ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0267.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); hyperspectral and thermal imagery; gross primary production (GPP); water use efficiency (WUE); biochar
Online: 9 April 2021 (14:46:35 CEST)
Low-cost miniature hyperspectral and thermal cameras onboard lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) bring new opportunities for monitoring land surface variables at unprecedented fine spatial resolution with acceptable accuracy. This research applies hyperspectral and thermal imagery from a drone to quantify upland rice growth and water use efficiency (WUE) after biochar application in a Costa Rican dry region. The field flights were conducted over two experimental groups with bamboo biochar and sugarcane biochar amendments and one control group without biochar application. Rice canopy biophysical variables were estimated by inversion of a canopy radiative transfer model on hyperspectral reflectance. Variations in gross primary production (GPP) and WUE across treatments were estimated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy chlorophyll content (CCC), and evapotranspiration. We found that GPP was increased by 41.9±3.4 % when using bamboo biochar and 17.5±3.4 % when using sugarcane biochar, which was probably due to higher soil moisture in the biochar-amended plots and led to significantly higher WUE by 40.8±3.5 % in bamboo biochar and 13.4±3.5 % in sugarcane biochar. This study demonstrated the use of hyperspectral and thermal imagery from drone to provide indicators for quantifying biochar effects on tropical dry cropland by integrating with ground point samples and physical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: hyperspectral imaging; machine learning; spectral geology
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:22:42 CEST)
This study aims to assess the feasibility of delineating and identifying mineral ores from hyperspectral images of tin-tungsten mine excavation faces using machine-learning classification. We compiled a set of hand samples of minerals of interest from a tin-tungsten mine and analyzed two types of hyperspectral images: 1) images acquired with a laboratory set-up under close-to-optimal conditions; and 2) scan of a simulated mine face using a field set-up, under conditions closer to those in the gallery. We have analyzed the following minerals: cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), chalcopyrite, malachite, muscovite, and quartz. Classification (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Singular Vector Machines and Random Forest) of laboratory spectra had a very high overall accuracy rate (98%), slightly lower if the 450 – 950 nm and 950 – 1780 nm ranges are considered independently, and much lower (74.5%) for simulated conventional RGB imagery. Classification accuracy for the simulation was lower than in the laboratory but still high (85%), likely a consequence of the lower spatial resolution. All three classification methods performed similarly in this case, with Random Forest producing results of slightly higher accuracy. The user’s accuracy for wolframite was 85%, but cassiterite was often confused with wolframite (user’s accuracy: 70%). A lumped ore category achieved 94.9% user’s accuracy. Our study confirms the suitability of hyperspectral imaging to record the spatial distribution of ore mineralization in progressing tungsten-tin mine faces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0334.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: deep learning; drone imagery; hyperspectral image classiﬁcation; tree species classification; 3D convolutional neural networks
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:13:13 CET)
Interest in drone solutions in forestry applications is growing. Using drones, datasets can be captured flexibly and at high spatial and temporal resolutions when needed. In forestry applications, fundamental tasks include the detection of individual trees, tree species classification, bio-mass estimation, etc. Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have shown superior results when comparing with conventional machine learning methods such as Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) in cases of huge input data. The objective of this research was to investigate 3D convolutional neural networks (3D-CNN) to classify three major tree species in a boreal forest: pine, spruce, and birch. The proposed 3D-CNN models were employed to classify tree species in a test site in Finland. The classifiers were trained with a dataset of 3039 manually labelled trees. Then the accuracies were assessed by employing independent datasets of 803 records. To find the most efficient set of feature combination, we compare the performances of 3D-CNN models trained with hyperspectral (HS) channels, RGB channels, and canopy height model (CHM), separately and combined. It is demonstrated that the proposed 3D-CNN model with RGB and HS layers produces the highest classification accuracy. The producer accuracy of the best 3D-CNN classifier on the test dataset were 99.6%, 94.8%, and 97.4% for pines, spruces, and birches, respectively. The best 3D-CNN classifier produced ~5% better classification accuracy than the MLP with all layers. Our results suggest that the proposed method provides excellent classification results with acceptable performance metrics for HS datasets. Our results show that pine class was detectable in most layers. Spruce was most detectable in RGB data, while birch was most detectable in the HS layers. Furthermore, the RGB datasets provide acceptable results for many low-accuracy applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0376.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: thermal infrared; reflectance spectroscopy; emissivity; surface roughness; geological sample preparation; hyperspectral; drill core scanning
Online: 17 October 2018 (07:51:17 CEST)
High-resolution laboratory-based thermal infrared spectroscopy is an up-and-coming tool in the field of geological remote sensing. Its spatial resolution allows for detailed analyses at centimeter to sub-millimeter scale. However, this increase in resolution creates challenges with sample characteristics such as grain size, surface roughness and porosity that can influence the spectral signature. This research explores the effect of rock sample surface preparation on the TIR spectral signatures. We applied three surface preparation methods (split, saw and polish) to determine how the resulting differences in surface roughness affects both the spectral shape as well as the spectral contrast. The selected samples are a pure quartz sandstone, a quartz sandstone containing a small percentage of kaolinite, and an intermediate-grained gabbro. To avoid instrument or measurement type biases we conducted measurements on three TIR instruments, resulting in directional hemispherical reflectance spectra, emissivity spectra and bi-directional reflectance images. Surface imaging and analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy and profilometer measurements. We demonstrate that surface preparation affects the TIR spectral signatures influencing both the spectral contrast as well as the spectral shape. The results show that polished surfaces predominantly display a high spectral contrast while the sawed and split surfaces display up to 25% lower reflectance values. Furthermore, the sawed and split surfaces display spectral signature shape differences at specific wavelengths, which we link to mineral transmission features, surface orientation effects and multiple reflections in fine-grained minerals. Hence, the influence of rock surface preparation should be taken in consideration to avoid an inaccurate geological interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0001.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hyperspectral remote sensing; water absorption feature; vegetation water content; 970 nm; CVWI; vegetation water indices
Online: 2 January 2017 (10:23:30 CET)
Although the water absorption feature (WAF) at 970 nm is not very well-defined, it may be used alongside other indices to estimate the canopy water content. The individual performance of a number of existing vegetation water content (VWC) indices against the WAF is assessed using linear regression model. We developed a new Combined Vegetation Water Index (CVWI) by merging indices to boost the weak absorption feature. CVWI showed a promise in assessing the vegetation water status derived from the 970 nm absorption wavelength. CVWI was able to differentiate two groups of dataset when regressed against the absorption feature. CVWI could be seen as an easy and robust method for vegetation water content studies using hyperspectral field data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation; object-based image analysis (OBIA); APEX hyperspectral imagery; Random forest (RF) classifier; multiresolution segmentation (MRS); tree species classification
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:55:07 CEST)
Tree species composition is an important key element for biodiversity and sustainable forest management, and hyperspectral data provide detailed spectral information, which can be used for tree species classification. There are two main challenges for using hyperspectral imagery: a) Hughes phenomena, meaning by increasing the number of bands in hyperspectral imagery, the number of required classification samples would increase exponentially, and b) in a more complex environment, such as riparian mixed forest, focusing on spectral variability per pixel may not be adequate for definability of tree species. Therefore, the focus of this study is to assess spectral-spatial dimensionality reduction of airborne hyperspectral imagery by using minim noise fraction (MNF) transformation, and object-based image analysis (OBIA). An airborne prism experiment (APEX) hyperspectral imagery was used. A study area was a riparian mixed forest located along the Salzach river, and six tree species including Picea abies, Populus (canadensis and balsamifera), Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, and Salix alba were selected. A machine learning algorithm random forest (RF) was used to train and apply a prediction model for classification. Using a spectral dimensionality reduced APEX, a pixel-level classification was also done. According to a confusion matrix, the object-level classification of MNF-derived components achieved the overall accuracy of 85 %, and kappa coefficient of 0.805. The performance of classes according to producer’s accuracy varied between 80% for Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, and Populus canadensis to 90% for Salix alba and Picea abies. Comparison the results to a pixel-level classification, showed a better performance of object-level classification (an overall accuracy of 63% and Kappa coefficient of 0.559 were achieved for pixel-level classification). The performance of classes using pixel-based classification varied 45 % for Alnus incana to 80% for Picea abies. In general, Spectral-spatial complexity reduction using MNF transformation and object-level classification yielded a statistically satisfactory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0378.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: egg freshness; hyperspectral detection; hyperspectral scattering imaging; ensemble learning
Online: 18 August 2020 (08:02:32 CEST)
Scattering hyperspectral technology is a nondestructive testing method with many advantages. Here, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of egg freshness, research the influence of incident angles of light source on the accuracy and explain its mechanism. A variety of weak classifiers classify eggs based on the spectra after preprocessing and feature wavelength extraction to obtain three classifiers with the highest accuracy. The three classifiers are used as metamodels of stacking ensemble learning to improve the highest accuracy from 96.25% to 100%. Moreover, the highest accuracy of scattering, reflection, transmission and mixed hyperspectral of eggs are 100.00%, 88.75%, 95.00% and 96.25%, respectively, indicating that the scattering hyperspectral for egg freshness detection is better than that of the others. In addition, the accuracy is inversely proportional to the angle of incidence due that the smaller the incident angle, the camera collects a larger proportion of scattering light, which contains more biochemical parameters of an egg than that of reflection and transmission. These results are very important for improving the accuracy of non-destructive testing and selecting the incident angle of the light source, and have potential applications in online non-destructive testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0014.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: atmospheric compensation; Gaussian process; hyperspectral
Online: 1 November 2022 (03:47:57 CET)
Atmospheric correction is the processes of converting radiance measured at a spectral 1 sensor to the reflectance of the materials in a multispectral or hyperspectral image. This is an 2 important step for detecting or identifying the materials present in the pixel spectra. We present 3 two machine learning models for atmospheric correction trained and tested on 100,000 batches of 40 4 reflectance spectra converted to radiance using MODTRAN, so the machine learning model learns 5 the radiative transfer physics from MODTRAN. We created a theoretically interpretable Bayesian 6 Gaussian process model and a deep learning autoencoder treating the atmosphere as noise. We 7 compare both methods for estimating gain in the correction model to the well-know QUAC method 8 of assuming a constant mean endmember reflectance. Prediction of reflectance using the Gaussian 9 process model outperforms the other methods in terms of both accuracy and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0419.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GEMS; spectral calibration; hyperspectral instrument
Online: 19 July 2020 (18:39:53 CEST)
The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) onboard the Geostationary Korean Multi-Purpose Satellite 2B was successfully launched in February 2020. GEMS is a hyperspectral spectrometer measuring solar irradiance and Earth radiance in the range of 300 to 500 nm. This paper introduces the spectral calibration algorithm for GEMS, which uses a nonlinear least-squares approach. To assess the performance of the algorithm, sensitivity tests for a series of spectral parameters such as shift, spectral range for fitting, signal-to-noise ratio, spectral response function (SRF), and reference spectrum have been conducted. To improve the assessment, a synthetic GEMS spectrum using the prelaunch GEMS SRF is adopted here. The test results show that the required accuracy (0.002 nm) is achievable for the expected uncertainties of the parameters except for the SRF and the choice of high-resolution reference spectrum, which degrade the algorithm performance by an order magnitude. To mitigate the sensitivity to SRF, retrieval of in-orbit SRF using an analytic function is suggested. Finally, a few candidates for the high-resolution solar reference spectrum are prepared for testing by the instrument during in-orbit tests.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI); Hyperspectral Document Imagery (HSDI); k-means clustering; Principal component analysis (PCA)
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:28:52 CEST)
Hyperspectral imaging provides vital information about the objects and elements present inside the image. That’s why they are very useful in satellite imagery as well as image forensics. Hyperspectral document analysis (HSDI) can be used for document authentication using ink analysis which can provide sufficient information about the composition and type of ink. In this project, we have implemented HSDI based ink classification technique using Principle Component Analysis for dimensionality reduction and K-means clustering for ink classification. This is unsupervised learning approach and it is very simple and efficient in order to classify limited number of bands. We have used this technique to classify 33 different bands of ink.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0498.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: proximal hyperspectral sensing; precision agriculture; random forest
Online: 22 February 2021 (17:20:41 CET)
A strategy to reduce qualitative and quantitative losses in crop-yields refers to early and accurate detection of insect-damage caused in plants. Remote sensing systems like hyperspectral proximal sensors are a promising strategy for managing crops. In this aspect, machine learning predictions associated with clustering techniques may be an interesting approach mainly because of its robustness to evaluate high dimensional data. In this paper, we model the spectral response of insect-herbivory-damage in maize plants and propose an approach based on machine learning and a clustering method to predict whether the plant is herbivore-attacked or not using leaf reflectance measurements. We differentiate insect-type damage based on the spectral response and indicate the most contributive wavelengths to perform it. For this, we used a maize experiment in semi-field conditions. The maize plants were submitted to three different treatments: control (health plants); plants submitted to Spodoptera frugiperda herbivory-damage, and; plants submitted to Dichelops melacanthus herbivory-damage. The leaf spectral response of all plants (controlled and submitted to herbivory) was measured with a FieldSpec 3.0 Spectroradiometer from 350 to 2500 nm for eight consecutive days. We evaluated the performance of different learners like random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), extreme gradient boost (XGB), neural networks (MLP), and measured the impact of a day-by-day analysis into the prediction. We proposed a novel framework with a ranking strategy, based on the accuracy returned by predictions, and a clusterization method based on a self-organizing map (SOM) to identify important regions in the reflectance measurement. Our results indicated that the RF-based framework algorithm is the overall best learner to deal with this type of data. After the 5th day of analysis, the accuracy of the algorithm improved substantially. It separated the three treatments into different groups with an F-measure equal to 0.967, 0.917, and 0.881, respectively. We also verified that the most contributive spectral regions are situated in the near-infrared domain. We conclude that the proposed approach with machine learning methods is adequate to monitor herbivory-damage of S. frugiperda and stink bugs like Dichelops melacanthus in maize, differentiating the types of insect-attack early on. We also demonstrate that the framework proposed for the analysis of the most contributive wavelengths is suitable to highlight spectral regions of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Ensilement; Grass Quality; Hyperspectral Reflectance; Predictive Models
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:02:49 CET)
A series of experiments were conducted to measure and quantify the yield, dry matter content, sugars content and nitrates content of grass intended for ensilement. These experiments took place in the East Midlands of Ireland during the Spring, Summer and Autumn of 2019. A bespoke sensor rig was constructed; included in this rig was a hyperspectral radiometer that measured a broad spectrum of reflected natural light from a circular spot approximately 1.2 metres in area. Grass inside a 50cm square quadrat was manually collected from the centre of the circular spot for ground truth estimation of the grass qualities. Up to 25 spots were recorded and sampled each day. The radiometer readings for each spot were automatically recorded onto a laptop that controlled the sensor rig, and ground truth measurements were made either on site or within 24 hours in a wet chemistry laboratory. The collected data was used to build Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) predictive models of grass qualities from the hyperspectral dataset and it was found that substantial relationships exist between the spectral reflectance from the grass and yield (r2 = 0.62), dry matter % (r2 = 0.54), sugar content (r2 = 0.54) and nitrates (r2 = 0.50). This shows that hyperspectral reflectance data contains substantial information about key grass qualities and can form part of a broader holistic data driven approach to provide accurate and rapid predictions to farmers, agronomists and agricultural contractors.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: reflectance; hyperspectral imaging; pigments; damages; apple fruit
Online: 2 February 2021 (12:58:42 CET)
Reflected light carries ample information about biochemical composition, tissue architecture, and physiological condition of plants. Recent technical progress brought about affordable imaging hyperspectrometers (IH) providing spatially resolved spectral data on plants. The extraction of sensible information from hyperspectral reflectance images is difficult due to inherent complexity of plant tissue and canopy optics, especially when recorded by IH under ambient sunlight. We aimed at obtaining a deeper insight into plant optics as perceived by IH since there is a high demand for algorithms for fruit harvesting and grading systems equipped with computer vision and robotic systems capable of working in orchard. We report on the characteristic changes in hyperspectral reflectance accompanying the accumulation of anthocyanins in healthy fruit, pigment breakdown during sunscald and phytopathogen attacks. The measurements made outdoors with a snapshot IH were compared with traditional “point” reflectance measured with a conventional spectrophotometer under controlled illumination conditions. Most of the spectral features and patterns of plant reflectance were evident in the IH-derived reflectance images. As a step forward, a novel index for highlighting tissue damages on the background of the anthocyanin absorption, BRI-M = (1/Rorange – 1/Rred + 1/RNIR), is suggested. Difficulties of the interpretation of fruit hyperspectral reflectance images recorded in situ are discussed with possible implications for plant physiology and precision horticulture practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Hyperspectral Imagery, Machine Learning, Atmospheric Compensation, Autoencoders, Radiative Transfer Modeling
Online: 7 June 2019 (14:45:54 CEST)
The increasing spatial and spectral resolution of hyperspectral imagers yields detailed spectroscopy measurements from both space-based and airborne platforms. Machine learning algorithms have achieved state-of-the-art material classification performance on benchmark hyperspectral data sets; however, these techniques often do not consider varying atmospheric conditions experienced in a real-world detection scenario. To reduce the impact of atmospheric effects in the at-sensor signal, atmospheric compensation must be performed. Radiative Transfer (RT) modeling can generate high-fidelity atmospheric estimates at detailed spectral resolutions, but is often too time-consuming for real-time detection scenarios. This research utilizes machine learning methods to perform dimension reduction on the transmittance, upwelling radiance, and downwelling radiance (TUD) data to create high accuracy atmospheric estimates with lower computational cost than RT modeling. The utility of this approach is investigated using the instrument line shape for the Mako long-wave infrared hyperspectral sensor. This study employs physics-based metrics and loss functions to identify promising dimension reduction techniques. As a result, TUD vectors can be produced in real-time allowing for atmospheric compensation across diverse remote sensing scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0504.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ship detection; hyperspectral; SAR; optical remote sensing; sustainability; coastal region
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:32:09 CEST)
As human activities of the countries in the East Asia have been remarkably expanding over recent decades, various problems in relation to ships, such as oil spill and many other coastal marine pollution, are continuously occurring in the coastal region. In order to conserve marine resources and prepare for possible ship accidents in advance, the need for efficient ship management is increasing over time. Multi-satellite, multi-sensor, multi-wavelength or multi-frequency observations make it possible to monitor a variety of vessels in the coastal region. This study presents the results of ship detection methodology applied to multi-spectral satellite images in the seas around Korean Peninsula based on optical, hyperspectral, and microwave remote sensing. To detect ships from hyperspectral images with a few hundreds of spectral channels, spectral matching algorithms are used to investigate similarity between the spectra and in-situ measurements. In the case of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, the Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm is used to discriminate the vessels from backscattering coefficients of Sentinel-1 SAR and ALOS-2 PALSAR2 images. The present ship detection methods can be extensively utilized for optical, hyperspectral, and SAR images for comprehensive coastal management purposes toward perpetual sustainability in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Coral; Health; Bleaching; Review; Hyperspectral Imaging; Survey methods
Online: 2 August 2020 (16:37:46 CEST)
Rapidly and repeatedly ascertaining the health status of coral reefs is an ever more pressing issue as part of activities to understand and monitor the damaging impacts of climate change. A combination of increasing ocean temperatures, acidity and frequency of extreme storm events continues to alter the marine environment beyond what sensitive organisms, such as coral, can cope with. It is therefore vital to establish technologies and validated methods to provide a metric or indication into the health of these organisms. There are currently many surveys and techniques used by coral scientists to uncover insights into the status and assessment of coral reefs, from colour wheels to multispectral satellite surveys. Here we outline an array of current techniques and methods focused specifically on coral monitoring and health diagnosis, ranging across the length scales from simple diver-based surveyance to satellite remote sensing. The technique of using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging is also introduced as a viable novel addition to aid and extend the current toolbox of available technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0226.v1
Subject: Keywords: Pushbroom; Georeferencing; Correction; Particle Image Velocimetry; Orientation; Hyperspectral; Co-Registration; Correlation
Online: 27 March 2018 (12:40:40 CEST)
Direct georeferencing of airborne pushbroom scanner data usually suffers from the limited precision of navigation sensors onboard of the aircraft. The bundle adjustment of images and orientation parameters, used to perform geocorrection of frame images during the post-processing phase, cannot be used for pushbroom cameras without difficulties: it relies on matching corresponding points between scan lines, which is not feasible in the absence of sufficient overlap and texture information. We address this georeferencing problem by equipping our aircraft with both a frame camera and a pushbroom scanner: the frame images and the navigation parameters measured by a couple GPS/Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) are input to a bundle adjustment algorithm; the output orientation parameters are used to project the scan lines on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and on an orthophoto generated during the bundle adjustement step; using the image feature matching algorithm Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), corresponding points between the image formed by the projected scan lines and the orthophoto are matched, and through a least-squares method, the boresight between the two cameras is estimated and included in the calculation of the projection; finally, using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) on the gradient image, the projection is deformed into a final image that fits the geometry of the orthophoto. We apply this algorithm to five test acquisitions over Lake Geneva region (Switzerland) and Lake Baikal region (Russia). The results are quantified in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between matching points of the RGB orthophoto and the pushbroom projection. From a first projection where the Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP) are known with limited precision and the RMSE goes up to 41 pixels, our geocorrection estimates IOP, boresight and Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOP) and produces a new projection which RMSE with the reference orthophoto is around two pixels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0405.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: hyperspectral data; few-shot learning; deep features; convolution kernels; edge-preserving filtering
Online: 22 December 2022 (01:44:48 CET)
In recent years, different deep learning frameworks were introduced for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. However, the proposed network models have a higher model complexity and do not provide high classification accuracy if few-shot learning is used. This paper pre-sents an HSI classification method that combines random patches network (RPNet) and re-cursive filtering (RF) to obtain informative deep features. The proposed method first convolves image bands with random patches to extract multi-level deep RPNet features. Thereafter, the RPNet feature set is subjected to dimension reduction through principal component analysis (PCA) and the extracted components are filtered using the RF procedure. Finally, HSI spectral features and the obtained RPNet-RF features are combined to classify the HSI using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In order to test the performance of the proposed RPNet-RF method, some experiments were performed on three widely known datasets using a few training samples for each class and classification results were compared with those obtained by other advanced HSI classification methods adopted for small training samples. The comparison showed that the RPNet-RF classification is characterized by higher values of such evaluation metrics as overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient (https://github.com/UchaevD/RPNet-RF).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0697.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: UAV; Structure from Motion; photogrammetry; crude protein; acid detergent fibre; hyperspectral sensing
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:07:02 CEST)
The aim of this research was to test recent developments in the use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to map pasture biomass yield and nutrient status, across a selected range of field sites throughout the rangelands of Queensland. Improved pasture management begins with an understanding of the state of the resource base, UAV based methods can potentially achieve this at improved spatial and temporal scales. This study developed predictive models of both pasture yield and pasture nutrient status. An automated pasture height surface modelling technique was developed, tested and used along with field site measurements of pasture yields, to predict further estimates across each field site. Both prior knowledge and automated predictive modelling techniques were employed to predict pasture yield and nutrition. Pasture height surface modelling was assessed against field measurements using a rising plate meter, results reported correlation coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 for both woodland and grassland field sites. Accuracy of the predictive modelling was determined from further field measurements of pasture yield and on average indicated an error of 0.8 t ha-1 in grasslands and 1.3 t ha-1 in mixed woodlands across both modelling approaches. Correlation analyses between measures of pasture quality, acid detergent fibre and crude protein (ADF, CP), and spectral reflectance data indicated the visible red (651 nm) and red-edge (759 nm) regions were highly correlated (ADF R2 = 0.9 and CP R2 = 0.5 mean values). These findings agreed with previous studies linking specific absorption features with grass chemical composition. These results conclude that the practical application of such techniques, to efficiently and accurately map pasture yield and quality, is possible at the field site scale, however further research is needed, in particular further field sampling of both yield and nutrient elements across such a diverse landscape, with the potential to scale up to a satellite platform for broader scale monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0706.v1
Subject: Keywords: Hyperspectral Images, Classification, K means, Spectral Matching, Abundance Estimation
Online: 29 June 2021 (12:56:59 CEST)
Hyperspectral image (HSI) classification is a mechanism of analyzing differentiated land cover in remotely sensed hyperspectral images. In the last two decades, a number of different types of classification algorithms have been proposed for classifying hyperspectral data. These algorithms include supervised as well as unsupervised methods. Each of these algorithms has its own limitations. In this research, three different types of unsupervised classification methods are used to classify different datasets i-e Pavia Center, Pavia University, Cuprite, Moffett Field. The main objective is to assess the performance of all three classifiers K-Means, Spectral Matching, and Abundance Mapping, and observing their applicability on different datasets. This research also includes spectral feature extraction for hyperspectral datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0142.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: edge detection; hyperspectral image; gravitation; remote sensing; feature space
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:00:18 CEST)
Edge detection is one of the key issues in the field of computer vision and remote sensing image analysis. Although many different edge-detection methods have been proposed for gray-scale, color, and multispectral images, they still face difficulties when extracting edge features from hyperspectral images (HSIs) that contain a large number of bands with very narrow gap in the spectral domain. Inspired by the clustering characteristic of the gravitation, a novel edge-detection algorithm for HSIs is presented in this paper. In the proposed method, we first construct a joint feature space by combining the spatial and spectral features. Each pixel of HSI is assumed to be a celestial object in the joint feature space, which exerts gravitational force to each of its neighboring pixel. Accordingly, each object travels in the joint feature space until it reaches a stable equilibrium. At the equilibrium, the image is smoothed and the edges are enhanced, where the edge pixels can be easily distinguished by calculating the gravitational potential energy. The proposed edge-detection method is tested on several benchmark HSIs and the obtained results were compared with those of three state-of-the-art approaches. The experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Hyperspectral Technology; Non-destructive Testing; Black Soil; Ensemble learning; Support Vector Machine
Online: 16 September 2022 (07:40:27 CEST)
For the soil in different regions, the nutrient fertility contained in it is different, and the detection and zoning management of soil nutrients before tillage every year can improve grain yield. In this paper, an integrated learning strategy model based on black soil hyperspectral data is designed for rapid classification of organic matter content classification of black soil. Soil hyperspectral image dataset of Xiangyang Experimental Base was collected; by changing the internal structure of the stacking model, an LSVM-stacking model with (MLP, SVC, DTree, XGBl, kNN) five classifiers as the L1 layer was built, and the simulated annealing algorithm was used for hyperparameter optimization. Compared to other stacking models, the LSVM-stacking metrics are significantly improved. The accuracy rate of hyperparameter optimization is improved by 38.6515%, the accuracy rate of the independent test data set is 0.9488, and the comparison of individual learners can improve the recognition classification accuracy of label"1" to 1.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0634.v1
Subject: Keywords: Hyperspectral image; HSI; PCA; K-means clustering; unsupervised; classification; bands; satellite; ROSIS; AVIRIS
Online: 28 June 2021 (10:01:41 CEST)
The visualization of hyperspectral images in display devices, having RGB colour composition channels is quite difficult due to the high dimensionality of these images. Thus, principal component analysis has been used as a dimensionality reduction algorithm to reduce information loss, by creating uncorrelated features. To classify regions in the hyperspectral images, K-means clustering has been used to form clusters/regions. These two algorithms have been implemented on the three datasets imaged by AVIRIS and ROSIS sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0257.v1
Subject: Keywords: Hyperspectral images, unsupervised Algorithm, clustering,K-means algorithm, spectral signature.
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:14:58 CEST)
Hyper-spectral images contain a wide range of bands or wavelength due to which they are rich in information. These images are taken by specialized sensors and then investigated through various supervised or unsupervised learning algorithms. Data that is acquired by hyperspectral image contain plenty of information hence it can be used in applications where materials can be analyzed keenly, even the smallest difference can be detected on the basis of spectral signature i.e. remote sensing applications. In order to retrieve information about the concerned area, the image has to be grouped in different segments and can be analyzed conveniently. In this way, only concerned portions of the image can be studied that have relevant information and the rest that do not have any information can be discarded. Image segmentation can be done to assort all pixels in groups. Many methods can be used for this purpose but in this paper, we discussed k means clustering to assort data in AVIRIS cuprite, AVIRIS Muffet and Rosis Pavia in order to calculate the number of regions in each image and retrieved information of 1st, 10th and100th band. Clustering has been done easily and efficiently as k means algorithm is the easiest approach to retrieve information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0010.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Coral Reef Monitoring; Reef Health; Review; Hyperspectral Imaging; Marine Optics
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:10:43 CEST)
Monitoring the health of coral reefs is essential to understand the damaging impacts of anthropo-genic climate change. Non-invasive methods to survey coral reefs are the most desirable and op-tics-based surveys, ranging from simple photography to multispectral satellite imaging are well es-tablished. Herein, we review these techniques, focusing on their value for coral monitoring and health diagnosis. A new, low-cost hyperspectral imaging technique using linear variable filters is also described. This system is capable of simultaneously producing hyperspectral and photogrammetric outputs, which provides integrated information of reef structure and physiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0158.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cunninghamia lanceolate; UAVs; hyperspectral camera; machine learning; random forests; XGBoost
Online: 11 July 2019 (11:41:33 CEST)
Accurate measurements of tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) in forests to evaluate the growth rate of cultivars is still a significant challenge, even when using LiDAR and 3-D modeling. We propose an integrated pipeline methodology to measure the biomass of different tree cultivars in plantation forests with high crown density which that combines unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), hyperspectral image sensors, and data processing algorithms using machine learning. Using a planation of Cunninghamia lanceolate, commonly known as Chinese fir, in Fujian, China, images were collected using a hyperspectral camera and orthorectified in HiSpectral Stitcher. Vegetation indices and modeling were processed in Python using decision trees, random forests, support vector machine, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) third-party libraries. Tree height and DBH of 2880 samples were measured manually and clustering into three groups: “fast growth,” “median,” growth and “normal” growth group, and 19 vegetation indices from 12,000 pixels were abstracted as the input of features for the modeling. After modeling and cross-validation, the classifier generated by random forests had the best prediction accuracy compare to other algorisms (75%). This framework can be applied to other tree species to make management and business decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microphytobenthos; intertidal mudflat; primary production; hyperspectral; growth forms; LUE; ETR
Online: 28 September 2016 (11:43:29 CEST)
Monitoring photosynthesis is a great challenge to improve our knowledge of plant productivity at the ecosystem level, which may be achieved using remote-sensing techniques with synoptic abilities. The main objective of the current study is to take up this challenge for microphytobenthos (MPB) primary production in intertidal mudflats. This was achieved by coupling hyperspectral radiometry (reflectance, ρ and second derivative, δδ) and PAM-fluorometry (non-sequential light curve, NSLC) measurements. The later allowed the estimation of the primary production via the light use efficiency (LUE) and the electron transport rate (ETR) whereas ρ allowed to estimate pigment composition and optical absorption cross-section (a*). Five MPB species representative of the main growth forms: epipelic (benthic motile), epipsammic (benthic motile and non motile) and thycoplanktonic (temporarily resuspended in the water column) were lighted at increasing light intensity from dark to 1950 µmol photons.m-2.s-1. After spectral measurements, a* was retrieved using a radiative transfer model and several radiometric indices were tested for their capacity to predict LUE and ETR. The spectral estimation of these two photosynthetic variables was subsequently compared to the values estimated by PAM-fluorometry. Results showed that different responses related to the xanthophyll cycle (de-epoxydation state) were observed for the three growth-forms with increasing light levels. However, a single relationship with radiometric index was not affected by species/growth-forms, i.e. δδ496/508, called the MPBLUE index to predict LUE and ETR. This index has the potential to be applied to air borne hyperspectral imagery for large-scale assessment of MPB production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0057.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: dimension reduction; feature extraction; hyperspectral image; weighted feature space; low rank representation; spectral clustering
Online: 11 December 2017 (06:55:22 CET)
Containing hundreds of spectral bands (features), hyperspectral images (HSIs) have high ability in discrimination of land cover classes. Traditional HSIs data processing methods consider the same importance for all bands in the original feature space (OFS), while different spectral bands play different roles in identification of samples of different classes. In order to explore the relative importance of each feature, we learn a weighting matrix and obtain the relative weighted feature space (RWFS) as an enriched feature space for HSIs data analysis in this paper. To overcome the difficulty of limited labeled samples which is common case in HSIs data analysis, we extend our method to semisupervised framework. To transfer available knowledge to unlabeled samples, we employ graph based clustering where low rank representation (LRR) is used to define the similarity function for graph. After construction the RWFS, any arbitrary dimension reduction method and classification algorithm can be employed in RWFS. The experimental results on two well-known HSIs data set show that some dimension reduction algorithms have better performance in the new weighted feature space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0060.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: hyperspectral image; spectral characteristics of plants; spectral adaptive grouping; compressive sensing
Online: 8 May 2017 (11:45:34 CEST)
With the development of hyperspectral technology, to establish an effective spectral data compressive reconstruction method that can improving data storage, transmission and maintaining spectral information is critical for quantitative remote sensing research and application in vegetation. By introducing the idea of compressive sensing in compressed reconstruction, the spectral adaptive grouping distributed compressive sensing algorithm is proposed, which enables a distributed compressed sensing reconstruction of plant hyperspectral data. The experimental results showed that comparing with orthogonal matching pursuit(OMP) and gradient projection reconstruction(GPSR), the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the visual effect of image reconstruction in the spatial domain. The PSNR in low sampling rate(sampling rate is lower than 0.2) increases by 13.72dB than OMP and 1.66dB than GPSR. In the spectral domain, the average normalized root mean square error、the mean absolute percentage error and the mean absolute error of the proposed algorithm is35.38%，31.83% and 33.33% lower than GPSR respectively.. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can achieve relatively high reconstructed efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0615.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hyperspectral images; multispectral images; spectral diversity; Shannon entropy; tropical forest; marine coral reefs; biodiversity; correlation.
Online: 25 October 2018 (16:30:53 CEST)
Hyperspectral images are an important tool to assess ecosystem biodiversity both on terrestrial and benthic habitats. To obtain more precise analysis of biodiversity indicators that agree with indicators obtained using field data, analysis of spectral diversity calculated from images have to be validated with field based diversity estimates. The plant species richness is one of the most important indicators of biodiversity. This indicator can be measured in hyperspectral images considering the Spectral Variation Hypothesis (SVH) which states that the spectral heterogeneity is related to spatial heterogeneity and thus to species richness. The goal of this research is to capture spectral heterogeneity from hyperspectral images for a terrestrial neo tropical forest site using Vector Quantization (VQ) method and then use the result for prediction of plant species richness. The results are compared with that of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC). The validation of the process index is done calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the Shannon entropy from actual field data and the Shannon entropy computed in the images. Terrestrial dry forest and marine coastal hyperspectral images with different resolutions have been used for spectral diversity feature validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0122.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; hyperspectral image; thermal IR training; zero-shot learning; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:56:11 CET)
The work is devoted to the search for effective solutions to the applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress in the conditions of smart farming and based on modern explicable artificial intelligence (XAI). The study mostly oriented on the theory and practice of XAI, focused on the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) sensor data at the input of a neural network. The first our goal is to build an XAI neural network, explainable due to its structure, the input of which is a datascientist oriented HSI 'explanator', and the output is a biologist oriented TIR 'explanator'. In the middle is SLP-regressor which solves the universal problem of training HSI pixels to temperatures of plants, needed for early plant stress diagnostic. The result can be considered as prototype of a special XAI explanator which is assigned to transform explanator specialized on area 1 onto explanator specialized on area 2. Using this HSI-TIR explanator we ensured the follows: extend HSI data by TIR attribute; providing TIR data for early diagnostic of plant stress; reducing dimensionality HSI needed for TIR training 25 times (from 204 to 8) preserving the same accuracy of temperature prediction (RMSE=0.2-0.3C). This reducing was achieved without using PCA methods. The constructed model is computationally efficient in training: the average training time is significantly less then 1 min (Intel Core i3-8130U, 2.2 GHz, 4 cores, 4 GB). One of the 8 channels, 820 nm, is the leader in correlation with TIR, what allows building local linear temperature prediction functions.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Hyperspectral Imaging, Phenolics, Anthocyanin, Table Grapes, Total Soluble Solid, PLS, MLR, Model.
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:35:56 CET)
Table grape quality is of importance for consumers and thus for producers. The objective quality determination is usually destructive and very simple with the assessment of only a couple of parameters. This study proposed to evaluate the possibility of hyperspectral imaging to characterize table grapes quality through its sugar, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Different pre-treatments (WB, SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative) and different methods were tested: PLS with full spectra, then Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) were realized after selecting the optimal wavelengths thanks to the regression coefficients (-coefficients) and the Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) scores from the full spectra. All models were good showing that hyperspectral imaging is a relevant method to assess sugar content and global phenolic content. The best model was dependent on the variable. The best models were from the full spectra and with the 2nd derivative pre-treatment for TSS; from VIPs optimal wavelengths using SNV pre-treatment for Total Flavonoid and total Anthocyanin content. Thus, relevant models were proposed using the full spectra, as well as specific windows and wavelengths in order to reduce the data sets and limit the data storage to enable an industrial use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0260.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GEMS; UV; VIS; hyperspectral data; deep convective cloud; vicarious calibration; OMI; TROPOMI
Online: 19 December 2019 (13:14:55 CET)
As one of GEO-constellation for environmental monitoring in the next decade, Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is designed to observe the Asia Pacific region to provide the information on the atmospheric chemicals, aerosol and cloud properties. For the continuous monitoring of the sensor performance after its launch in early 2020, here we suggest deep convective clouds (DCCs) as a possible target for the vicarious calibration of GEMS, the first UV/VIS hyperspectral sensor onboard a geostationary satellite. Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used as a proxy of GEMS, and a conventional DCC detection approach applying the thermal threshold test is used for the DCC detection based on the collocations with Advance Himawari-8 Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8 geostationary satellite. DCCs are frequently detected over the GEMS observation area on average over 200 pixels in a single observation scene. Considering the spatial resolution of GEMS, 3.5 km×7 km which is similar to TROPOMI, and its temporal resolution (8 times a day), availability of DCCs for vicarious calibration of GEMS is expected to be sufficient. Inspection of the DCC reflectivity spectra estimated from the OMI and TROPOMI data also shows a promising result. Even though, their observation geometry and sensor characteristics are quite a different, the estimated DCC spectra agree quite a well within a known uncertainty range with comparable spectral features. When the DCC detection is further improved by applying both visible and infrared tests, the variability of DCC reflectivity from the TROPOMI data is reduced by half, from 10% to 5%. This is mainly due to the efficient screening of cold thin cirrus with the visible test and of bright warm clouds with the infrared test. The precise DCC detection is also expected to contribute to the accurate characterization of the cloud reflectivity, which will be further investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0097.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: fluorescence; absorption; chlorophyll-a; remote sensing; hyperspectral; ocean color; IOP; TAPIR; EnMAP
Online: 14 February 2018 (07:11:09 CET)
The Total Algae Peak Integration Retrieval TAPIR relates the chlorophyll-a absorption coefficient at 440 nm (a440) to the reflectance peak near 683 nm induced by chlorophyll-a properties. The two-step retrieval provides both the hyperspectral quantification of the phytoplankton fluorescence and scattering and the estimation of a440 from reflectance signals. Integrating the peak, the Total Algae Peak (TAP) accounts for the variance in the peak's magnitude, shape, and central peak wavelength. TAPIR is a solely optical approach estimating a440 and supports the application of retrieval-independent individual regional bio-optical models afterwards to retrieve the chlorophyll-a concentration. Simulations reveal the major sensitivity on the considered model chlorophyll-a absorption spectrum and its single scattering albedo. Additional water and atmosphere constituents have a low impact. An uncertainty assessment reveals uncertainties of less than 30% for TAPIR a440 greater than 0.8 m-1 and less than 38% for lower a440. In optically complex waters, first validation efforts promise the applicability of TAPIR for high chlorophyll-a concentration estimations in the presence of additional water constituents. The technique is generic and considers external conditions (sun zenith angle, number of measurement bands, surface or satellite measurements, and radiometric quantity). TAPIR applies to all kind of waters including optically complex waters, arctic to tropical regions, and inland, coastal, and open ocean waters. Among other hyperspectral satellite sensors, the Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) provides sufficient sampling bands for the application of TAPIR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0059.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: hyperspectral image classiﬁcation; deep learning; channel-wise attention mechanism; spatial-wise attention mechanism
Online: 12 February 2020 (05:40:08 CET)
In recent years, researchers have paid increasing attention on hyperspectral image (HSI) classification using deep learning methods. To improve the accuracy and reduce the training samples, we propose a double-branch dual-attention mechanism network (DBDA) for HSI classification in this paper. Two branches are designed in DBDA to capture plenty of spectral and spatial features contained in HSI. Furthermore, a channel attention block and a spatial attention block are applied to these two branches respectively, which enables DBDA to refine and optimize the extracted feature maps. A series of experiments on four hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed framework has superior performance to the state-of-the-art algorithm, especially when the training samples are signally lacking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0127.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: focal plane array, thermal source, synchrotron radiation, infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, silk, SZ2080
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:38:21 CET)
A focal plane array (FPA) detector was used for hyperspectral imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region using thermal and synchrotron light sources. FPA Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) imaging microspectroscopy will be able to monitor real time changes at specific absorption bands when combined with high brightness synchrotron source. In this study, several types of samples with unique structural motifs were selected and used for assessing the capability of the FPA-FTIR imaging technique. It was shown that the time required for polariscopy at IR wavelengths can be substantially reduced by the FPA-FTIR imaging approach. By using natural and laser fabricated polymers with sub-wavelength features, alignment of absorbing molecular dipoles was revealed as well as higher order patterns (laser fabricated structures). Micro-spectroscopy of absorber orientation reveals alignment patterns even when they are not spatially resolved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0387.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hyperspectral imager; UAV remote sensing; water quality monitoring; space-ground data; buoy spectrometer; water eutrophication; absorption characteristics
Online: 30 May 2022 (05:59:36 CEST)
The effective integration of aerial remote sensing data and ground multi-source data has always been one of the difficulties of quantitative remote sensing. A new monitoring mode is designed which installs the hyperspectral imager on the UAV and places a buoy spectrometer on the river. Water samples are collected simultaneously to obtain in situ assay data of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, COD, turbidity and chlorophyll during data collection. The cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) algorithm is used to match the data of the buoy spectrometer with the UAV spectral data to reduce the UAV data noise significantly. An absorption characteristics recognition algorithm (ACR) is designed to realize a new method for comparing UAV data with laboratory data. This method takes into account the spectral characteristics and the correlation characteristics of test data synchronously. It is concluded that the most accurate water quality parameters can be calculated by using the regression method under five scales after the regression tests of multiple linear regression method (MLR), support vector machine method (SVM) and neural network (NN) method. This new working mode of integrating spectral imager data with point spectrometer data will become a trend in water quality monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: phenotyping; proximal sensing; reflectance imaging; vegetation indices; hyperspectral reflectance; chlorophylls; carotenoids; anthocyanins; senescence; ripening
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:23:13 CET)
Hyperspectral reflectance imaging is an emerging method for rapid non-invasive quantitative screening of plant traits. This method is essential for high-throughput phenotyping and hence for accelerated breeding of crop plants as well as for precision agriculture practices. However, extraction of sensible information from reflectance images is hindered by the complexity of plant optical properties, especially when they are measured in the field. We propose using reflectance indices (Plant Senescence Reflectance Index, PSRI; Anthocyanin Reflectance Index, ARI; and spectral deconvolution) previously developed for remote sensing of vegetation and point-based reflectometers to infer the spatially resolved information on plant development and biochemical composition using ripening apple fruit as the model. Specifically, the proposed approach enables capturing data on distribution of chlorophylls and primary carotenoids as well as secondary carotenoids (both linked with fruit ripening and leaf senescence during plant development) as well as the information on spatial distribution of anthocyanins (known as stress pigments) over the plant surface. We argue that the proposed approach would enrich the phenotype assessments made on the base of reflectance image analysis with valuable information on plant physiological condition, stress acclimation state, and the progression of the plant development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0444.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spectral Unmixing; Imaging Spectrometer; Hyperspectral; Benchmark Dataset; Dimensionality Estimation; Endmember Extraction; Abundance Estimation; HySpex.
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:25:39 CEST)
Spectral unmixing represents both an application per se and a pre-processing step for several applications involving data acquired by imaging spectrometers. However, there is still a lack of publicly available reference data sets suitable for the validation and comparison of different spectral unmixing methods. In this paper we introduce the DLR HyperSpectral Unmixing (DLR HySU) benchmark dataset, acquired over German Aerospace Center (DLR) premises in Oberpfaffenhofen. The dataset includes airborne hyperspectral and RGB imagery of targets of different materials and sizes, complemented by simultaneous ground-based reflectance measurements. The DLR HySU benchmark allows a separate assessment of all spectral unmixing main steps: dimensionality estimation, endmember extraction (with and without pure pixe assumption), and abundance estimation. Results obtained with traditional algorithms for each of these steps are reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that real imaging spectrometer data with accurately measured targets are made available for hyperspectral unmixing experiments. The DLR HySU benchmark dataset is openly available online and the community is welcome to use it for spectral unmixing and other applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0192.v1
Subject: Keywords: spectral sensitivity optimization; filter selection; multispectral and hyperspectral imaging; absorption filters; imaging simulation; color reproduction; spectral reconstruction
Online: 29 November 2017 (15:03:07 CET)
Previous research has shown that the effectiveness of selecting filter set from a large set of commercial broadband filters by vector analyzing method based on maximum linear independence (MLI). However, the traditional MLI is suboptimal due to predefining the first filter of the selected filter set being the maximum ℓ2 norm among all those of the filters. An exhaustive imaging simulation is conducted to investigate the features of the most competent filter set. In the simulation, every filter in a subset of all the filters is selected serving as the first filter in turn. From the results of the simulation, we found there are remarkable characteristics for the most competent filter set. Besides smaller condition number, the geometric features of the best-performed filter set comprise the distinct peak of the transmittance of the first filter, the generally uniform distributing of the peaks of the transmittance curve of the filters, the substantial overlapping of the transmittance curves with those of the adjacent filer sets. Therefore, the best-performed filter sets can be decided intuitively by simple vector analyzing and just a few experimental verifications. This work would be useful for optimizing spectral sensitivity of broadband multispectral imaging sensors or SFA sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Hyperspectral Technology; Non-destructive Testing; Soybean; Machine Learning; Support Vector Machine; Extreme Gradient Boosting; Tree-structured Parzen Estimator
Online: 19 July 2022 (07:12:32 CEST)
Soybean with insignificant differences in appearance have large differences in their internal physical and chemical components, therefore follow-up storage, transportation and processing require targeted differential treatment. A fast and effective machine learning method based on hyperspectral data of soybean for pattern recognition of categories is designed as a non-destructive testing method in this paper. A hyperspectral-image dataset with 2299 soybean seeds in 4 categories is collected; Ten features is selected by extreme gradient boosting algorithm from 203 hyperspectral bands in range 400 to 1000 nm; A Gaussian radial basis kernel function support vector machine with optimization by the Tree-structured Parzen Estimator algorithm is built as TPE-RBF-SVM model for pattern recognition of soybean categories. The metrics of TPE-RBF-SVM are significantly improved compared with other machine learning algorithms. The accuracy is 0.9165 in the independent test dataset which is 9.786% higher for vanilla RBF-SVM model and 10.02% higher than the extreme gradient boosting model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0119.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: satellite sensors capturing; spectral- and hyperspectral imaging; atmospheric model; outgoing radiation; atmospheric correction; spectral radiance; surface albedo; spectral brightness factor (coefficient)
Online: 23 October 2018 (15:40:12 CEST)
Atmospheric correction is a necessary step in image processing data and spectra recorded by spaceborne sensors for pure cloudless atmosphere, primarily in the visible and near-IR spectral range. We have present a fast and sufficiently accurate method of atmospheric correction based on the proposed analytical solutions describing with high accuracy the spectrum of outgoing radiation at the top boundary of the cloudless atmosphere. This technique includes the model of the atmosphere and its optical parameters that are important in terms of radiation transfer. The solution of the inverse problem for finding unknown parameters of the model is carried out by the method of non-linear least squares (Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) for an individual selected pixel of the image (its spectrum), taking into account the adjacency effects. Using the found parameters of the atmosphere and the average surface albedo, assuming homogeneity of the atmosphere within a certain area of the hyperspectral image (or the whole frame), the spectral albedo at the Earth's surface is calculated for all other pixels. It is essential that the procedure of the numerical simulation with non-linear least squares of the direct transfer problem is based on using analytical solutions, which provides a very short calculation time of the atmospheric parameters (seconds or less) and the ability to perform atmospheric correction "on-fly." Testing methods of atmospheric correction was performed using the synthetic outgoing radiation spectra at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), obtained by numerical simulation in the LibRadTran code, as well as spectra of real space images of the Hyperion hyperspectrometer. A comparison with the results of atmospheric correction in module FLAASH of ENVI package has been performed. Finally, to validate our data obtained by the SHARK method, a comparative analysis with ground-based measurements of Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet) was carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0248.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Posidonia oceanica (PO); LAI & density; PO health & Pergent model; sea truth sampling; Earth Observation; HR satellite multispectral/hyperspectral sensors; atmospheric correction; coastal monitoring; mapping shallow waters habitat seabed; Calibration/validation & training/test; Classification & regression Machine Learning; Model Performance & thematic Accuracy; Sentinel 2 MSI multispectral & PRISMA hyperspectral; ISWEC(Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter)
Online: 18 October 2021 (14:41:35 CEST)
The Mediterranean basin is a hot spot of climate change where the Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (PO) and other seagrass are under stress due to its effect on marine habitats and the rising influence of anthropogenic activities (tourism, fishery). The PO and seabed ecosystems, in the coastal environments of Pantelleria and Lampedusa, suffer additional growing impacts from tourism in synergy with specific stress factors due to increasing vessel traffic for supplying potable water, fossil fuels for electrical power generation. Earth Observation (EO) data, provided by high resolution (HR) multi/hyperspectral operative satellite sensors of the last generation (i.e. Sentinel 2 MSI and PRISMA) have been successfully tested, using innovative calibration and sea truth collecting methods, for monitoring and mapping of PO meadows under stress, in the coastal waters of these islands, located in the Sicily Channel, to better support the sustainable management of these vulnerable ecosystems. The area of interest in Pantelleria was where the first prototype of the Italian Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter (ISWEC) for renewable energy production was installed in 2015, and sea truth campaigns on the PO meadows were conducted. The PO of Lampedusa coastal areas, impacted by ship traffic linked to the previous factors and tropicalization effects of Italy southernmost climate change transitional zone, was mapped through a multi/hyper spectral EO-based approach, using training/testing data provided by side scan sonar data, previously acquired. Some advanced machine learning algorithms (MLA) were successfully evaluated with different supervised regression/classification models to map seabed and PO meadow classes and related Leaf Area Index (LAI) distributions in the areas of interest, using multi/hyperspectral data atmospherically corrected via different advanced approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0497.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: leaf water content; hyperspectral spectroscopy; leaf water potential; drought; diurnal cycle; plant water status; relative water content; equivalent water thickness; Dracaena marginate; water stress; leaf water variation
Online: 25 August 2021 (15:00:37 CEST)
Water plays a crucial role in maintaining plant functionality and drives many ecophysiological processes. The distribution of water resources is in a continuous change due to global warming affecting the productivity of ecosystems around the globe, but there is a lack of non-destructive methods capable of continuous monitoring of plant and leaf water content that would help us in understanding the consequences of the redistribution of water. We studied the utilization of novel small hyperspectral sensors in the 1350-2450 nm spectral range in non-destructive estimation of leaf water content in laboratory and field conditions. We found that the sensors captured up to 96% of the variation in equivalent water thickness (EWT, g/m2) and up to 90% of the variation in relative water content (RWC). These laboratory findings were supported by field measurements, where repeated leaf spectra measurements were in good agreement (R2=0.79) with a time-lagged change of tree xylem diameter. Further tests were done with an indoor plant (Dracaena marginate Lem.) by continuously measuring leaf spectra while drought conditions developed, which revealed detailed diurnal dynamics of leaf water content. We conclude that close-range hyperspectral spectroscopy can provide a novel tool for continuous measurement of leaf water content at the single leaf level and help us to better understand plant responses to varying environmental conditions.