ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Opiates, Opium smoking, Neck pain, Neck disability, Forward head posture, Hyperkyphosis, Drug use disorder, Iran
Online: 18 July 2023 (15:56:47 CEST)
Opium smoking for long hours and over many years is common in Iran, and the Covid-19 pan-demic and false beliefs about the protective effects of that opium against COVID-19 infection has caused the increasing of opium smoking during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to in-vestigate the relationship between non-ergonomic positions of traditional opium smoking in Iran with the occurrence of neck pain and disability, forward head posture and hyperkyphosis. In this cross-sectional and correlation study 120 people who smoke opium were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were interviewed about their addiction profile and evaluated for the pres-ence of pain and disability in the neck by Maudsley Addiction Profile, Leeds Dependence Ques-tionnaire, the Visual Analog Scale and Neck Disability Index. Also, they were evaluated about forward head posture (FHP) through side view photography and hyperkyphosis (HK) through flexible ruler. Data were analyzed by correlation coefficient tests and stepwise linear regression. There was a significant relation between homelessness, the duration of lifetime opium smoking (months), the duration of daily opium smoking (minutes) and drug dependence severity with the severity of neck pain, neck disability, forward head posture and hyperkyphosis. Homelessness is the strongest predictive variable of the possibility of neck pain and disability, FHP and HK, fol-lowed by ‘‘the number of months of opium smoking’’ and ‘‘the number of minutes of opium smoking in one day’’ respectively. Increasing the duration of sitting in non-ergonomic positions can lead to neck pain and disability, FHP and HK due to their non-neutral posture in opium smokers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: biomechanics; posture; hyperlordosis; hyperkyphosis; machine learning; artificial intelligence; explainable artificial intelligence; human-in-the-loop; confident learning; label errors
Online: 29 March 2023 (14:08:32 CEST)
Postural deficits such as hyperlordosis (hollow back) or hyperkyphosis (hunchback) are relevant health issues. Diagnoses depend on the experience of the examiner and are therefore often subjective and prone to errors. Machine learning (ML) methods in combination with explainable ar-tificial intelligence (XAI) tools have proven useful for providing an objective, data-based orien-tation. However, only a few works have considered posture parameters, leaving the potential of more human-friendly XAI interpretations still untouched. Therefore, the present work proposes an objective, data-driven ML system for medical decision support that enables especially human-friendly interpretations using counterfactual explanations (CFs). Posture data for 1151 subjects were recorded by means of stereophotogrammetry. An expert-based classification of the subjects regarding the presence of hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis was initially performed. Using a Gaussian progress classifier, the models were trained and interpreted using CFs. Label errors were flagged and re-evaluated using confident learning. Very good classification performances for both hyperlordosis and hyperkyphosis were found, whereby the re-evaluation and correction of the test labels led to a significant improvement (MPRAUC = 0.97). A statistical evaluation showed that the CFs seemed to be plausible in general. In the context of personalized medicine, the present study’s approach could be of importance for reducing diagnostic errors and thereby improving the individual adaptation of therapeutic measures. Likewise, it could be a basis for the development of apps for preventive posture assessment.