ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0302.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Pillararene; host:guest; supramolecular; hydrophobic; ITC; NMR
Online: 17 November 2021 (11:16:25 CET)
The formation of inclusion complexes between alkylsulfonate guests and a cationic pillararene receptor in water was investigated by NMR and ITC techniques. The results show the formation of host-guest complexes stabilized by electrostatic interactions and hydrophobics effects with binding constants of up to 107 M-1 for the guest with higher hydrophobic character. Structurally, the alkyl chain of the guest is included in the hydrophobic aromatic cavity of the macrocycle while the sulfonate groups are hold in the multicationic portal by ionic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0416.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: biofouling; deposition; hydrophobic; plasma treatment; PTFE; stickiness
Online: 27 July 2022 (08:53:19 CEST)
The spray drying process causes the buildup of an unspecified and unique pattern of wall deposits on the wall. The powder recovery of fruit juice by spray dryer is associated with stickiness problems because of the nature of food which contains low molecular weight sugars and organic acids, which have a low glass transition temperature (Tg). The surface properties of oxygen plasma treated-PTFE substrate were evaluated by using the different parameters of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) prior to spray drying analysis. In this study, the fabrication method of nearly perfect superhydrophobic surfaces through plasma treatment with oxygen gas was generated and utilized. The plasma-treated PTFE were deposited from a fixed flow rate of oxygen gas with 30 cm3/min by varying the deposition time from 1 to 15 minutes to induce the hydrophobic surface of the PTFE substrate. The characterization techniques used to determine the morphology and chemical bonding of the substrate are field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The hydrophobicity of the glass samples was determined by the water droplet contact angle. Sample prepared at radio frequency (RF) power of 90W for 15 minutes duration of treatment time showed porous and spongy like microstructure which correlates with the best performance of a good contact angle which creates the superhydrophobicity regime (171o). Surface morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes in its roughness in the surface-treated glass substrate. The success of this method produced a huge potential for solving most of the food processing issues which relate to biofouling (e.g., powder stickiness) that would otherwise struggle to improve high productivity and recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0583.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrical conductivity; young module; conductive filled; hydrophobic
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:39:17 CET)
A novel hybrid material based on Polyvinyl alcohol-Chitosan (PVA-Cs) was made, reinforced with conductive polymer fillers such as polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), carbon black (CB) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MW CNT). Our proposal is to use these fillers, which have not been studied in this context before, for obtaining composite materials, and to characterize them for the development of applications in microelectronics. FTIR analysis made evident the different func-tional groups present in the matrix and the fillers used. The use of quaternary mixtures (4 fillers) increased the contact angle, which increased the degree of hydrophobicity of the biocomposite. The Nyquist diagram of the analyzed samples showed a decrease in resistance and energy diffu-sion; the latter due to the transfer of electrons caused by the conductive polymers CB and the MWCNT. In the mechanical tension tests, Young's modulus values of 18.386 MPa were obtained, in contrast with the material matrix of PVA-Cs, which showed values of 11.628 MPa. Further-more, morphological analysis by SEM showed that the materials obtained were homogeneous, with no phase formation. The materials obtained showed higher electrical conductivity in the presence of the OH and NH2 groups, which could have possible applications in biopolymer elec-trodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Composite electrode; Nanofiber; Hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties; Dispersibility; Supercapacitor
Online: 19 October 2021 (13:54:31 CEST)
Concerns associated with global warming and the depleting reserves of fossil fuels have highlighted the importance of high-performance energy storage systems (ESSs) for efficient energy usage. ESSs such as supercapacitors can contribute to improved power quality of an energy generation system, which is characterized by a slow load response. Composite materials are primarily used as supercapacitor electrodes because they can compensate for the disadvantages of carbon or metal oxide electrode materials. In this study, a composite of oxide nanoparticles loaded on a carbon nanofiber support was used as an electrode material for a hybrid supercapacitor. The addition of a small amount of hydrophobic Fe- and N-doped graphene nanoplates modified the surface properties of carbon nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. Accordingly, the effects of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface properties of the nanofiber support on the morphology of Co3O4 nanoparticles loaded on the nanofiber, as well as the performance of the supercapacitor, were systematically investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0148.v1
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:41:35 CET)
In this work, a tool for estimating the contact angle from the molecular dynamics simulations is developed and presented. The tool (Achilles) can detect water droplet on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The tool can reconstruct the droplets broken across the periodic boundaries. Further a neighbor density based accurate filter is used to find the droplet liquid vapor interface and a circle is fitted using it after removing the dense layers of water next to solid surface. This fitted circle is solved for contact angle and results are outputted in the form of graphical images and text. The entire content of the internal computations of the tool is broken down into 4 phases and users can monitor the outcomes at every phase through output images. The tool is tested using sample molecular dynamics results of water droplet on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. We believe this tool can be a good addition to the molecular dynamics simulation community who work on the interfacial physics, droplet evaporation, super hydrophobic surfaces, and wettability etc.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: water; local order; relaxation times; self-diffusion; hydrophobic effect
Online: 5 March 2021 (17:01:05 CET)
NMR Spectroscopy is used, in the temperature range 180-350K, to study local order and transport in liquid water (pure and confined) and its solutions with glicerol and methanol at different molar fractions. Being the liquid water thermodynamic dominated by polymorphism (two coexisting liquid phases: high- and low-density HDL and LDL) - with the LDL due to the hydrophilic HB interactions, originating in the supercooled regime the tetrahedral networking and the liquid-liquid transition – we focused our interest to hydrophobic effects (HE) on these. Nowadays, if compared to the hydrophilicity, little is known about hydrophobicity so that the main purpose of this study is to gain new information on it. We measured the relaxation times (T1 and T2) and the self-diffusion (DS). From the times we took advantage of the NMR property to follow the behaviors of each molecular component (the hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups) separately; they are studied directly and DS in terms of the Adam-Gibbs model: obtaining the configurational entropy (Sconf ) and the specific heat contributions (CP,conf ). Due to the HE all the studied quantities, behave differently. For water-glycerol the HB interaction is dominant for all the conditions, whereas for water-methanol are observable two different T-regions above and below 265 K, dominated respectively by the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. A situation linked to the water polymorphism. Below this temperature, where the LDL phase and the HB networking develops and grows, the times and CP,conf change behaviors leading to maxima and minima. Above it, where the HB becomes weak and less stable and the HDL dominates, the hydrophobicity determines the solution properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0058.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Fe (III) sensor; Poly(azomethine-urethane); Chemosensor; Hydrophobic property
Online: 11 April 2017 (05:53:15 CEST)
A new and easy-to-make polymer film sensor was prepared by dip-coating technique and this film used as fluorescent chemosensor for the detection of metal ions in aqueous solution. The proposed film sensor exhibited dual emissions at 540 and 582 nm under a single excitation wavelength. The fluorescence behavior of this film sensor toward metal ions has been investigated using these two wavelengths. The proposed sensor was found to show selectivity and sensitive to Fe3+ ion when compared the other metal ions in deionized water with excellent photostability. Detection limit of the polymeric film sensor was calculated as 86.15 and 28.90 μM. The results showed that the sensor can be successfully applied to the determination of Fe3+ ions in aqueous media. Contact angle measurement of PAZU film probe was also investigated and the result showed that the proposed film probe has hydrophobic property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0620.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Super-hydrophobic; Polyethylene glycol (PEG); Hydroxyl; Stable; lauryl methacrylate (LMA)
Online: 24 November 2020 (14:43:02 CET)
In order to obtain stable super-hydrophobicity, suitable hydrophobic treatment agent should be selected according to different materials. In this paper, cotton and poly (-ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was respectively coated by dodecyl methacrylate (LMA) via argon combined capacitively coupled plasma (CCP), and the surface hydrophobicity and durability of treated cotton and polyester fabrics were also discussed. An interesting phenomenon was happened that LMA coated cotton fabric (Cotton-g-LMA) had better water repellency and mechanical durability than LMA coated PET fabric (PET-g-LMA), and LMA coated hydroxyl grafted PET fabrics (PET fabrics were successively coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and LMA, PET-g-PEG&LMA) had similar performance to those of cotton fabrics. The water contact angle (WCA) of Cotton-g-LMA, PET-g-LMA and PET-g-PEG&LMA was 156 °, 153 ° and 155 °, respectively, and after 45 washing cycles or 1000 rubbing cycles, the corresponding WCA was decreased to 145 °, 88 °, 134 °and 146 °, 127 °, 143 °, respectively. Also, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polyamides-6 (PA6) fabrics were all exhibited the same properties to PET fabric. Therefore, the grafting of hydroxyl can improve the hydrophobic effect of LMA coating and the binding property between LMA and fabrics effectively without changing the wearing comfort..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0079.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: line tension; entropic contribution; entropic force; orientation effect; hydrophobic substrate.
Online: 3 August 2018 (20:28:41 CEST)
The notion of the three-phase (line) tension remains one of the most disputable notions in the surface science. A very broad range of its values has been reported. Experts even do not agree on the sign of the line tension. The polymer-chain-like model of the three-phase (triple) line enables the rough estimation of the entropic input into the value of the line tension, estimated as Γ_en≅(k_B T)/d_m ≅〖10〗^(-11) N, where d_m is the diameter of the liquid molecule. The introducing of the polymer-chain-like model of the triple line is justified by the “water string” model of the liquid state, predicting strong orientation effects for liquid molecules located in the vicinity of hydrophobic moieties. The estimated value of the entropic input into the line tension is close to experimental findings, reported by various groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0171.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Selective laser shock peening; Hydrophobic properties; Mechanical properties; 3D gradient structure
Online: 18 April 2022 (11:58:44 CEST)
The mechanical properties and stability of hydrophobic surface structures prepared by traditional methods are still the main technical bottlenecks restricting the broad application of hydrophobic systems on workpiece surfaces. In this contribution, we propose a technique called selective laser shock peening (SLSP) to enable large-scale high efficient, low-cost manufacturing of hydrophobic metal surfaces with enhanced mechanical properties for durable applications. Using the method of experimental investigation combined with numerical calculation, the hydrophobic properties, mechanical properties, and tribological properties of the samples prepared under SLSP, all-laser shock peening (ALSP), and non-laser shock peening (NLSP) are studied. The SLSP process could prepare a 3D gradient structure material with surface structures, a two-phase (strong phase, soft phase) distribution on the surface, and a multi-level gradient distribution in the thickness direction. Compared with the 2D gradient structure prepared by the traditional process, 3D gradient structures by SLSP have more significant advantages in improving the wetting behavior and the mechanical properties of the material, which proves SLSP to be a novel method to fabricate functional metal surface structures, with highly high engineering application value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0616.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: interfacial crystallization; liquid marble, hydrophobic particle; superhydrophobic surface; coffee-stain effect.
Online: 25 September 2020 (15:30:00 CEST)
We report interfacial crystallization in droplets of saline solutions placed on superhydrophobic surfaces and liquid marbles filled with the saline. Evaporation of saline droplets deposited on superhydrophobic surface resulted in the formation of cup-shaped millimeter-scaled residues. The formation of the cup-like deposit is reasonably explained within the framework of the theory of the coffee-stain effect, namely, the rate of heterogeneous crystallization along the contact line of the droplet is many times higher than in the droplet bulk. Crystallization within evaporated saline marbles, coated with lycopodium particles, depends strongly on the evaporation rate. Rapidly evaporated saline marbles yielded dented shells built of a mixture of colloidal particles and NaCl crystals. We relate the formation of these shells to the interfacial crystallization promoted by hydrophobic particles coating the marbles, accompanied with the upward convection flows supplying the saline to the particles, serving as the centers of interfacial crystallization. Convective flows prevail over the diffusion mass transport for the saline marbles heated from below.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0127.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: chaotropic effect; hydrophobic effect; polyoxometalates; polymeric surfactants; small angle scattering; salt effects
Online: 9 February 2022 (08:47:29 CET)
Low charge density nanometric ions were recently shown to bind strongly to neutral hydrated matter in aqueous solution. This phenomenon, called (super-)chaotropic effect, arises from the partial dehydration of both, the nano-ion and the solute, leading to a high gain in enthalpy. Here, we investigate the chaotropic effect of the polyoxometalate α-PW12O403- on the triblock copolymer P84: (EO)19(PO)43(EO)19 with (EO)19 the polyethoxylated and (PO)43 the polypropoxylated chains. The combination of phase diagrams, spectroscopic (nuclear magnetic resonance) and scattering (small angle neutron/X-ray scattering) techniques reveals that (i) below the micellization temperature of P84, PW12O403- exclusively binds to the propylene oxide moiety of P84 unimers and (ii) above the micellization temperature, PW12O403- mostly adsorbs on the ethylene oxide micellar corona. The preferential binding of the PW12O403- to the PPO chain over the PEO chains suggests that the binding is driven by the chaotropic effect and reinforced by the hydrophobic effect. At higher temperatures, the copolymer micellization leads to the displacement of PW12O403- from the PPO chain to the PEO chains. This study deepens the understanding of the subtle interplay between the chaotropic and hydrophobic effects in complex salt-organic matter solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: coronavirus; spike protein; database; sequence alignment; mutation; homology model; hydrophobic amino acids
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:49:04 CEST)
Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein sequences of over 19 countries from biological databases submitted around the globe was carried out with help of bioinformatics tools and structure prediction databases. Initial data analysis showed entry of virus into different geographic regions started in the month of January 2020. Meanwhile, alignment of spike protein sequences of SARS-CoV-2 isolates from China and other countries revealed a critical mutation of D614G. Surprisingly, mutation D614G was not seen in early samples submitted in the month of January but gradually it started appearing globally from the month of March 2020. However, the mutations of amino acids in the spike protein other than D614G exhibiting similar pI and altered polarity were found to be specific to geographical regions. Besides, prediction of homology model for interaction of spike protein showed predominant role of chain C of trimeric spike protein in adhering receptor binding domain (RBD) of human ACE2 receptor. Furthermore, the prediction of glycosylation points has revealed that there are about 20 N-glycosylation potential sites on spike protein. We believe that the information present here would not only help in thorough understanding of infectivity but also enhance the knowledge of the scientific community in developing prophylactics and/or therapeutics for SARS-CoV19-2 virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0590.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: cold plasma; polyvinylchloride; wettability; hydrophilization; apparent contact angle; contact angle hysteresis; hydrophobic recovery.
Online: 23 November 2020 (14:31:54 CET)
Impact of the Corona, dielectric barrier discharge and low pressure radiofrequency air plasmas on the chemical composition and wettability of the medical grade polyvinylchloride was investigated. Corona plasma treatment exerted the most pronounced increase in the hydrophilization of polyvinylchloride. The specific energy of adhesion of the pristine and plasma treated PVC tubing is reported. The kinetics of hydrophobic recovery following the plasma treatment was explored. The time evolution of the apparent contact angle under the hydrophobic recovery is satisfactorily described by the exponential fitting. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the chemical composition of the near-surface layers of the plasma treated catheters revealed their oxidation. The effect of the hydrophobic recovery is hardly correlated with oxidation of the polymer surface, which is irreversible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0447.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: UPR; IRE1; PERK; ATF6; lipid bilayer stress; ER stress; secretory pathway; hydrophobic mismatch; membrane thickness; membrane stiffness
Online: 29 October 2021 (07:57:29 CEST)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of membrane biogenesis in most eukaryotic cells. As the entry point to the secretory pathway, it handles more than 10.000 different secretory and membrane proteins. The membrane insertion of proteins, their folding, and ER exit are affected by the lipid composition of the ER membrane and its collective membrane stiffness. The ER is also a hotspot of lipid metabolism for membrane lipids including sterols, glycerophospholipids, ceramides and neural storage lipids. The unfolded protein response (UPR) bears an evolutionary conserved, dual sensitivity to both protein folding-imbalances in the ER lumen and aberrant compositions of the ER membrane, referred to as lipid bilayer stress (LBS). Through transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms, the UPR upregulates the protein folding capacity of the ER and balances the production of proteins and lipids to maintain a functional secretory pathway. In this review, we discuss how UPR transducers sense unfolded proteins and LBS with a particular focus on their role as guardians of the secretory pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: slip flow; navier-slip boundary condition; hydrophobic microchannels; analytical solutions; poiseuille number; velocity profile of poiseuille flow
Online: 5 September 2019 (11:27:50 CEST)
Fluid mechanics of flow in hydrophobic, rectangular microchannels with finite aspect ratios is of paramount importance. In such microchannels, not only the effect of the side walls should be taken into account, but also the classical assumption of no-slip boundary condition (BC) is no longer valid at the solid-liquid interface. Accordingly, slip flow can occur in microchannels fabricated from surfaces with low wetting conditions, hydrophobic surfaces. Determining the interactions of liquid molecules adjacent to solid surface is still a challenging issue, and it is especially important in small scale domains. Herein, the fluid mechanics of flow through rectangular hydrophobic microchannels has been reconsidered by taking into account the general Navier-slip BCs at the solid-liquid interface. For fully developed incompressible flow in microchannels at low Reynolds number, partial differential equation (PDE) of the momentum equation simplifies to the classical Poisson equation. Accordingly, by analytically solving the Poisson equations with general Navier-slip BCs, the most general forms of velocity distributions, flow rate, friction factor and Poiseuille number have been obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0320.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: envelope protein; furin cleavage site; hydrophobic aggregation and rapid transmission; immediate ancestor; pangolins coronaviruses; SARS-CoV-2; spike protein
Online: 23 March 2020 (00:42:35 CET)
We are witnessing the severe third outbreak mediated by coronaviruses affecting global public health with unprecedented economic consequences. A better understanding of its phylogenetics, exploration of sequence features and mutational changes could unveil its genealogy to gain insights into the mechanism of transmission and development of possible interventions. Our comparative genomic analyses of >160 isolates of SARS-CoV-2 reveal phylogenetic kinship with other coronaviruses and emergence of evolutionary divergence in clinical isolates. t-SNE-based clustering revealed different clades but no continent specific clusters. Amino acid substitutions at RBD of spike protein provide possible reasons for rapid transmission. Few proteins specific to SARS-CoV-2 were identified which could have implications as therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Virtual screening identified repurposed drugs, known nutraceuticals, for specific interventions. These phylogenetic observations reveal the ancestry and computational studies reveal the emergency measures to interject this emerging pathogen that pose threat to whole of mankind.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0093.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nanotechnology applications in road maintenance; preventative road surface maintenance; nanotechnology clear-seals; New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME); pot-hole repairs; modified binder slurry seals; hydrophobic slurries; hydrophobic road surface sealants; labour intensive maintenance; rapid employment creation through nanotechnology usage in road maintenance
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:34:49 CET)
: Nanotechnology options to road surface maintenance offers several advantages compared to traditionally used materials. The small particle sizer of hydrophobic Nano-Silane modified Nano-Polymers (NSNP) enables these nanotechnology products to deeply penetrate existing road surfaces, sealing micro-cracks and render surfacings to be water-resistant for extended periods of time. In comparison, traditionally used products contain minimum partial sizes of about 1 – 5 microns, that provide a superficial protection that wears off in a relatively short period of time. These traditional products are often associated with vehicle contamination while drying and requires the re-instatement of road markings. None of these disadvantages are associated with applicable NSNP technologies that are quick drying, with no vehicle contamination risks and is equivalent to a “clear-seal” requiring no reinstatement of road markings. In a similar vein, pot-hole repairs can be done using applicable, easy to use, pre-packed and treated pot-hole repair kits that are water-repellent and quick-drying at a fraction of the costs of conventional cold-mix products. Resurfacing using NME binder slurries can be done labour-intensively on a pre-treated NSNP surfacing, restoring cracked surfacing and providing a water-resistant long-lasting protective layer without the removal of existing cracked areas. The implementation of nanotechnology solutions for road surface maintenance operations is directly associated with ease of use, labour-intensive operations, prevention of considerable deterioration in riding quality due to removal and manual re-instatement of cracked surfaces, time and cost savings and a reduction in the risk of water damage to the sub-structure. TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back