ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: pediatric pneumonia; hospital readmission; healthcare quality; hospital costs
Online: 18 January 2022 (16:08:11 CET)
Pneumonia is the leading cause of hospitalization in pediatric patients. Disease severity greatly influences pneumonia progression and adverse health outcomes such as hospital readmission. Hospital readmissions have become a measure of healthcare quality to reduce excess expenditures. The aim of this study was to examine 30-day all-cause readmission rates and evaluate the association between pneumonia severity and readmission among pediatric pneumonia hospitalizations. Using 2018 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), we conducted a cross-sectional study of pediatric hospitalizations for pneumonia. Pneumonia severity was defined by the presence of respiratory failure, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, dependence on long-term supplemental oxygen, and/or respiratory intubation. Outcomes of interest were 30-day all-cause readmission, length of stay, and cost. The rate of 30-day readmission for the total sample was 5.9%, 4.7% for non-severe pneumonia, and 8.7% for severe pneumonia (p<0.01). Among those who were readmitted, hospitalizations for severe pneumonia had a longer length of stay (6.5 vs. 5.4 days, p<0.01) and higher daily cost ($3,246 vs. $2,679, p<0.01) than admissions for non-severe pneumonia. Factors associated with 30-day readmission were pneumonia severity, immunosuppressive conditions, length of stay, and hospital case volume. To reduce potentially preventable readmissions, clinical interventions to improve the disease course and hospital system interventions are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: hospital surfaces; antibiotics; identification; bacteria; Thika Level 5 Hospital
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:37:10 CEST)
Multiple studies have shown that hospital settings are poorly cleaned during terminal cleaning. The adequacy of these cleaning methods has been undermined by presence of multi drug resistant bacteria on hospital surfaces. This case is even more serious in developing countries leading to health care- associated infections that pose a great threat to patients, visitors and health care providers in hospital settings.This study used various microbiological techniques to test for antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria present at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya. A simple random cross sectional study was performed, with a total of 85 samples being collected from five different sites. The sites included male and female wards, health care personnel offices, latrine, and kitchen surfaces. Samples were collected using sterile swabs, dipped in normal saline, and transported to the laboratory within 2Hours for processing.Of the 85 plates cultured, 47 plates showed bacterial growth (55%) on selective media with a significant P value of 0.0357. Seven different species of bacteria were identified biochemically from all sites, Escherichia coli was the most abundant species (28%), and the least was Salmonella typhii (5%). Multiple drug resistance was common in the different bacteria identified. All isolates were resistant to chloramphenical and susceptible to gentamycin. The most resistant microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (50%), and the least resistant microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5%). The antimicrobial resistant bacterial species identified in this study have been documented to cause serious health care associated infections. These results present a significant public health concern because there is a possibility of patients, staff and visitors contacting nosocomial infections when they come into contact with surfaces at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0180.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Hospital performance; Hospital quality; Sustainability; Performance evolution; Data Envelopment Analysis
Online: 9 March 2023 (13:07:25 CET)
Covid-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has spread worldwide since the beginning of 2020. Several pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies were proposed to contain the virus dissemination, including vaccination and lockdowns. One of the consequences of the pandemic was the denial or delay of access to convenient health care services, but also potentially the increase of adverse events within those services, like the number of hospital infections. Therefore, the main question here is: What happened to the performance and sustainability of hospitals? The main goal of this work was to test if the Portuguese public hospitals' performance has been affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We used the Benefit-of-Doubt method integrated with the Malmquist Index to analyze the performance evolution over time. Then, we employed a multiple regression model to test whether some pandemic-related variables could explain the performance results. We considered a database of 40 Portuguese public hospitals evaluated from January 2017 to May 2022. The period 2017 to 2019 corresponds to the baseline (pre-pandemic), against which the remaining period will be compared (during the pandemic). We also considered fourteen variables characterizing hospital quality, divided into three main performance definitions (efficiency and productivity; access; safety and care appropriateness). As potential explanatory variables, we consider seven dimensions, including vaccination rate and the need for intensive care for Covid-19 infected people. Results suggest that Covid-19 pandemic features help explain the drop on access after 2020, but not the evolution of safety and appropriateness of care, which surpris-ingly increased the whole time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0319.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: medication review; clinical pharmacist; hospital
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:13:02 CEST)
Clinical pharmacists are employed at many hospital departments in Denmark, but not yet on the Faroe Islands. The purpose of this study was to test feasibility of a clinical pharmacist-led medication review service at the surgical ward of the National Hospital on the Faroe Islands. Hospitalised surgical patients were offered a medication review service by a clinical pharmacist. Identified drug related problems (DRPs) were classified according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) model. The qualitative inputs from the ward’s staff were collected. In total, 42 patients with 171 identified DRPs were included. The majority of the DRPs concerned suboptimal effect and the safety of the drug treatment. The 49.6 % of the proposed medication changes were accepted by the ward physicians. According to the qualitative inputs, the interest for the service was greater among the younger physicians compared to the older ones, and among nurses compared to physicians. Identified barriers for the optimal service implementation were an absence of medication ordinations and poor visibility of pharmacist’s notes in electronic health records. For a successful implementation of the service, work on the physicians’ interest in an interdisciplinary cooperation and optimization of the electronic health records are warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0165.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Shariah; hospital; healthcare; management; Islam
Online: 7 September 2020 (10:52:33 CEST)
The Ministry of Health evaluates hospital management in accordance with the standard of quality of service. The concept of Shariah hospitals offers management services that exceed the standard of quality of hospital care. The study aims to illustrate the concept of Shariah hospitals in Indonesia. We collect related literature from various media via online search with the keywords “Shariah hospitals,” “implementation of Shariah hospitals,” and “application of Shariah hospitals.” Main findings: The study finds that the Shariah hospitals built by the philosophy of Islam are willing to provide the best health-care services to patients. A code of conduct must be fulfilled by the hospital management in Shariah hospitals: (1) general liability, (2) obligations to society and the environment, (3) obligations to patients, (4) obligations to the leaders, staff, and employees, and (4) relationships with related institutions. The foremost challenges include the improvement of health personnel performance and the quality of services in addition to perceptions that are not inclusive of the system of Shariah hospitals. This implementation should run consistently and with the commitment of all parties. Such insight, in turn, can be counted as an input to an approach to health services, particularly in increasing the performance rates, such as hospital. This study is the first to provide new insight into discussion about shariah hospital by presenting its focuses on Islamic approaches in meeting the quality standards of health services in hospitals so as to obtain more value. However, exclusive principles—Islamization, heterogeneity, and the performance of health workers—challenge the implementation of this hospital system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Hydrogen Peroxide; Legionella; Hospital; Disinfection
Online: 16 February 2017 (18:48:27 CET)
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (HP) use in the hospital water network disinfection to control Legionella spp. colonization. Methods: Following the detection of high levels of Legionella contamination in a 136-bed general hospital water network, an HP treatment of the hot water (25 mg/L) was adopted. During a period of 34 months, the effectiveness of HP on Legionella colonization was assessed. Legionella was isolated in accordance with ISO-11731 and identification was carried out by sequencing of the mip gene. Results: Before HP treatment L.pneumophila sg 2-15 was isolated in all sites with a mean count of 9950±8279 CFU/L. After one month of HP-treatment, we observed the disappearance of L. pneumophila 2-15, however other Legionella species never cultured before appeared; Legionella pneumophila 1 was isolated in 1 out of 4 sampling sites (2,000 CFU/L) and other non-pneumophila species in all sites (mean load 3,000 ±2887 CFU/L). Starting from September 2013, HP-treatment was modified adding food-grade polyphosphates and in the following months we observed a progressive reduction of the mean load of all species (p<0.05), until to a substantial disappearing of Legionella colonization. Conclusion: Hydrogen peroxide demonstrated a good efficacy in controlling Legionella. Although in the initial phases of treatment it seemed unable to eliminate all the species, by keeping HP levels to 25 mg/L and adding food-grade polyphosphates, a progressive and complete control of colonisation was obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1367.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: CT Scan; Trauma; necessity; Hospital; Brian
Online: 19 June 2023 (14:00:52 CEST)
Introduction: CT scan of the skull in patients with head trauma play an important role in identifying patients' injuries; In moderate to severe brain injury; CT scans are arguably the best way to get information about the intracranial complications of a head injury. Researchers have cited a number of reasons for why doctors are increasingly asking for CT scans of patients. In this study; pathological findings in CT scan of patients with mild cranial trauma and level of consciousness 13-15 are examined. Method: In this study, the treatment process of 445 patients who had referred to the emergency department due to skull trauma was examined as research units; and samples were taken by simple random sampling among patients for whom CT scan of the brain was requested. In this study; the reasons for requesting a CT scan of the skull from the requesting physician were questioned through an interview at the time of request. Results: According to the tables; it can be seen that most of the patients referred to the hospital due to skull trauma for CT scan were men and were discharged in less than the first 24 hours. The age group of 21 to 30 years had the highest and the age group over 70 years had the lowest frequency and the highest percentage of request for CT scan was by doctor and the biggest injury that caused patients with mild cranial trauma to go to hospital was fall. Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, cranial trauma is one of the life-threatening factors that can cause minor or severe injuries Its range varies from superficial injuries to hematoma and intracranial hemorrhage, which is a reason to perform CT scans of patients with skull trauma. In order to carefully examine the extent of the damage to the patient and to avoid possible risks and to take the necessary measures for treatment. On the other hand, the lack of clear protocols as well as the lack of clarity and certainty of physicians in their diagnoses to perform graphs of qualified people has increased the number of unnecessary CT scans
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0254.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular; schizophrenia; prospective cohort; hospital admissions
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:42:41 CET)
(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. 505889 people over 18 years were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031-1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267-3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0485.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Healthcare; Isolation hospital; Anteroom
Online: 21 December 2020 (09:17:59 CET)
Infection control among patients is critical for diseases like COVID-19. The concentration of patients in a few facilities burdens healthcare providers and the healthcare system. This study examined the operations of an extended anteroom in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital. It presents issues to consider in the deployment and operation of an extended anteroom through discussions by expert working groups. The subjects covered included efficient space, staffing, equipment management, and education. The process involved wearing personal protective equipment (PPE; in this case, Level D), and if necessary, wearing additional powered air purification respirators (PAPR), after moving from the preparation room to the dressing room, and when entering the hospital through the entrance passage. When leaving the hospital, personnel used a mandatory exit-only passage; in the dressing room, they undressed, and then went outside, in this order. The efficient spatial composition of the anteroom facilitated entry and exit and the separation of contaminated areas and non-contaminated areas using colors and lines. It is necessary to develop operational guidelines for hospitals that treat infectious diseases and conduct research to improve care. The study indicated the need to develop educational programs and use educational simulations to address regionally spread infectious diseases
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: emergency; hospital; emergency health; medicine; management
Online: 21 August 2017 (12:47:01 CEST)
Introduction: The management performance of hospitals in emergency departments in coping with clinical hazards is necessary for their success in providing quality services. The purpose of this study is to provide an optimization procedure and applying management performance in health and medical emergency on the rate of emergency preparedness of the suburb city hospitals. Research method: A semi-experimental and interventional descriptive study in the emergency department of Shahid Motahari Hospital in 2015-2016. Data was collected through the standard checklist of hospital emergency responsiveness test to WHO disasters with 90 questions in 9 domains which is codified by the World Health Organization, in the form of interviews and observing evidences , and if necessary a numerical analysis. Initially, the situation was measured according to this checklist. In the next stage, a set of solutions was developed and then the solutions were implemented according to the obtained information. Data analysis before and after proposing the procedure and its application in order to improve the quality of health management performance and emergency preparedness was performed using central indices, and for describing and presenting the survey results, tables and graphs were used. Results: The highest and lowest emergency preparedness rates for disasters and emergencies before the proposed procedure were the Communication Factor (%77/8) and Human resource factor (%2/8) respectively. The degree of preparedness of the medical center was measured in the management performance according to the model (WHO) before proposing the procedure (%77.98). The researcher's procedure provided and applied based on the information obtained from survey environment, location and type of hospital structure. After providing the procedure, the maximum and minimum rates were the continuity of service factor (%58.3) and post-accident rebuilding factor (%100), respectively. Generally, the rate of emergency preparedness of studied medical center in management performance for coping with disasters and medical emergencies was measured (%97.2) according to hospital emergency responsiveness test for accidents and (WHO). The significance level is less than 0.05, so we can say that the effectiveness with confidence (95%) was effective. Conclusion: According to the statistics of accidents and disasters in the suburb cities, the results of the research and the importance of the role of emergency departments in interurban hospitals in controlling accidents, the need for planning and implementation of practical measures such as conducting training courses on health management in disasters and emergencies, having an estimate of critical and essential resources, changing the structure, providing manpower (emergency management) in order to more precise control and ease of service, maintenance and repair of equipment, timely triage and retrofitting of hospitals were effective in improving their preparedness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1881.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; diabetic foot; hospital admission; limb salvage
Online: 27 June 2023 (10:18:13 CEST)
The study aims to evaluate the rate of readmission in patients affected by diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), causes and the outcomes of patients requiring a new hospitalization. This study is a retrospective observational study including consecutive patients requiring hospitalization since January 2019 to September 2022 due to a DFU. Once they were discharged, patients were regularly followed as outpatients. After 6 months of follow-up, the rate of hospital readmission for a diabetic foot problem was recorded. According to the readmission or not, patients were divided in two groups, readmitted and not readmitted patients respectively. Hence, all patients were followed for six months more and outcomes for the two groups were analyzed and compared. The mean age was 6812yrs, with a prevalence of male (72.6%); the majority of patients were affected by type 2 diabetes (>90%) with a mean diabetes duration of approximately 20yrs. After 6 months of follow-up, 68 (21.9%) patients were readmitted. The main reason of hospital readmission were the presence of critical limb ischaemia (CLI) in the contralateral limb (6.1%), the recurrence of CLI in the previous treated limb (4.5%) and the onset of new infected DFU in the contralateral foot (4.5%). Readmitted patients reported lower rate of healing (51.5vs89.2%,p<0.0001) and higher rate of major amputation (10.3vs4.5%,p=0.04) in comparison to not readmitted patients. CLI and dialysis resulted independent predictors of hospital readmission. Hospital readmission is frequent issue among patients with DFUs, increasing the risk of non-healing and major amputation. CLI resulted the main cause of new hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: SSI; MORBIDITY; MORTALITY; GASTROINTESTINAL; HPB; HOSPITAL STAY
Online: 16 September 2020 (08:38:38 CEST)
Aims: Primary AIM of the study was to evaluate effect of prolonged hospital stay on Surgical site infections We also evaluated effect of prolonged hospital stay on overall morbidity in Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Surgery as secondary outcome. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all the patients who underwent gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery between April 2017 to March 2020. On our analysis we found mean hospital stay in patient who did not develop SSI and/or morbidity was 4 days (Total hospital stay) vs 6 days who developed morbidity (hospital stay before diagnosis of SSI or diagnosis or morbid event). Based on this to avoid selection bias, we did 1:1 propensity score analysis between patients who had 4 or less than hospital stay vs patients who had 5 or more hospital stay before diagnosis of surgical site infection and/or morbid event. We took all the preoperative and intraoperative factors like Age, sex, malignant disease, ASA score, CDC grade of surgery, open or laparoscopic surgery, HPB surgeries, colorectal surgeries, Upper Gastrointestinal surgeries and small intestinal surgeries as covariates. We used nearest neighbor matching protocol with a calipher of 0.2. Cases were not reusable after matching. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: We included 348 patients operated between April 2017 and March 2020 in our analysis. After 1:1 propensity score matching 58 patients included in study arm (prevent hospital stay more than 4 days) and 56 patients in control arm. Both groups were comparable with regard to Age, Sex, Surgery for malignant disease, ASA score, CDC grade of surgery, HPB surgeries, Small intestinal surgeries, Colorectal surgeries, upper gastrointestinal surgeries, intraoperative blood product requirement, intraoperative hypotension or any other event, operative time. Prolonged hospital stay (> 4 days) was significantly associated with surgical site infections (p<0.0001), morbidity (p=0.001). Open surgeries were associated with prolonged hospital stay. (p=0.032). Conclusion: Prolonged Hospital stay is associated with increase surgical site infection and morbidity in Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: attitudes; clinicians; hospital; in-patient; obesity; perceptions
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:27:25 CEST)
While obesity is recognized as a key global public health issue, there has been no research to date on the perceptions of care for people with this condition held by individuals in positions of organizational power. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the perceptions and experiences of clinical leaders and managers of providing care to inpatients with obesity at a metropolitan public health service. This study applied an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to qualitative research, conducting interviews with 17 participants. Their perceptions of care for inpatients with obesity encompassed both their personal understanding as an individual, and their observations about the organizational, patient and carer perspectives. Three overall themes were identified: 1) The problem of inpatients with obesity, 2) Inpatients with obesity as sources of risk and 3) Personal and professional perceptions of inpatients with obesity. While clinical leaders and managers were aware of potential impact of stigma and weight bias on the care given to this cohort, elements of implicit bias, stereotyping, ‘othering’ and ambivalence were frequently present in the data. Ongoing efforts to improve care for patients with obesity must therefore include efforts to address perceptions and attitudes at all organisational levels of the workforce.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, population, density, hospital, pandemic
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:18:03 CEST)
In this four-month-long study (from April 1, 2020 to August 1, 2020), we have collected, modeled, and analyzed COVID-19 data from the top five most infected counties per top six most infected states in the United States (30 counties total). More specifically, we collected data on each state’s total COVID-19 cases, deaths, tests conducted, and their counties’ population, density, percentage of seniors, number of hospitals, total COVID-19 cases, and total COVID-19 related deaths. In this study, we have models illustrating the growth of COVID-19 cases and deaths per county, growth of COVID-19 cases and deaths per state (which is really the sum of our chosen five counties), and growth of COVID-19 tests conducted per state. In addition, our study also contains models illustrating the statistics of several variables that might have affected a county’s COVID-19 data, which has been mentioned above: population, density, percentage of seniors, and number of hospitals. An interesting finding we have noticed upon modeling the 30 counties’ density and total COVID-19 cases as an xy scatter plot is that there is a considerably strong relationship between the two variables. Los Angeles County (which was an extreme outlier), in particular, supports the idea that a county’s most populous city can greatly affect its entire county’s COVID-19 cases; if the largest city is extremely dense, it appears that the entire county has a greater total COVID-19 case count.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0235.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chronic wound; hospital cost; epidemiology; public health
Online: 20 May 2019 (09:53:44 CEST)
Background: Chronic lower limb ulcers (CLLU) have an important burden to the individual and the healthcare system. However, there is a lack of information about the cost of CLLU in Argentina.Objective: To determinate the number and cost of consultation and hospitalization associated to CLLU in a public hospital in Argentina. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Cost estimation were calculated based on days of stay, treatments and laboratory tests in a inpatient population and the number of consultations, treatments and laboratory tests, in a outpatient population. Results: In 2013 and 2014, the overall number of consultation with ICD-10 codes was 7,224 and the number of inpatient was 359. The mean age for male and female outpatient consultations was 59.53(±13.06) years and 59.04(±10.93), respectively. For CLLU male and female inpatient, the mean age was 63.9(±10.4) years and 54.5(±8.6) years, respectively. The length of stay was 22.88 days. There was a mean of 0.41 surgeries per patient where 25% were amputations. The mean annual cost in a single public hospital was US$4,053.65 per inpatient and US$3,589.24 per outpatient. Conclusion: Cost information allows new public health policies to reduce socioeconomic burden due to CLLU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0417.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: female, generation, hospital, intention to leave, nurse
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:34:58 CEST)
An understanding of the cultural conditions that determine the factors affecting nurses’ intention to leave is important for countries suffering from nurse shortage. Aim: to examine factors influencing intention to leave among female hospital nurses in a large Japanese sample, classified into four generations by age considering economic conditions. Methods: a cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted. Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all nurses in 30 hospitals. To assess intention to leave, basic attributes, life conditions, work characteristics, and factors of psychosocial work environment were addressed. After classifying data into four generations based on age cohorts, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis using the completed data (N = 5,074, mean age = 36.24). Results: regardless of generational characteristics influenced by economic conditions, effort and monetary reward were generation-common factors. Over-commitment, social support, and the presence of a role model were generation-common factors in three generations. While having children increased intention to leave in the generation born 1965–1979, having family members in need of caregiving other than children decreased the risk in the generation born in the 1980s. Conclusion: generational countermeasures considering factors of psychosocial work environment and life conditions are needed to avert female nurse turnover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0896.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hospital-acquired infections, colonization; infection; risk factors; antibiotics
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:04:55 CET)
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) pose a significant danger to global public health, mainly because their numbers are growing exponentially each year. Additionally, the rise of bacterial strains resistant to current treatment options further exacerbates this threat. The study aimed to examine the occurrences of HAIs identified in public hospitals at the county level. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing data provided to the Mures Public Health Directorate from all the public hospitals within this county. We examined HAIs reported during the period spanning from 2017 to 2021, which amounted to a total of 4603 cases. Results: The medical departments reported the highest prevalence of HAIs at 48.25%. The most common infections in-cluded enterocolitis with Clostridioides difficile (32.61%), COVID-19 (19.83%), bronchopneumonia (16.90%), sepsis, surgical wound infections, and urinary tract infections. The five most frequently identified pathogens were Clostridioides difficile (32.61%), SARS-CoV-2 (19.83%), Acinetobacter baumannii (11.82%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.58%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.95%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant agent causing bronchopneumonia, while Klebsiella pneumoniae was the leading cause of sepsis cases. Escherichia coli was the primary agent behind urinary tract infec-tions, and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA was identified as the main etiology for wound infections and central catheter infections. Throughout the study period, there was a significant rise in Clostridioides difficile cases, accounting for 40.36% of all reported HAIs in 2021. Conclusions: The study identifies Clostridioides difficile increase in HAI cases during COVID-19, highlighting the need for careful antibiotic use, and emphasizing the growing challenge of multi-resistant strains in post-pandemic state hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Violence against women; Feminicide; Pre-Hospital Emergency Care
Online: 21 September 2023 (12:07:00 CEST)
The violence against women is a theme that extrapolates health issues, since after a victim seek for a health care, there is the notification of the act . In Brazil, many times, these women are first assisted by mobile urgency services (SAMU/SIATE) and, as far as we have concern, there are no other studies with specific data about these assistance. The present paper aimed to analyze SAMU/SIATE assistance to abused women. Qualitative and retrospective epidemiological study of assistance to assaulted women carried out by SIATE and SAMU Maringá/Norte Novo between 2011 and 2020. Women between 20 and 39 years old, non-pregnant, were the main victims, and 19,52% of them have used some kind of drug. The (ex)partner figured as the perpetrator in 17,35%, but there were no information about this variable in 73,75% of the records. The Qui-square test shows a mortality rate superior to 70% among the severe traumatized victims. This is one of the first studies to analyze this kind of care provided by SAMU/SIATE, and reveals some gaps in its “modus-operandi” that can limitate an extrapolation of the results to bigger spheres. More researches in mobile urgency care services, in other provinces also, are needed to propose strategies to fight against this epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0263.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Bed management; COVID-19; Emergency Department; Overcrowding; Efficiency; Hospital management
Online: 19 January 2023 (03:45:21 CET)
Overcrowding in the emergency department is a problem that generates several implications for bed management, which is deemed one of a hospital's most critical processes. Effective management of hospital production capacity includes bed management processes, which can be improved in order to leverage hospital performance. Thus, this study sought to understand how bed management works and identify the main factors that influence its management. The study was performed through a case study, with data collected from semi-structured interviews and bibliographic research, which were triangulated. Thematic content analysis of the interviews and cross-analysis were performed. As a result, the main factors that influence hospital Bed management were identified: communication between teams and units; definition of performance goals; decisions shared between units; occupation and discharge planning by the teams; length of stay; the role of the nurses; and COVID-19. The greatest difficulties in the management process are related to these factors. Additionally, suggestions are provided to mitigate such reported difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0228.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Hospital management; Tertiary care; healthcare; Administration; Patient experience
Online: 13 December 2022 (06:45:10 CET)
Patients satisfaction with fast and high-quality services is the most important in the healthcare settings and specially in outpatient departments and private clinics. High quality services on health sector are indicated by continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI is a progressive incremental process focused on safety of all participants, outcomes, systematic process, regulated and improved working environment at the later than earlier stages. Among the various suggested strategies, we adopted the patents feedback to improve the quality of services our clinic. All of the patient visited hospital were sent a massage on mobile and requested to provide their feedback on our services. Roughly around 5% of all visitors responded and filled up questionnaire. Majority of them were satisfied with the services in various department. However, they provided us some suggestions to identify the further gaps and improve the services in improving patients experience at our clinic. We considered their feedback, identified problems, redesigned the policies and implemented. After implementation of new strategies, we preliminary again evaluated the patients’ feedback on our services. Patients feedback explores that optimized methods of services for the has considerably increased the patients’ satisfaction. Taken together, our this shows that patients’ feedback is very important factor to improve patients’ experience at outpatient clinics using continuous quality improvement tools. For that reason, this study would serve as reference for public health stack holders, administrators and researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Anaemia; Antenatal; Dar es Salaam; hospital; pregnant; prevalence
Online: 17 October 2022 (07:58:27 CEST)
Background: Anaemia in pregnancy have been a cause of serious concern and burden as it contributes significantly to high maternal mortality worldwide. This study aims to explore how big the burden of anaemia in pregnant women is, how it can be reduced during antenatal clinic in order to minimize risks and complications of anaemia among pregnant women. Method: An analytical cross-sectional study design used, involved 560 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at three regional referral hospitals in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania, from January to June 2022. Those willing to participate and met inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data was collected by interview through a structured questionnaire. Analysis of data was done using SPSS v25.0, (p<0.001) considered statistical significant. Results: A total of 560 pregnant women were interviewed. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy is high about 70.9% whereby 61.2% participants had mild anaemia, 33.2% participants had moderate anaemia and 25.6% participants had severe anaemia. Significant associations were found between age, education level, marital status, Less ANC attendance (<3 visit), lack of health insurance and lack of employment among pregnant women. Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy women is still high and its predictors highly affect its control. Hence the ministry of health in collaboration with other stakeholders should develop policies, educating community on the importance of antenatal visit for early detection and treatment of anaemia and impacting knowledge to medical personnel in management of anaemia in pregnancy and associated complications in order to decrease maternal mortality rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eastern Mediterranean; EMR; hospital; malnutrition; prevalence; systematic review
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:06:27 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition has negative consequences in hospitals, like poor disease recovery, increased mortality, length of hospitalization, readmission, and health care costs.Aims: This review was designed to determine malnutrition prevalence in hospitals located in eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).Study design: To conduct this systematic review, papers, including original articles, related references and conference proceedings on the prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients published in international journals and scientific databases from 1 Jan 2017 to 31 Jan 2022 will be included. The following keywords and their alternatives will be used in the literature search: malnutrition, patient, and EMR. The protocol has been registered at PROSPERO (code: CRD42022339426).Methods: After initial screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text articles will be read carefully and eligible documents will be selected according to the defined objectives. Afterward, the selected papers will be reviewed for methodological quality and the required information will be extracted. Finally, in case of sufficient data, a meta-analysis will be performed. Screening, selection, quality assessment, and data extraction will be done by at least two independent reviewers.Results: This review is ongoing and will be completed until the end of year 2023.Conclusion: This review aims to provide comprehensive evidence about the prevalence of malnutrition among adult inpatients in EMR hospitals. This can provide regional authorities, health managers and policy makers good information regarding current status to make appropriate decisions for promoting the health status in hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COPD exacerbation; air pollution; hospital admission; sex differences
Online: 1 October 2021 (10:02:16 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifactorial lung inflammatory disease affecting 174 million people worldwide, with a recently reported increased incidence in female patients. Patients with COPD are especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of environmental exposures, especially from air particulate and gaseous pollutants. Exposure to air pollution severely influences COPD outcomes, resulting in acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and death. In the current study, we conducted a review of the literature addressing air pollution induced acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) in order to determine whether air pollution affects COPD patients in a sex-specific manner. We found that while the majority of studies enrolled both male and female patients, only a few reported results disaggregated by sex. Most studies had a higher enrollment of male patients, only four compared AECOPD outcomes between sexes, and only one study identified sex differences in AECOPD, with females displaying higher rates. Overall, our analysis of the literature confirmed that air pollution exposure is a trigger for AECOPD hospitalizations and revealed a significant gap in our knowledge of sex-specific effects of air pollutants on COPD outcomes, highlighting the need for more studies considering sex as a biological variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CPE; drains; hospital plumbing; environmental contamination; infection control
Online: 12 July 2021 (09:37:00 CEST)
Sink waste traps and drains are a reservoir for multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the hospital environment. It has been suggested that these bacteria can migrate through hospital plumbing. Hospital waste traps were installed in a laboratory model system where sinks were connected through a common wastewater pipe. Enterobacterales populations were monitored using selective culture, MALDI-TOF identification and antibiotic resistance profiling before and after a wastewater backflow event. When transfer between sinks was suspected, isolates were compared using whole-genome sequencing. Immediately after the wastewater backflow, two KPC-producing Enterobacter cloacae were recovered from a waste trap in which Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) had not been detected previously. The isolates belonged to ST501 and ST31 and were genetically indistinguishable to those colonising sinks elsewhere in the system. Following inter-sink transfer, KPC-producing E. cloacae ST501 successfully integrated into the microbiome of the recipient sink and was detected in the waste trap water at least six months after the backflow event. Seven weeks and three months after the backflow, other inter-sink transfers involving Escherichia coli ST5295 and KPC-producing E. cloacae ST501 were also observed.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: health care; hospital; blockchain technology; security and privacy
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:04:03 CEST)
One of the special trends in health care is the increasing availability of data and services to the cloud, especially for convenience (for example, providing a complete patient medical record without interruption) and savings (for example, economic issues). Management of health care data). However, there are limitations to using common cryptographic prototypes and access control models to address security and privacy concerns in an increasingly cloudy environment. In this paper, we explore the potential and capacity of using China's Blockchain technology to protect health care data hosted in the cloud. We also explain the real challenges of such an approach and further research is needed. Health care is a highly data-dependent domain, with large amounts of data being created, published, stored and accessed daily. For example, data are created when a patient undergoes a number of examinations (such as computed tomography or computed tomography scans) and the data need to be sent to the radiologist and then to a physician. The visit results are then stored in the hospital, and then need to be accessed later by another physician at another hospital within the network. It is clear that technology can play an important role in improving the quality of care for patients (for example, using data analytics to make informed medical decisions) and potentially costing more by allocating resources more efficiently in terms of personnel, equipment, etc. , Reduce. For example, paper-based data extraction is difficult to extract into systems (for example, it is costly and may involve data entry errors), archiving them and accessing them as needed is costly. These challenges may cause medical decisions to be incomplete, requiring repeated tests for missing information or missing data stored in another hospital in another state or country (at the expense of increased costs and no convenience). (For patients) and so on. Because of the nature of the industry, it is important to ensure the security, privacy and integrity of health care data. As a result, there is definitely a need for a secure and secure data management system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; care homes; general practice; hospital discharges
Online: 7 June 2020 (05:49:04 CEST)
Watching the international COVID-19 epidemics unfold during February and early March 2020, we began to highlight how outbreaks in care homes were inevitable, given the vulnerable patients in close proximity, and pressures on social care to help relieve pressure on the NHS. We suggested public health measures would significantly impact on care homes. Specifically we felt all homes would have multiple individuals isolated within days of introduction of guidance requiring isolation of new cough (or fever), and that a clear definition of an outbreak would be needed that differentiated COVID19 from influenza. We share the experiences of a GP practice looking after 900 nursing or dual registration care homes in the London Borough of Ealing in the early stages of the COVID19 Pandemic 2020. We believe that the altered presentation of cases of COVID19 in care homes contributed to the size of outbreaks, and that keeping COVID19 out of homes is the only way to manage this disease, with early isolation and complete segregation of positive and negative cases. We have seen over 300 suspected cases resulting in four fold (n=175) average monthly death rates, three fold usual issue of anticipatory medications, and approximately 32% mortality rate (up to 43% in over 90’s). Discharge pathways from hospital and admissions to care homes must be clear and robust. COVID19 naïve patients should not be admitted to units with outbreaks and COVID19 positive patients should not be admitted to anything other than a designated “hot” home until risk of contagion is passed. Some patients are testing positive at over 30 days since initial mild symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Patient Safety Climate Attitudes, Hospital Emergency Department, Qualitative
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:36:02 CET)
Introduction: The attitudes of doctors and nurses toward patient safety is a significant factor in hospital safety climates and medical error rates. Yet, there are very few studies of patient safety attitudes in Saudi hospitals and none conducted in hospital emergency departments. Aims: The current study aims to investigate the discrepancy between the patient safety attitudes of doctors and nurses in a Saudi hospital emergency department. Materials and Method: The study employed a qualitative research designvia semi-structured interviews with Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses working in a Saudi hospital emergency department to determine their attitudes and experiences about the patient safety climate. Results: The findings showed doctors and nurse held some similar safety attitudes, however, nurses reported issues with doctors with respect to their teamwork, communication, and patient safety attitudes. Moreover, several barriers to the patient safety climate were identified such as limits to resources, teamwork, communication, and incident reporting. Conclusion: The findings provide one of the few research contributions to knowledge on the differential patient safety attitudes of Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses and suggest the application of such knowledge would enhance positive patient outcomes in emergency departments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0164.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pre-hospital emergency; review; qualitative study; patient satisfaction
Online: 25 December 2017 (06:41:26 CET)
Objective. To describe patient satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency knowledge and determine if patients and professionals share a common vision on the satisfaction predictors. Methods. A qualitative study conducted in two phases. First, a systematic review following the PRISMA protocol was carried out searching publications between January 2000 and July 2016 in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. Second, three focus groups involving professionals (advisers and healthcare providers) and a total of 79 semi-structured interviews involving patients were conducted to obtain information about what dimensions of care were a priority for patients. Results. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified. A majority conducted in Europe using questionnaires. They pointed out a very high level of satisfaction of callers and patients. Delay with the assistance and the ability for resolution of the case are the elements that overlap in fostering satisfaction. The published studies neither reviewed the overall care process nor related the measurement of the real time in responding to an emergency with the satisfaction. The patients and professionals concurred in their assessments about the most relevant elements for patient satisfaction, although safety was not a predictive factor for patients. Response capacity and perceived capacity for resolving the situation were crucial factors for satisfaction. This qualitative approach yielded assistance targets to be improved. Conclusions. Published studies have assessed similar dimensions of satisfaction. Furthermore, despite the fact that few explanations may be given due to the no face to face attention, taking into account the patient’s emotional needs or maintaining contact with the patient until the emergency services arrive are high predictors of the satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: cancer chemotherapy; chemotherapy regimen checks; pharmacist intervention; hospital pharmacist
Online: 1 November 2023 (07:34:56 CET)
The aim of this prospective study was to examine the issues of these items to evaluate the possibility of their application to clinical practice. This prospective survey was performed on pharmacists of 14 hospitals. The number of confirmation items was 345 and 375 items in the control group and recommended item group, respectively. The mean time required for completing a regimen check (±standard deviation) was 4 minutes and 14 seconds (±1 minute and 50 seconds) and 6 minutes and 18 seconds (±1 minute and 7 seconds) in the control group and recommended item group, respectively. Among the recommended items, the mean number of items that pharmacists confirmed was 12.4 and 18.6 in the control and recommended items, respectively. The number of doubt inquiries was higher in the recommended item group than in the control group (41 vs. 27 cases). The number of doubt inquiries related to dosage, premedication, urinalysis, and a history of hepatitis B virus was higher in the recommended item group than in the control group. In the present study, we created 19 items that should be confirmed in regimen checks and examined the possibility of their application to clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0018.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: hospital; quality; patient safety; perceptions of care; financial performance
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:35:28 CEST)
Hospitals are perpetually challenged by the dual requirements of concurrently improving the quality of healthcare and maintaining financial solvency. Both issues are among the top concerns for hospital executives across the United States, yet some have questioned if the efforts to enhance quality are financially sustainable. led us to examine if improving quality in the hospital setting impacts revenue. Using multivariate regression, we assessed if numerous quality measures were associated with our targeted measure of hospital profitability: the net patient revenue per adjusted discharge. The independent variables included the HCAHPS Summary Star Rating, Hospital Compare Overall Rating, All-Cause hospital-wide Readmission Rate, Total Performance Score, Clinical Outcomes Domain Score, Safety Domain Score, Person and Community Engagement Domain Score, and the Efficiency and Cost Reduction Score. Our results indicated that improving quality was significantly associated with improved net patient revenue per adjusted discharge for seven of the eight of these quality measures at the hospital level. It is clear that failing to address quality and patient safety issues is costly for US hospitals, thus we believe our findings support the premise that increased attention to the quality of care delivered as well as patients’ perceptions of care may allow hospitals to accentuate profitability and advance a hospital’s financial position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2033.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: factor decomposition; operating costs; hospital management; COVID-19; Japan
Online: 29 September 2023 (05:03:34 CEST)
The sustainable management of public hospitals is usually threatened by long-period operating deficit, especially during the pandemic of COVID-19. This study aims at quantitatively decomposing the historical changes in the annual operating costs of public hospitals in Japan to identify the main driving forces responsible for a worsening imbalance between operating costs and income over the past two decades. A dataset of the annual operating costs of public hospitals in Japan is compiled, in which influencing factors are redefined to make the data amenable to the application of a decomposition method referred to as the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI). Using the LMDI method, the contribution of each influencing factor to the changes in public hospital operating costs was quantitatively determined. The results indicate an overall positive effect arising out of the national reform of public hospitals that aimed to reduce the operating costs of these institutions, but the rapid increase in the prices of medicines in recent years made a major contribution to the increasing operating costs. The pandemic reveals a damage on public hospitals’ financial balance but the city-wide lockdown offset part of the increased medical expense. Both long-term and short-term pricing policies are required for the sustainable management of public hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0425.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: digitization; digitalization; digital health; hospital; nursing; nurses; vignette experiment
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:34:45 CEST)
(1) Background: The usage of digital technologies in hospital nursing provides potential solutions to the shortage of qualified nurses and current pandemic challenges. The process involves changes and requires willingness to learn. In this respect, leaders can motivate nurses. Therefore, this vignette study examined which motives and values leaders must address in order to promote nurses’ motivation to use different digital technologies. (2) Methods: We asked hospital nurses in an online vignette study to assess fictitious situations about the imminent introduction of a digital technology. The situations differed regarding the devices (tablet/smart glasses), addressed motives (extrinsic/intrinsic), and values (efficiency/patient orientation). (3) Results: We included 299 responses in the analysis. The tablet vignettes caused especially high motivation, more than the vignettes of the smart glasses (Z = -6.653, p = <0.001). The leader was more motivating when emphasizing effi-ciency rather than patient orientation (Z = -2.995, p =0.003). The dataset did not give significant re-sults regarding extrinsic and intrinsic motives. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest efficiency as a motive for using known digital technologies. Management actions can provide the structural framework and training so that responsible leaders can ensure their staff’s engagement to also use unknown devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Egypt; prediction exponential growth rate; hospital preparedness
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:27:47 CEST)
BackgroundThe novel virus COVID-19, also known as SARS-CoV‑2, is currently rapidly spreading around the globe and pushing healthcare systems to the limits of their capacity. One of the functions of predictive models is to timely act for epidemic preparedness including hospital preparedness. In Egypt, like many other countries in the world, the epidemic situation and forecasting have not yet sufficiently studied. ObjectiveThe study was carried out to develop a short-term forecast scenario for the COVID-19 epidemic situation in Egypt and predict the hospital needs to accommodate the growing number of cases.MethodsSecondary data from the COVID-2019 daily reports and the report issued 8th of April by the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population were used. Due to the daily changing level of knowledge and data, the article reflects the status up to 18 April 2020. The prediction was based on the exponential growth rate model. For the depiction of the situation, the full length of the epidemic timeline was analyzed (from February 14th till April 18th). The growth rates and their rates of decline during the period from the 22nd of March till the 18th of April were calculated and extrapolated in the coming 7 weeks. The predicted hospital needs were assessed against the announced allocated resources.ResultsThe epidemic curve in Egypt is on the ascending arm as of April, 18. The active cases showed exponential growth from the start of the epidemic till April, 18. At the end of this period time, the recovery rate was 23.12% and the case fatality rate (CFR) was7.39. The case fatality rate median level during the last four weeks was 6.64. The active cases are expected to reach more than 20,000 by late May then starts to decline. The allocated regular hospital beds are predicted to show shortage by the time of the release of the paper. The intensive care units (ICU) beds and ventilators are predicted to show insufficiency on May 6.Conclusions: The COVID-19 epidemic in Egypt is expected to continue on the rise for the next few weeks and expected to start to decline late in May, 2020. Our estimates should be useful in preparedness planning. Serious actions should be taken to provide ICU beds and ventilators enough for the predicted number of cases that would need them, not later than the end of April. Mitigation actions have to continue for the coming 6 weeks or until the epidemic situation is more clearly seen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2041.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: hospital accreditation; institutional logics; organizational practices; strategic responses; institutional theory
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:09:33 CET)
Background: Hospital accreditation has become ubiquitous in developing countries. Although studies recognize that accreditation can improve healthcare quality, efficiency, and safety, there are doubts about how hospitals deal with conflicts caused by the different institutional logics that inhabit this process. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how professional and market logics, as well as the conflict between institutional demands, affect compliance with hospital accreditation. Methods: To this end, we developed a multiple case study in four Brazilian hospitals through in-depth interviews with sixteen participants (managers, physicians, nurses, physiotherapist) and on-site observation by the triangulation between the analysis of the narratives and the results of the multiple correspondence analysis. The interpretation and subsequent categorization of the interviews were guided by the study's analytical categories: institutional logics (professional and market); adoption objectives (legitimacy and efficiency); strategic responses to adoption (conformity, non-conformity, and customization); nature of demands (origin in the means and in goal). Results. The data showed that when professional logic is prominent, there is a greater tendency to customize activities, as there are conflicts in the means by which activities can be developed. When market logic stands out, there is a risk of non-conformity, mainly because the focus falls exclusively on goals. Finally, the data point to the absence of conflicts between justifications related to efficiency and legitimacy. Conclusion. We conclude the study by highlighting the theoretical and practical implications of recognizing the conflict between logics, contributing to a deeper understanding of how logic influences the attention given to specific demands and, more significantly, how they affect compliance with hospital accreditation standards, expanding the body of knowledge in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1879.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Patient Safety; Organizational Culture; Quality Improvement; Accreditation; Sports Medicine Hospital
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:33:06 CEST)
Background: This study aims to investigate the patient safety culture at a sports medicine hospital and explore quality of healthcare and associated factors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, the tool Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPC) was administered online among staff at a sports medicine hospital in Doha, Qatar. About 319 staff participated from 898 staff who received emails (35.5%). Results: The results showed that 49.2% of the staff rated the patient safety grade as excellent and 36.1% as very good, which sums up to 85.3%. Factors associated with better patient safety grade were work climate (OR 10.3 95% CI (3.2 to 33.6); teamwork OR 7.6 95% CI (2.8 to 20.9) and team communication (OR 2.9 95% CI (1.1 to 7.6). Conclusions: Addressing the work climate, enhancing communication, and cohesive work within teams facilitates a culture of trust that improves patient safety grade. Ensuring quick return to play is a team effort involving multiple disciplines, hence a high performance and safety culture can enhance teamwork. Reducing punitive response to error and encouraging staff and supervisors are key areas that can improve safety culture in sports medicine organizations, and efforts should be placed in this area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1900.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; first-visit; peripheral facial palsy; Korean Medicine hospital
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:20:33 CEST)
(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected healthcare utilization rates on a global scale. This study aimed to analyze whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected the characteristics of first-visit patients with peripheral facial palsy visiting a Korean Medicine hospital and to observe characteristics changes in them. (2) Methods: This study analyzed the electronic medical records of 2,310 first-visit patients with peripheral facial palsy who visited the Facial Palsy Center, Korean Medicine Hospital, Kyung Hee University Medical Center from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2021 in terms of demographic characteristics, disease phase, residence locations, hospital visit route, and patient care type. (3) Results: There were significant relationships between the presence of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., before and during) and the number of patients by disease phase (p=0.043), residence locations (p=0.003), residence locations in Seoul (p=0.003), and patient care types (p=0.003). (4) Conclusions: There were several differences in characteristics of first-visit patients with peripheral facial palsy visiting a Korean Medicine hospital during COVID-19 pandemic in terms of demographic characteristics, disease phase, residence locations, residence locations in Seoul, and patient care types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: pre-hospital pathway; COVID-19; hospitalisation; healthcare system; pandemic preparedness
Online: 20 June 2023 (03:32:42 CEST)
Context. During the COVID-19 pandemic, patient care was mainly organised around the hospital. Pre-hospital care has, to our knowledge, never been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the impact of pre-hospital pathways on hospitalisation during the last part of the pandemic. Design. This was a monocentric retrospective analysis of prospectively collected medical records. Data from patients admitted to our institute between 1 February and 7 March 2022 were analysed. Main Outcome Measure(s): The primary outcomes were defined as the number of hospitalisations, resuscitations, and deaths at the time of interview and in the subsequent 30 days. The main explanatory variables were times from onset of symptoms to care, age, gender, News2 score, comorbidities, and pre-hospital pathways and their duration. Results: Three pre-hospital pathways have been identified: a pathway in which the patient consults a general practitioner for a test (PHP1); a pathway in which the patient consulted for care (PHP2); and no pre-hospital pathway and direct admission to hospital (PHP3). Factors independently associated with outcome (hospitalisation) were being male (OR 95% CI; 2.21 [1.01–4.84], p=0,04), News2 score (OR 95% CI; 2.04 [1.65–2.51], p<0.001), obesity (OR 95% CI; 3.45 [1.48–8.09], p=0.005), D-dimers > 0.5 µg/ml (OR 95% CI; 3.45 [1.47–8.12], p=0.005), prolonged time from symptoms to hospital care (PHP duration) (OR 95% CI; 1.07 [1.01–1.14], p=0.03). All things being equal, patients with a “PHP2” pre-hospital pathway had a higher probability of hospitalisation compared to those with a “PHP3” pre-hospital pathway (OR 95% CI; 4.31 [1.48–12.55], p=0.007). Conclusions. Along with recognised risk factors such as gender, News 2 score, and obesity, the patient’s pre-hospital pathway is an important risk factor associated with hospitalisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0481.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Transmission; Rubella; Pregnant women; Friendship Sino-Gabonese Hospital; Franceville; Gabon
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:52:24 CEST)
Objectives: Pregnant women represent a population category at high risk of severe rubella infection, capable of adversely affecting their fetus. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of anti-rubella antibodies in pregnant women seen in prenatal consultations at the Sino-Gabonese Friendship Hospital in Franceville Patients and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sino-Gabonese Friendship Hospital in Franceville, from April 3 to July 27, 2023. Using a structured and pre-established questionnaire, sociodemographic and obstetrical characteristics were obtained... Three milliliters of blood were collected from participants to measure rubella-specific IgG antibody levels using the OnSite Rapid Test Rubella IgG/IgM COMBO lateral flow immunochromatographic assay. Results were considered significant at p≤0.05. Results: The study included 107 pregnant women seen in prenatal consultations. With a mean age of 27.9±7.1 years, anti-Rubella IgG antibodies were found in 87 pregnant women, indicating an overall seroprevalence of 81.30% (95% CI: [0.72 - 0.87). Of these, 6.9% (n = 6) of the women were serum anti-Rubivirus IgM carriers. In univariate analysis, it was indicated that pregnant women in the study aged between 21-30 years (OR =0.33; 95% CI: [0.12-0.9] p=0.0027), student (OR =6.35; 95% CI: [1.39-29.09] p=0.001), or without professional status (OR =0.05; 95% CI: [0.01- 0.27] p<0.001), high school education (OR =8.24; 95% CI: [2.83-23.96] p<0.001), single (OR =0.3; 95% CI: [0.11-0.85] p=0.0021) or cohabiting OR =3.91; 95% CI: [1.21-12.64] p=0.0017) Residing in an urban area (OR =49; 95% CI: [1.43-16.75] p=0.006), in the first trimester of their pregnancy (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: [0.09-0.94] p= 0.033), with a history of spontaneous abortion (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: [1.04; 11.30] p= 0. 037), and unvaccinated (OR = 0.13; 95% CI: [0.05; 0.13] p<0.000), had an elevated risk of Rubella, After adjusting for risk factors by logistic regression, residence in a rural area (ORA = 139.87 95% CI : [1.74 -11236.216] p=0.027),and no vaccination (ORA = 43.3 95% CI: [1.13 -1662.7] p= 0.043), were identified as the only significant risk factors for Rubella for the present study population Conclusion: The high rate of susceptibility to rubella among pregnant women in the present study indicates that any short-term vaccination strategy aimed at reducing the number of susceptible women of childbearing age is imperative
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0409.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: out-of-pocket cost; primary healthcare; specialized reference hospital; Chagas
Online: 23 March 2023 (04:29:57 CET)
Background Out-of-pocket costs are key expenses that many individuals incur in order to receive health services. They have been identified as a key access barrier for vulnerable populations, in particular for populations affected by neglected diseases with a chronic progression, such as Chagas disease. It is important to understand the costs of accessing healthcare services that are borne by patients with T. cruzi infection. Methodology We prepared a structured survey for patients with T. cruzi infection/Chagas disease who were all treated by the healthcare system in endemic municipalities in Colombia. The results were analyzed according to three categories: 1. the socioeconomic profiling of the patients; 2. the costs of and time spent on transportation; and 3. the opportunity costs (money that was not earned) related to treatment at the local primary care hospital or at the high-complexity reference hospital. Main findings Ninety-one patients answered the survey voluntarily. The data revealed that, when treated at the specialized reference hospital, patients spent 5.5 times more on food and accommodation, transportation costs were five times higher, and the loss of earnings was three times higher than when they were treated at the local primary care hospital. Moreover, the amount of time spent on transportation was 4 times higher at the reference hospital. Conclusions Providing comprehensive healthcare services for Chagas management at local primary healthcare hospitals would allow the most vulnerable patients to save on expenses related to medical and non-medical costs (out-of-pocket costs), in turn leading to higher adhesion to treatment thus benefiting the health system as a whole. These findings are in alignment with the WHO’s World Health Assembly 2010 Resolution on the importance of treating Chagas at local primary care hospitals, thereby saving patients time and money, allowing for timely care, and promoting access to healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: absenteeism; nursing; licensed practical nurses; nursing staff, hospital; occupational health.
Online: 2 February 2022 (15:37:52 CET)
This study aimed to identify the most relevant factors of absenteeism in the perception of nursing technicians from a regional reference hospital in Brazil. A cross-sectional study, based on a case study, was conducted from August 2018 to July 2021, with 324 nursing technicians from a Brazilian macroregional reference hospital in Northwestern Ceará. Data were collected through Google Forms® via the Scale of Factors of Work Absenteeism (EFAL). For data analysis, the overall mean and means of the four EFAL factors were calculated. The individuals were grouped by rating level and data were presented descriptively. The results showed that fatigue, low pay, work overload, need to resolve unpostponable personal/family bureaucratic matters, and need for time to continue/post-graduate education were the main causes of absenteeism. In general, nursing technicians' perceptions varied between low and medium relevance to the factors that contributed to work absenteeism. We can associate these results to the low frequency of absen-teeism among the professionals of the institution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Role-play; medical roleplay; teddy bear hospital; teddy bear clinic
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:54:09 CEST)
Background: Role-playing is often used as a pedagogical method for learning communication in medical education. Therefore, medical play using the Teddy Bear Hospital (TBH) is a concept that can quickly familiarize children with health care and help them develop positive experiences in these areas. This review aims to assess the strengths of TBH, as a form of directed medical role play, in improving health outcomes and well-being in children, along with implanting an awareness of preventive health care in young children.Methods: For this scoping review, we examined the list of recommendations, including 11 studies from two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar. We incorporated pre/post quasi-experimental studies, ANOVA, qualitative research studies, systematic reviews, and control group studies that deliberately utilize the teddy bear hospital as an intervention.Results: The results of individual studies were further categorized into three sections. The first being upon the analysis of 11 studies, the Teddy Bear Hospital was mainly conducted in Europe and Asia. It is evident that regardless of the different approaches and strategies used to implement the Teddy Bear Hospital, they all ultimately share the same intent: to raise health care awareness and alleviate young children's anxiety over medical treatment while focusing on the promotion of positive healthy lifestyle. All studies portray the teddy bear hospital as an intervention of medical roleplay which analyzed the children's feelings, behaviors, and health awareness after visiting the Teddy Bear Hospital.Conclusion: The application of the teddy bear hospital has overwhelmingly positive results, with lower levels of anxiety and improved health knowledge. Its reported efficacy calls for future studies on aspects that lead to its efficacy and potential effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Asthma; meter dose inhaler; Debre Markos comprehensive specialized hospital; Practice
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:53:16 CEST)
Background: Asthma is ranked 16th among the leading causes of years lived with disability and 28th among the leading causes of disease in the world. Metered dose inhaler remains the principal route for drug administration and it has greater advantages over systemic treatment. In routine use, however, a vast majority of patients make inhalation errors. Suboptimal inhaler technique worsens health outcomes, with poor disease control, and increases the risk of hospitalization. This study aimed to assess practice metered-dose inhalation techniques and associated factors among asthmatic patients at Debre Markos comprehensive specialized hospital, East Gojjam, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from July 15 to August 30/ 2020. Data were collected through a semi-structured questioner. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Associations between dependent and independent variables were assessed by using binary and multiple logistic regressions. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant in all cases. Results presented in tables, figures, numbers, and percentages. Result: A total of 166 patients had involved in the study, of which 52.4% were females. One hundred eleven (66.9%) of participants had good knowledge of asthma and inhalational techniques with the rest of them had poor knowledge. One hundred eight (65.1%) patients had effective practice on metered-dose inhaler use techniques. Participant's knowledge regarding asthma and meter dose inhaler and marital status has a significant association with their practice of metered-dose inhaler techniques with P-value 0.001 and 0.006 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, most participants are suffering from asthma for a long duration and they have repeated exacerbation. Around two-thirds of patients had good knowledge regarding asthma and meter dose inhaler and practice on metered-dose inhaler techniques. Participants who had poor knowledge and who were unmarried had poor practice on tech metered-dose inhaler techniques. Health education and counseling services should be consistently provided to the clients regarding the proper steps of inhalers use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0593.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hospital admissions; care homes; COVID-19; linked data; administrative data
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:33:46 CEST)
Background: Care home residents have complex healthcare needs but may have faced barriers to accessing hospital treatment during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To examine trends in the number of hospital admissions for care home residents during the first months of the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a national linked dataset on hospital admissions for residential and nursing home residents in England (257,843 residents, 45% in nursing homes) between 20 January 2020 and 28 June 2020, compared to admissions during the corresponding period in 2019 (252,432 residents, 45% in nursing homes). Elective and emergency admission rates, normalised to the time spent in care homes across all residents, were derived across the first three months of the pandemic between 1 March and 31 May and primary admissions reasons for this period were compared across years. Results: Hospital admission rates rapidly declined during early March 2020 and remained substantially lower than in 2019 until the end of June. Between March and May, 2,960 admissions from residential homes (16.2%) and 3,295 admissions from nursing homes (23.7%) were for suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Rates of other emergency admissions decreased by 36% for residential and by 38% for nursing home residents (13,191 fewer admissions in total). Emergency admissions for acute coronary syndromes fell by 43% and 29% (105 fewer admission) and emergency admissions for stroke fell by 17% and 25% (128 fewer admissions) for residential and nursing home residents, respectively. Elective admission rates declined by 64% for residential and by 61% for nursing home residents (3,762 fewer admissions). Conclusions: This is the first study showing that care home residents’ hospital use declined during the first wave of COVID-19, potentially resulting in substantial unmet health need that will need to be addressed alongside ongoing pressures from COVID-19.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0782.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; delivery robot; healthcare robot; telepresence robot; Smart hospital
Online: 31 March 2021 (16:04:54 CEST)
Purpose: The ongoing COVID-19 crisis has created the need for social distancing between medical staff and patients, therefore, healthcare robotics is increasingly important as regards infectious control. The purpose of this study was to design and fabricate a remote controlled transport robot that could provide an optimum technology base for developing countries, having dual functions of telepresence and delivery operations inside or outside buildings, is easy to assemble and also easily able to be cleaned using standard chemical agents.Methods: This machine was designed and fabricated to incorporate two main functions; delivery and telepresence. The robot consists of a base frame, DC motors for driving and steering systems, actuator motor for driving wheel elevation, Wi-Fi AP/Repeater, network camera, and a necessary a back-up power system.Results: This robot can be used both indoors and outdoors. It can carry loads of more than 80 kg. The machine can cross obstacles greater than 3 cm. It can be cleaned by disinfectant agents. An actuator motor can lift the driving wheels above the surface to prevent gear damage. Conclusion: This article demonstrates the concept of a healthcare telepresence and delivery robot that can provide distancing during the present COVID-19 crisis, using optimum technology for low and middle-income countries. In the future, the researcher should consider development of the delivery controls, combined with the telepresence system using the internet of things, to improve the navigation system, the manipulator system for supporting multi-floor transportation, and also other multi-functional purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0384.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: quality; just culture; patient safety; nurses; hospital; measuring instrument validation
Online: 26 March 2020 (07:24:55 CET)
Purpose: "Just culture" is an element of safety culture, and in a broader sense – a part of quality culture. It is the subject of studies, especially in healthcare. This phenomenon is almost unknown in Polish medical facilities. For this reason, the aim of the article is to present the essence and significance of "just culture" in healthcare. The other aim of the research is to present the results of the validation of "just culture" assessment instrument used to recognize the "just culture" maturity level and evaluate the nurses’ beliefs and behaviours in the light of "just culture" criteria. Methodology/Approach: The verified questionnaire consisted of 28 statements in relation to which respondents expressed their opinion on a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was distributed among nurses in one of the largest hospitals in Pomorskie Voivodeship, in Poland. The results based on 68 responses were statistically processed with Statistica 13.1 software. Findings: The obtained results allowed to confirm the reliability of the assessment tool, to recognize the level of „just culture” as wisdom (68%) and to indicate strengths and weaknesses of observed beliefs and behaviours. On this basis, improvement actions were proposed. Originality/Value: We use the original, own prepared questionnaire. This is the first study on "just culture" in healthcare in Poland. There are only few studies devoted to patient safety culture in Poland and no research addressed to "just culture" phenomenon, as well in Poland as in Central Europe. The results in this area allow to recommend the assessment tool for other hospitals and seem to help in understanding the essence of "just culture" implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: malnutrition; nutritional assessment; hospital mortality; length of stay; critical illness
Online: 10 November 2017 (06:29:59 CET)
There is limited evidence for the association between malnutrition and hospital mortality as well as Intensive Care Unit length-of-stay (ICU-LOS) in critically ill patients. We aimed to examine the aforementioned associations by conducting a prospective cohort study in an ICU of a Singapore tertiary hospital. Between August 2015 and October 2016, all adult patients with ≥24 h of ICU-LOS were included. The 7-point Subjective Global Assessment (7-point SGA) was used to determine patients’ nutritional status within 48 hours of ICU admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted in two ways: 1) presence versus absence of malnutrition, and 2) dose-dependent association for each 1-point decrease in the 7-point SGA. There were 439 patients of which 28.0% were malnourished, and 29.6% died before hospital discharge. Malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of hospital mortality [adjusted-RR 1.39 (95%CI: 1.10–1.76)], and this risk increased with a greater degree of malnutrition [adjusted-RR 1.09 (95%CI: 1.01–1.18) for each 1-point decrease in the 7-point SGA]. No significant association was found between malnutrition and ICU-LOS. Conclusion: There was a clear association between malnutrition and higher hospital mortality in critically ill patients. The association between malnutrition and ICU-LOS could not be replicated and hence requires further evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: particulate matter; AirQ model; hospital admission respiratory disease; Athens; Greece
Online: 14 November 2016 (04:13:34 CET)
The main objective of this work is the assessment of the annual number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) due to the exposure to in-healable particulate matter (PM10), within the greater Athens area (GAA), Greece. Towards this aim, the time series of the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10μm (PM10) recorded in six monitoring stations located in the GAA, for a 13-year period 2001-2013, is used. Initially, a descriptive statistical treatment of PM10 concentrations took place. Furthermore, the AirQ2.2.3 software developed by the WHO was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 in the GAA during the examined period. The results show that, during the examined period PM10 concentrations present a significant decreasing trend. Also, the mean annual HARD cases per 100,000 inhabitants ranged between 20 (suburban location) and 40 (city centre location). Approximately 70% of the annual HARD cases are due to city centre residents. In all examined locations, a declining trend in the annual number of HARD cases is appeared. Moreover, a strong relation between the annual number of HARD cases and the annual number of days exceeding the European Union daily PM10 threshold value was found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1675.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Infectious waste management; Healthcare waste; Hospital; color coding; segregation; Public Health
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:28:53 CEST)
Any Hospital’s primary goal is to restore human health and save lives through health services provided to patients, but at the same time, hazardous wastes are produced. Inconsistent management of unsafe wastes might cause adverse effects and other issues to workers, the environment and public health. Segregation is considered the critical stage for a successful Healthcare Waste Management. Mixing hazardous waste with non-hazardous waste will be avoided by correctly applying practices at the segregation stage. This study aimed to assess personnel’s knowledge about Infectious Medical Waste and segregation practices used at six wards in Nicosia General Hospital. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted, and data were collected through a structured self-administered questionnaire. The Statistical Package of Social Science (SPPS) version 25 was used with a minimum statistical significance α=0.05. The study population was nurses, nurse assistants, ward assistants and cleaners working at the study wards. Out of 191 questionnaires, 82 were received, with a response rate of 42.93%. Most participants were female (72%) and nurses (85,4%). Participants had medium to good knowledge about Infectious Medical Waste management and good knowledge regarding segregation practices applied in their ward. Segregation was not carried out as it should have since most participants stated that Infectious Medical Wastes were mixed with non-hazardous waste. Correct answers given by the participants regarding color-coding of different Healthcare Waste categories was 67.5%, and only four answered correctly to all questions. Although participants knew segregation practices and the colour-coding process applied for Healthcare Waste, they didn’t use them satisfactorily. They applied methods regarding segregation without specific training, knowledge and guidance. Due to the issue's importance, training programs must be implemented and performed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1779.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: General hospital; General ward; Mental health care user; Non-psychiatric nurse
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:57:08 CEST)
Mental Health Care Users (MHCUs) are admitted in general wards with medical and surgical conditions where non-psychiatric nurses are allocated to render services for medical and surgical conditions. Non-psychiatric nurses are expected to care for MHCUs in general wards regardless of their knowledge and skills which is against the Mental Health Care Act. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of non-psychiatric nurses in car-ing for MHCUs admitted in general wards in Limpopo Province. Qualitative approach using explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was adopted for the study. Methodology included the setting, population, sampling, ethical con-siderations, and the measures to ensure trustworthiness. The study was conducted in four general hospitals of Limpopo Province, South Africa with mental health care wards, medical ward and surgical ward which were selected through simple random sampling. Semi structured Individual interviews were used to collect data from twenty professional nurses until data saturation. Data was analysed using Tesch’ s method. Ethical considerations were adhered to throughout the study. Themes that emerged after data analysis were: Managing MHCUs, Types of patient’s behaviour. The study concluded that professional nurses without psychiatry caring for MHCUs in general wards need training to provide holistic care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0110.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; Confidence; Health services; Basic health Unit; Hospital; Public policy.
Online: 10 October 2022 (02:12:08 CEST)
Objective: to assess level of trust in health services during COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out between 2020 and 2021, among Brazilians over 18. A non-probabilistic sampling was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied, using the Local Bivariate Moran’s technique was used to verify the existence of spatial dependence between the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 and trust in health services. Furthermore, multinomial regression was also used to analyze the factors associated with the confidence level, with the calculation of the Odds Ratio and with a confidence interval of 95%. Results: 50.6% reported trust in hospital services while 41.4% did not trust Primary Health Care services. With the application of the Local Bivariate Moran, both for the incidence and mortality of COVID-19, the trust in tertiary care and primary care services showed a statistically significant spatial association predominant in the Midwest (High-Low) and North (Low-High) regions of Brazil. The level of trust was associated with education, religion, region of the country and income. Conclusions: The level of trust in hospital services, more than Primary Health Care services, may be related to the population's culture of prioritizing the search for hospital care at the detriment of health promotion and disease prevention
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; HCAIs; hospital acquired infections; nosocomial infections; statistical analysis
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:19:38 CEST)
Statistical data on officially registered cases of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in Ukraine in the period 2009-2019 have been analysed. On average, 5089±756 cases of HCAIs were registered annually. Odessa region of Ukraine is the leading country in the number of reported cases. The majority of HCAIs cases involve surgical and therapeutic invasive interventions and perinatal HCAIs. On average, 78.0±5.8 % of HCAIs cases involved adults. The estimated minimum number of HCAIs in Ukraine was expected to be about 1 million per year. Official statistics on registered cases of HCAIs in Ukraine do not reflect reality, so the system of registration and investigation of HCAIs in Ukraine needs to be reformed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: L.pneumophila, well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital water, hotel water
Online: 14 September 2018 (14:24:40 CEST)
Background Legionella pneumophila is one of the causes of legionellosis. Water environments serve as the natural habitat and the main sources of Legionella pneumophila. Objectives The aims of this study was to understand the differences of Legionella pneumophila serogroups distribution in well water, tap water, ice cubes, hospital and hotel water in East Java-Indonesia. Methods a total of 60 water samples in east java-Indonesia; from well water (n=25), tap water (n=5), ice cubes (n=5), water from the hospital (n=16), and hotel water (n=9) were detected using polymerase chain reaction with mip gene spesific primers and then it was analyzed by phylogenetic tree. Results For the 60 water samples collected in East Java, 12% of the samples (7/60) were positively contaminated by L. pneumophila. In details, there was 8% of the well water samples (2/25), 2% of the tap water samples (1/5), 2% of the ice cubes samples (1/5), 0% of the hospital water samples (0/16) and 33.33% of the hotel water samples (3/9). The phylogenetic tree showed that Legionella pneumophila contaminating well water isolate 1 from Surabaya and tap water isolate from Sidoarjo was closer to L.pneumophila serogroup 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, isolates from Brazil, China, Spain and Australia. L.pneumophila contaminating the ice cubes from Sidoarjo was closer to serogroup 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, while the bacteria contaminating well water isolate 2 from Sidoarjo as well as water in hotel of Surabaya (hotel water isolate 1, 2 and 3) classified into their own group. Conclusion There is a difference in the distribution of L. pneumophila serogroups between well water, tap water, ice cubes, and hotels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1801.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, lactate, return of spontaneous circulation
Online: 28 September 2023 (02:50:40 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Effective strategy to cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be based on tissue perfusion. Our primary aim was to determine the association between capillary lactate values and initial rhythm as well as probability of return of spontaneous circulation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational cohort study included all patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, older than 18 years, resuscitated by a prehospital emergency medical team between April 2020 and June 2021. Capillary lactate samples were collected at the time of arrival and every 10 minutes after first measurement until the time of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or if ROSC was not achieved at time of declaring death on scene. Results: 83 patients were enrolled in the study. ROSC was achieved in 28 patients (33,7%), 21 were admitted to the hospital (26,3%) and 6 (7,23%) of them were discharged from the hospital. At discharge all patients had Cerebral Performance Category Scale 1 or 2. Initial capillary lactate values were significantly higher in patients with non-shockable rhythm compared to the group with shockable rhythm (9,19 +/- 4,6 versus 6,43 +/- 3,81; p = 0.037). A significant difference persisted also in a second value taken 10 minutes after in-itial value (10,03 +/- 5,19 versus 5,18 +/- 3,47; p = 0.019). Capillary lactate values were higher in the ROSC group and non-ROSC group at the time of restored circulation (11,10 +/- 6,59 and 6,77 +/- 4,23, respectively; p = 0,047). Conclusions: Capillary lactate values are significantly lower in patients with a shockable first rhythm in OHCA. There is also a significant connection between a rise in capillary lactate level and ROSC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Electrocardiography; Hospital at home; Arrythmia; ECG Intervals; Electrolyte disturbances; 6 Lead ECG
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:26:47 CEST)
Abstract: Background: The Hospital-at-home (HAH) model is a viable alternative for conven-tional in-hospital stays worldwide. Serum electrolyte abnormalities are common in acute pa-tients, especially in those with many comorbidities. Pathologic changes in cardiac electrophysi-ology pose a potential risk during HAH stay. Periodical Electrocardiogram (ECG) tracing is therefore advised, but few studies evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of compact, self-activated ECG devices in the HAH settings. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of such a device in comparison to a standard 12-lead ECG. Methods: We prospectively recruited consecu-tive patients admitted to the Sheba Beyond, virtual hospital, in the HAH department, during a 3-month duration. Each patient underwent a 12-lead ECG recording using the legacy device, and a consecutive recording by a compact 6-lead device. Baseline patients’ characteristics during hospi-talization were collected. Level of agreement between devices was measured by Cohen’s Kappa coefficient for inter-rater reliability (Ϗ). Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. 26 (52%) had electrolyte disturbances. Abnormal D-dimer values were observed in 33 (66%) pa-tients, and 12 (24%) patients had elevated troponin values. We found a level of 94.5% raw agreement between devices with regards to nine of the options included in the automatic read-out of the legacy device. The calculated Ϗ was 0.72, classified as substantial consensus. The rate of raw consensus regarding ECG intervals’ measurement (PR, RR, QT) was 78.5% and the calculated Ϗ was 0.42, corresponding to a moderate level of agreement. Conclusion: This is the first report to our knowledge regarding the feasibility of using a compact, 6-Lead ECG device in the setting of HAH to be safe and bearing satisfying agreement level with a legacy, 12-lead ECG device, en-abling quick, accessible arrythmia detection in this setting. Our findings bear a promise to the future development of telemedicine-based hospital at home methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0481.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; physiological monitoring; blood pressure; near-infrared spectroscopy
Online: 7 July 2023 (09:44:44 CEST)
Background: In recent years, the assessment and guidance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality using noninvasive and invasive monitoring techniques have been increasingly recommended. In this study, we introduce a new physiological monitoring system that simultaneously measures arterial pressure (AP), venous pressure (VP), and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) during CPR. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at a single center (Kagoshima City Hospital). Adult out-of-hospital patients aged ≥18 years with an intravenous femoral arterial line, venous line, and SctO2 monitor were included. We measured femoral arterial pressure (FAP) and femoral venous pressure (FVP) invasively if catheters were immediately inserted into the femoral artery and vein for potential candidates who require interventions such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation but did not receive such interventions as a result. Results: We observed several representative cases that provided the following insights: We presented several cases, including two patients with significant increases in FVP and low SctO2 values, and in both cases, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was not achieved. In contrast, we also presented two cases in which CPR resulted in higher FAP compared to FVP and an upward trend in SctO2 values was observed, and both instances achieved ROSC. Conclusion: We presented a simultaneous physiological monitoring system that can monitor AP, VP, and SctO2 during CPR. Further case accumulations will be necessary to assess the variations in hemodynamic status during CPR and the association between each hemodynamic status and outcomes after cardiac arrest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Hospital-acquired infections; infection control; standard precautions; health-care workers; Saudi Arabia
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:32:09 CEST)
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to increased length of hospital stay, high mortality and higher health-care costs. Prevention and control of HAIs is a critical public health concern. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 213 hospital health-care workers in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. We assessed Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of standard infection control precautions using a structured questionnaire. Predictors of KAP were investigated using multivaraible logistic regression analyses and independent sample t tests. Prevalence of good (≥80% correct response) knowledge, attitude and practice were 67.6%, 61.5% and 73.2%, respectively. Predictors of good knowledge included age over 34 years (adjusted odds ratio: 30.5, p<0.001), and receiving training (13.3, p<0.001). Predictor of positive attitude was having >6 years of experience (5.5, p<0.001). While, the predictors of good practice were having >6 years of experience (2.9, p<0.01), previous exposure to HAIs (2.5, p<0.05) and training (3.5, p<0.01). However, being female (0.22, p<0.001) and older (>34 years) (0.34, p<0.01) were negatively associated with knowledge. Results indicate that older academic programs might not have adequately covered infection crontrol. Arranging training for HCWs might be useful in improving their knowledge of standard infection control precautions and is also expected to facilitate positive attitude and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: parotidectomy; postoperative complications; perioperative complications; salivary gland tumor; facial paralysis; hospital stay
Online: 4 December 2020 (14:02:00 CET)
Background: Perioperative complications after parotidectomy are poorly studied and have a potential impact on hospitalization stay. The Clavien-Dindo classification of postoperative complications used in visceral surgery allows a recording of all complications, including a grading scale related to the severity of complication. Methods: The cohort analyzed for perioperative complications is composed of 436 parotidectomies. classified into three types, four groups and three classes depending on extent of parotid resection, inclusion of additional procedures and pathology, respectively. Results: Using the Clavien-Dindo classification, complications were reported in 77 % of the interventions. In 438 complications, 430 (98.2%) were classified as minor (332 grade I and 98 grade II) and 8 (1.8%) were classified as major (grade III). Independent variables affecting the risk of perioperative complications were duration of surgery (odds ratio = 1.007, p-value = 0.029) and extent of parotidectomy (odds ratio = 4.043, p-value = 0.007). Total/subtotal parotidectomy was associated with an increased risk of grade II-III complications [odds ratio = 2.866 (95% CI: 1.307-6.283), p-value = 0.009]. Hospital stay increased in patients with complications (p= 0.0064). Conclusions: Use of Clavien-Dindo classification shows that parotidectomy is followed by a high rate of perioperative complications. Longer hospital stay is observed in patients with perioperative complications. Almost all complications are minor and have limited consequence on hospital stay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: retrospective hospital-based study, overweight, obesity, pregnancy pathologies, caesarean section, weight gain
Online: 10 April 2019 (12:34:37 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of selected pregnancy pathologies statistically depending on overweight/obesity and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy on women who gave birth in the years 2013–2015 at the Second Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University Hospital in Bratislava, Slovakia. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data gathered from the sample, which consisted of 7,122 women. Our results indicate a positive statistical dependency of the groups of women with overweight and obesity and gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=15.3; 95% CI 9.0−25.8 for obesity), preeclampsia (AOR=3.4; 95% CI 1.9−6.0 for overweight and AOR=13.2; 95% CI 7.7−22.5 for obesity), and gestational diabetes mellitus (AOR=1.9; 95% CI 1.2−2.9 for overweight and AOR=2.4; 95% CI 1.4−4.0 for obesity). A higher incidence of pregnancies terminated by cesarean section was observed in the group of obese women. Gestational weight gain above the IOM (the Institute of Medicine) recommendations was associated with a higher risk of pregnancy terminated by C-section (AOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0−1.3), gestational hypertension (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.0−2.7), and infant macrosomia (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.3−2.1). Overweight and obesity during pregnancy significantly contribute to the development of pregnancy pathologies and increased incidence of cesarean section. Systematic efforts to reduce weight before pregnancy through pre-pregnancy dietary counseling, regular physical activity, and healthy lifestyle should be the primary goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium; hospital epidemic; whole genome analysis; infection prevention and control
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:41:52 CEST)
Vancomisin resistant enterococcus(VRE), is a resistant microorganism which colonizates and causes infections in hospitalized patients. It was aimed to show the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (fVREfm) step-by-step in all intensive care units, which started with the growth of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) on 02.12.2021 in the blood culture of a patient hospitalized in the anesthesia intensive care unit of our hospital and was found to have reached epidemic size in the surveys. Rectal swab samples were taken from all patients hospitalized in intensive care units, VRE colonization was determined and the VanA and VanB resistance genes associated with vancomycin resistance of VREfm isolates were determined by PCR method, and clonal association analysis was performed by Arbitrarily Primed-PCR (AP-PCR) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis. In our study, VRE was detected in 61 of 2601 rectal swab samples. 54 (85.52%) of the VRE isolates were Enterococcus faecium, 3 (4.91%) was Enterococcus faecalis, 3 (4.91%) was Enterococcus gallinorum, 1 (1.63%) was Enterococcus casseliflavus. It was determined that all of the 54 VREfm isolates, which were the most detected among all VRE isolates, carried the vanA gene. In the clonal association analysis of the isolates by AP-PCR and PFGE methods, it was found that they had 12 different genotypes, 48 of them were included in any cluster, the clustering rate was 88.8%, and the largest cluster was genotype 1 cluster with 36 isolates. Of the 54 patients with VREfm isolated recently, 18.51 percent of the clinical samples were isolated before the survey, and 9.24% were isolated after the survey. It was determined that 100% of VREfm isolates were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, high-level gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, teicoplanin, 7.4% to tigecycline and 1.85% to linezolid. In our study, in the clonal association analysis performed by isolating VREfm in rectal swab samples, it was found that 88.8% of the samples were indistinguishably similar and the increase in the number of VREfm infections after the index case in our hospital was associated with the epidemic. VREfm infections cause long term hospitalization, costs and also deaths, which shows the seriousness of the event, and the importance of the combination of epidemiological and molecular analysis in epidemic research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1136.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: standard precautions; occupational exposure; personal protective equipment; COVID-19; vaccination; Yaounde hospital; cameroon
Online: 18 July 2023 (03:29:50 CEST)
Introduction: Interest in infection prevention in healthcare facilities has been renewed with the advent of the COVID – 19 pandemic. Accidental exposures to body fluids occurs under work environments that do not meet occupational safety standards. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of observance of standard precautions including adherence to required vaccinations to prevent healthcare related infections. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out from January to April 2022 in six District Hospitals in Yaounde. An auto-administered questionnaire was addressed to consenting healthcare workers. Data were analysed using R statistic version 4.2.3. A p-value < 5% was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 217 HCW who were enrolled, nearly a quarter (17%) claimed to wash the scalpel blades for reuse. More than half of the participants (53.5%) did not wash their hands after each care. Reasons for not washing hands after each procedure were the perception that the patient care for was risk free (36 %), high workload (35.3 %), distant washing point (20 %). Almost half of HCW (46,5%) experienced a splash during the last 12 month. PPE were always available for only 43.56% of participants. Immunization coverage for COVID-19 was low 44.8 %. Poor vaccine compliance was related to doubts on vaccine content (42 %) and fear of adverse events (39.3 %). Conclusion: Strategies should be implemented to alleviate the AEB burden among healthcare workers and increase compliance with COVID-19 and other vaccines required for healthcare practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Lean in emergencies; Emergency room overcrowding; Lean Healthcare; Health services management; Hospital management
Online: 13 March 2023 (04:33:42 CET)
Objective: To describe the methodology used and the results found in the implementation of Lean in Emergencies in the Emergency sector of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Uberlândia (HC-UFU), verifying the difficulties and particularities that involved the process, as well as the result obtained. Material and methods: For the comparison between the periods before (T1), contemporary (T2) and after (T3) the implementation of Lean, hospital data were used , and the indicators corresponding to 10 variables were analyzed: Male Hospitalization and Female Hospitalization; High Male and High Female; Male Transfer and Female Transfer, Male Death <24h and Female Death <24h; Male Death >24h and Female Death >24h and general occupancy rate. All raw data related to the 36 months of evaluation were provided by the HC-UFU Statistics sector in spreadsheets without identifying patients. The indicators were compared to each other in the three analyzed periods, with the study directed as follows: Previous stage - Pre -intervention (T1): considered between the months of April 2017 to March 2018, completing 12 months before the implementation of Lean; Intra-intervention stage - contemporary (T2): considered between the months of April 2018 to March 2019, in a total of 12 months which was the implementation period; Post-Intervention Stage (T3): later: considered between the months of April 2019 to March 2020, completing 12 months after the implementation of Lean. The Lean in Emergencies scores (NEDOCS and LOS) were only recorded during the period that the implementation team was able to record and were used only to demonstrate trend over time. Comparison of the indicators with those found in other hospital units that also implemented Lean was carried out based on bibliographical research. Results and Discussion: The analysis of the behavior of the indicators did not demonstrate effectiveness related to the implementation of the system in the emergency sector. The failure to obtain better indicators can be attributed to discontinuity in monitoring the project, the lack of involvement of the clinical staff and alignment with the needs of the staff training academy, the difficulty of understanding the project by local and regional public entities. geographical location where the hospital is located, and by users of the health system who were not properly informed about the development of the project. These aspects should be considered in future management projects that may be implemented in the hospital. Despite the result of the implementation of Lean in the emergency sector not having reached the expected goals, the attempt showed windows of opportunity for future action on points that can improve the hospital management process and that should be tested in the next experiences. Conclusion: The methodology followed for the implementation of Lean in Emergencies in the emergency sector of the hospital did not produce improvement in hospital indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-SoV-2; hospital admissions; COPD exacerbation; asthma exacerbation; air pollution
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:27:21 CEST)
We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the hospitalization rates for acute exacerbations of asthma and/or COPD during the first imposed lockdown in Athens, Greece. Patient characteristics and the concentration of eight air pollutants (namely, CO, NO, NO2, O3 PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and benzene) were considered. A total of 153 consecutive hospital admissions were studied. Reduced admissions occurred in the lockdown period when compared to the Pre-lockdown 2020 (p<0.001) or the Control 2019 (p=0.007) period. Furthermore, the concentration of 6/8 air pollutants positively correlated with weekly hospital admissions in 2020 and significantly decreased during the lockdown. Finally, admitted patients for asthma exacerbation during the lockdown were younger (p=0.046) and less frequently presented respiratory failure (p=0.038), whereas patients with COPD presented higher blood eosinophil percentage (p=0.017) and count (p=0.012). Overall, admissions for asthma and COPD exacerbations decreased during the lockdown. This might partially explained by reduction of air pollution during this period while medical care avoidance behavior, especially among elderly patients cannot be excluded. Our findings aid in understanding the untold impact of the pandemic on diseases beyond COVID-19, focusing on patients with obstructive diseases..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0101.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: chronic dialysis; administrative data; hospital discharge records; ambulatory specialty visits; case definition; algorithm
Online: 6 May 2020 (15:26:06 CEST)
Background: Administrative healthcare databases are widespread and are often standardized with regard to their content and data coding, thus they can be used also as data sources for surveillance and epidemiological research. Chronic dialysis requires patients to frequently access hospital and clinic services, causing a heavy burden to healthcare providers. This also means that these patients are routinely tracked on administrative databases, yet very few case definitions for their identification are currently available. The aim of this study was to develop two algorithms derived from administrative data for identifying incident chronic dialysis patients and test their validity compared to the reference standard of the regional dialysis registry. Methods: The algorithms are based on data retrieved from hospital discharge records (HDR) and ambulatory specialty visits (ASV) to identify incident chronic dialysis patients in an Italian region. Subjects are included if they have at least one event in the HDR or ASV databases based on the ICD9-CM dialysis-related diagnosis or procedure codes in the study period. Exclusion criteria comprise non-residents, prevalent cases, or patients undergoing temporary dialysis, and are evaluated only on ASV data by the first algorithm, on both ASV and HDR data by the second algorithm. We validated the algorithms against the Emilia-Romagna regional dialysis registry by searching for incident patients in 2014. Results: Algorithm 1 identified 680 patients and algorithm 2 identified 676 initiating dialysis in 2014, compared to 625 patients included in the regional dialysis registry. Sensitivity for the two algorithms was respectively 90.8% and 88.4%, positive predictive value 84.0% and 82.0%, and percentage agreement was 77.4% and 74.1%. Conclusions: These results suggest that administrative data have high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the identification of incident chronic dialysis patients. Algorithm 1, which showed the higher accuracy and has a simpler case definition, can be used in place of regional dialysis registries when they are not present or sufficiently developed in a region, or to improve the accuracy and timeliness of existing registries.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: hierarchical medical system, national health insurance, healthcare-seeking behavior, reduction in hospital visits
Online: 15 July 2019 (11:56:40 CEST)
Objective: This study investigated the effect of the hierarchical medical system under the national health insurance program on resident’s healthcare-seeking behavior in Taiwan. Background: Healthcare authorities in Taiwan initiated the allowance reduction of outpatient visits at regional hospitals and higher hierarchical hospitals from 2018. The ultimate goal is to implement a hierarchical medical system and provide the residents accessible as well as consistent medical services. Methods: This research was conducted through the questionnaire survey method and data were collected between August and December 2018 from the records of subjects who had recently sought medical attention. A total of 1,340 valid questionnaires were returned. Results: Regarding the effect on healthcare-seeking behavior, the following factors were significant: being aged between 40 to 49 (p＜.1), subjects with an educational background of junior high school (p＜.05), those who were not aware of the policy (p＜.001), and an awareness about both the hierarchical medical system and the policy to reduce outpatient visits to large hospitals (p＜.001). Conclusion: The public should be made aware about the hierarchical medical system to improve healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0713.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: hospital infection; rapid microbiological test; antimicrobial consumption; defined daily dose; ventilator-associated pneumonia; filmarrays
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:35:51 CET)
Background: Data on the benefits of rapid microbiological testing on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance patterns(ARP) are scarce. We evaluated the impact of a protocol based on rapid techniques on AC and ARP in intensive care (ICU) patients. Methods: Retrospective pre(2018) and post-intervention(2019-21) study in ICU patients. A rapid diagnostic algorithm was applied from 2019 in patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Incidence of nosocomial infection, ARP, and AC as DDD(defined daily dose) were monitored. Results: A total of 3635 patients were included, 987(pre-intervention) and 2648(post-intervention). A median age was 60 years, 64% male, with APACHE II of 19 points and SOFA of 3 points. Overall ICU mortality of 17.2% without differences between the periods. An increase in the number of infections was observed in the post-intervention period(44.5% vs 17.9%, p<0.01), especially due to an increase in ventilator-associated pneumonia(44.6% vs 25%,p<0.001). AC decreased from 128.7 DDD in 2018 to 66.0 DDD in 2021(Rate Ratio=0.51). A recovery of P.aeruginosa susceptibility of 23% for Piperacillin/tazobactam and 31% for Meropenem was observed. Conclusion: The implementation of an algorithm based on rapid microbiological diagnostic techniques allowed a significant reduction in AC and ARP without affecting the prognosis of critically ill patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: immunoassay; urine drug test; opioid; nonmedical; cancer pain; safety-net hospital; palliative medicine; education
Online: 1 September 2023 (04:02:26 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the use of immunoassay urine drug testing of cancer patients in palliative care clinics. OBJECTIVES: We examined the frequency of immunoassay urine drug test (UDT) abnormalities and the factors associated with aberrancy at a safety-net hospital palliative medicine clinic. METHODS: A retrospective review of the electronic medical records of consecutive eligible patients seen at the outpatient palliative medicine clinic in a resource-limited safety net hospital system was conducted between September 1, 2015 and December 31, 2020. We collected longitudinal data on patient demographics, UDT findings, and potential predictors of aberrant results. RESULTS: Of the 913 patients in the study, 500 (55%) underwent UDT testing, with 455 (50%) having the testing within the first three visits. Among those tested within the first three visits, 125 (27%) had aberrant UDT results; 44 (35%) of these 125 patients were positive for cocaine. In a multivariable regression model analysis of predictors for aberrant UDT within the first 3 visits, non-Hispanic White race (odds ratio [OR]=2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-4.38; p=0.04), history of illicit drug use (OR=3.57; CI: 1.78-7.13; p< 0.001), and history of marijuana use (OR=7.05; CI: 3.85-12.91; p< 0.001) were independent predictors of an aberrant UDT finding. CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of immunoassay UDT, it was able to detect aberrant drug taking behaviors in a significant number of patients seen at a safety net hospital palliative care clinic, including cocaine use. These findings support universal UDT monitoring and utility of immunoassay-based UDT in resource limited settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Aged, 80 and over; ischemic stroke; cerebrovascular disorders; female; hospital mortality; patient blood management
Online: 31 August 2023 (08:44:53 CEST)
Background: The oldest old people (≥ 85 years) represent the fastest growing age group in Western populations. Knowledge on early outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in very old female patients remains limited. Methods: We assessed gender differences and female-specific clinical data and in-hospital mortality in very old patients with AIS. Acute cerebral infarction was diagnosed in 506 very old female patients from a total of 4,600 acute cerebrovascular infarctions available in an ongoing 24-year hospital stroke data bank. A comparative analysis of vital status at discharge (alive versus dead) was performed in terms of cardiovascular risk factors, clinical data, and early outcomes. Results: The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 20.4%. In multivariate analysis, sudden onset, altered level of consciousness, and neurological, respiratory, cardiological or hemorrhagic complications, and lacunar infarcts appeared to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Female patients ≥85 years with AIS are an unfavorable subgroup of stroke patients with a high risk of early mortality, which may be due to comorbidity, stroke subtype distribution, and higher frequency of medical complications. However, the presence of lacunar infarcts showed a significant protective effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2184.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: patient's mobility; beds endowment; Gandy's Nomogram; healthcare management; healthcare services; hospital rehabilitation; Italian regions
Online: 30 June 2023 (09:56:30 CEST)
Background: In a Beveridgean decentralized healthcare system, like the Italian one, where regions are responsible for their own health planning and financing, the analysis of patients’ migration appears very interesting as it has economic and social implications. The study aims to analyze both patients’ migration for hospital rehabilitation and if the beds endowment is a driver for these flows; Methods: from 2011 to 2019, admissions data were collected from the Hospital Dis-charge Cards database of the Italian Ministry of Health, population data from Italian National Institute of Statistics and data of beds endowment from the Italian Ministry of Health website. To evaluate patients’ migration, we used Gandy’s Nomogram, while to assess if beds endowments are mobility drivers, we have created two matrices, one with attraction indexes (AI) and one with escape indexes (EI). The beds endowment, for each Italian region, were correlated with AI and EI. Spearman’s test was carried out through STATA software; Results: Gandy’s Nomogram showed that only some northern regions had good hospital planning for rehabilitation. A statistically significant correlation between beds endowment and AI was found for four regions, while with EI for eight regions. Conclusions: Only some northern regions appear able to satisfy the care needs of their residents, with an attraction minus escapes positive epidemiological balance. The beds endowment seems to be a driver of Patients’ migration, mainly for escapes. Certainly, the search for mobility drivers needs further investigation given the events in Molise and Basilicata.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0479.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: video consultations; digitalisation; stakeholders’ health and wellbeing; corporate social responsibility; hospital doctors; patient care
Online: 26 December 2022 (07:40:43 CET)
The past several decades have seen a shift in patient care towards digitalisation, which has ushered in a new era of health care delivery and improved sustainability and resilience of health systems, with positive impacts on both internal and external stakeholders. This study’s aim was to understand the role of digital virtual consultations in improving internal and external stakeholders’ health, as well as wellbeing among hospital doctors. A qualitative research approach was used with semi-structured online interviews administered to hospital doctors. The interviews showed that the doctors viewed digital virtual consultations as supplementary to in-person consultations, and as tools to reduce obstacles related to distance and time. If the necessary infrastructure and technology were in place, doctors would be willing to use these options. Implementing these technologies would improve the medical profession’s flexibility on the one hand; but it might affect doctors’ work–life balance if consultations extended beyond standard working hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; XDR; IMP-1; VIM-2; NDM-1; VAP; ICU; Hospital-acquired infections
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:58:13 CEST)
A 2-year prospective study carried out on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients in the intensive care unit at King Khalid hospital, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), revealed a high prevalence of extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. About a 9% increase in the incidence rate of A. baumannii has occurred in the VAP patients between 2019 and 2020 (21.4% to 30.7%). In 2019 the isolates were positive for IMP-1 and VIM-2 (31.1% and 25.7%, respectively) as detected by PCR. In comparison, a higher proportion of isolates produced NDM-1 in 2020. Here, we observed a high resistant proportion of ICU isolates towards the most common antibiotics in use. Colistin sensitivity dropped to 91.4% in the year 2020 as compared to 2019 (100%). Thus, the finding of this study has a highly significant clinical implementation in the clinical management strategies for VAP patients. Furthermore, strict implementation of antibiotic stewardship policies, regular surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, and screening for genes encoding drug resistance phenotypes have become imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0058.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Needlestick and other sharp injuries; hospital-acquired infection; biological hazards; infection control; occupational hazards
Online: 3 March 2022 (08:13:53 CET)
Needlestick and other sharp injuries (NSIs) are critical occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Exposure to blood and body fluids through NSIs increases the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens among them. The objectives of this study were to estimate the one-year incidence of NSIs and investigate its associated factors among the healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between October and November 2021. A total of 361 healthcare workers participated in the survey from all over Saudi Arabia. The one-year incidence of NSIs among healthcare workers is estimated at 22.2%. More than half of the injury event (53.8%) was not reported to the authority by the healthcare worker. Incidence of NSIs was highest among the physicians (36%) and is followed by nurses (34.8%), dentists (29.2%), and medical technologists (21.1%). The likelihood of injury is higher (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.04, 6.03) among the works aged 26 – 30 years compared to the 20 – 25 years age group and the workers directly deal with needles or other sharp objects while working (OR: 5.90; 2.69, 12.97). The high incidence rate of injury and low reporting rate highlight the needs of an education program targeting healthcare providers with higher risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0422.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: CRPNR; COVID-19 pandemic; hospital admission; GP visit; Hungary; interaction effect; Roma; specialist care
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:05:43 CET)
Background: Although, negative repercussions of inadequate health service use on the health outcomes has been presumably exacerbated by COVID-19, the impact of the pandemic measures has been not evaluated properly yet. Objective: Our study aimed to quantify the COVID-19 pandemic measures’ effect on the general practitioner (GP) visit, specialist care, hospitalization and cost-related prescription nonredemption (CRPNR) among adults in Hungary, and to identify the social strata susceptible to the pandemic effect. Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study based on nationally representative data of 6,611 (Nprepandemic=5,603 and Npandemic=1,008) subjects aged 18 years and above. Data were obtained from the European Health Interview Survey 2019 (EHIS) and International Social Survey Program 2021 (ISSP) for prepandemic and pandemic, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors influencing the health care use by odds ratios (OR) along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). To identify the social strata susceptible to pandemic effect, the interaction of the time of data collection with level of education, marital status, and ethnicity, was also tested. Results: While, the CRPNR did not changed, the frequency of GP visit, specialist care and hospitalization rate were remarkably reduced by 22.2%, 26.4%, and 6.7%, respectively, during the pandemic in Hungary. Roma proved to be not specifically affected by the pandemic in any studied respect. The pandemic restructuring of health care impacted the social subgroups evenly with respect to hospital care. However, the pandemic effect was weaker among primary educated adults (ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.434; 95% CI 0.243-0.776, ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.598; 95% CI 0.364-0.985), and among widows (ORwidowed vs married =2.284; 95% CI 1.043-4.998, ORwidowed vs married=1.915; 95% CI 1.157-3.168) on the frequency of GP visit and specialist visit; and the prepandemic CRPNR inequality by level of education was increased (ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.236; 95% CI 0.075-0.743). Conclusion: Primary educated and widowed did not follow the general trend, and their prepandemic limited health care use was not reduced further during pandemic, resulting in an inequality reduction. The vulnerability of primary educated to CRPNR was the only gap widened in the pandemic period. This shows that although the management of pandemic health care use restrictions was implemented by increasing the social inequality in Hungary, the prevention of inequity in drug availability for primary educated individuals could require more support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community-Acquired Pneumonia; Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia; COVID-19; Antibiotics; Mes-enchymal Stem Cells; Corticosteroids
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:18:25 CEST)
Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. With the significant global health burden that pneumonia poses, it is es-sential to improve therapeutic and management strategies. The increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains limits options for effective antibiotic use. New antibiotics for treatment of pneumonia may address deficits in current antimicrobial drugs, with an ability to cover both typical, atypical, and resistance pathogen. Several of these newer drugs also have structural characteristics that allow for a decreased propensity in development of bacterial resistance. Po-tential use of stem cell therapies in place of corticosteroid treatments may also offer an im-provement in patient outcomes. Human mesenchymal stem cell treatments have shown efficacy and safety in treating COVID-19 induced pneumonia. Combined treatment with both stem cells and antibiotics in pneumonia in a rabbit model has also shown significantly increased efficacy in comparison to antibiotic treatment alone, presenting yet another possible route for a novel strategy in treating pneumonia, though additional future studies are necessary before clinical implementation. While pneumonia remains a major disease of concern, having newer approved antibiotics as well as novel therapies such as stem cell treatments in the pipeline offers clinicians more options in effectively treating pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ethics seminar; moral sensitivity; unethical behavior; nurse; Health care; patient; hospital; Patient safety; education
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:11:57 CET)
While nursing is an ethical profession, unethical behavior among nurses is increasing worldwide. This study examined the effects of an ethics seminar on nurses' moral sensitivity and ethical behavior. A total of 37 nurses (17 experimental, 20 control) were recruited. The ethics seminar was held over a 6-month period from May to October, 2018, and comprised six sessions held once a month for two hours. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior were measured at the start and end of the seminar. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior showed a negative correlation (r= -.455, p<0.01). After the ethics seminar, the experimental group's moral sensitivity was significantly increased (t = -1.039, p = 0.314). The mean scores of unethical behavior at pre and post-test in the experimental group were 12.59 and 9.47, respectively. This was a statistically significant difference (t = 3.118, p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean score in both moral sensitivity and unethical behavior in the control group. We conclude that ethics seminars can enhance moral sensitivity and reduce the risk of unethical behavior among nurses. Regular ethics seminars and training must be provided to nurses as a matter of policy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: next-generation sequencing; whole-genome sequencing; hospital-acquired pneumonia; antibiotic resistance; prediction; clinical metagenomics
Online: 30 September 2017 (04:49:23 CEST)
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity. While the inference of the antibiotic susceptibility testing from metagenomic or even genomic data is challenging, a limited number of antibiotics are used in the probabilistic regimen of HAP (namely beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and oxazolidinones). Accordingly in the perspective of applying CMg to the early diagnostic of HAP, we aimed at reviewing the performances of whole genomic sequencing (WGS) of the main HAP-causing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Staphylococcus aureus) for the prediction of susceptibility to the antibiotic families advocated in the probabilistic regimen of HAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0825.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: early arrival; emergency department; healthcare professionals; hospital care; knowledge; man-agement; prehospital care; recognition; stroke
Online: 13 November 2023 (12:29:06 CET)
Data show that ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Knowledge of ischemic stroke-related guidelines is vital for health care professionals working in the Emergency Departments (EDs) because it affects the early diagnosis and timely treatment to combating stroke. We aimed to explore knowledge regarding the recognition and management of the ischemic stroke among Greek-Cypriot emergency health care personnel (nurses and physicians). A descriptive cross-sectional correlation study was implemented from November 2019 to April 2020 across 4 private and 7 public EDs in Cyprus. Data were collected with the use of a self-reported questionnaire, developed by the research team. 255 nurses [Response Rate (RR): 74.1%] and 26 physicians (RR; 47.3%) completed the questionnaire. The participants gave a correct answer to an average of 12.9 statements from a total of 28 (SD: 4.2) with nurses and physicians scoring a mean of 12.9 (SD:4.1) and 15,7 (SD: 4) respectively. Participating hospitals scored an average of 10.3 to 14.1. Participants with previous training scored an average of 1.45 addi-tional correct answers. Greek-Cypriot health care professionals in EDs reported poor to moderate knowledge about ischemic stroke highlighting the need for targeted and continuous education, and further study of factors related with this may be of interest. Also, development and implementation of evidence-based protocols and enhanced education regarding ischemic stroke should be considered essential interventions for emergency health care professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0675.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; socio-demographic analysis; Ferritin; Lymphocytes; General hospital Ninh Thuan province
Online: 9 June 2023 (06:15:27 CEST)
Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infection was first reported in 2019 and has since spread throughout the world. This is a cross-sectional study in cooperation with 118 Department of Pre-Hospital and Territorial Emergency (118 SET) of Taranto City and the University of Bari, Aldo Moro, and the School of Medicine from Italy. We conducted a study on how the COVID-19 epidemics evolved and how it was contained by different countermeasures by taking into account data showing socio-demographic and that older persons, as well as individuals with comorbidities and poor metabolic health, and people coming from economically depressed areas with lower quality of life in general, are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 infection. Objective: Examine the association between county-level socio-demographic risk factors and COVID-19 incidence and mortality, determining the possible emo-biological markers, ferritin, and lymphocytes, that could be indicative of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study on 600 patients examined and treated at general hospital Ninh Thuan from January to September 2022. Results: 33/600 patients were confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (5.5%), males 4.8% and females 5.8%, the median age of infected patients is 36 years. Most infections were mild (75.8%). Our results revealed that the structure and the spatial arrangement of socio-demographic arrangements are important either as epidemiological determinants or as disease markers. Conclusion: Approximately 5.5% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 come to examination and treatment at the hospital, these findings suggested that possible infection rate in the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, the sociodemographic risk factors, and their root causes must be addressed. In addition, lab results obtained from affected patients showed that lymphocytes and ferritin could be considered traits of mild COVID-19 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0003.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: aortic diseases; serum creatinine; acute kidney injury; cardiac surgery; in-hospital mortality; cross-clamp time
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:12:17 CET)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication that can occur after cardiac surgery and requires ongoing research in light of the exponential expansion of technological advancements and knowledge in medicine. In this study, we aim to evaluate the outcomes of treated electives of emergency aortic disease with high serum creatinine levels (SCr). Methods: The cohort includes 183 patients, all of whom have an aortic disease and whose SCr levels were checked upon admission on the first day in the intensive care unit (ICU) and upon discharge from the hospital. We examined the correlation of SCr levels with in-hospital mortality and immediate mortality at least six months after discharge as well as with cross-clamp time and bypass time.Results: A high SCr level upon admission is a significant predictive factor of n-hospital mortality (p = 0.001) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.409). A statistically significant correlation was also observed between elevated SCr level on the first day of ICU and aortic disease (p = 0.041) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.119). We observed a significant correlation between aortic disease and in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001), but no correlation was found between high SCr level on the first day of ICU and immediate mortality (p = 0.119). The cross-clamp time is statistically significant correlated with elevated SCr level (p = 0.013) and in-hospital mortality (p = 0.001) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.847). Furthermore, the bypass time is negatively correlated with a high SCr level on the first day of ICU (p = 0.090), in-hospital mortality (p = 0.410), and immediate mortality (p = 0.625). We also found that aortic disease is not correlated with elevated creatinine levels at ICU discharge (p = 0.152) or long-term mortality (p = 0.106). Conclusions: Although this study only included a small portion of the elaborate aspects of surgical and medical management developed around cardiac patients who received invasive treatment, the conclusions reached are nevertheless clearly relevant, as evidenced by the significantly correlations uncovered. In order to manage AKI after AAS and improve the outcome, the SCr level could be used as a marker for renoprotective strategy. Moving forward, these results serve as a first step in motivating us to expand the range of our research, collect newly relevant data, and use it to benefit patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: pharmacists; hospital pharmacy; United Kingdom; discharge prescriptions; prescribing; consolidated framework for implementation research; implementation strategies
Online: 8 May 2017 (11:59:12 CEST)
The effective dissemination and implementation of health service interventions into practice requires a range of strategic and systematic approaches. This paper applies a conceptual implementation framework to the evaluation of a hospital-wide clinical pharmacy initiative, a redesign of the discharge medication prescription pathway. The influencing factors and strategies used to overcome potential negative influences are described and assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1886.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19 disease; sex; age; pathogens; hospital admissions; gender ratio; small noncoding RNAs
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:42:22 CEST)
A recent study has suggested that the age profiles for deaths due to COVID-19 variants differs between variants and shows male/female specificity. This study demonstrates the age and sex dependency is common among human pathogens. The often-reported higher susceptibility to infections among the young and elderly is true in general but does not apply to individual pathogens. Even among different types of pneumonia there are subtle differences in the age profile. The gender ratio between pathogens likewise shows wide variation from as low as 10% female admissions for leptospirosis to around 90% for gonococcal admissions. The observed age/sex variation observed for mortality due to COVID-19 variants is an expression of a far wider phenomenon with implications to the age/sex response to vaccines. We propose that such differences are likely to be controlled by small noncoding RNAs which act as potent regulators of gene expression leading to altered cell morphology, metabolism, immune function, and response to vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI); Klebsiella pneumoniae; Hospital-acquired infections; Proteus mirabilis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; antibiogram
Online: 10 June 2022 (07:53:43 CEST)
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Prolonged hospitalization, invasive devices such as catheters, and irrational use of antimicrobial agents are believed to be the major causes of high rates of HAIs. Infections such as pyelonephritis, urethritis, cystitis, and prostatitis are the main concern in catheterized ICU patients. In these cases, Gram-negative bacteria are the most common. The present study is undertaken to determine the frequency, antibiograms, disease pattern, and risk factors involved in providing an advocacy recommendation to prevent CAUTI. A total of 1078 patients were admitted to the hospital ICU, out of which healthcare-associated infection was reported in 316 patients. CAUTI was reported only in 70 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%) was the predominant isolate, with Serratia (3%) and Providencia (3%) species as the least common in this study. The present study provides CAUTI incidence rates in a tertiary care hospital in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, information on risk factors of CAUTI common causative organism associated, and their antibiogram patterns are also presented. This study provides vital information that can be used to formulate an effective antibiotic stewardship program that can be implemented throughout the kingdom.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; antimicrobial resistance; circular dichroism spectroscopy; efflux protein; efflux pump; foodborne pathogen; hospital-acquired infection; polyamine
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:19:07 CET)
The aim of this work was to test polyamines as potential natural substrates of the Acinetobacter baumannii chlorhexidine efflux protein AceI using near-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The Gram-negative bacterium A. Baumannii is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and an important foodborne pathogen. A. Baumannii strains are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, including the synthetic antiseptic chlorhexidine. AceI was the founding member of the recently recognised PACE family of bacterial multidrug efflux proteins. Using the plasmid construct pTTQ18-aceI(His6) containing the A. Baumannii aceI gene directly upstream from a His6-tag coding sequence, expression of AceI(His6) was amplified in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Near-UV (250-340 nm) SRCD measurements were performed on detergent-solubilised and purified AceI(His6) at 20 °C. Sample and SRCD experimental conditions were identified that detected binding of the triamine spermidine to AceI(His6). In a titration with spermidine (0-10 mM) this binding was saturable and fitting of the curve for the change in signal intensity produced an apparent binding affinity (KD) of 3.97 +/- 0.45 mM. These SRCD results were the first experimental evidence obtained for polyamines as natural substrates of PACE proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1755.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: assistive robots; clinic logistics; nursing task classification; nursing workload; intra-hospital transfers; time and motion studies; healthcare; Germany
Online: 27 October 2023 (05:11:52 CEST)
Transportation tasks in nursing are common and shorten the time for direct patient care in times of nursing shortage and an aging society. There is a lack of research on transportation needs, with most studies focusing on overall nursing task analysis without a deeper analysis of transportation tasks. In July and September 2023, we conducted weekly observations of nurses to assess clinical transportation needs. We aim to understand the economic impact and the methods nurses use for transportation tasks. We conducted a participant observation using a standardized app-based form over a seven-day observation period in two rural clinics. N=1,830 transports were made by nurses and examined by descriptive analysis. Non-medical supplies account for 27.05 % (n=495) of all transports, followed by medical supplies at 17.32 % (n=317), pharmacotherapy at 14.10 % (n=258) and other other categories like meals or drinks contributing 12.68 % (n=232). Most transports had a factual transport time of under a minute, with patient transport and lab samples displaying more variability. In total, 77.15 % of all transports were made by hand. Requirements to collect items or connect transports with patient care were included in 5 % of all transports. Our economic evaluation spotlighted meals as the most costly transport, with 9,596.16€ p.a. in the observed clinics. Budget-friendly robots would amortize over one year by transporting meals. We support understanding nurses’ transportation needs via further research on assistive robots to validate our findings and determine the feasibility of transport robots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1080.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: greenhouse gas; healthcare; sustainability; environmental justice; carbon emissions; hospital; climate change; quality improvement; greening; environmental stewardship; planetary health
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:02:07 CEST)
(1) Background: Human-generated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are the largest contributor to climate change worldwide. Climate change negatively impacts human and planetary health threatening the existence of life on earth. The healthcare industry is responsible for approximately 8.5% of carbon emissions in the United States. Measuring baseline GHG emissions is the first step in emissions reduction. However, very few models of measurement exist for health care organizations. This project aimed to develop and implement a program to measure and track GHG emissions at a Midwestern Academic Medical Center (MAMC) and to educate staff to manage the process. (2) Methods: A Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle and Quality Improvement methodology was used to develop, implement, and assess a standardized GHG emission inventory process to measure Scope 1 and Scope 2 baseline emissions, and provide virtual training and education to the accountable staff. A pre- and post-survey design was used to measure the knowledge and readiness of the staff after the implementation of the GHG inventory training. (3) Results: The GHG inventory process was validated through an external verification process and the measurement of Scope 1 and Scope 2 baseline GHG emissions was completed and verified for accuracy through a data comparison review. The pre-post-training survey showed an increase in the knowledge and readiness of staff in maintaining a GHG inventory. (4) Conclusions: This work shows the feasibility of obtaining baseline GHG emissions data at large medical centers. It represents the initial phase of the overarching goal to develop site-wide and system-wide carbon reduction strategies and a climate action plan within this health system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0550.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Heat; Heatwave; Cardiovascular diseases; Respiratory diseases; Hospital admissions; Climate change; ambient temperature; Public health; time series; summer months
Online: 23 September 2020 (10:32:12 CEST)
There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of ambient heat exposure on morbidity in Northern Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships of daily summer-time temperature and heatwaves with cardiorespiratory hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Methods: Time-series models adjusted for potential confounders such as air pollution were used to investigate the associations of daily temperature and heatwaves with cause-specific cardiorespiratory hospital admissions, during summer months of 2001-2017. Daily number of hospitalizations was obtained from the national hospital discharge register, weather information from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Results: Increased daily temperature was associated with decreased risk of total respiratory hospital admissions and asthma. Heatwave days were associated with 20.5% (95% CI: 6.9, 35.9) increased risk of pneumonia admissions and during long or intense heatwaves also with total respiratory admissions in the oldest age group (≥ 75 years). There were also suggestive positive associations between heatwave days and admissions due to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular diseases. In contrast, risk of arrhythmia admissions was decreased 20.8% (95% CI: 8.0, 31.8) during heatwaves. Conclusions: Heatwaves, rather than single hot days, are a health threat affecting the morbidity even in a Northern climate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; emergency physician; medical decision; asystole; advanced life support; Charlson comorbidity index; emergency medical service; prehospital emergency
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:48:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to identify the key elements used by prehospital emergency physicians (EP) to decide whether or not to attempt advanced life support (ALS) in asystolic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). From 01.01.2009 to 01.01.2017, all adult victims of asystolic OHCA in Geneva, Switzerland, were retrospectively included. Patients with signs of "obvious death" or with a Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation order were excluded. Patients were categorized as having received ALS if this was mentioned in the medical record, or, failing that, if at least one dose of adrenaline had been administered during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prognostic factors known at the time of EP's decision were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. 784 patients were included. Factors favourably influencing the decision to provide ALS were witnessed OHCA (OR=2.14, 95%CI1.43–3.20) and bystander CPR (OR=4.10, 95%CI2.28–7.39). Traumatic aetiology (OR=0.04, 95%CI0.02–0.08), age >80 years (OR=0.14, 95%CI0.09–0.24) and a Charlson comorbidity index greater than 5 (OR=0.12, 95%CI0.06–0.27) were the factors most strongly associated with the decision not to attempt ALS. Factors influencing the EP’s decision to attempt ALS in asystolic OHCA are the relatively young age of the patients, few comorbidities, presumed medical aetiology, witnessed OHCA and bystander CPR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Critical Illness; Hospital Mortality; Intensive Care Units; Outcome Assessment, Health Care; Prognosis; Risk Adjustment; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:51:34 CET)
Objectives To develop and validate a prediction model for 28-day in-hospital mortality among adult patients critically ill with COVID-19 in the UK. Design Observational cohort study. Setting 287 adult critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, of which 260 admitted at least one eligible patient. Participants 10,933 patients with confirmed COVID-19 of whom 10,401 were eligible (excluding 532 patients with a duration of critical care less than 24 hours and 1 patient with unknown 28-day outcome): 8,666 development (March-April 2020) and 1,735 temporal validation (May-August 2020). Main outcome measures 28-day in-hospital mortality from start of critical care. Results Two models were developed using 14 patient level predictors selected from 30 candidate predictors, with and without adjustment for calendar time. In the temporal validation data, the model discrimination was maintained (c index 0.78) but calibration was poor, particularly for the model not adjusted for calendar time (ratio of observed to predicted mortality 0.74 versus 0.88 for the model adjusted for calendar time). Conclusions We developed and validated a prediction model for 28-day in-hospital mortality for patients critically ill with COVID-19. Although absolute predictions were inaccurate due to changing outcomes, the models will support risk-adjustment in analyses and monitoring changes in risk-adjusted outcome over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0709.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: hospital bed numbers; optimum occupancy; bed models; deaths; international comparison; benchmarking; healthcare policy; policy-based evidence; patient flow; queuing theory; infections; surge capacity
Online: 17 October 2023 (10:59:13 CEST)
Based upon 30-years of research by the author a new approach to hospital bed planning and international benchmarking is proposed. The number of hospital beds per 1000 population is commonly used to compare international bed numbers. This method is flawed because it does not consider population age structure or the effect of nearness-to-death on hospital utilization. Deaths are also serving as a proxy for wider bed demand arising from undetected outbreaks of 3000 species of human pathogens. To remedy this problem a new approach to bed modelling has been developed which plots beds per 1000 deaths against deaths per 1000 population. Lines of equivalence can be drawn on the plot to delineate countries with higher or lower bed supply. This method is extended to attempt to define the optimum region for bed supply in an effective health care system. England is used as an example of a health system descending into operational chaos due to too few beds and manpower. The former Soviet bloc countries represent a health system overly dependent on hospital beds. Several countries also show evidence for over-utilization of hospital beds. The new method is used to define a potential range for bed supply and manpower where the current most effective health systems currently reside. The method is applied to total curative beds, medical beds, psychiatric beds, critical care, geriatric care, etc., and can also be used to compare different types of healthcare staff, i.e., nurses, physicians, surgeons. Issues surrounding the optimum hospital size and the optimum average occupancy will also be discussed. The role of poor policy in the English NHS is used to show how the NHS has been led into a bed crisis. The method is also extended beyond international benchmarking to illustrate how it can be applied at a local or regional level in the process of long-term bed planning. Issues regarding the volatility in hospital admissions are also addressed to explain the need for surge capacity and why an adequate average bed occupancy margin is required for an optimally functioning hospital.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1000.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hospital readmission reduction; Predictive modeling in healthcare; Patient-centered care and AI technologies; Data governance and privacy; Ethical considerations of AI in healthcare
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:13:04 CEST)
The complex progression, specialized care, and comorbidities of chronic diseases place a financial and health burden on society. In some instances, the high hospital readmission rate is also a result of chronic diseases. The readmission rates can be decreased if the quality of life for patients is increased and healthcare costs are reduced through effective management and preventive measures. As a result, healthcare professionals, service providers, and policy-makers are looking for innovative approaches to reduce healthcare costs while enhancing the quality of care. There is an emerging trend in deploying technological advancements like artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), sensors, wearables, social media, mobile apps, and genomics to decrease hospital readmissions. In some instances, predictive analytics, early warning systems, personal-ized care management, remote monitoring and Telehealth, decision support systems, patient education and engagement, and other areas of artificial intelligence and machine learning have outperformed traditional approaches in lowering hospital readmissions. Although AI effectively reduces readmission, there are potential risks if it is not combined with efficient interventions. Therefore, real-time monitoring and intervention are required for AI systems to increase patient safety and decrease hospital readmissions. To achieve autonomy, prevent harm, achieve fairness, and achieve explicability, the ethical principles relating to AI systems should be taken into ac-count. This study examines the significant impact on health and the economy of hospital read-missions for chronic diseases and the role of AI in reducing readmissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0315.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Length of stay estimation; Admission rate characterization; Resource requirement forecasting; Patientcare modelling; Hospital capacity planning; Phase type survival trees; Machine Learning; Health ML Extended Health Intelligence
Online: 20 February 2023 (01:38:22 CET)
Healthcare professionals and resource planners can use healthcare delivery process mining to ensure the optimal utilisation of scarce healthcare resources when developing policies. Within hospitals, patients' Length of Stay (LOS) and volume of admitted patients, in terms of number and characteristics (age, gender, and social deter-minants), are significant factors determining daily resource requirements. In this study, we used Coxian phase-type Distribution (C-PHD) based Phase-Type Survival (PTS) trees for analysing how covariates such as admission date, gender, age, district, and admissions source influence the admission rate and LOS distribution. PTS trees. This study used a two-year data set (2011-2012) of patients admitted to the Emergency Department at Mater Dei Hospital to generate models and an independent one-year data set (2013) of patients admitted to the Emergency Department at Mater Dei Hospital to evaluate. The PTS tree effectively clusters patients based on their LOS, considering the prognostic significance of different covariates related to patients' characteristics. Charac-terising these covariates provided meaningful results about LOS. Similarly, the PTS tree was used to effectively cluster patients based on the admission rate, considering the prognostic significance of these covariates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Critical Care Capacity; Critical Care Transfers; Critical Care Networks; COVID-19 Critical Care Capacity; COVID-19; Patient Transfer; Inter-hospital transfer; COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:41:35 CEST)
The intensive care units in North West London are part of one of the oldest critical carenetworks in the UK, forming a mature and established strategic alliance to shareresources, experience and knowledge for the benefit of its patients. North WestLondon saw an early surge in COVID-19 admissions, which urgently threatened thecapacity of some of its intensive care units even before the UK government announcedlockdown. The pre-existing relationships and culture within the network allowed itsmembers to unite and work rapidly to develop agile and innovative solutions, protectingany individual unit from becoming overwhelmed, and ultimately protecting its patients.Within a short 50-day period 223 patients were transferred within the network todistribute pressures. This unprecedented number of critical care transfers, combinedwith the creation of extra capacity and new pathways, allowed the region to continue tooffer timely and unrationed access to critical care for all patients who would benefitfrom admission. This extraordinary response is a testament to the power and benefitsof a regionally networked approach to critical care, and the lessons learned maybenefit other healthcare providers, managers and policy makers, especially in regionscurrently facing new outbreaks of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: hand hygiene opportunities; alcohol-based hand rub; hand wash with soap and water; WHO hand hygiene observation tool; SORT IT; operational research; antimicrobial resistance; infection prevention and control (IPC); hospital acquired infections; gloves
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:21:35 CEST)
In 2021, an operational research study in two tertiary hospitals, Freetown, showed poor hand hygiene compliance. Recommended actions were taken to improve the situation. Between February-April 2023, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the same two hospitals using the WHO Hand Hygiene tool to assess hand hygiene practices and compare hand hygiene compliance with that observed between June-August 2021. In Connaught hospital, overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 51% to 60% (P<0.001), and this applied to both handwash actions with soap and water and alcohol-based-hand-rub: significant improvements were found in all hospital departments and amongst all healthcare worker cadres. In 34 Military Hospital (34MH), overall hand hygiene compliance decreased from 40% to 32% (P<0.001), with significant decreases observed in all departments and amongst nurses and nursing students. The improvements in Connaught Hospital were attributed to more hand hygiene reminders, better handwash infrastructure and more frequent supervision assessments compared with 34MH where interventions were less well applied, possibly due to extensive hospital reconstruction at the time. In conclusion, improved distribution of hand hygiene reminders, better handwash infrastructure and frequent supervision assessments are effective, and need to be strengthened, scaled-up and combined with other innovative ways to promote good hand hygiene practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD); platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR); baso-phil-to-lymphocyte ratio (BLR); eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR); in-hospital mortality; nom-ogram; decision curve analysis (DCA); clinical impact curve (CIC)
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:42:59 CET)
The study comprehensively evaluated the prognostic roles of PLR, NLR, MLR, BLR, and ELR in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). 619 patients with AECOPD and 300 healthy volunteers were retrospectively included into the study. The clinical characteristics containing laboratory findings of the AECOPD patients and the blood cell counts (CBCs) of the healthy volunteers were collected. Compared with the healthy volunteers, PLR, NLR, and MLR were elevated in COPD patients in stable condition, and were further ele-vated during exacerbation. ELR showed the opposite trend. PLR, NLR, and MLR were all posi-tively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. In contrast, ELR was negatively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with more serious airflow limitation in AECOPD. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality while Elevated ELR was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. A nomogram was construct to predict in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. The nomo-gram had a C-index of 0.850 (95% CI: 0.799 – 0.901) with good predictive value and clinical ap-plicability. In summary, PLR, NLR, MLR, and ELR served as predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with AECOPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.