ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: PSNP; household food consumption; household dietary diversity; random effect; instrumental variable
Online: 11 October 2021 (17:15:51 CEST)
This study empirically investigates the effect of productive safety net programme (PSNP) on household food consumption and dietary diversity in Ethiopia. The study applied random effects with instrumental variable to estimate the effect of PSNP membership. The result of the study indicates that though PSNP membership improves household food consumption, it reduces household dietary diversity score. Household food consumption and dietary diversity are also significantly influenced by sex, age, education status of household head, household size, livestock ownership, distance to the nearest market and participation in non-farm activities. The findings of this study suggest that PSNP membership should be reinforced by building household awareness of the benefits of consuming a variety of foods. In addition, PSNP membership should be designed to endow the households to accumulate essential assets, especially livestock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Aboriginal; Indigenous; contact patterns; household structure; disease transmission; household model, human mobility.
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:21:00 CEST)
Cultural practices and development level can influence a population’s household structures and mixing patterns. Within some populations households can be organized across multiple dwellings. This likely affects the spread of infectious disease spreads through these communities, however, current demographic data collection tools do not record these data. Methods: Between June–October 2018, the Contact And Mobility Patterns in remote Aboriginal Australian communities (CAMP-remote) pilot study recruited Aboriginal mothers with infants in a remote northern Australian community to complete a monthly iPad-based contact survey. Results: Thirteen mother-infant pairs (participants) completed 69 study visits between recruitment and the end of May 2019. Participants reported they and their other children slept in 28 dwellings during the study. The median dwelling occupancy, defined as people sleeping in the same dwelling on the previous night, was nine (range: 3.5–25). Participants who completed at least three responses (n=8) slept in a median of three dwellings (range: 2–9). Each month a median of 28% (range: 0%–63%) of the participants travelled out of the community. Including these data in disease transmission models amplified estimates of infectious disease spread in the study community, compared to models parameterized using census data. Conclusions: The lack of data on mixing patterns in populations where households can be organized across dwellings may negatively impact the accuracy of infectious disease models for these communities and the efficacy of public health actions they inform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0698.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Health Shock, Credit, Rural Household Welfare, Sustainable Rural Devlopment, China Household Finance Survey
Online: 9 August 2023 (08:50:14 CEST)
Due to the incomplete of China's current social security system, health shocks are one of the main risks faced by rural families. Using data from the 2019 China Household Finance Survey, we examined the impact of borrowing on household welfare when rural households face health shocks. We found that household income and food expenditure both declined significantly when rural households faced health shocks; rural household borrowing was mainly used for the treatment of the diseases, and it had a crowding out effect on tourism and general health care expenditures, but not on education expenditures. We also found that the impact of borrowing on the western region was higher than that on the central and eastern regions from Looking at the impact of borrowing in different regions. Finally, we put forward some suggestions for promoting sustainable rural development from the perspective of medical security, such as accelerating the promotion of new rural medical insurance, helping rural low-income families improve health benefits, establishing diversified financing channels, improving rural financial platforms, and solving the financing difficulties of households to improve the ability of rural households to resist health shocks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0074.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Household waste; household waste management; sustainable city; integrated waste management model; Malaysia cities
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:27:56 CEST)
In recent years, Malaysia has faced environmental challenges caused by municipal solid waste, especially household waste, during the Covid-19 pandemic. Among all the household waste, plastic and paper are the most prominent waste that causes environmental hazards. Several recycling associations in Malaysia have carried out their practices for better waste sustainability and management to curb the increasing amount of household waste. However, the effectiveness is still vague in achieving smart and effective household waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate Malaysia’s household waste management, mainly in three significant municipalities in Malaysia for Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Melaka, in becoming a resilient and sustainable city by addressing two main research questions 1) What are the key factors for ensuring the more success move for future household waste management in cities? and 2) How will the 3 municipalities address their waste issues based on the key factors from RQ1, respectively? This paper reviewed 13 waste management articles and explores the potential of the four factors of waste management from the perspective of technology and data, economy, social and governance. The discussed factors and models contributed to an integrated future-proofing framework that focuses on smart waste tracking, an gamified awareness education, and strict policies to control waste management are the way forward for the future of smart cities household waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rural; stunting; household size; Indonesia
Online: 13 July 2021 (08:28:03 CEST)
(1) Background: Stunting remains a challenge in Indonesia, where 30.8% of under-five children are stunted and may never reach full potential height and cognitive function. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of stunting in Nangapanda subdistrict, East Nusa Tenggara; (2) Methods: The design was cross-sectional study located in rural area as part of PINTERMIDI UI project. We collected quantitative data on social determinants, weight, height, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum zinc, CRP, worm infection, history of deworming, co-morbidity, food security, and nutrient intake; (3) Results: A total of 196 under-five children included and 74% households were food insecure. The prevalence of stunting was 29.9% in this population (31.8% worm infection, 30.3% iron deficiency, and 28.1% zinc deficiency). Multivariate analysis showed household with 5-8 members (AOR 3.076; 95% CI 1.132 – 8.356) and unsafe drinking water (AOR 1.702; 95% CI 0.825 – 3.512) were significant independent risk factors of stunting after adjusted by child’s gender, father’s occupation, caregiver’s education, monthly expenses, sanitary facilities, and food security status; (4) Conclusions: The number of household members is the only independent risk factor of stunting among children age 24-59 months in rural area of Eastern Indonesia. Development of nutrition sensitive intervention and promotion of family planning are needed in order to increase adequate child’s care and feeding practices in rural area of Eastern Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0374.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: GEE; Household-head; outpatient-expense; QICu
Online: 15 December 2020 (11:07:21 CET)
Spending on out-patient health care by citizens in limited resource countries has received little attention.The purpose of this study is to determine the predictors of household spending on out-patient expenses in a cross-sectional study in Kenya. We applied the GEE methods to determine the effect of various variables on outpatient care. We established that the best predictors for outpatient spending in Kenya are Age of the household head, wealth index, marital status and education, which had the lowest QICu of 976341.2. There were no differences on age in mean spending on outpatient care and was changing in a sinusoidal manner. The rich spend more on outpatient care, due to financial ability. Spending increased across the wealth quantiles while gender had a significant effect in the general performance of the models, it didn’t assist in lowering the QICu
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0722.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social expenditure; welfare; vulnerability; household; poverty
Online: 30 September 2020 (04:11:49 CEST)
We estimate the effect of household social expenditure on vulnerability to poverty using the four latest cross-sectional waves of Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) from 1999 to 2017. Using a 3-Stage Least Square and Quantile Regression, our results show a widening consumption ex-post welfare gap between the poorest households and the non-poor households in a per-cedi social expenditure. Also, we estimate the probability of an ex-ante poverty using vulnerability to expected poverty. The results, however, indicate that regardless of poverty status, household vulnerability to poverty increased consistently between 1999 and 2017, and the very poor households showing the severest vulnerability. Hence, it is concluded that social expenditure increases the chances of a poor household falling into chronic poverty a non-poor household into transient poverty in the future.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; group testing; household; screening
Online: 2 August 2020 (12:48:19 CEST)
In the advent of COVID-19 pandemic, testing is highly essential to be able to isolate, treat infected persons, and finally curb transmission of this infectious respiratory disease. Group testing has been used previously for various infectious diseases and recently reported for large-scale population testing of COVID-19. However, possible sample dilution as a result of large pool sizes has been reported, limiting testing methods’ detection sensitivity. Moreover, the need to sample all individuals prior to pooling overburden the limited resources such as test kits. An alternative proposed strategy where test is performed on pooled samples from individuals representing different households is presented here. This strategy intends to improve group testing method through the reduction in the number of samples collected and pooled during large-scale population testing. Moreover, it introduces database system which enables continuous monitoring of the population’s virus exposure for better decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: chickpea; production function; household; south ethiopia
Online: 6 June 2018 (11:28:32 CEST)
This research was aimed to study the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) production among smallholder farmers in Damot Gale and Humbo Woredas. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in order to determine the sample respondents. By using simple random sampling techniques four sample Kebeles were selected. Cross sectional data were collected from 182 farmer households who were chickpea producers in 2016 production season. Primary data were collected from sample households using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and econometric model were employed to analyze the data. To identify the production function of chickpea crops Cobbe-Douglas production function was employed. The study suggest interventions such as intensification strategies which increase yields through proper management and use of inputs, rural infrastructure improvement increases the likelihood of production of chickpea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: constraints; factors; household; solid waste management
Online: 9 September 2016 (07:42:15 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor waste managements systems, most household dispose waste indiscriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management. Currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Household solid waste; Dominican Republic; separation at source; Organic solid waste, Household survey; Cibao; North region.)
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:56:26 CET)
One of the biggest problems that the Dominican Republic has had in recent decades is the efficient management of solid waste produced by the population. This problem has worsened in recent years due to the decrease in available areas for the construction of sanitary landfills, the lack of recycling culture in the population, the deficiency in waste collection, and the scarce legal controls aimed at preserving water and air and soil, among other factors. The objective of this study was to explore the management of solid waste by the population and the municipality of Puñal, province of Santiago, to evaluate and analyze the situation and generation of solid waste, municipal solid waste management services, and the attitudes of the population regarding recycling projects and waste management, to evaluate the viability and sustainability of the use organic waste for energy generation. A total of 275 households from 29 localities in the municipality of Puñal were surveyed, which allowed for a significant population sample. According to the results obtained, the most significant type of waste produced by families is organic waste, followed by plastic waste and paper. Of the total organic waste produced in the municipality, 53% of solid waste is disregarded through the municipal waste collection system, while 47% is used as plant fertilizers or animal feed. On the other hand, most households receive the municipal waste collection service and pay for this service. The results of our research show that the implementation of an energy production system based on organic waste would be viable in the municipality of Puñal. However, a more efficient waste collection system would be necessary and the development of programs and projects that allow all households to participate in the system.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; household survey; adolescents; South Africa
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:19:43 CET)
Psychological distress (PD) may be common among adolescents. The study aimed to estimate population-based rates of PD among adolescents in South Africa. National cross-sectional data were analysed from 2,240 adolescents (17 years median age) that participated in a community-based population survey, the “2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1).” Results indicated that 16.0% of the adolescents had PD, 13.1% among boys and 18.5% among girls. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, increasing age, girls, belonging to the Black African population group, having experienced two or more traumatic life events, poor self-rated health status, having activity limitations, perceived body overweight, fast food and snack consumption were associated with PD. Almost one in six adolescents in South Africa reported PD and several associated factors were identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0670.v2
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Household waste management; Recyclables; Healthcare waste; COVID-19
Online: 26 October 2023 (09:46:26 CEST)
Solid waste management is challenging in many countries, especially developing economies. The impacts of the pandemic continue to be felt and have indicated secondary impacts on waste management. This work draws on data on household solid waste (HSW), healthcare waste (HCW), and recyclables collected in the Rio de Janeiro municipality, analyzed from January 2018 to December 2022. As expected, the collection of HCW in Rio de Janeiro municipality experienced a noticeable increase in 2020 and 2021, with an average of 46.9 tons and 54.3 tons collected, respectively. Notably, 2021 saw a significant 30% increase compared to 2019 (p-value<0.001). No significant difference was observed in recyclables collected from 2018 to 2021. The average recyclable amount was 3,638 and 3,747 tons per month in 2020 and 2021. In contrast, the monthly amount was equal to 4,819.5 tons in 2022, representing an increase higher than 32% compared to previous years (p-value<0.05). Our findings can be used to adapt and improve waste systems to cope with similar emergency scenarios in the future, serving as a template for municipalities with similar challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0360.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Household Disaster Preparation; Natural Hazards Mitigation; Prediction Model
Online: 2 November 2021 (12:57:04 CET)
Natural disasters are showing an increase in the magnitude, frequency, and geographic distribution. Studies have shown that individuals’ self-sufficiency, which largely depends on household preparedness, is very important for hazard mitigation in at least the first 72 hours following a disaster. However, for factors that influence a household’s disaster preparedness, though there are many studies trying to identify from different aspects, we still lack an integrative analysis on how these factors contribute to a household’s preparation. This paper aims to build a classification model to predict whether a household has prepared for a potential disaster based on their personal characteristics and the environment they located. We collect data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Household Survey in 2018 and train four classification models - logistic regression, decision trees, support vector machines, and multi-layer perceptron classifier models- to predict the impact of personal characteristics and the environment they located on household prepare for the potential natural disaster. Results show that the multi-layer perceptron classifier model outperforms others with the highest scoring on both recall (0.8531) and f1 measure (0.7386). In addition, feature selection results also show that among other factors, a household’s accessibility to disaster-related information is the most critical factor that impacts household disaster preparation. Though there is still room for further parameter optimization, the model gives a clue that we could support disaster management by gathering publicly accessible data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0551.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: international remittances; household welfare index; welfare; poverty; Bangladesh
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:12:34 CEST)
This paper mainly focuses on the construction of a household welfare index to examine the welfare impact of international remittances in rural Bangladesh. This paper, in achieving this objective, uses primary data and several methods. This paper constructs a household welfare index newly to measure the level of household welfare. Besides, a linear regression and Chi-square test is used to examine the welfare and poverty impact of international remittances, respectively. Remittance receiving households enjoy the higher level of welfare more than non-recipient households in the study area. Household welfare is augmented by 0.116 if the household is under the shade of international remittances. A significant impact of international remittances on the reduction of household poverty is also found in this study. Therefore, this paper suggests policymakers for utilizing international remittances as a significant tool to enhance household welfare and to reduce household poverty.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Non-cooperative Household Model; Domestic Violence; Maternal Health
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:49:45 CEST)
There is increasing evidence that the non-cooperative models describe household structures in developing countries more succinctly compared with the unitary model. Domestic violence against women, which is pervasive in Nigeria even though likely to be under-reported, will need to be understood within the framework of non-cooperative relationship between couples. In this study, we identify factors of domestic violence against women within couples who were currently in marital or cohabiting partnerships. Also, we investigate whether domestic violence influences the decision of women to terminate pregnancies. We use data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to model the predictors of domestic violence, and its influence on the decision to terminate pregnancies among married women. Of the 8,910 married women interviewed for domestic violence, 35.33% had ever experienced a form of domestic violence. We discover that women: with higher education, that is not poor, and resides in urban areas have 44%, 18% and 15% reductions in the odds of experience domestic violence respectively. On the other hand, women who are employed, own land, having husbands/partners that are employed in the agricultural sector, and drink alcohol have 1.16, 1.2, 2.07, and 2.8 times increased odds of experiencing domestic violence accordingly. Also, we uncover that currently married women experiencing domestic violence have 1.25 times increased odds of terminating pregnancies compared with their counterparts that are not experiencing domestic violence. Effectively, poverty, low levels of education, residing in rural areas, drinking habit of husbands/partners, employment, marital capital, and land ownership status of women are risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Nigeria but can be affected by policies and programmes. Importantly, public actions to contain domestic violence in order to improve maternal health should be implemented in the context of the dynamics of a non-cooperative relationship existing between married couples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0072.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: census; survey design; household survey; LMIC; WorldPop; LandScan
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:09:23 CEST)
Objective: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), household survey data are a main source of information for planning, evaluation, and decision-making. Standard surveys are based on censuses, however, for many LMICs it has been more than ten years since their last census and they face high urban growth rates. Over the last decade, survey designers have begun to use modelled gridded population estimates as sample frames. We summarize the state of the emerging field of gridded population survey sampling, focussing on LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic review and identified 43 national and sub-national gridded population-based household surveys implemented across 29 LMICs. Findings: Gridded population surveys used automated and manual approaches to derive clusters from WorldPop and LandScan gridded population estimates. After sampling, many surveys interviewed all households in each cluster or segment, though some sampled households from larger clusters. Tools to select gridded population survey clusters include the GridSample R package, Geo-sampling tool, and GridSample.org. In the field, gridded population surveys generally relied on geographically accurate maps based on satellite imagery or OpenStreetMap, and a tablet or GPS technology for navigation. Conclusions: For gridded population survey sampling to be adopted more widely, several strategic questions need answering regarding cell-level accuracy and uncertainty of gridded population estimates, the methods used to group/split cells into sample frame units, design effects of new sample designs, and feasibility of tools and methods to implement surveys across diverse settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial literacy; financial knowledge; household finance; young people
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:30:54 CET)
Financial literacy is a path to sustainability and has an important role in ensuring the financial sustainability of individuals, families, enterprises and national economies. The level of these economic indicators such as debt, payment discipline, savings and financial management all translate into prosperity or insolvency and bankruptcy and result partially from financial literacy. The higher the level of financial literacy, especially of young people, the more favorable the level of economic indicators, which translates into the economy and sustainable development. However, despite many years of research, there is still a lack of a uniform and coherent definition of financial literacy, as well as methods for measuring it. This study offers a small step forward, presenting the authors’ own view of the concept of financial literacy, the conceptualizations of financial literacy and methods used for investigating. Moreover, they present the results of a survey conducted on the financial behaviour, financial attitudes, and financial knowledge of the Polish youth and compare this to a PISA study on 15-year-old students. Results demonstrate a good, and partially very good, level of financial literacy among young Poles, showing that they are rational in their financial decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: water; physical; chemical; microbiological; quality; household; stored; source
Online: 14 March 2017 (10:49:43 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical and microbial qualities of source and stored household waters in some communities in Southwestern Nigeria using standard methods. Compared parameters include physicochemical constituents; Temperature (T), pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Magnesium ion (Mg2+) and Calcium ion (Ca2+) and microbiological parameters included Total Coliform Counts (TC), Faecal Coliform Counts (FC), Fungal Counts (Fung C), Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC). Comparing Stored and Source samples, the mean values of some physicochemical parameters of most of the stored water samples significantly (P<0.05) exceeded that of Sources and ranged in the following order: T (15.3±0.3oC - 28.3±0.5oC), pH (6.4±0.1 - 7.6±0.1), TDS (192.1±11.1 ppm - 473.7±27.9 ppm), TH (10.6±1.7 mg/L - 248.6±18.6 mg/L), BOD (0.5±0.0 mg/L - 3.2±0.3 mg/L), Mg2+ (6.5±2.4 mg/L - 29.1±3.2 mg/L) and Ca2+ (6.5±2.4 mg/L - 51.6±4.4 mg/L). The mean microbial counts obtained from microbial comparison of different points (Stored and Source) of collection showed that most of the stored water had counts significantly exceeding (P<0.05) those of the source water samples (cfu/100 mL) which ranged as follows: TC (3.1±1.5 - 156.8±42.9), FC (0.0±0.0 - 64.3±14.2) and HPC (47.8±12.1 - 266.1±12.2) across all sampled communities. Also, the predominant isolates recovered from the samples were identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, Rhizopus spp and Candida spp. The presence of these pathogenic and potentially pathogenic organisms in the waters and the high counts of the indicator organisms suggest the waters to be a threat to public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0020.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Gender Roles; Household Production; Telecommuting; Teleworking; Well-Being
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:43:32 CET)
This study examines the relationship between teleworking, gender roles and happiness of couples using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the Understanding Society Survey (USS) during the period 1991-2012. Various approaches are followed, including Probit-adapted fixed effects, multinomial Logit and Instrumental variables (IV). The results support that both men and women who are teleworkers spend more time on housework, while teleworking increases the probability that the household chores examined in this study, such as cooking, cleaning ironing and childcare, will be shared relatively to those who are non-teleworkers. In addition, women are happier when they or their spouse is teleworker, as well as, both men and women are happier when they state that the specific household chores are shared. Thus, women teleworkers may be happier because they can face the family demands and share the household chores with their spouse, increasing their fairness belief about the household division allocation and improving their well-being, expressed by happiness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1980.v1
Subject: Public, Environmental And Occupational Health, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: household washing machines; microbial contamination; metagenomics; pathogenic bacteria; biofilm
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:11:19 CET)
Washing machines are one of the tools that bring great convenience to people's daily lives. However, washing machines that have been used for a long time often develop issues such as odor and mold, which can pose health hazards to consumers. There exists a conspicuous gap in our understanding of the microorganisms that inhabit the inner workings of washing machines. In this study, samples were collected from 22 washing machines in Shanghai, China, including both water eluted from different parts of washing machines and biofilms. Quantitative qualitative analysis was performed using fluorescence PCR quantification and microbial communities were characterized by high throughput sequencing (HTS). It showed that the microbial communities in all samples were predominantly composed of bacteria, and they have a strong adhesion ability in the washing machine environment. HTS results showed that in the eluted water samples, the bacteria mainly included Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, Brevibacterium and Acinetobacter. On the contrary, in biofilm samples, Enhydrobacter and Brevibacterium were the predominant bacterial microorganisms. Correlation analysis results revealed that microbial colonies in washing machines were significantly correlated with years of use and the type of detergent used to clean the washing machine. As numerous pathogenic microorganisms can be observed in the results, effective preventive measures and future research are essential to mitigate these health problems and ensure the continued safe use of these household appliances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: digital financial inclusion; migration; remittance; household; rural-urban; Bangladesh
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:36:56 CEST)
Globally, large numbers of adults remain unbanked and most of them live in rural areas of the Third World. The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown us how inequalities in accessing financial services continue to affect us. However, financial inclusion has emerged as an effective tool to tackle socioeconomic ills and drive economic development. In fact, due to these modern technological developments, the number of studies in this area is very limited, especially in the context of developing economies. This study examines the impacts of migrant remittances on digital financial inclusion within households using the Migration and Remittance Household Survey in Bangladesh. To meet the research objectives of this study, a household survey was conducted and interviewed 2,165 households in 2022-2023 in Bangladesh. This study finds that the coefficient of remittance has a positive relationship with the probability of using mobile banking for a household's financial transactions. However, the use of ATM cards by households for financial transactions has not been significantly affected. The article concludes that remittance flows may enhance access to and use of digital financial inclusion by reducing some of the barriers and costs in Bangladesh, which can greatly contribute to the country's economic growth by creating and increasing a strong fund for investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1638.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: population aging; household tourism consumption; intergenerational care; Internet use
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:26:41 CEST)
The ever deepening population aging has brought opportunities and challenges to the continued expansion of tourism consumption in China. In this article, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption was studied from both theoretical and empirical aspects. First, the micro mechanisms of the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption were analyzed, which include economic condition mechanism, intergenerational care mechanism, health status mechanism and Internet use mechanism. Subsequently, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption and its impact mechanisms were tested, and the heterogeneity analysis was conducted, by using the data of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2014, 2016 and 2018. The main conclusions of the article are as follows: (1) Population aging has a significant negative impact on household tourism consumption, and a series of robustness test results such as endogenous treatment support this finding. (2) The results of the impact mechanism test show that population aging has a negative mediating effect on household tourism consumption by reducing household economic conditions. The moderating effect of intergenerational care on the effect of population aging on household tourism consumption is insignificant. Health status of the elderly and Internet use have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption. (3) The results of the heterogeneity analysis show that the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption in urban areas is greater than that in rural areas, and the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption of families with the old-old elderly is greater than that of falimies with the young-old elderly. The conclusions of this article provide important references for activating tourism consumption in China in the context of population aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Rwanda; stunting; children; poor; household; factors; intimate partner violence
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:30:54 CET)
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of stunting among children aged 6-23 months from poor households in Rwanda. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 817 mother-child dyads living in poor households from five districts with a high prevalence of stunting. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of stunting, bivariate analysis, and a multivariate logistic re-gression model to measure the strength of the Association between childhood stunting and exposure variables. Stunting was at 34.1%. Children aged 19-23 months (AOR = 4.410, 95% CI: [1.911-10.173], p-value=0.01), children aged 13-18 months (AOR=2.788, 95% CI: [1.302-5.968], p-value=0.08), children from households that do not have a vegetable garden (AOR=2.165, 95% CI: [1.201-3.905], p-value<0.01) were more likely to be stunted. On the other hand, children whose mothers were not exposed to physical violence (AOR= 0.145, 95% CI: [0.074-0.287], p-value<0.001), children whose fathers were working (AOR=0.036, 95% CI: [0.005-0.242], p-value=0.001), children whose both parents were working (AOR=0.208, 95% CI: [0.051-0.851], p-value=0.029) and children whose mothers had good hand-washing practice (AOR=0.181, 95% CI: [0.091-0.362], p-value<0.001) were less likely to be stunted. Our findings underscore the importance of integrating the promotion of hand-washing practices, owning vegetable gardens, and intimate partner violence prevention in the interventions to fight stunting.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; children; household; contact tracing
Online: 14 October 2020 (13:33:49 CEST)
We analyzed the characteristics of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected children during lock-down period in Catalonia (Spain), and their transmission role within the households. Among 295 traced household contacts of 89 pediatric patients, children were classified as final index cases in only 3.4% of the traced homes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Firewood; Forest dependence; Gender; Household income; Livelihoods; Wealth status
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:56:38 CEST)
Rural households across developing countries rely on diversified sources of income and forest resource play important role in this regard. This study is designed with the objectives of assessing the contribution of forests to annual income of rural households and identifying its determinants with the case of Essera woreda forest in western Ethiopia. It also examined the gender dimensions of forest income and how this income varies with the wealth status of households key informants interview focus group discussion and household based questionnaire survey were used to collect data. On average income from crop production accounted for (40.7%) of the total annual household income. Forest income is second in importance contributing (32.6%), income from livestock off and non-farm activities and woodlots accounted for (13.6%), (11.4%) and (1.7%) of the total household income respectively. Firewood is the most used forest product and constituted the largest proportion (79%) of the total forest income. Forest income is more important for poor households (47.3%) than for medium (30.5%) or rich (20.2%) households. It is also more important for female headed households (58.2%) than for male headed households (29%). The gender dimension of forest income is also important within the household. Female members generated about four times more forest income (77% of the household forest income) than male members (23%). Policy to promote new forest management arrangement such as participatory forest management (PFM) needs to take in to account the major forest users and the types of products they depend on and be accompanied with other poverty reduction measures so that improved forest conservation outcome will not have negative consequences on local livelihoods particularly on poor and women who depend most on the forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0398.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; pairwise epidemic model; household quarantine; clustering coefficient
Online: 27 February 2020 (11:00:23 CET)
The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (also known as COVID-19) has triggered a series of stringent control measures in China, such as city closure, traffic restrictions, contact tracing and household quarantine. These containment efforts often lead to changes in the contact pattern among individuals of the population. Many existing compartmental epidemic models fail to account for the effects of contact structure. In this paper, we devised a pairwise epidemic model to analyze the COVID-19 outbreak in China based on confirmed cases reported during the period February 3rd--17th, 2020. By explicitly incorporating the effects of family clusters and contact tracing followed by household quarantine and isolation, our model provides a good fit to the trajectory of COVID-19 infections and is useful to predict the epidemic trend. We obtained the average of the reproduction number $R=1.494$ ($95\%$ CI: $1.483-1.507$) for Hubei province and $R=1.178$ ($95\%$ CI: $1.145-1.158$) for China (except Hubei), suggesting that some existing studies may have overestimated the reproduction number by neglecting the dynamical correlations and clustering effects. We forecasted that the COVID-19 epidemic would peak on February 13th ($95\%$ CI: February $9-17$th) in Hubei and 6 days eariler in the regions outside Hubei. Moreover the epidemic was expected to last until the middle of March in China (except Hubei) and late April in Hubei. The sensitivity analysis shows that ongoing exposure for the susceptible and population clustering play an important role in the disease propagation. With the enforcement of household quarantine measures, the reproduction number $R$ effectively reduces and epidemic quantities decrease accordingly. Furthermore, we gave an answer to the public concern on how long the stringent containment strategies should maintain. Through numerical analysis, we suggested that the time for the resumption of work and production in China (except Hubei) and Hubei would be the middle of March and the end of April, 2020, respectively. These constructive suggestions may bring some immeasurable social-economic benefits in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: bio-digesters; household income levels; renewable energy; socio-economic
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:55:58 CEST)
1) Background: The environmental, financial and social questions in Africa remain unanswered up-to-date, with the rapid increase in human population and the demand for fuel energy, trigger the need to generate data on the socio-economic factors influencing the knowledge of use and adoption of family-sized bio-digesters. The increasing prices of fossil fuels and taxes on energy sources require finding the alternative, clean and economical sources of energy for households in developing countries. Moreover, in Africa, the consumption of firewood and charcoal continues to increase, with wood fuel consumption predicted to increase by 2030 to over 140%. The study objectives were 1) to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the people in Ngoma district, 2) to assess socio-economic factors influencing people to use and adopt family-sized bio-digesters. 2) Methods: Quantitative data collected with semi-structured questionnaires and interviews were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 3) Results: The results show that many households had not realized the potential benefits of biogas use and adoption in Rwanda. The study further found that a number of factors such as household income levels, socio-economic, technological, and institutional influence the household use and adoption of biogas energy. 4) Conclusions: At the end, the study suggests the need for all players such as Government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) and local communities to work together to provide incentives and favorable environment that can attract individual households to invest in biogas energy production and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Municipal household solid waste; Pyrolysis; Biofuels; Economic analysis; Technical feasibility.
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:40:02 CET)
In this study, the objective is to analyze the economic viability of municipal household solid waste (organic matter + paper) for the production of gas, coke and biofuel through the pyrolysis and distillation process. The waste was collected in the city of Belém do Pará-Brazil and pre-treated at UFPA. The analyzed fraction (organic matter + paper) was subjected to pre-treatment of drying, crushing, sieving and was subsequently subjected to proximate characterization and finally pyrolysis of the organic fraction (organic matter + paper) in a fixed bed reactor. Initially, it was necessary to review the literature and with the yields obtained by pyrolysis of the frac-tion, economic feasibility analyzes were carried out. The economic indicators for evaluating the most viable pyrolysis process were: simple payback, discounted payback, net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and profitability index (IL). The analysis of the indicators showed the economic viability considering an analysis horizon of 10 years, of materials based on organic material and paper. The break-even point obtained was 0.96 US$/L and the minimum biofuel sales price (MFSP – “Minimum Fuel Sale Price”) obtained in this work was 1.30 US$/L. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that material costs (organic matter + paper), bio-oil yield, total project investment and electricity, respectively, are the variables that most affect the mini-mum biofuel sales price (MFSP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: disaster management; household preparedness prediction; machine learning; Monte Carlo Simulation
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:45:05 CET)
Effective household and individual disaster preparedness can minimize physical harm and property damage during catastrophic events. To assess the risk and vulnerability of affected areas, it is crucial for relief agencies to understand the level of public preparedness. Traditionally, government agencies have employed nationwide random telephone surveys to gauge the public’s attitudes and actions towards disaster preparedness. However, these surveys may lack generalizability in certain affected locations due to low response rates or areas not covered by the survey. To address this issue and enhance the comprehensiveness of disaster preparedness assessments, we develop a framework that seamlessly integrates machine learning and simulation. Our approach leverages machine learning algorithms to establish relationships between public attitudes towards disaster preparedness and demographic characteristics. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we generate datasets that incorporate demographic information of the affected location based on government-provided demographic distribution data. The generated dataset is then input into the machine learning model to predict the disaster preparedness attitudes of the affected population. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by applying it to Miami-Dade County, where it accurately predicts the level of disaster preparedness. With this innovative approach, relief agencies can have a clearer and more comprehensive understanding of public disaster preparedness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0437.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Mixed farming; Household resilience; livelihood insecurity; Diversification; structural equation model
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:51:04 CET)
Poor households are more likely less resilient under climate change, risks of productive assets, social-related shocks, and decline of land productivity. The ability to deal with household resilience against poverty under the uncertain condition of risk is limited in the highlands of Ethiopia. The study aims to identify determinants of household resilience to livelihood insecurity under the crop-livestock mixed farming systems in Goncha district, Northwest highlands of Ethiopia. Primary data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews among 280 households using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test and structural equation modeling were used to analyse the data. The results disclosed that sustainable management of the farming systems, cultivation of more fertile farmland, saving performance, diversification of income-earning activities, intensification of livestock husbandry practices, access to irrigation, and familiarity with practical technologies were found to be significant determinants at p<0.001 to household resilience of smallholder farmers. Social network development and tree plantation were explained household resilience to livelihood insecurity at P<0.01 and P<0.1 significant levels, respectively. The study concluded that scaling up sustainable management of the farming system and practical technologies, enhancing saving behavior, promoting income diversification, and intensifying agroforestry are significant for household resilience to livelihood insecurity of smallholders across agro-ecologies.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban household, migration, connectivity, food remittances, food security, Nairobi, Kenya
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
This paper draws on data from a representative city-wide household food security survey of Nairobi conducted in 2017 to examine the importance of food remitting to households in contemporary Nairobi. The next section of the paper provides an overview of urbanization and the rapid growth of Nairobi which has led to growing socio-economic inequality, precarious livelihoods for the majority, and growing food insecurity, as context for the more detailed empirical analysis of food security and food remittances that follows. It is followed by a description of the survey methodology and sections analyzing the differences between migrant and non-migrant households in Nairobi. Attention then turns to the phenomenon of food remitting, showing that over 50% of surveyed households in the city had received food remittances in the previous year. The paper then uses multivariate logistic regression to identify the relationship between Nairobi household characteristics and the probability of receiving food remittances from rural areas. The findings suggest that there are exceptions to the standard migration and poverty-driven explanatory model of the drivers of rural-urban food remitting and that greater attention should be paid to other motivations for maintaining rural-urban connectivity in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0057.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Savings Propensity; Household Finance; Development; Tribals; Connectivity; Rural; Culture; India
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:53:39 CET)
Economic sustainability of rural areas is a concern given the increasing trend towards urbanization globally and in India. Self-reliant strategies, including increased savings and investment are more valuable in this regard than external interventions. This paper uses the results of a survey to examine the factors affecting saving in a rural part of Odisha populated primarily by tribals. Our tentative findings are that savings propensity is determined partly by the extent to which individuals feel connected to the broader economy, and partly by cultural factors. One implication of these findings is that connecting rural areas to other, possibly urban, locations could elicit greater saving and this could lead to greater development, employment possibilities, economic betterment and all the consequent social welfare implications. This paper relates savings propensity to new sociological population characteristics, such as perceived connectivity and food consumption patterns, and hence provides hitherto unexplored clues for policy initiatives to increase savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: battery energy storage; energy management; household consumption; solar panels; system dynamics
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:18:39 CEST)
Increasing of renewable energy share in total energy production is a direction that leads towards European Union’s aims of carbon neutrality by 2050, as well as increases energy self-sufficiency and independence. Some of the main challenges to increase renewable energy share while providing efficient and secure energy supply are related to optimization and profitability of de-centralized energy production systems. Integration of energy storage systems in addition to decentralized renewable energy production, for example, by solar panels, leads to more effective electricity supply and smart energy solutions. The modelling of such complex dynamic system can be performed using system dynamics method. The aim of the article is to forecast the practice of electricity storage in Latvia in the coming decades. A system dynamics model predicting the implementation of battery storage in private households was created for the case study of Latvia. Modelling results reveal that under the right conditions for electricity price, investment costs and with the right policy interventions battery storage technologies combined with PV panels have high potential for utilization in household sector. Model results show that in baseline scenario with no additional policies up 21 422 households or 10.8 % of Latvian households could have combined PV and battery system installed in 2050. Moderate subsidy policy can help to increase this number up to 25 118.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: cost evaluation; mixed briquettes; conventional fuels; life cycle cost; household use
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:04:03 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretical evaluation of the prices of mixed briquettes produced from co-conut shells (CCS), banana peels (BNP), rattan waste (RWT), and sugarcane bagasse (SGC), and, on the other hand, an analysis of the economic viability of their use as a replacement for conventional household fuels (Liquefied Petroleum Gas, fuelwood, and wood charcoal) in house-holds in Cameroon. The investigation was carried out using the Life Cycle Cost method on a typical household over a ten-year period with annual cooking energy requirements of 950 kWhth. The SGC-CCS and SGC-RWT mixed briquettes with a ratio higher than 7.75% and 11.1%, respectively, have prices lower than 0.063 €/kWhth. The Present Value of the Net Benefit is posi-tive for the use of SGC-CCS and SGC-RWT mixed briquettes. The results show that by making the right mixes of residues, it is possible to obtain biomass briquettes that are less expensive than conventional fuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0793.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Food insecurity, Food insufficiency, Household Hunger, Coping Strategy, COVID-19, Pandemic
Online: 2 September 2021 (15:13:20 CEST)
The present study measured household hunger in South-East Nigeria amidst COVID-19 lockdown. A total of 1209 households (urban and rural locations) were sampled. Household hunger was determined using Radimer/Cornel hunger scale, while Chi-square test was done with significance of P<0.05. Results of this study revealed 82.7% prevalence of hunger among households before Covid-19 pandemic, while during Covid-19 lockdown, hunger prevalence rose to 98.6%. It was also observed that covid-19 lockdown significantly affected food prices.The major coping strategy employed by households was relying on less expensive foods (81.14%). High household hunger was identified as a short term cost of Covid-19 lockdown in Southeast Nigeria. Only few households benefited from the food aid programs and other forms of palliatives by Government. It is recommended that the Government should setup a formidable unit which will develop physical and digital plans for effective implemention during Covid-19 lockdown situation or other emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: asbestos; domestic; environmental; health impact survey; household; Korea; neighbor; roof; slate
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:36:02 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between various asbestos exposure routes and asbestos-related disorders (ARDs). The study population comprised 11,186 residents of a metropolitan city who lived near asbestos factories, shipyards, or in slate roof-dense areas. ARDs were defined from chest X-rays indicating lower lung fibrosis (LFF), pleural disease (PD), and lung masses (LMs). Of the subjects, 11.2%, 10.4%, 67.2% and 8.3% were exposed to asbestos via occupational, household, neighborhood, and slate roof routes, respectively. Regarding adjusted confounders and other exposure routes, the odds ratio (OR) of PD from household exposure (i.e., living with asbestos-producing workers) was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.9–4.2), and that of LLF and PD from neighborhood exposure, or residing near asbestos factories) for <19 or >20 years, or near a mine, were 4.1 (2.8–5.8) and 4.8 (3.4–6.7), 8.3 (5.5–12.3) and 8.0 (5.5–11.6), and 4.8 (2.7–8.5) and 9.0 (5.6–14.4), respectively. The ORs of LLF, PD, and LM among those residing in slate-dense areas were 5.5 (3.3–9.0), 8.8 (5.6–13.8), and 20.5 (10.4–40.4), respectively. Substantial proportions of citizens residing in industrialized city have potentially been exposed to asbestos, and various exposure routes are associated with the development of ARDs. Notably, this may be the first finding of the health effects of slate roof exposure. However, given the limitations of this study, including potential confounders such as socioeconomic status, further research is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1400.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: hierarchical forecasting; short time series; local approach; global approach; household gas consumption
Online: 21 September 2023 (05:39:44 CEST)
This study presents a novel approach for predicting hierarchical short time series. In this article, our objective was to formulate long-term forecasts for household natural gas consumption by considering the hierarchical structure of territorial units within a country's administrative divisions. For this purpose, we utilized natural gas consumption data from Poland. The length of the time series was an important determinant of the data set. We contrast global techniques, which employ a uniform method across all time series, with local methods that fit a distinct method for each time series. Furthermore, we compare the conventional statistical approach with a machine learning (ML) approach. Based on our analyses, we devised forecasting methods for short time series that exhibit exceptional performance. We have demonstrated that global models provide better forecasts than local models. Among ML models, neural networks yielded the best results, with the MLP network achieving comparable performance to the LSTM network while requiring significantly less computational time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0046.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: women household decision making; maternal mortality; sustainable development goals; developing countries; Nigeria
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:39:02 CEST)
High maternal mortality in the developing countries, particularly in Nigeria, poses serious challenge to achieving the maternal mortality target of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the countries. Hence, there is need for multifaceted approach to curtailing the scourge. Women being the victims of maternal mortality, this study finds the effect of their household decision making power in reducing maternal mortality. The study used data from the 2013 Nigeria Health and Demographic Survey (NDHS) and logistic regression model to explore the relationship between women household decision making power and maternal mortality in Nigeria. The finding shows that women who decide and participate in household decision on own health, major purchases and visit to family and relatives were 35% (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.83), 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.92), and 37% (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.80) less likely to experience maternal mortality, respectively, compared to those whose husbands alone decide. Women household decision making power is therefore instrumental to reducing maternal mortality. It is thus important for policy makers, particularly in Nigeria, to pay more attention to social and cultural factors that surround women household decision making ability for speedy reduction in maternal deaths.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: STLF; electricity; residential (household); Artificial Intelligence; energy demand; modelling techniques; hour-ahead load
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:15:00 CEST)
In this paper, a systematic literature review is presented, through a survey in the main digital databases, about modelling methods for Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) for hourly electricity demand for residential electricity and to realize the performance evolution and impact of the Artificial Intelligent (AI) in STLF. With these specific objectives, it was developed a conceptual framework on the subject, a systematic review of the literature based on scientific publications with high impact and a bibliometric study directed to the scientific production of AI and STLF. The review of research articles over a 10-year period, which takes place between 2012-2022, uses the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. This research resulted in more than 300 articles, available in 4 (four) databases: Web of Science, IEEE Xplore, Scopus and Science Direct. The research was organized around 3 (three) central themes, which were defined through keywords: STLF, Electricity, Residential and their corresponding synonyms. 334 research articles were analyzed and identified the year of publication, journal, author, geography by continent and country and the area of application. Of the 334 documents found in the initial research and after applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, which allowed delimiting the subject addressed in the topics of interest for analysis, 37 (thirty-seven) documents are in English (25 are journal articles and 12 are conference papers). The results point to a diversity of modelling techniques and associated algorithms. The corresponding performance is measured with different metrics and, therefore, cannot be compared directly. Hence, it should be desirable to have a unified data set together with a set of benchmarks with well-defined metrics for a clear comparison of all the modelling techniques and the corresponding algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0060.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: overweight; obesity; BMI; Nepal; women; socioeconomic factors; household environmental factors; sustainable development goals
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:17:54 CEST)
This study aimed to examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to determine the associated socioeconomic and household environmental factors among women in Nepal. Using nationally representative data from the 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016 cross-sectional Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHSs) (n = 33,507), the prevalence of overweight–obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) among women aged 15–49 years were examined. From the latest NDHS 2016, non-pregnant women with recorded anthropometric measurements (n = 6165) were included in the final analyses. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the socioeconomic and household environmental factors associated with BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30. Between 1996 and 2016, the prevalence of overweight–obesity increased from 1.8% to 19.7%, while the prevalence of obesity increased from 0.2% to 4.1%. Age, marital status, wealth index, province of residence, cooking fuel, refrigerator, and bicycle were significantly associated with having both overweight–obesity and obesity. Similarly, educational status, religion, type of toilet facility, television, and mobile phone were significantly associated with having overweight–obesity. Given the alarming increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nepalese women, there is an urgent need of interventions addressing these critical socioeconomic and household environmental factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0240.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainable assets; sustainable strategies; income of forestry household; forestry income; non-forestry income
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:25:08 CEST)
This study aims to identify the factors determining the income of forestry household in South Korea. We examine an empirical analysis using 3-year panel data conducted by the Korea Forest Service charged with maintaining South Korea's forest lands. The hypothesized factors determining the income of forestry household are classified into four types of assets and three types of livelihood strategies. We divided the income of forestry household (IFH) into three elements: forestry income (FI), non-forestry income (NFI), and transfer income (TI). We assessed the influences of household assets and livelihood strategies on each income. A random effect model was used as a statistical analysis with valid 979 of forestry household for three years. We found that household head's age, labor hours, savings, business category, cultivated land size, and region are significantly associated with IFH. Also, FI is influenced by labor capacity, cultivated size, business category, forestry business portfolio, and region while NFI is determined by household head's age, household head's gender, forestry business portfolio, and savings. TI is affected by household head's age, household head's education level, forestry business portfolios, savings, and region. The effect sizes and directions vary across different types of income (IFH, FI, NFI, and TI). The findings show that forestry in South Korea is highly dependent on sustainable assets and strategies. It is therefore expected that the effectiveness of forest policies to increase the income of forestry household would be differed by the source of each income. The results of this study draw attention to the need for an income support policy that should consider the characteristics of household assets and livelihood strategies in order to enhance IFH in South Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0057.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: groundwater; Haiti; filtration; water treatment; developing country; point of use treatment; household treatment
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:03:22 CEST)
Water resources, especially safe, potable water, are limited for many Haitians. In areas where shallow groundwater is available, many household water needs such as laundry, bathing, and cooking are supplied by hand-dug wells. In order to better understand the water quality and prevalence of these household wells, 35 hand-dug wells were surveyed and sampled near the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles, Haiti. Water samples were collected and tested for fecal coliform and E. coli using the IDEXX Colilert-18 method. Of the samples collected, 89 percent were determined unsafe to use as a drinking water source based on the World Health Organization standard of 1.0 colony-forming unit (cfu) Escherichia Coli (E. coli) per 100 mL. 66 percent of the wells exceeded recreational/body contact standards for the state of Michigan (130 cfu/100 mL). Some of these wells were deemed suitable for conversion to a new well type called In-Situ Filtration (ISF) wells. ISF wells are installed with an internal sand filter pack, PVC casing, pump, and cap which seals the well from surface contamination and provides additional water treatment as water is pumped. Previous ISF installations have reduced E. coli to safe drinking water levels within 90 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0353.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: resuspension; household dust; pm10; organic and elemental carbon; phthalic acid esters; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:15:15 CET)
Residential dust is recognized as a major source of environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To characterize the thoracic dust fraction (PM10), a sampling campaign was carried out with an in-situ resuspension chamber in three rooms (kitchen, living room and bedroom) of four Spanish houses. Two samples per room were collected with, at least, a one-week interval. The PM10 samples were analyzed for their carbonaceous content by a thermo-optical technique and, after solvent extraction, for 20 PAHs, 8 phthalate plasticizers (PAEs) and one non-phthalate plasticizer (DEHA) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, higher dust loads were observed for parquet flooring compared with tile. The highest dust loads were obtained for rugs. Total carbon accounted for 9.3 to 51%wt of the PM10 mass. Plasticizer mass fractions varied from 5 µg g-1 to 17 mg g-1 PM10, whereas lower contributions were registered for PAHs (0.98–116 µg g-1). The plasticizer and PAH daily intakes for children and adults via dust ingestion were estimated to be 3–4 orders of magnitude higher than those via inhalation and dermal contact. Potential carcinogenic and negligible non-carcinogenic risks arising from exposure to PAHs were found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: beans; iron, zinc and copper bioaccessibility; myo-inositol phosphates; anti-nutrients; polyphenols; household processing
Online: 2 July 2018 (13:19:42 CEST)
Micronutrient deficiencies are a major public health problem. Beans are an important plant-based source of iron, zinc and copper, but their absorption is reduced in the presence of anti-nutrients such as phytates, polyphenols and tannins. Soaking and discarding the soaking water before cooking is unanimously recommended, but this can result in mineral loss. Data on the consequences for mineral bioaccessibility is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate iron, zinc and copper bioaccessibility in black beans cooked (regular pan, pressure cooker) with and without the soaking water. Minerals were quantified by ICP-MS, myo-inositol phosphates (InsP5, InsP6) by HPLC ion-pair chromatography, total polyphenols using Folin-Denis reagent and condensed tannins using Vanillin assay. Mineral bioaccessibility was determined by in vitro digestion and dialysis. All treatments resulted in a statistically significant reduction of total polyphenols (30%) and condensed tannins (20%). Only when discarding the soaking water a loss of iron (6%) and copper (30%) was observed, and InsP6 was slightly decreased (7%) in one treatment. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc were low (about 0.2% iron and 35% zinc), but copper presented high bioaccessibility (about 70%). Cooking beans under pressure without discarding the soaking water resulted in the highest bioaccessibility levels among all household procedures. Discarding the soaking water before cooking did not improve the nutritional quality of the beans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: climate-smart agriculture; adoption; small-scale irrigation farming; household income; Chinyanja Triangle; Southern Africa
Online: 1 February 2018 (09:33:20 CET)
This article concerns the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that experiences mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrences of drought due to low and erratic rainfall patterns which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice is very important. Through a binary logistic and ordinary least squares regression, the article determines factors that influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on income among smallholder farmers. The results show that off-farm employment, access to irrigation equipment, access to reliable water sources and awareness of water conservation practices, such as rainwater harvesting have a significant influence on the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming. On the other hand, the farmer’s age, distance travelled to the nearest market and nature of employment negatively influenced the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming decisions. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice has a significant positive influence on agricultural income. We therefore conclude that to empower smallholder farmers to quickly respond to climate variability and change, practices that will enhance adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in the Chinyanja Triangle are critical as this will significantly impact on agricultural income.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0883.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Food environments; Food systems; Food security; Dietary intake; Nutritional status; Nutrition transition; Household; South Africa
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:56:58 CEST)
A cross-sectional study was applied to investigate the influence of food systems and food environments on food choices and nutrition transition of households in Limpopo province, South Africa. A sample of 429 households were systematically selected using a paper selection draw from three districts. Food systems, food environments, food choices, and nutritional measurements of the households and informants were assessed, using a validated questionnaire. Most of the household informants responsible for food procurement were females (80.4%). There was a significant association (p < 0.001) between proximity to food stores and dietary diversity of the households. Staple foods were available in almost all surveyed households (95.6%). More than half of the households (59.8%) had home gardens in their yards. Almost half of the households (48.4%) had a low Dietary Diversity Score. The study revealed that 46.0% of households were food secure. Over a third (36.2%) of households’ informants were obese and 32.5% were diabetic. The mean total blood cholesterol was 3.69 ± 0.74 mmol/L. A high percentage of both females (89.6%) and males (91.5%) had normal haemoglobin levels. Most of the informants had normal systolic blood pressure levels (63%), with just over half who had high diastolic levels (57%). The 25 coping strategies were applied during food shortages periods. Even though the food environments provided both obesogenic and protective foods, the consumption of unhealthy foods was high.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Nepal; Vietnam; Bangladesh; gridded population sampling; GridSample; OpenStreetMap; GeoODK; cross-sectional design; urban; household survey
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:51:16 CEST)
Background: The methods used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) household surveys have not changed in four decades; however, LMIC societies have changed substantially and now face unprecedented rates of urbanisation and urbanisation of poverty. This mismatch may result in unintentional exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations. We compare three survey method innovations with standard survey methods in Kathmandu, Dhaka, and Hanoi, and summarize feasibility of our innovative methods in terms of time, cost, skill requirements, and experiences. Methods: We used descriptive statistics and regression techniques to compare respondent characteristics in samples drawn with innovative versus standard survey designs and household definitions, adjusting for sample probability weights and clustering. Feasibility of innovative methods was evaluated using a thematic framework analysis of focus group discussions with survey field staff, and via survey planner budgets. Results: We found that a common household definition excluded single adult (46.9%) and migrant headed households (6.7%), as well as non-married (8.5%), unemployed (10.5%), disabled (9.3%), and studying adults (14.3%). Further, standard two-stage sampling resulted in fewer single adult and non-family households than an innovative area-microcensus design; however, two-stage sampling resulted in more tent and shack dwellers. Our survey innovations provided good value for money and field staff experiences were neutral or positive. Staff recommended streamlining field tools and pairing technical and survey content experts during fieldwork. Conclusions: This evidence of exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations in LMIC household surveys is deeply concerning, and underscores the need to modernize survey methods and practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0133.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Key words: Pressure on cropland; Labor / household density; Shandong Province in China; The 17th-20th century
Online: 17 May 2017 (13:34:53 CEST)
Cropland area per capita and pressure index on cropland is the important parameters measuring the social vulnerability and sustainability in the perspective of food security in a certain region in China during the historical periods. This study reconstructs the spatial distribution change of cropland area per labor/household and pressure index on cropland during the 17th-20th century by the methods of historical documents, regression analysis, pressure index model and GIS. Then it analyzed the impacting process of climate change and sustainability of cropland use during the different periods. It draws conclusions: (i) the spatial difference of labor/household density was obvious which had the same pattern as cropland distribution during the same periods, which is higher density in three agricultural areas. (ii) Cropland area per capita was relatively higher during the 17th-18th century, which were above 0.4 ha/person in majority counties and distributed homogenously. Till the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, cropland area per capita in large amount of regions decreased below 0.2 ha/person embodying the increase of social vulnerability and unsustainability at that time. (iii) Pressure index on cropland also showed the similar spatial pattern as cropland area per capita which presented lower threshold than nowadays. During the 17th-18th century there was no pressure on cropland. While, in the 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century, two high value centers of pressure index on cropland appeared in Middle Shandong and the Jiaodong region, pressure on sustainable cropland use increased obviously and a food crisis is probably created. (iv) Higher sustainable extent of cropland use corresponds to cold period, and lower sustainable extent of cropland use corresponds to warm period in Shandong over the past 300 years. The turning point of 1680s from dry to wet attributes to the decrease of sustainable extent of cropland use in Shandong not very distinctively. More and more pressure on sustainability of cropland use finally since the beginning of 20th century would intensify the social conflict and increase the probability of social revolts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: age-friendliness; aging society; rural aging; urban aging; demographic aging; depopulation; land price; single person household; outdoor spaces; Japan
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:20:44 CEST)
Japan has the world’s largest old population ratio, and aging is an urgent societal issue. As global trends seem to be following Japan’s social changes, there is an emphasis on municipalities becoming more age-friendly. Hence, we examine the age-friendliness of 135 Japanese municipalities, selecting 240 resident architectural designers and constructors to assess their municipalities, using the Age-Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire (AFCCQ). The findings indicate that Japan lacks “outdoor spaces and buildings.” Additionally, the evaluation of “housing,” “community support and health services,” and “transportation” in populated municipalities in the past five years is significantly higher than those in depopulated ones. Age-friendliness is significantly affected in the AFCCQ total score (hereafter, Score) based on “housing,” “social participation,” “community support and health services,” “transportation” and “financial situation” evaluations. High specificity (0.939) was found when the Score was treated as a marker of depopulation and, therefore, an age-friendly approach is a necessary condition to prevent depopulation. Furthermore, a lack of “communication and information” is observed in municipalities with a higher rate of single-person households aged 65 years and above. Therefore, resident architectural designers’ and constructors’ assessments, combined with the AFCCQ can be a powerful tool in evaluating the age-friendliness of municipalities.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: smart meter data; household survey; EPC; energy data; energy demand; energy consumption; longitudinal; energy modelling; electricity data; gas data
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:16:05 CEST)
The Smart Energy Research Lab (SERL) Observatory dataset described here comprises half-hourly and daily electricity and gas data, SERL survey data, Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) input data and 24 local hourly climate reanalysis variables from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for over 13,000 households in Great Britain (GB). Participants were recruited in September 2019, September 2020 and January 2021 and their smart meter data are collected from up to one year prior to sign up. Data collection will continue until at least August 2022, and longer if funding allows. Survey data relating to the dwelling, appliances, household demographics and attitudes was collected at sign up. Data are linked at the household level and UK-based academic researchers can apply for access within a secure virtual environment for research projects in the public interest. This is a data descriptor paper describing how the data was collected, the variables available and the representativeness of the sample compared to national estimates. It is intended as a guide for researchers working with or considering using the SERL Observatory dataset, or simply looking to learn more about it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Allergy; Asthma; Wheeze; Rhinitis; Home Allergens; Household Dust; Mildew; Cockroach; Dust mites; Pets; Endotoxin; Population Study; Prevalence Study; NHANES
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:23:09 CEST)
Our study examines the association of the presence of mildew, cockroaches, and pets in homes as well as household dust allergens with the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. No study has concurrently assessed home environment exposures in relation to allergic conditions in the general US population. Data from 5,409 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey living in their current homes for ≥1 year were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses between home exposures and allergic diseases prevalence and severity were performed. In adjusted analyses, mildew was associated with higher current asthma, allergies, and allergic rhinitis prevalence; endotoxin, with higher current asthma prevalence), and dust Canis familiaris (Can f) 1, with higher allergic rhinitis prevalence. However, presence of cockroaches and dust Dermatogoides farinae (Der f) 1 were associated respectively with lower current asthma and allergies prevalence. Presence of mildew, dust Der f1, Dermatogoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1, Feline domesticus (Fel d) 1, and endotoxin were all associated with asthma and/or wheeze severity. Non-atopic asthma was more frequent with mildew and/or musty smell dust and higher dust Fel d1 concentration, while atopic asthma was more prevalent with higher Can f1and endotoxin concentrations in dust. This study confirms previous relationships and reports novel associations, generating hypotheses for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0511.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Neonatal infection; hand hygiene; behaviour change; Cambodia; post-natal care; newborn care; formative research; intervention design; health facility; household
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:37:57 CET)
Background: Globally, infections are the third leading cause of neonatal mortality. Predominant risk factors for facility-born newborns are poor hygiene practices that span both the facility and home environments. Current improvement interventions focus on only one environment and tar-get limited caregivers, primarily birth attendants and mothers. To inform the design of a hand hygiene behaviour change intervention in rural Cambodia, a formative mixed-methods research study was conducted to investigate the context specific behaviours and determinants of hand-washing among healthcare workers, maternal and non-maternal caregivers along the early new-born care continuum. Methods: Direct observations of hygiene practices of all individuals providing care to 46 newborns across eight facilities and associated communities were completed and hand hygiene compliance assessed in analysis. Semi structured interactive interviews were subsequently conducted with 35 midwives and household members to explore the corresponding cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors influencing the observed key hand hygiene behaviours. Results: Hand hygiene opportunities during newborn care were frequent in both set-tings (n = 1319) and predominantly performed by mothers, fathers and non-parental caregivers. Compliance to hand hygiene protocol across all caregivers, including midwives, was inadequate (0%). Practices were influenced by the lack of accessible physical infrastructure, time, increased workload, low infection risk perception, nurture-related motives, norms and inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an effective intervention in this context should be multi-modal to address the different key behaviour determinants and target a wide range of caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0606.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Design Thinking; hydrosocial contract; web-based prototype; household engagement; Product Service Systems; clustering; ICT; sustainable use of water; customization
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:27:24 CEST)
This article shows the numerical results and the analysis of households' degree of knowledge in an intermediary city such as Huelva (Andalusia, Spain) about the sustainable use of urban water. It analyzes the needs and values regarding water and the attitudes that households maintain regarding the acceptance of reclaimed water and the use of new technologies to achieve more efficient and sustainable consumption. These results are part of the stages of needfinding and synthesis of Design Thinking methodology, adopted as a framework to improve the efficiency and sustainability of urban water among households in this city. Different statistical analysis techniques of surveys sent to households and the use of clustering are the mathematical tools used to draw conclusions and recommendations that allow the design of a web-based prototype grounded on Product Service Systems methodology, as a tool to improve the engagement of households concerning water and align citizens with the sustainability of their city. Strategies of customization and technological facilitators will be the means to improve the hydrosocial contract among households in Huelva in future later stages of the project.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Food waste index; Household food waste; Waste characterisation; Waste sorting analysis; Avoidable food waste; Preparation residues; SDG Target 12.3; Methodology development; Assessment of current situation
Online: 15 July 2021 (15:38:01 CEST)
Target 12.3 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) calls for halving per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, by 2030. The Food Waste Index is suggested as a methodology for grasping the situation. This paper focuses on the consumer level (household food waste). We argue that in order for generating useful information for devising and implementing effective measures for reducing food waste, it should be measured at Level 3 of the Food Waste Index, based on sorting analysis of generated waste, making a distinction between avoidable and non-avoidable food waste. Furthermore, a breakdown by sub-categories that reflect the flow of food in the household could help identify target behaviours. We have developed a categorisation scheme that is internationally agreeable and adoptable, and 1) generates useful information for policy-making and for tackling with reduction of food waste, 2) makes clear the concept of avoidable food waste, and 3) is practical and does not overcomplicate the work of grasping the situation of food wastage. Results of workshops regarding this scheme suggest that the scheme satisfies the criteria. This scheme has been applied to a few sorting analyses of household food waste in Japan, and their results are compared.