoring devices have been widely used in the construction field for real-time monitoring of workers' physical and mental status. Among these, the use of EEG (Electroencephalogram) in construction environment research allows researchers to gain insight into the physical and mental states of construction workers while performing construction tasks. This review introduces EEG technology and portable EEG devices, followed by an overview of their use in both monitoring workers' adverse reactions and identifying hazards on construction sites, providing an effective guide for EEG research in the construction field and on-site safety management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0629.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: space object identification; deep learning; YOLO; deformable convolution
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:00:23 CET)
With the rapid development of space programs in various countries, the number of satellites in space is increasing, resulting in an increasingly complex space environment. Therefore, improving space object identification technology has become highly important. We proposes a method of applying deep learning to intelligent detection of space object. We utilize 49 authentic 3D satellite models including 16 scenarios to generate a dataset comprising 17,942 images, which contains over 500 actual satellite photos. Additionally, we acquired a substantial amount of annotated data using a semi-automatic labeling method, which resulted in significant labor cost savings, and obtained a total of 39,000 labels. We validate the feasibility of the dataset using YOLOv3 and YOLOv7 models. What's more, we optimize the YOLOv7 model by integrating deformable convolution RepPoint into the YOLOv7 backbone to obtain the YOLOv7-R model. Through training with these two models, experimental results show that YOLOv3 achieves an accuracy of 0.927, YOLOv7 reaches an accuracy of 0.964, and YOLOv7-R achieves the highest accuracy at 0.983. This provides an effective solution for intelligent space object detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: MethylRAD-Seq; A. japonicus; body wall; age identification
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:21:09 CEST)
The A. japonicus industry has expanded significantly, but no research has focused on how to de-termine the age of A. japonicus during farming. Correctly estimating the age of A. japonicus can provide a decision-making basis for the breeding process, and data for the protection of A. japonicus aquatic germplasm resources. DNA methylation levels in the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus at 4 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years old were determined by MethylRAD-Seq, and differentially methylated genes related to age were screened. The results of the study found that 441 and 966 differentially methylated genes were detected at CCGG and CCWGG sites, respectively. As-partate aminotransferase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, the histone H2AX, heat shock protein Hsp90, aminopeptidase N, cell division cycle CDC6, Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), slit guidance ligand slit 1, integrin linked kinase ILK, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase Mtor, protein kinase A Pka, and autophagy-related 3 atg3 these genes may play key roles in the growth and aging process of A. japonicus. This study provided data for identifying the age of A. japonicus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1395.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Remote Raman; Time-Gated; Traces Detection and Identification.
Online: 20 September 2023 (11:19:27 CEST)
Raman spectroscopy is a type of inelastic scattering that provides rich information about a sub-stance based on the coupling of the energy levels of their vibrational and rotational modes with incident light. It has been applied extensively in many fields. As there is an increasing need for remote detection of chemicals in planetary exploration and anti-terrorism, it is urgent to develop a compact and easily transportable fully automated remote Raman detection system for trace detection and identification of information with high-level confidence about the target’s compo-sition and conformation in real-time and for real field scenarios. Here, we present an unmanned vehicle-based remote Raman system, which includes a 266 nm air-cooling passive Q-switched nanosecond pulsed laser of high-repetition frequency, a gated ICMOS, and an unmanned vehicle. This system obtains good spectral signals from remote distances ranging from 3 m to 10 m for simulating realistic scenarios, such as aluminum plate, woodblock, paperboard, black cloth, and leaves, and even for detected amounts as low as 0.1 mg. Furthermore, a CNN-based algorithm is implemented and packaged into the recognition software to achieve fast and more accurate de-tection and identification. This prototype provides a proof-of-concept for an unmanned vehicle with accurate remote substance detection in real-time, which can be helpful for remote detection and identification of hazardous gas, explosives, their precursors, and so forth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: dual mixing attention; UAV re-identification; deep learning
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:30:54 CEST)
Vehicle re-identification research under surveillance cameras has yielded impressive results. However, the challenge of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based vehicle re-identification (ReID) presents a high degree of flexibility, mainly due to complicated shooting angles, occlusions, low discrimination of top-down features, and significant changes in vehicle scales. To address this, we propose a novel Dual Mixing Attention Network (DMANet) to extract discriminative features robust to variations in viewpoint. Specifically, we first present a plug-and-play Dual Mixing Attention Module (DMAM) to capture pixel-level pairwise relationships and channel dependencies, where DMAM is composed of Spatial Mixing Attention (SMA) and Channel Mixing Attention (CMA). First, the original feature is divided according to the dimensions of spatial and channel to obtain multiple subspaces. Then, a learnable weight is applied to capture the dependencies between local features in the mixture space. Finally, the features extracted from all subspaces are aggregated to promote their comprehensive feature interaction. Moreover, the DMAM can be readily inserted into backbone networks at any depth to improve vehicle discrimination. The experiments show that the proposed structure gains a better performance compared with the representative methods in the UAV-based vehicle ReID task. Our code and models will be publicly released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1533.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: wildlife; Surveillance; quad-rotor; target identification; Blob Detection
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:17:43 CEST)
Owing to the upsurge in the number of endangered species and understanding animal patterns in general as well as population demographics; the monitoring of wildlife species is an essential for the conservation and safety of animals. In order to organize and manage the reserves, the nature bequeaths to us, we need to have hands-on information of their population and food trends, conditions where they survive and other species in the ecosystem. The paper presents a vision-based approach to monitor wildlife using an aerial platform. A quad-rotor based aerial platform is used for the very first time for this purpose. Field imaging is done using a digital cellphone camera mounted on the platform to acquire video of horses in the field. Two techniques, Lucas-Kanade and Horn-Schunck methods are applied on the acquired set of images and the results are compared. Noise due to fluctuations and light conditions are minimized using Gaussian and HSV filters. Experiments show results with an absolute mean difference of 2.84 pixels and 8.50 pixels for changes in X and Y directions respectively for the two approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0321.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: speaker identification; convolutional neural network; dung beetle optimizer
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:35:50 CEST)
Speaker recognition methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been widely used in the security field and smart wearable devices. However, the traditional CNN has a large number of hyperparameters that are difficult to be determined, which makes the model easy to fall into local optimum or even fail to converge during the training process. Intelligent algorithms such as particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm are used to solve the above problems. However, these algorithms have poor performance compared with the current emerging meta-heuristic algorithms. In this study, the dung beetle optimized convolution neural network (DBO-CNN) is proposed to identify the speakers, which is helpful in finding suitable hyperparameters for training. By testing the dataset of 50 people, it was demonstrated that the accuracy of the model was significantly improved by using this approach. Compared with the traditional CNN and CNN optimized by other intelligent algorithms, the accuracy of DBO-CNN has increased by 0.6%~4.8%, and reached 98.3%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1212.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: marine survey; acoustic reflection; spectral analysis; sediments identification
Online: 17 May 2023 (08:43:40 CEST)
The paper deals with applying Artificial Intelligence techniques to examine CHIRP-recorded data in sand and sandstone sea-bottom sites. The provided analysis of the state of the art portrays that actual time series or spectrum backscattered data from a point on the sea bottom were rarely used as the features for machine learning models. The results of the examination indicate that types of sea bottom can be quantitatively characterized by applying logistic regression models to either the backscatter time series of a frequency-modulated signal or the spectrum of that backscatter. The examination accuracy reached 90% for the time series and 94% for the spectra. The application of spectral data as features for more advanced machine learning algorithms, and the advantages of its combination with other types of data have great potential for future research and the enhancement of remote marine soil classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1158.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: leak identification; pressure sensor deployment; water distribution networks
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:53:02 CEST)
Pipe leakage is an inevitable phenomenon in water distribution networks (WDNs), leading to energy waste and economic damage. Leakage events can be reflected quickly by pressure values, and the deployment of pressure sensors is significant for minimizing the leakage ratio of WDNs. Concerning the restriction of realistic factors, including project budgets, available sensor installation locations, and sensor fault uncertainties, a practical methodology is proposed in this paper to optimize pressure sensor deployment for leak identification in terms of these realistic issues. Two indexes are identified to evaluate the leak identification ability, that is, detection coverage rate (DCR) and total detection sensitivity (TDS), and the principle is to determine priority to ensure an optimal DCR and retain the largest TDS with an identical DCR. Leakage events are generated by a model simulation and the essential sensors for maintaining the DCR are obtained by subtraction. In the event of a surplus budget, and if we suppose the partial sensors have failed, then we can determine the supplementary sensors that can best complement the lost leak identification ability. Moreover, a typical WDN Net3 is employed to show the specific progress, and the result shows that the methodology is largely appropriate for real projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0496.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: wool; cashmere; fine animal fibers; analytical methods; identification
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:44:42 CEST)
The identification and quantitative determination of wool and fine animal fibers are of great interest in the textile field because of significant price differences between them and common adulterations in raw and processed textiles. Since animal fibers have remarkable similarities in their chemical and physical characteristics, specific identification methods have been studied and proposed following advances in analytical technologies. The identification methods of wool and fine animal fibers are reviewed in this paper and the results of relevant studies are listed and summarized, starting from classical microscopy methods which are still used today not only in Small to Medium Enterprises but also in large industries, research studies and quality control laboratories. Particular attention has been paid to image analysis, Nir spectroscopy and proteomics which constitute the most promising technologies of quality control in the manufacturing and trading of luxury textiles and can find application in forensic science and archeology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0050.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: laminate; material properties; identification; guided waves; mode separation
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:08:23 CEST)
Numerical methods, including machine learning methods, are now actively used in the applications related to guided wave propagation. The method proposed in this study for material properties characterization is based on the algorithm of the clustering of multivariate data series obtained as a result of the application of the matrix pencil method to the experimental data. In the proposed technique, multi-objective optimization is employed to improve the accuracy of particular parameter identification. At the first stage, the computationally efficient method based on the calculation of the Fourier transform of Green's matrix is employed iteratively and the obtained solution is used for the filter construction with decreasing bandwidth, which allows us to obtain nearly noise-free classified data (with mode separation). The filter provides data separation between all guided waves in a natural way, which is needed at the second stage, where the slower method based on the minimization of the slowness residuals is applied to the data. The method might be applied for material properties identification in plates with thin coatings/interlayers, multi-layered anisotropic laminates etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0596.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Laser; Polishing; Additive manufacturing; Surface analysis; Identification; Topography
Online: 28 January 2021 (22:22:21 CET)
One of the challenges facing the industrial adoption of additively manufactured parts is the surface roughness on the as-built part. The surface roughness of parts is frequently characterized by metrics specified by international standards organizations. However, these standards list many surface metrics that can make it unclear which to use to best describe the surface. In this work, the ability of the various surface metrics to successfully classify the as-built and post-processed surfaces is studied using linear classification models. Laser polishing via remelting and manual grinding are the post-processing techniques used to smooth the as-built surface. The ability of the linear classifier to successfully categorize the various surfaces is demonstrated, and the various surface metrics are ranked according to the strength of their individual ability to classify the surfaces. This work promotes the method as a potential way to autonomously classify as-built and laser polished surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0480.v2
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: invasive species; thermal imaging; habitat identification; deep learning
Online: 21 September 2020 (06:01:38 CEST)
Invasive species are significant threats to global agriculture and food security being the major causes of crop loss. An operative biosecurity policy requires full automation of detection and habitat identification of the potential pests and pathogens. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) mounted thermal imaging cameras can observe and detect pest animals and their habitats, and estimate their population size around the clock. However, their effectiveness becomes limited due to manual detection of cryptic species in hours of captured flight videos, failure in habitat disclosure and the requirement of expensive high-resolution cameras. Therefore, the cost and efficiency trade-off often restricts the use of these systems. In this paper, we present an invasive animal species detection system that uses cost-effectiveness of consumer-level cameras while harnessing the power of transfer learning and an optimised small object detection algorithm. Our proposed optimised object detection algorithm named Optimised YOLO (OYOLO) enhances YOLO (You Only Look Once) by improving its training and structure for remote detection of elusive targets. Our system, trained on the massive data collected from New South Wales and Western Australia, can detect invasive species (rabbits, Kangaroos and pigs) in real-time with a higher probability of detection (85–100 %), compared to the manual detection. This work will enhance the visual analysis of pest species while performing well on low, medium and high-resolution thermal imagery, and equally accessible to all stakeholders and end-users in Australia via a public cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0501.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: thermal bridge; modeling and dynamic analysis; system identification
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:10:36 CEST)
It is challenging to apply heat flow through a thermal bridge, which requires the analysis of 2D or 3D heat transfer to building energy simulation(BES). Research on the dynamic analysis of thermal bridges has been underway for many years, but their utilization remains low in BESs. This paper proposes a thermal bridge modeling and a dynamic analysis method that can be easily applied to BESs. The main idea begins with an analogy of the steady-state analysis of thermal bridges. As with steady-state analysis, the proposed method first divides the thermal bridge into a clear wall, where the heat flow is uniform, and the sections that are not the clear wall (the thermal bridge part). For the clear wall part, the method used in existing BESs is applied and analyzed. The thermal bridge part (TB part) is modeled with the linear time-invariant system (LTI system) and the system identification process is performed to find the transfer function. Then, the heat flow is obtained via a linear combination of the two parts. This method is validated by comparing the step, sinusoidal and annual outdoor temperature response of the finite differential method(FDM) simulation. When the thermal bridge was modeled as a third-order model, the root mean square error(RMSE) of annual heat flow with the FDM solution of heat flow through the entire wall was about 0.1W.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: PEM fuel cell; identification; genetic algorithm; model; LabVIEW
Online: 10 July 2018 (10:12:34 CEST)
PEM fuel cell is a technology successfully used in the production of energy from hydrogen, allowing the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. It is scalable for stationary and mobile applications. However, the technology demands more research. An important research topic is fault diagnosis and condition monitoring to improve the life and the efficiency and to reduce the operation costs of PEMFC devices. Consequently, there is a need of physical models that let deep analysis. These models must be accurate enough to represent the PEMFC behavior and to allow the identification of different internal signals of a PEM fuel cell. This work presents a PEM fuel cell model that uses the output temperature in a closed loop, so it can represent the thermal and the electrical behavior. The model is used to represent a NEXA Ballard 1.2 kW; therefore it is necessary to fit the coefficients to represent the real behavior. Five optimization algorithms were tested to fit the model, three of them were taken from literature and two were proposed. Finally, the model with the parameters identified was validated with real.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Alum Bheg; anthropometry; identification; 1857 Sepoy mutiny; skull
Online: 4 May 2018 (05:15:18 CEST)
Introduction: We undertook the present study to analyze morphological features of a skull supposed to be that of Alum Bheg, a martyr from 1857 Indian Freedom Struggle (also called Sepoy Mutiny), using established methods to validate identity with regards to age and height as available in the note found with the skull (about 32 year and 5 feet 7½ inch). Methods: Identification of sex of the skull was done based on established criteria. Analysis for closure of skull sutures (cranial and facial) and measurement of orbitomedial (OM) & maxillomedial (MM) facial anthropometric lines were undertaken to provide an estimated age against each examined suture as well as group of sutures through established scoring systems. Further, approximate height of individual was estimated from skull length using regression equations from a reference adult Indian male population. Results: Established criteria confirmed that the skull was of a male individual and skull sutures and age related morphological changes in bones indicate that it belonged to an individual in age range 20 -50 years with an average of 30 years and approximate height between 5 feet 8.2 inch to 6 feet 1 inch. Discussion: Based on our observations we suggest that the skull belonged to a male individual around 30 years of age and height 5 feet 8.2 inch to 6 feet 1 inch. The observed values are in approximation with that mentioned in the historical note and slight differences may be attributed either to gross reporting of original values or limitations of anthropometric analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0083.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: ladybeetles; guide for identification; aborigenous species; introduced species
Online: 12 March 2018 (06:54:21 CET)
Although ladybirds of European Russia and the Caucasus have been the subject of numerous ecological and faunistic investigations, there is an evident lack of appropriate identification key for them. All previous keys have been published in Russian. The most modern key was published more than 50 years ago and included only about 60 % of species. Guides for identification of Coccinellidae of other countries are not appropriate for European Russia, since do not include many species occurring in the regions. New, original key to subfamilies, genera, and species of ladybirds (Coccinellidae) of the European Russia and Russian Caucasus is presented. All native species recorded in the region and all alien species introduced to this region are included. Some species from the adjacent regions are added. In total, 110 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. Photographs of rare and endemic species are provided. Information on the distribution of species within the region under consideration is provided. Synonymy of Chilocorus kuwanae with Ch. renipustulatus is presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; genome engineering; whole-genome sequencing; PAM identification
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:59:19 CET)
Research on Cas9 nucleases from different organisms holds great promise for advancing genome engineering and gene therapy tools as it could provide novel structural insights into CRISPR editing mechanisms, expanding its application area in biology and medicine. The current study focuses on generating a construct to express a compact Cas9 nuclease (AnoCas9) from the thermophilic microorganism Anoxybacillus flavithermus. Next, distinctive AnoCas9 properties are investigated. AnoCas9 gene is expressed in E.coli producing a polypeptide fused with the maltose-binding protein (MBP-AnoCas9). His-Tag in its structure enables purification using metal-chelate chromatography followed by the cleavage of the polypeptide by TEV protease. Bioinformatical analysis of the CRISPR array found in the genome of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain helps predict a functional PAM sequence for AnoCas9, which is supported by in vitro experiments. The purified protein demonstrates nuclease activity in the presence of crRNA:tracrRNA duplex in the 37-60 °С range, with maximum activity observed at 45-55 °С. The analysis of FAM-labeled dsDNA substrate cleavage has allowed us to determine the functional AnoCas9 PAM motif as 5’-NNNNCDAA-3’. Thus, AnoCas9 adds to the repertoire of thermophilic Cas9 effectors and its properties suggest application in areas requiring the presence of thermostable CRISPR/Cas systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: driver model; behavior switching mechanism; parameter identification; stepless switching
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:36:04 CEST)
To solve the problem of smooth switching between car-following model and lane-changing model, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) for a single lane was used to study the driver's behavior switching mechanism of normally following, generating intentions to change lanes, creating space and speed gains, and performing lane change. In the case of sufficient lane-changing space and speed gains, the ego vehicle's intention to change lane was considered to solve the switching boundary between car-following behavior and lane-changing behavior, which is also the IDM failure point. In the event that there is no lane-changing gains, the IDM was optimized by incorporating the constraint components of the target lane vehicles in conjunction with the actual motion state of the ego vehicle, and the Stepless Switching Intelligent Driver Model (SSIDM) was constructed. Drivers' natural driving information was collected and scenario mining was performed on structured roads. On the basis of the collected data, an elliptic equation was used to fit the behavior switching boundary, and the two component balance coefficients of the front and rear vehicles on the target lane were identified. According to the test set verification results, the Mean Square Error (MSE) of the SSIDM is 2.172, which is 57.98% less than that of the conventional single-lane IDM. The SSIDM can accomplish stepless switching comparable to driver's behavior between the car-following behavior and the lane-changing behavior, with greater precision than IDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0624.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: aerial photography; agricultural crop; digital image processing; pattern identification
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:26:00 CEST)
The agricultural sector is undergoing a revolution that requires sustainable solutions to the challenges that arise from traditional farming methods. To address these challenges, technical and sustainable support is needed to develop projects that improve crop performance. This study focuses on the onion crop and the challenges presented throughout its phenological cycle. Aerial monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and digital image processing were used to identify patterns in the onion crop, including humid areas, weed growth, vegetation deficits, and decreased harvest performance. An algorithm was developed to identify the patterns that most affected crop growth, as the average local production reported was 40.166 ton/ha, but only 25.00 ton/ha was reached due to blight caused by constant humidity and limited sunlight. This resulted in the death of leaves and poor development of bulbs, with 50% of the production being of medium size. It is estimated that approximately 20% of the production was lost due to blight and unfavorable weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0304.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Mitochondria; Co-translational import; BioID; Protein identification; Mass spectrometry
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:03:58 CEST)
Biotin-based proximity labeling approaches, such as BioID, have demonstrated their use for the study of mitochondria proteomes in living cells. The use of genetically engineered BioID cell lines enables the detailed characterization of poorly characterized processes such as mitochondrial co-translational import. In this process, translation is coupled to the translocation of the mitochon-drial proteins, alleviating the energy cost typically associated with the post-translational import relying on chaperone systems. However, the mechanisms are still unclear with only few actors identified but none that have been described in mammals yet. We thus profiled the TOM20 prox-isome using BioID, assuming that some of identified proteins could be molecular actors of the co-translational import in human cells. The obtained results showed a high enrichment of RNA bind-ing proteins close to the TOM complex. However, for the few selected candidates, we could not demonstrate a role in the mitochondrial co-translational import process. Nonetheless, we were able to demonstrate additional uses of our BioID cell line. Indeed, the experimental approach used in this study is thus proposed for the identification of mitochondrial co-translational import effec-tors and for the monitoring of protein entry inside mitochondria with a potential application in the prediction of mitochondrial protein half-life.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: radio holography; UAV; antenna array; aperture synthesis; UAV identification
Online: 21 November 2022 (06:56:10 CET)
The article proposes to use a radio holography for the detection and identification of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0480.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Speech Recognition; Automatic Speech Recognition; Language Identification; Wav2Vec2; Multilingual
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:06:34 CET)
This paper documents the development of a special case of multilingual Automatic Speech Recognition model, specifically tailored to attend two languages spoken by the majority of Latin America, Portuguese and Spanish. The bilingual model combines Language Identification and Speech Recognition developed with the Wav2Vec2.0 architecture and trained on several open and private speech datasets. In this model, the feature encoder is trained jointly for all tasks and different context encoders are trained for each task. The model is evaluated separately on two tasks: language identification and speech recognition. The results indicate that this model achieves good performance on speech recognition and average performance on language identification, training on a low quantity of speech material. The average accuracy of the language identification module on the MLS dataset is 66.75%. The average Word Error Rate in the same scenario is 13.89%, which is better than average 22.58% achieved by the commercial speech recognizer developed by Google.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0020.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: electrochemistry; analytical signal; noise; trends; identification; classification; fluids samples
Online: 1 August 2022 (10:19:30 CEST)
Digital medicine based on the integration of all medical data of a particular patient, has become a reality today, thanks to information technology. Traditional medical examinations can be supple-mented by assessment results of the oxidative-anti-oxidative (OAO) status of the body . Elec-trochemical sensors are able to not only determine the integral indicators of the OAO system of the body, but also to depict details of the processes occurring in the system. The main obstacle to the widespread use of electrochemical sensors in medical diagnostics is the extremely small amount of the received information in comparison with tens of thousands of known human dis-eases. The problem can be eliminated only by rethinking the purpose of electrochemical measure-ment within the framework of thermodynamics of information processes and information theory. In the information paradigm of electrochemical analysis of biological fluids, a sample is considered as an electrochemical message created by a sensor. The purpose of electrochemical measurement is to obtain information in a volume sufficient to identify the sample composition within the range of possible concentrations of its components. The fundamentals of the thermodynamics of infor-mation processes are considered and conclusions that are of practical importance for the devel-opment of electrochemical sensors and analyzers are derived. It is shown that potentiostatic con-trol of the sensor is physically impacted by the electromechanical instability of the electrical double layer, which is the main source of sensor signal noise. Estimates are of a minimum amount of an-alytical signal information required for identification of a sample of a known composition, such as a biological fluid, are provided. Examples of highly informative analytical signals for flowing and stationary samples are presented. Problems related to the visualization of such signals are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Probiotic; Lactobacilli; Fermented dairy product; Identification; enumeration; Rep-PCR
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:11:18 CEST)
A selection of 36 commercial probiotic fermented dairy products from UK and Europe markets were evaluated for the numbers, types and viability of Lactobacillus strains against the stated information on their packages. A comparative study was carried out on selectivity of MRS-Clindamycin, MRS-Sorbitol and MRS-IM Maltose, to select the right medium for enumeration of probiotic Lactobacillus. Based on selectivity of medium for recovery of the targeted lactobacilli and also simplicity of preparation, MRS-Clindamycin was chosen as the best medium for enumeration of probiotic Lactobacillus in fermented milks. The results of enumeration of lactobacilli showed that 22 out of a total 36 tested products contained more than 106 colony forming units/g at the end of their shelf- life, which comply with the recommended minimum therapeutic level for probiotics. Rep-PCR using primer GTG-5 was applied for initial discrimination of isolated strains, and isolates, which presented different band profile, were placed in different groups. The isolated Lactobacillus spp. were identified mainly as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei by analysis of partial sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA and rpoA genes. In conclusion, it is unknown to recommend the adequate number of probiotic bacteria to be consumed to ensure the beneficial properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0617.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: power factor correction; EMI filter; parameter identification; boost converter
Online: 22 April 2021 (20:53:40 CEST)
This paper proposes an approach to estimate the parameters of an AC-DC boost power factor corrector converter which includes an EMI filter. To this end, once the topology is known, measurements at the input and output terminals of the converter are done to identify the values of the passive elements. The proposed methodology is based on the trust-region nonlinear least squares algorithm to identify the parameters of the converter. The steady-state and the transient signals of the converter at the input/output terminals are acquired non-intrusively without any internal modification of the circuitry. The accuracy of the parameter identification carried out is determined by comparing the estimated values with the actual values provided by the manufacturer, and by contrasting the measured signals with the ones obtained with a simulation model with the estimated values of the parameters. The results presented in this paper prove the accuracy of the proposed approach, which can be extended to other power converters and filters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0576.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria; Traditional fermented milk; Isolation; Identification. characterization
Online: 24 March 2021 (09:58:43 CET)
Fermented milk product "Laban" in Libya is one of the most a traditional fermented milk product consumed a refreshing drink, particularly in the warm season The average values of the physicochemical including titratable acidity, pH, total solids, and fat were 0.73%, 4.16, 8.12%, and 1.54% respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴, and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml., respectively. Most strains of coliform bacteria were Serratia odorifera, Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2. and Klebsiella oxytoca. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of 142 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests revealed the most frequent Lactobacillus species found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%), followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. Thus, our research documented the lactic acid bacteria strains and will provides fundamental basic and useful information for further studies of strain selection starter culture, with regard to the industrial production of fermented dairy milk products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0384.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: supervisor identification; employability perceptions; unethical pro-supervisor behavior (UPSB)
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:07:15 CEST)
Under some employment circumstances, individuals in some organizations are willing to engage in unethical behaviors that benefit one’s own supervisors who have a great power to decide the levels of evaluation and compensation for each individual. In this study two hypotheses were examined. First, based on social identification theory, we hypothesized that individuals’ feeling a sense of oneness with one’s own supervisors promote unethical pro-supervisor behaviors (UPSB). Second, based on a person-situation interactionist model, we hypothesized that this positive relationship is strengthen if the individual perceives lower levels of one’s own employability. Data were collected from 185 individuals of various types of organizations in South Korea. A time-lagged field study supported our hypotheses. In particular, supervisor identification was positively related to UPSB. Further, for individuals with a weaker employability perception, supervisor identification was positively related to UPSB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: System identification; PI control; System Modeling; MISO; Performance analysis.
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:28:48 CEST)
The process model is very essential for the model based control design. The model of the process can be identified using system identification algorithm. The system identification is done through the open loop and closed loop approaches. In this work, the lab scale conical tank setup configured as a non square MIMO system. The conical tank system is identified through the both appraoches, the effectiveness and need of the both approaces are discussed. Based on the open loop identified model the controller designed and the controller implemented in the real time the to record the process data. From this data the closed loop identification are conducted uisng N4SID algorithm. The controller seetings are obtained using the smith predcitor based IMC based PI controller for the obtained model. The proposed identification algorithm and controller tuning show the better reults over the conventional method. Moreover, this method is applicable for all the non square MIMO system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: model updating; modal identification; measured data; measured mode shape
Online: 3 September 2019 (16:21:42 CEST)
A systematic approach for model updating using the modal identification results is proposed. Modal identification provides mode shapes for physical quantities (acceleration strain, etc.) measured in specific directions at the location of the sensors. Besides, model updating involves the use of the mode shapes related to the nodal degrees-of-freedom of the finite element analytic model. Consequently, the mode shapes obtained by modal identification and the mode shapes of the model updating process do not coincide even for the same mode. Therefore, a method constructing transform matrices that distinguish the cases where measurement is done by acceleration, velocity and displacement sensors and the case where measurement is done by strain sensors is proposed to remedy such disagreement between the mode shapes. The so-constructed transform matrices are then applied when the mode shape residual is used as objective function or for mode pairing in the model updating process. The feasibility of the proposed approach is verified by means of a numerical example in which the strain or acceleration of a simple beam is measured and a numerical example in which the strain of a bridge is measured. Using the proposed approach, it is possible to model the structure regardless of the position of the sensors and to select the location of the sensors independently from the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: hospital surfaces; antibiotics; identification; bacteria; Thika Level 5 Hospital
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:37:10 CEST)
Multiple studies have shown that hospital settings are poorly cleaned during terminal cleaning. The adequacy of these cleaning methods has been undermined by presence of multi drug resistant bacteria on hospital surfaces. This case is even more serious in developing countries leading to health care- associated infections that pose a great threat to patients, visitors and health care providers in hospital settings.This study used various microbiological techniques to test for antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria present at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya. A simple random cross sectional study was performed, with a total of 85 samples being collected from five different sites. The sites included male and female wards, health care personnel offices, latrine, and kitchen surfaces. Samples were collected using sterile swabs, dipped in normal saline, and transported to the laboratory within 2Hours for processing.Of the 85 plates cultured, 47 plates showed bacterial growth (55%) on selective media with a significant P value of 0.0357. Seven different species of bacteria were identified biochemically from all sites, Escherichia coli was the most abundant species (28%), and the least was Salmonella typhii (5%). Multiple drug resistance was common in the different bacteria identified. All isolates were resistant to chloramphenical and susceptible to gentamycin. The most resistant microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (50%), and the least resistant microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5%). The antimicrobial resistant bacterial species identified in this study have been documented to cause serious health care associated infections. These results present a significant public health concern because there is a possibility of patients, staff and visitors contacting nosocomial infections when they come into contact with surfaces at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0144.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Wikipedia; Information quality; Popularity; Topics identification; Wikidata; DBpedia; WikiRank
Online: 5 August 2019 (12:26:34 CEST)
In Wikipedia, articles about various topics can be created and edited independently in each language version. Therefore, quality of information about the same topic depends on language. Any interested user can improve an article and that improvement may depend on popularity of the article. The goal of this study is to show what topics are best represented in different language versions of Wikipedia using results of quality assessment for over 39 million articles in 55 languages. In this paper, we also analyze how popular are selected topics among readers and authors in various languages. We used two approaches to assign articles to various topics. First, we selected 27 main multilingual categories and analyzed all their connections with sub-categories based on information extracted from over 10 million categories in 55 language versions. To classify the articles to one of the 27 main categories we took into account over 400 million links from articles to over 10 million categories and over 26 million links between categories. In the second approach we used data from DBpedia and Wikidata. We also showed how the results of the study can be used to build local and global rankings of the Wikipedia content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Dendrobium officinale; ITS; loop-mediated isothermal amplification; identification; rapid
Online: 18 October 2018 (06:15:37 CEST)
Background: Dendrobium officinale is not only an ornamental plant, but also a valuable medicinal herb that is both effective and widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, distinguishing D. officinale from other Dendrobium species is usually a difficult task that need much time and complex technologies due to their very similar external morphologies. The aim of this study is to develop a fast, even on-spot approach to identify D. officinale. Methods: We used DNA barcode-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method with species-specific LAMP primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA of D. officinale. LAMP reaction time and temperature were optimized and the specificity and sensitivity of LAMP species-specific primers were assessed. Results: This technique showed a high specificity and sensitivity to amplify the genomic DNA of D. officinale and allowed for rapid amplification (within 40 min) of the ITS region under a constant and mild temperature range of 65 °C without using thermocyclers. Besides, by using SYBR® Green I dye as the color developing agent, the color change was easily observed with naked eye. Reaction mixture containing DNA of D. officinale changed from orange to green, while the other Dendrobium species and the negative control retained original orange color. The specificity of this LAMP-based method was confirmed by testing 17 samples of D. officinale and 32 adulterant samples from other Dendrobium species. Conclusions: This LAMP-based rapid identification method does not require expensive equipment or specialized techniques and can be used in field surveys for accurate and fast on site identification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0567.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: pavement distress; pavement management; distress identification; data collection system
Online: 28 September 2018 (12:28:00 CEST)
The road pavement condition affects safety and comfort, traffic and travel times, vehicles operating cost and emission levels. In order to optimize the road pavement management and guarantee satisfactory mobility conditions for all the road users, the Pavement Management System (PMS) is an effective tool for the road manager. An effective PMS requires the availability of pavement distress data, the possibility of data maintenance and updating, in order to evaluate the best maintenance program. In the last decade, many researches have been focused on pavement distress detection, using a huge variety of technological solutions for both data collection and information extraction and qualification. This paper presents a literature review of data collection systems and processing approach aimed at the pavement condition evaluation. Both commercial solutions and research approaches have been included. The main goal is to draw a framework of the actual existing solutions, considering them from a different point of view in order to identify the most suitable for further research and technical improvement, also considering the automated and semi-automated emerging technologies. An important attempt is to evaluate the aptness of the data collection and extraction to the type of distress, considering the distress detection, classification and quantification phases of the procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; automatic identification system; ice thickness; regression
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:28:38 CEST)
Ship speeds extracted from AIS data vary with ice conditions. We extrapolated this variation with SAR data to a chart of expected icegoing speed. The study is for the Gulf of Bothnia in March 2013 and for ships with ice class 1A Super that are able to navigate without icbreaker assistance. The speed was normalized to 0-10 for each ship. As the matching between AIS and SAR was complicated by ice drift during the time gap, from hours to two days, we calculated a set of local SAR statistics over several scales. We used random tree regression to estimate the speed. The accuracy was quantified by mean squared error (MSE), and the fraction of estimates close to the actual speeds. These depended strongly on the route and the day. MSE varied from 0.4 to 2.7 units2 for daily routes. 65 % of the estimates deviated less than one unit and 82 % less than 1.5 units from the AIS speeds. The estimated daily mean speeds were close to the observations. Largest speed decreases were provided by the estimator in a dampened form or not at all. This improved when ice chart thickness was included as one predictor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: wave energy; system identification; model validation; wave tank testing
Online: 8 February 2017 (17:00:08 CET)
Empirically based modeling is an essential aspect of design for a wave energy converter. These models are used in structural, mechanical and control design processes, as well as for performance prediction. The design of experiments and methods used to produce models from collected data have a strong impact on the quality of the model. This study considers the system identification and model validation process based on data collected from a wave tank test of a model-scale wave energy converter. Experimental design and data processing techniques based on general system identification procedures are discussed and compared with the practices often followed for wave tank testing. The general system identification processes are shown to have a number of advantages. The experimental data is then used to produce multiple models for the dynamics of the device. These models are validated and their performance is compared against one and other. While most models of wave energy converters use a formulation with wave elevation as an input, this study shows that a model using a hull pressure sensor to incorporate the wave excitation phenomenon has better accuracy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: dog DNA identification; STR; golden retriever; miniature dachshunds; shiba inus
Online: 1 December 2023 (13:37:35 CET)
Similarly to Europe and the United States, the need for the forensic DNA identification of dogs is increasing in Japan. Because few studies use commercial genotyping kits, we examine the effectiveness of individual DNA identification using the Canine Genotypes Panel 2.1 Kit on limited samples of dogs bred in Japan. We used Genomic DNA extracted from blood in non-related 50 Golden Retrievers, 50 Miniature Dachshunds, and 50 Shiba Inus bred in Japan. We investigated 18 canine STR markers (PEZ02, PEZ17, FH2017, FH2309, PEZ05, FH2001, FH2328, FH2004, FH2361, PEZ21, FH2054, FH3377, FH2107, FH2088, vWF.X, FH2010, PEZ16, and FH3313) and one sex-related marker (ZFX.Y) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Allele frequency, He, Ho, p-value, PD, PE, PIC, and MP were calculated for each marker. Random Match probability based on 18 STR loci was subsequently estimated to be 3.257 × 10−16 in Golden Retrievers, 3.933 × 10−18 in Miniature Dachshunds, and 2.107 × 10−18 in the Shiba Inus breed. There are a few studies that have used this kit in Japan. The results suggest that the kit with 18 autosomal STR loci and one sex marker is effective in forensic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0451.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Public Sports Organization; Organizational Citizenship; Organizational Identification; Social Value Orientation
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:42:56 CET)
In contemporary society, organizations increasingly prioritize ESG (Environment, So-cial, Governance) management to generate social value alongside profit-seeking. This commit-ment to social responsibility plays a positive role for organizational members, contributing to overall organizational growth This study explores the impact of perceptions of ESG management within public sports organizations on organizational civic behavior and proposes strategies for improving management and attachment, with the goal of fostering a more sustainable and so-cially responsible organizational culture. A survey involving 343 employees from govern-ment-affiliated public sports organizations in South Korea was conducted. Structural equation modeling, coupled with dual mediation analysis, unveiled that the perceived performance of ESG management significantly relies on both social value orientation and organizational identifica-tion to drive organizational civic behavior, confirming complete mediation effects. These findings underscore ESG management's ability to foster social value orientation and organizational iden-tification, thereby bolstering organizational civic behavior and significantly shaping the culture and conduct of public sports organizations. This research offers valuable insights for upholding organizational social responsibility and ensuring sustainable development within such organi-zations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: automatic identification system; anomalous propagation; tropospheric ducting; troposcatter; parabolic equation
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:11:26 CEST)
Two clear-air over-the-horizon propagation mechanisms affecting Automatic Identification System (AIS) detection range are considered. Comparison results are presented between the path loss due to tropospheric ducting and path loss due to tropospheric scattering (troposcatter) for the AIS frequencies. The calculations are based on the well-known parabolic equation approximation to the wave equation, in which a simple troposcatter formula is incorporated. In most studied cases the ducting assures significantly greater reduction of path loss than troposcatter even when the AIS frequencies are not well trapped in the duct. Emphasis is placed on elevated trapping layers and some features that may make ducting propagation less favorable in terms of increasing the AIS detection range are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant metabolomics; metabolite identification; data visualisation; omics data; bioinformatics tools
Online: 10 July 2023 (13:49:20 CEST)
The advancement of mass spectrometry technologies has revolutionised plant metabolomics research by enabling the acquisition of raw metabolomics data. However, the identification, analysis, and visualisation of these data require specialised tools. Existing solutions lack a dedicated plant-specific metabolite database and pose usability challenges. To address these limitations, we developed PlantMetSuite, a web-based tool for comprehensive metabolomics analysis and visualisation. PlantMetSuite encompasses interactive bioinformatics tools and databases specifically tailored for plant metabolomics data, facilitating upstream-to-downstream analysis in metabolomics and supporting integrative multi-omics investigations. PlantMetSuite can be accessed directly through a user's browser without the need for installation or programming skills. The tool is freely available at https://plantmetsuite.verygenome.com/ and will undergo regular updates and expansions to incorporate additional libraries and newly published metabolomics analysis methods. The tool's significance lies in empowering researchers with an accessible and customisable platform for unlocking plant metabolomics insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1757.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Foehn; Wind direction and speed; Potential temperature difference; Identification standard
Online: 26 June 2023 (07:18:25 CEST)
Due to the special terrain of Urumqi (in the valley area), which often triggers strong foehn weather, and causes huge losses to local people's lives and social economy. This study uses in-situ surface meteorological variables (including the hourly temperature, pressure, humidity, wind, etc.) from the Urumqi Meteorological Station (downstream station, DS) and the Dabancheng Meteorological Station (upstream station, US) in the Middle Tianshan Valley and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 2008 to 2022. A dataset of the foehn weather process at DS in the past 15 years is established and the variation patterns of each meteorological variable during the process of foehn is analyzed. Based on the physical mechanism of the occurrence of foehn, a three-element identification standard for foehn in Urumqi is established by comparing and analyzing the variation of wind direction (WD), wind speed (WS), and the difference of potential temperature (Δθ) between DS and US during the period of foehn and non-foehn from 2013 to 2022, namely: 94°≤ 2-minute average WD ≤168°, 2-minute average WS ≥2.0 m/s, and Δθ between DS and US ≥ 0.29 K. According to the test and evaluation, the three-element identification standard has an accuracy of 82.96%, and a hit rate of 89.50% for the occurrence of foehn in Urumqi from 2008 to 2012. Moreover, the hit rate of foehn identification is 100% for strong wind or above (i.e., 2-minute average WS ≥10.8 m/s) WS. In addition, combined with two predictors of sea-level pressure difference (ΔP) and Δθ between DS and US, forecasting foehn can be more accurately predicted than a single forecasting factor. When ΔP ≤ -12 hPa and Δθ≥5 K, the probability of the occurrence of foehn is more than 90%. This study provides certain reference and application value for the weather forecasting operation of foehn.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0141.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; target identification; activity-based probes; affinity-based probes
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:39:37 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), a disease that alt-hough preventable and curable, remains a global epidemic due to the emergence of resistance and a latent form responsible for a long period of treatment. Drug discovery in TB is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of the disease, the emergence of resistance and an uncomplete knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. The limited permeability of the cell wall and the presence of multiple efflux pumps remain a major barrier to achieve effective intracellular drug accumulation. While the complete genome sequence of Mtb has been determined and several potential protein targets have been validated, the lack of adequate models for in vitro and in vivo studies is a limit-ing factor in TB drug discovery programs. In current therapeutic regimens, less than 0.5% of bac-terial proteins are targeted being the biosynthesis of the cell wall and the energetic metabolism two of the most important processes exploited for TB chemotherapeutics. This review provides an overview on the current challenges in TB drug discovery and emerging Mtb druggable proteins, and how chemical probes for protein profiling enabled the identification of new targets and bi-omarkers, paving the way to disruptive therapeutic regimens and diagnostic tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0008.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Tulipa; tulip; species; identification; DNA; PCR; ISSR analysis; morphological features
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:06:34 CEST)
Morphological features and composition of ISSR DNA fragments were studied in species of the genus Tulipa L. A comparative analysis of the data obtained was carried out and an attempt was made to clarify the species belonging of plants. Plants obtained from various sources were studied. It was found that representatives of the genus Tulipa L. from the two subgenera Tulipa and Eriostemones are well separated not only morphologically, but also by the composition of ISSR fragments. At the intra- and interspecific level, the results for morphological traits and molecular data differed. Interspecific and intraspecific differences were more clearly traced in the complex analysis of morphological features and ISSR PCR data. All samples obtained in the form of bulbs and renewed vegetatively had an identical set of ISSR fragments. Plants grown from seeds were characterized by a significant variety of molecular markers and had both species-specific and in-dividual genetic variability. It was found that the samples obtained and registered as the Tulipa urumiensis Stapf are the yellow-flowered form of the Tulipa tarda Stapf, and a sample received as the Tulipa turkestanika Regel is the Tulipa bifloriformis Vved. Thus, a comprehensive study of both the data of fragmentary DNA analysis and morphological features, provided a sufficient number of DNA samples, makes it possible to clarify the species of tulip plants, and also allows us to assess the genetic diversity of the genus Tulipa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0660.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: current field; ground-penetrating communication; signal design; detection and identification
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:08:02 CEST)
In this work, we studies the principle of ground electrode current field through ground communication technology, signal design, and optimal working mode of excitation source, so as to adapt the working mode, working frequency, and transmission medium condition of signal transmission. Through waveform design, energy is concentrated in the main conduction direction, which is beneficial for signal filtering at the receiving end and achieving high reliability data transmission; On this basis, on-site environmental testing was conducted to verify the detection and recognition technology of weak signals. Signal design and detection recognition are a very important part of the grounding electrode current field through ground communication technology. The grounding electrode current field through ground communication technology is mainly applied to solve the problem of communication between rescue personnel and trapped personnel before and during tunnel engineering collapse and rescue.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0835.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: degraded metagenome; shotgun metagenomics; stomach acid; microbial identification; percent identity
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:25:18 CEST)
Metagenomics have opened our eyes to the otherwise enigmatic microbial consortia that relies on different human body niches that impact on disease pathogenesis. This work originally aims to re-analyse a public shotgun metagenomics dataset to glean insights on the microbial species that may partake in stomach cancer pathogenesis. However, a random selection of sequenced reads reveals poor percent identities (79 to 94%) of the microbial identification obtained in a BLAST search. This surprising result suggests possible stomach acid induced degradation or modification of the sequenced read that reduced the effectiveness of the metagenomics approach in microbial identification. Further analysis of the dataset highlights that poor percent identities did not arise due to highly fragmented nature of the genetic material where there is a good abundance of sequenced reads in the 100 to 1300 base pair category. More intriguingly, attempts to obtain a correlation between percent identity and read length did not reveal a correlation which meant that stomach acid did not modify all types of nucleotides. More likely, stomach acid only modified low abundance nucleotide in this case, which point to the probability of identifying a microbe in the modified gene fragment in totally unpredictable ways. Overall, data reported in this work suggests caution in the interpretation of results of shotgun metagenomics studies of stomach cancer microbiota where stomach acid likely degraded the genetic material of microbes that may result in mis-identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: arthropods; MALDI-TOF MS; duration of ethanol storing; species identification
Online: 4 May 2023 (07:17:52 CEST)
MALDI-TOF is now considered as a relevant tool for the identification of arthropods, including lice and fleas. However, the duration and conditions of storage, such as in ethanol, which is frequently used to preserve these both ectoparasites, could impede their classification. The purpose of the present study was to assess the stability of MS profiles from Pediculus humanus corporis lice and Ctenocephalides felis fleas preserved in alcohol from one to four years and kinetically submitted to MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 469 cephalothoraxes from lice (n=170) and fleas (n=299) were tested. The reproducibility of the MS profiles was estimated based on the log score values (LSVs) obtained for query profiles compared to the reference profiles included in the MS database. Only MS spectra from P. humanus corporis and Ct. felis stored in alcohol for less than one year were included in the reference MS database. Approximately 75% of MS spectra from lice (75.2%, 94/125) and fleas (74.4%, 122/164) specimens stored in alcohol during 12 to 48 months, queried against the reference MS database, obtained a relevant identification. An accurate analysis revealed a significant decrease in the proportion of identification for both species stored for more than 22 months in alcohol. It was hypothesized that incomplete drying was responsible of MS spectra variations. Then, 45 lice and 60 fleas were subjected to longer drying periods from 12 to 24 hours. The increase in the drying period improved the proportion of relevant identification for lice (95%) and fleas (80%). This study highlighted that a correct rate of identification by MS could be obtained for lice and fleas preserved in alcohol for up to four years, on the condition that the drying period was sufficiently long for accurate identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: technical diagnostics; identification; modeling; modal analysis; control and measurement system
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:31:12 CET)
In this article authors shows chosen problems of technical state diagnosis with the use of identification and technical diagnostics methods such as experimental modal analysis. Relations between methods of dynamic state evaluation and methods of technical state evaluation were indicated. Example modal analysis results illustrate the complexity of projecting dynamic state researches into diagnostic researches of state evaluation.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: mineral identification; deep learning; convolutional neural network; image; Mohs hardness
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:14:18 CEST)
Mineral identification is an important part of geological analysis. Traditional identification methods rely on either the experiences of the appraisers or the various measuring instruments and the methods are either easily influenced by the experiences or need too much work. To solve the above problems, there have been studies using image recognition and intelligent algorithms to identify minerals. But the current studies can not identify many minerals, and the accuracy is low. To increase the number of identified mineral categories and the accuracy, we proposed the method that uses both the mineral images and the Mohs hardness in the deep neural networks to identify the minerals. The experimental results showed that the method can reach 94.0% Top-1 accuracy and 99.9% Top-5 accuracy for 28 common minerals. The model that combines image and Mohs hardness together can identify more minerals and increase the accuracy using less training data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0246.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF); Aedes Aegypti; epidemic; pathogenesis; identification; vaccine
Online: 14 May 2020 (08:36:39 CEST)
Purpose: This review features a generalized overview of dengue outbreaks, dengue pathogenesis, symptoms, immune response, diagnosis methods and preventive measures which facilitates the better understanding of the global expansion and concerns relating to the disease. Recent Findings: A recent study showed that natural killer cells of the infected person become activated soon after the infection which may help in treatment and vaccine development. A research team has also produced synthetically engineered mosquitoes that can prevent the transmission and dissemination of the dengue virus by the activation of an antibody. Furthermore, a mutation in the protein envelope of the dengue virus leads to variation in shapes, developing resistance towards the vaccine. Summary: The increasing number of reported cases indicated the worldwide distribution of the mosquito vectors, which was further facilitated by the growth in the shipping and commerce industries. The immune system, through activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses, facilitates the recruitment of an array of leukocytes which help neutralize the virus. However, the 4 different viral serotypes increases the risk of a life-threatening secondary infection due to the varying serotypes. Apart from the laboratory standard PRNT method, several other dengue detection methods such as ELISA, RT-LAMP and several optical, microfluidic and electrochemical methods have been developed. Since Dengvaxia® (CYD-TDV) has its own set of drawbacks and limitations, several companies have been investing for the production of more potential vaccines that are currently in trial.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: CR-PNN; relation spectrum; system identification; system filters; transfer function
Online: 30 April 2020 (16:39:39 CEST)
We have presented a controllable and human-readable polynomial neural network (CR-PNN) that is the first human-readable neural network. One can imagine its influence on system identification. Subsequently, we developed a relation spectrum in a medical application, which is likely to stand alongside the Fourier spectrum. However, the system analysis methodology is incomplete in contrast to signal processing methodology. Here, we presented the system filters for the first time. In this paper, we used the simulation system to verify the availability of the system analysis methodology. The system analysis methodology showed great properties in system identification and filter. The contribution of this paper is the system analysis methodology: transform method (CR-PNN), relation spectrum, and system filter design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0325.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: modelling; lead-acid battery; parameter identification; genetic algorithms; experimental validation
Online: 18 August 2018 (06:14:37 CEST)
Accurate and efficient battery modeling is essential to maximize the performance of isolated energy systems and to extend battery lifetime. This paper proposes a battery model that represents the charging and discharging process of a lead-acid battery bank. This model is validated over real measures taken from a battery bank installed in a research center placed at “El Chocó”, Colombia. In order to fit the model, three optimization algorithms (Particle Swarm Optimization, Cuckoo Search, and Particle Swarm Optimization+Perturbation) are implemented and compared, being the last one a new proposal. This research shows that the model with the proposed algorithm is able to estimate and manage the real battery characteristics as SOC and charging/discharging voltage. The comparison between simulations and real measures shows that the model is able to absorb reading problems, signal delays, and scaling errors. The approach we present can be implemented in other types of batteries especially those used in stand-alone systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: sustainable happiness; ideal self; ideal social self; brand identification; positive
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:39:58 CEST)
Building on the Sustainable Happiness Model, this study examined how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image influence a sense of happiness. The findings show that when ideal self-image and ideal social self-image are congruent with brand image a sense of happiness can be enhanced through brand identification and positive emotions. This study contributes to literature as it reveals the mechanism of how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image positively affect happiness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: laboratory-acquired brucellosis; prevention; biosafety; cultures; identification; biochemical tests; MALDI-TOF; FISH; laboratory-acquired brucellosis; prevention; biosafety; cultures; identification; biochemical tests; MALDI-TOF; FISH
Online: 20 July 2020 (09:38:57 CEST)
Brucellosis is one of the most common etiologies of laboratory-acquired infections worldwide, and handling of living brucellae should be performed in a Class II biological safety cabinet. The low infecting dose, multiple portals of entry to the body, the great variety of potentially contaminated specimens, and the unspecific clinical manifestations of human infections facilitate the unintentional transmission of brucellae to laboratory personnel. Work accidents such as spillage of culture media cause only a small minority of exposures, whereas >80% of events result from unfamiliarity with the phenotypic features of the genus, misidentification of isolates, and unsafe laboratory practices such as aerosolization of bacteria and working on an open bench without protective goggles or gloves. Although the bacteriological diagnosis of brucellae by traditional methods is simple, the Gram stain and the biochemical profile of the organism, as determined by commercial kits, can be misleading, resulting in inadvertent exposure and contagion. The use of novel identification technologies is not hazard-free. The MALDI-TOF technology requires an initial bacterial inactivation step, while the instruments’ reference database may misidentify Brucella as belonging to other Gram-negative species. The rapid identification by the FISH method mistakes brucellar isolates for members of the closely related Ochrobactrum genus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: antibiotic resistance; Chiroptera; Staphylococcus aureus; microbiota; molecular identification; risk factors; bacteria
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:52:53 CEST)
In Pakistan, bats are one of the dominant mammals that play an important role in the ecosystem in terms of pollination, seed dispersal, and control of pest insects. Bats have also played an im-portant role in the emergence and transmission of zoonotic pathogens; however, most current studies focus on viral pathogens, not potential bacterial pathogens. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence and antibiotic profiling of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus in oral and rectal samples from bats captured in northern Pakistan and to determine the factors associated with in-fection. Two hundred individual bats of five species: Pipistrellus javanicus (n = 17), Pipistrellus pipistrellus (n = 10), Rhinopoma microphyllum (n = 48), Rousettus leschenaultii (n = 124), and Scotophilus kuhlii (n = 1) were captured for non-lethal collection of oral and rectal samples to iso-late S. aureus. Bats were sampled from three sites: a natural cave, a man-made castle, and an an-imal shed, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces. Oral (n = 200) and rectal (n = 200) swabs were collected from each individual bat using sterile cotton swabs specifically for use in bacteriological studies. Each isolate of bacteria was identified by using phenotypic tests and con-firmed as S. aureus based on PCR assay. Out of a cumulative four hundred samples, 80 swabs were positive for S. aureus including 47 rectal and 33 oral swabs. Prevalence of S. aureus infection varied significantly among species, with Rousettus leschenaultii exhibiting the highest prevalence (n = 77; 37.90%). In addition to bat species, prevalence varied significantly among habitats but not between sex, age class, or reproductive status. This study confirmed the occurrence of S. aureus in oral and rectal microbiota of bats in Pakistan. Importantly, S. aureus isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, and erythromycin and carried resistant genes such as TetK, TetM, Erma, and aacA-D. In this regard, efforts should be taken to educate the local communities on how to minimize exposure to an antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogen through contact with bats while simultaneously increasing the awareness of protecting bats as a vital component of our ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: feature identification and extraction; Copula analysis; multi-energy loads; model fusion
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:13:57 CEST)
To improve the accuracy of short-term multi-energy load prediction models for integrated energy systems, the historical development law of the multi-energy loads must be considered. Moreover, understanding the complex coupling correlation of the different loads in the multi-energy systems and accounting for other load-influencing factors, such as weather, may further improve the forecasting performance of such models. In this study, a two-stage fuzzy optimization method is proposed for the feature selection and identification of the multi-energy loads. To enrich the information content of the prediction input feature, we introduced a copula correlation feature analysis in the proposed framework, which extracts the complex dynamic coupling correlation of multi-energy loads and applies Akaike information criterion (AIC) to evaluate the adaptability of the different copula models presented. Furthermore, we combined a NARX neural network with Bayesian optimization and an extreme learning machine model optimized using a genetic algorithm to effectively improve the feature fusion performances of the proposed multi-energy load prediction model. The effectiveness of the proposed short-term prediction model was confirmed by the experimental results obtained using the multi-energy load time-series data of an actual integrated energy system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Anti-Müllerian hormone; Cyclopterus lumpus; Male-specific marker; Genetic sex identification
Online: 19 May 2023 (11:36:20 CEST)
Production of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) has become crucial in controlling sea lice levels in salmonid aquaculture. To improve their breeding, there is a need for early sex identification. The genomic region containing anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) gene was suggested as the candidate sex-determining gene in lumpfish. However, the genome of lumpfish contains three copies of amh with ambiguous sex specificity, designated amh1, amh2, and amh3. The study aims to analyse the male-specific region between these amh paralogues, for its application as a sex marker. In this study, we utilised polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to identify the male-specific amh markers in lumpfish and estimate the length of the male-specific region in the lumpfish genome. Our results suggest that a region of approximately 26 kilobase (kb) region containing amh1 and amh2 is male-specific, while both sexes share amh3. The developed PCR-based genetic sex identification assays targeting amh1 and amh2 exhibited more than 97% accuracy. Further experiments in other members of the Cyclopteridae: Aptocyclus ventricosus, Eumicrotremus taranetzi, and E. asperrimus revealed male-specific amh fragments only in A. ventricosus. Phylogenetic analyses using the available Cyclopteridae amh sequences suggest that male-specific amh arose early in the Cyclopteridae lineage. These findings and development of the PCR test will be of service to lumpfish aquaculture as well as to future studies attempting to further elucidate the sex-determination system and sex chromosome evolution in lumpfish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0346.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Extreme gradient boosting algorithm; winter wheat growing areas; machine learning; identification
Online: 20 March 2023 (06:24:43 CET)
Machine learning (ML) is widely used in the field of crop-growing information identification based on high-resolution remote sensing images. With Baoying County in Jiangsu Province, China, as the study area, this paper used Sentinel-2 images during the winter wheat growth period to construct its spectral, textural, and topographic features during its growth period and proposes a winter wheat-growing area extraction method based on the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm, which was compared with traditional ML algorithms such as the support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF) algorithms. The results indicated that (1) a winter wheat-growing area identification model based on the XGBoost algorithm was successfully constructed based on Sentinel-2 images, considering 27 spectral, textural, and topographic features; (2) the constructed model could effectively extract winter wheat in the study area with an overall accuracy of 93.43% and only a small error compared with the actual winter wheat-growing area in Baoying County, meeting the accuracy requirement for crop identification in the study area; and (3) the deep learning algorithm XGBoost outperformed the three traditional ML algorithms, among which the RF algorithm was better than the SVM and CART algorithms, both of which had poor identification performance and a large error compared with the actual growing area. This paper provides a scientific basis for the accurate extraction of winter wheat-growing areas and further research on winter wheat growth monitoring and yield estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0151.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: adaptation; identification; identifiability; stability; excitation constancy; Lyapunov vector function; self-oscillation
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:12:16 CET)
The system identification problem with multiple nonlinearities is relevant. Its decision depends on many factors. These include: feedbacks, the method of connecting nonlinear links, signal properties. They affect the identifiability of the system parameters. We introduced a condition for the excitation constancy for state variables, which considers the S-identifiability of the system. We propose system decomposition by measuring input to identify parameters. Each subsystem has an implicit identification representation. It guarantees obtaining estimates of subsystem parameters based on experimental data. The trajectories boundedness of adaptive system proved in parametric and coordinate spaces. Conditions guaranteeing exponential stability of the system obtained. Systems of self-oscillation generation and nonlinear correction of a nonlinear system consider. Conditions for the trajectories boundedness of the adaptive system obtained for these cases. The influence of nonlinearity and feedback on the system performance estimated.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0334.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: scoring opportunity identification; proprioceptive shooting volume; 0 possession shot; airborne; anthropometry
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:12:20 CET)
From a scientific standpoint, both temporal and spatial variables must be examined when developing programs for training various soccer scoring techniques (SSTs), but a review of current literature reveals that existing scientific studies have overlooked this combinatory influence. Consequently, there is no reliable theory on temporal-spatial identification when evaluating scoring opportunities. Quantified by using biomechanical modeling, anthropometry, and SSTs found in FIFA Puskás Award (121 nominated goals between 2009 and 2020), it is found that players’ proprioceptive/effective shooting volume (i.e. players’ attack space) could be sevenfold the currently-practiced shooting volume. The ignorance of some SSTs’ training leads to the underuse of the potential shooting volume. These overlooked SSTs are airborne and/or acrobatic techniques, perceived as high-risk and low-reward. Relying on the talent of an athlete to improvise on the fly can hardly be considered as a viable coaching strategy. Therefore, for developing science-based SST training regimes, groundbreaking studies are needed to: 1) expand the perception of shooting volume, and 2) entrain one-touch-shot techniques (airborne/acrobatic) within this volume, in short, Focusing-on-Time-in-Space. Whence, the new temporal-spatial theory could guide future researches and develop novel training programs. An increase of airborne/acrobatic goals would ultimately further enhance the excitement of the game.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0626.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Isolation; Identification; gram positive; gram negative; tests staining; microbio metabolic activities
Online: 25 November 2020 (08:36:32 CET)
AbstractBaraton University dairy farm is an environment that attracts a microbiologist to inquire the composition of bacteria that exist there in. The knowledge of bacteria has in time and again amazed the life scientist community that have invested to acquire more information in this microbiology world.The study engages fundamental tests such as gram stain, endospore stain, and assays for specific microbial activities & enzymes, susceptibility on disinfectant and antibiotic, utilization of specific substrate and culture characteristics. The two organisms (gram negative and positive) tested positive for sucrose & lactose fermentation, Indole & Methly red, catalase & Oxidase, were both facultative and motile. On contrary, gram positive bacteria had spores and had a gamma haemolysis on Blood Agar, while gram negative bacteria haemolysed beta haemolysis. To draw a conclusion on the identity of the two organisms is that, the gram positive is a Bacillus ........ while gram negative is Escherichia coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: System identification; Hydrodynamic model; Ship maneuvering; Wave energy converter; Bayesian regression
Online: 16 September 2020 (12:15:24 CEST)
Establishing an accurate mathematical model is the foundation of simulating the motion of marine vehicles and structures, and it is the basis of modeling-based control design. System identification from observed input-output data is a practical and powerful method. However, for modeling objects with different characteristics and known information, a single modeling framework can hardly meet the requirements of model establishment. Moreover, there are some challenges in system identification, such as parameter drift and overfitting. In this work, three robust methods are proposed for generating ocean hydrodynamic models based on Bayesian regression. Two Bayesian techniques, semi-conjugate linear regression and noisy input Gaussian process regression, are used for parametric and nonparametric gray-box modeling and black-box modeling. The experimental free-running tests of the KVLCC2 ship model and a multi-freedom wave energy converter (WEC) are used to validate the proposed Bayesian models. The results demonstrate that the proposed schemes for system identification of the ship and WEC have good generalization ability and robustness. Finally, the developed modeling methods are evaluated considering the aspects required conditions, operating characteristics and prediction accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0478.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Drug Design; Small Organic Molecule; Target identification; Web-based Server
Online: 25 July 2020 (17:50:30 CEST)
Drug design is used for different applications of bioinformatics tools analyze DNA, genome, and sequence target region of a small organic molecule in order to understand the molecules of disease. Bioinformatics tools are identified a newly wide research field and minimize future risks through web servers and data mining. Clinical sample test performed with the bioinformatics tools as the biomedical detective. A particular structure and configuration of protein obliging in Drug design concluded Bioinformatics. This review bioinformatics tools and webserver will discuss functions of small organic molecules according to clinical pharmacology.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: airborne wind energy; kite system; system identification; adaptive algorithms; pole placement
Online: 11 January 2020 (14:32:48 CET)
This paper presents a comparison between a kite model with a constant-length tether and a model based on a system identification algorithm. The concept of system identification is applied to predict the uncertainties related to the variation of the wind speed and the shape deformation of the tethered membrane wing during flight. A pole-placement controller is used to ensure that the kite follows the planned flight path. Thus, we can determine the required locations of the closed loop poles, and then enforce them by changing the controller's gains in real-time. The capability of the system identification algorithm to recognize sudden changes in the dynamic model, and the ability of the controller to stabilize the system in the presence of such changes are confirmed. Furthermore, the system identification algorithm is applied to determine the parameters of a kite with variable-length tether used in a flight test of the 20 kW kite power system of TU Delft. Experimental data of this test were compared with the system identification results in real-time and significant changes were observed in the parameters of the dynamic model which heavily affect the resulting response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT); thermal network; parameter identification; junction temperature
Online: 23 January 2018 (02:34:06 CET)
This paper proposes a novel method for optimizing the Cauer-type thermal network model considering both the temperature influence on the extraction of parameters and the errors caused by the physical structure. In terms of prediction of the transient junction temperature and the steady-state junction temperature, the parameters of conventional Cauer-type are modified, and the general method for estimating junction temperature is studied by using the adaptive thermal network model. The results show that junction temperature estimated by adaptive Cauer-type thermal network model is more accurate than that of the conventional model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1467.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: microplastics, polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, characterization, identification, FT-IR, Raman, Somesul Mic River
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:54:42 CET)
Microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a persisting problem over the last decades and a critical issue for environmental protection and human health. In this context any scientific data able to reveal the MPs presence and to improve the characterization and identification in different systems is valuable. The aim of this paper was to assess available techniques for determining MPs in real freshwater samples and subsequently to highlight the occurrence and type of MPs in the study case area (Somesul Mic River). The specific objectives of the study were: i) MPs separation and visual characterization; ii) microscopic analyses and morphological characterization of MPs; iii) Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic identification of MPs. MPs sampling was performed from the fresh water and sediment using planktonic nets and sieves with different mesh sizes (20 to 500µm). After digestion with hydrogen peroxide, the MPs characterization was performed using both classical microscopic techniques as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the MPs identification, Raman and FT-IR spectrometry techniques were used. Large (1-5 mm) and small (1 µm to 1 mm) MPs were observed in the shape of fibers, fragments, foam, foils and spheres in various colors (red, green, blue, purple, pink, white, black, transparent, opaque). Polymers were identified related to scientific literature and reference spectra. The presence of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) was registered for all sampling point. The MPs laboratory investigations have raised some issues regarding the identification of MPs particles with the size smaller than 500µm, being characterized especially under microscope. Small MPs particle dispersed on cellulose filter were identified using micro-Raman spectroscopy highlighting the same type of polymers. The results showed that both spectrometric methods Raman or FT-IR confirm the identification of the same type of polymers. No differences were registered between the sampling points due to the widespread presence of MPs. The sediments samples presented a greater abundance compared to the water samples. Overall, it is necessary to continue the optimization of the MPs separation protocol and identification according to the complexity of samples, mainly due to the limitation and lack of spectral databases.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0472.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: medical waste; classified environmental protection signs; augmented reality; artificial intelligence identification technology
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:33:50 CET)
There are four categories of medical waste that cannot be mixed as this will cause serious problems such as environmental pollution or infection. In the past, the classification of medical waste often involved a lot of human and material resources to process, with workers at risk of exposure to infectious substances. Therefore, an augmented reality (AR) and artificial intelligence (AI) medical waste classification system and method were developed. This innovative medical waste classification system and method combines AR and AI identification technology to reduce the risk of manual judgment errors by clinical staff when handling medical waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Ensemble Convolutional Learning; Transfer learning; Fine-tuning; Multiclass Classification; Medicinal plant identification
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:32:32 CEST)
Accurate and efficient medicinal plant image classification is of utmost importance as these plants produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds that offer therapeutic benefits. With a long history of medicinal plant usage, different parts of plants, such as flowers, leaves, and roots, have been recognized for their medicinal properties and are used for plant identification. However, leaf images are extensively used due to their convenient accessibility and are a major source of information. In recent years, transfer learning and fine-tuning, which use pre-trained deep convolutional networks to extract pertinent features, has emerged as an extremely effective approach for image identification problems. This study is leveraging the power of three component deep convolutional neural networks, namely VGG16, VGG19 and DenseNet201, to derive features from the input images of the medicinal plant dataset, containing leaf images of 30 classes. The models were compared and ensembled to make four hybrid models to enhance the predictive performance by utilizing the averaging and weighted averaging strategies. Quantitative experiments were carried out to evaluate the models on the Mendeley medicinal leaf dataset. The resultant ensemble of VGG19+DensNet201 with fine-tuning showcases enhanced capability in identifying medicinal plant images with an improvement of 7.43% and 5.8% compared with VGG19 and VGG16. Furthermore, VGG19+DensNet201 can outperform its standalone counterparts by achieving an accuracy of 99.12% on the test set. A thorough assessment with metrics such as accuracy, recall, precision, and f1-score firmly establishes the effectiveness of the ensemble strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0171.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: excitation constancy; geometric structure; Lyapunov exponent; structural identification; structural identifiability; S-synchronization
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:45:35 CEST)
The structural identification (SI) problem of control objects has not been solved. The formalization and interpretation complexity of the structure concept is the main problem. In identification systems, the form of the model (its structure) choice is intuitive and bases on the experience and knowledge of the researcher in most cases. The task of parametric identification is often interpreted as SI. It introduces certain confusion in understanding of the task and decision-making. This is two different areas of research. The structural identification problem is multifaceted and includes many subtasks, and their solution gives the final result. Some tasks have been solved. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and methods to the structural identification problem of control objects from a system perspective. It is necessary to give the SI problem statement at the multiple-informational level to reflect the difficulties of formalizing SI. New directions to analyse that were not SI areas until now.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1762.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: apprentices; construction industry; group membership; mental health; social identification; suicide; workplace bullying
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:17:11 CEST)
Background: There is a lack of literature specifically examining the workplace bullying of apprentices and trainees in traditional, male-dominated sectors such as the Australian building and construction industry. Using social identity theory (SIT), the aim of this study was to gather the attitudes, thoughts, and feelings of construction industry leaders to better understand how social identification (i.e., group membership) impacts bullying on targets and perpetrators, and the willingness to report bullying for targets and bystanders. Method: One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using a purposive sample of eight leaders from construction and blue-collar industries. Qualitative data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Four overarching themes were identified: difficulties for apprentices transitioning into industry, the need for continued improvement to industry culture, reluctance to report bullying, and rethinking apprenticeships to empower. Each theme provides insight into the psychosocial phenomenon of the bullying of trade apprentices and suggests that an apprentices’ level of social identification with work groups shapes how bullying is identified, interpreted, and prevented. Conclusion: Findings from this study will be important for tailoring evidence-based interventions, human resource policies and initiatives for education and awareness training. Themes also highlight systemic inadequacies impacting apprentices’ mental health and skill development, with implications for the future sustainability of apprenticeship training agreements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: composite structures; observability method; shear rotation; stiffness matrix method; structural system identification
Online: 16 August 2023 (03:20:07 CEST)
Shear deflection effects are traditionally neglected in most structural system identification methods. Unfortunately, this assumption might lead to significant errors in some structures, like deep beams. Although some inverse analysis methods based on the stiffness matrix method including shear deformation effects have been presented in the literature, none of these methods is able to deal with actual rotations in their formulations. Recently, the observability techniques, one of the first methods for the inverse analysis of structures included the shear effects into the system of equations. In this approach, the effects of shear rotation are neglected. When actual rotations on site are used to estimate the mechanical properties in the inverse analysis, it can result in serious errors in the observed properties. This characteristic might be especially problematic in structures such as deep beams where only rotations can be measured. To solve this problem and increase the observability techniques' applicability, this paper proposes a new approach to include shear rotations into the inverse analysis by observability techniques. This modification is based on the introduction of a new iterative process. To illustrate the applicability and potential of the proposed method, the inverse analysis of several examples of growing complexity is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Grain exports; primers; phyto-pathogens; identification; bacteria; wheat; barley; oats; Gene bank
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:13:36 CEST)
Russia is one of the largest cereal grain exporters in the world, churning out 34,3 million tons of export grain (wheat, barley and oats) in 2021. Plant infectious pathogens continue to be among the main factors in yield loss in the field and are a danger to the grain exporting industry's ability to expand internationally. This is primarily due to phytosanitary restrictions imposed by nations that monitor the presence and absence of certain phytopathogens in imported goods. Phytosanitary measures prevent the spread of plant pathogens, thus cutting the cost of dealing with them, once the pathogens invade new agricultural regions. This paper is devoted to the detection and identification of bacteria in samples of grain crops of three regions in The Republic of Crimea. The objects of the study were bacterial isolates from plant samples particularly wheat, oats, barley and triticale. The study was conducted in 2021. The identification of the isolates was carried out by sequencing a section 16–23S of the rRNA amplified by PCR with 8UA/519B, 27f/907r and PSf/PSr primers. Nucleotide sequences were deciphered using the Bio Edit program and compared with sequences placed in GenBank (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov). The result of identification was considered an organism with maximum similarity. As a result, 38 samples of grain crops were collected, 95 bacterial colonies were isolated, of which 68 were identified to genus level and 22 were identified to species level. Some of the phytopathogens identified include: Agrococcus jenensis, Pseudomonas sp. and Curtobacterium sp. Some of the bacteria identified are beneficial like Ochrobactrum sp. Erwinia sp. and Pantoea sp. had a frequency of 28.95%, with Pantoea agglomerans having a frequency of 18.42%. Ochrobactrum sp. had a frequency of 10.53%. Enterococcus mundtii an frequency of 5.26%. Information about the species composition of bacteria on grain crops can be used to determine the spread of bacteria and their diagnosis and for bioinformatic analysis of genomes in search of species-specific genetic markers.