ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0054.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: RFID; honey bee behavior; queen tracking; foraging activity; transponder
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:44:00 CET)
The fields of electronics and information technology have witnessed rapid development during the last decades, providing significant technical support to the field of biological sciences. Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been used to automate the monitoring of animal location and behaviors in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, including social insects such as ants and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) This technology relies on electromagnetic fields to identify and track transponders attached to objects automatically. Implementing new technologies to serve research purposes could be time-consuming and require technical expertise from entomologists and researchers. Herein, we present a detailed description on how to harness RFID technology to serve honey bee research effectively. We describe how to build and operate a 32-antenna RFID system used to monitor various honey bee behaviors such as foraging, robbing, queen and drone mating, which can be used in other social insects as well. Preliminary data related to queen nuptial flights were obtained using this unit and presented in this study. Virgin queens labeled with ~5mg transponders performed multiple (1-4) nuptial/orientation flights a day (9 am to 5 pm) ranging from 8 to 145 seconds each. Contrary to virgin queens, no hive exit was recorded for mated-queens. At full capacity, this unit can monitor up to 32 honey bee colonies concurrently and is self-sustained by a solar panel to work in remote areas. All materials, hardware and software needed to build and operate this unit are detailed in this study, offering researchers and beekeepers a practical solution and a comprehensive source of information enabling the implementation of RFID technology in their research perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0291.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: classification, stingless bee honey, bee species origins, metabolomics, NMR, LC-MS, chemometrics
Online: 16 July 2018 (14:05:59 CEST)
Background: The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and do not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Methods: Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. Results: The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. D-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-D-Glucose, D-Xylose, α-D-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and L-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, L-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) identified via 1H NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. Conclusion: It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using classification technique by bee species origins via 1H NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1730.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Honey bee; identification; wings; geometric morphometrics; XML
Online: 26 June 2023 (02:58:04 CEST)
Identification of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies is an important aspect of bee breeding and biodiversity conservation. The identification can be based on molecular or morphological markers. For some markers, including the cytochrome c oxidase subunit, there is a well-established methodology allowing consistent subspecies identification in different laboratories. In the case of morphological markers, identification is hindered by a lack of reference data and a standardized methodology to reuse it. We show here that reference data for the identification of honey bees based on geometric morphometrics can be saved in an XML file. The information in this file can be easily extracted by other users for the identification of unknown samples. We illustrate this procedure using ten samples from north India. The samples were identified as A. mellifera; next, they were identified as lineage C; and finally, most of the samples had high similarity to honey bees from Croatia and Slovenia. We explained what data is required for such identification and how it can be reused. The method described here can be applied not only to honey bee wings but also to all data based on landmark coordinates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0181.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee virus; Hymenoptera; insect cell culture; cell lines; Apis mellifera; Deformed wing virus
Online: 12 February 2020 (09:06:34 CET)
With ongoing colony losses driven in part by the Varroa mite and the associated exacerbation of virus load, there is an urgent need to protect honey bees (Apis mellifera) from fatal levels of virus infection and from nontarget effects of insecticides used in agricultural settings. A continuously replicating cell line derived from the honey bee would provide a valuable tool for study of molecular mechanisms of virus – host interaction, for screening of antiviral agents for potential use within the hive, and for assessment of the risk of current and candidate insecticides to the honey bee. However, the establishment of a continuously replicating, honey bee cell line has proved challenging. Here we provide an overview of attempts to establish primary and continuously replicating hymenopteran cell lines, methods (including recent results) for establishing honey bee cell lines, challenges associated with the presence of latent viruses (especially Deformed wing virus), in established cell lines and methods to establish virus-free cell lines. We also describe the potential use of honey bee cell lines in conjunction with infectious clones of honey bee viruses for examination of fundamental virology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: honey bee; nosemosis; Nosema ceranae; Apis mellifera; entomopathogenic fungi; metabolite
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:43:22 CEST)
This study aimed to select the most effective metabolites for controlling honey bee nosemosis using culture extracts from 342 entomopathogenic fungi of 24 species from 18 genera. The germination inhibitory activity of the fungal culture extract against Nosema ceranae spores was evaluated using an in vitro germination assay method. Among 89 fungal culture extracts showing germination inhibitory activity of approximately 80% or more, 44 culture extracts that maintained their inhibitory activity even at a concentration of 1% were selected. Finally, the honey bee nosemosis inhibitory activity was evaluated using the cultured extracts of 5 fungal isolates having a Nosema inhibitory activity of approximately 60% or more even when the extract was removed after treatment. As a result, the proliferation of Nosema spores was reduced by all fungal culture extract treatments. However, only the treatment of the culture extracts from Paecilomyces marquandii 364 and Pochonia bulbillosa 60 showed a reduction in honey bee mortality due to nosemosis. In particular, the extracts of these two fungal isolates also increased the survival of honey bees.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microsporidia; Nosema ceranae; honey bee; cDNA subtraction
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:35:21 CET)
The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a high prevalent parasite of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). This parasite is spreading across the world into its novel host. The developmental process and some mechanisms of N. ceranae infected honey bees has been studied thoroughly, however, few studies have been carried out in the mechanism of gene expression in N. ceranae during infection process. We therefore performed suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach to investigate the candidate genes of N. ceranae during its infection process. Each 96 clones of infected (forward) and non-infected (reverse) library were dipped onto the membrane for hybridization. A total of 118 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) had been sequenced. For the host responses, 20% of ESTs (13 ESTs, 10 genes and 1 non-coding RNA) from forward library and 83% of ESTs (44 ESTs, 28 genes) from reverse library were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the hosts. High percentage of DEGs involved in catalytic activity and metabolic processes, revealed the host gene expression change after N. ceranae infection might lead to the unbalance of physiological mechanism. Among the ESTs from forward library, 75.4% ESTs (49 ESTs belonged to 24 genes) were identified as N. ceranae genes. Of 24 N. ceranae genes, nine DEGs were subjected to real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) for validation. The results indicated that these genes showed highly up-regulated during N. ceranae infection. Among nine N. ceranae genes, one N. ceranae gene (AAJ76_1600052943) showed the highest expression level after infection. These identified differentially expressed genes from this SSH could provide information about the pathological effects of N. ceranae. Validation of nine up-regulated N. ceranae genes revealed highly potential for the detection of early nosemosis in the field and provide insight for further applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Apis mellifera; honey bee subspecies; cryopreservation; breeding stock; honey bee selection; tRNAleu-COII (COI-COII); microsatellite markers; morphometry
Online: 1 November 2023 (07:04:12 CET)
The cryopreservation of gametes and embryos is an important element of biodiversity conservation. One species in need of conservation is the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Changing environmental factors, especially the anthropogenic factor, have led to a reduction in the numbers of this insect species. In this study, we provide an example of the creation of a biobank of honey bee drone sperm. For sperm cryopreservation, drones of the most common subspecies of honey bees common in Russia were selected. These were the dark forest bee, Apis mellifera mellifera from the Republic of Bashkortostan, with three subspecies (A. m. carnica, A. m. carpatica, and A. m. caucasica) from the southern regions of Russia, as well as two breeding stocks, the Far Eastern bee and Prioksky bee. For subspecies identification, morphometric and genetic methods were used. The subspecies of the studied samples were confirmed by the analysis of the tRNAleu-COII locus of mitochondrial DNA and nine microsatellite markers of nuclear DNA. It was shown that bees of the Prioksky breeding stock belong to the subspecies A. m. caucasica based on phylogenetic analysis, and the Far Eastern breeding stock is a stable hybrid, descending on the maternal line from the evolutionary lineage C or O. The results of the morphometric analysis are consistent with the results of the genetic analysis. For the cryopreservation of sperm, we used a honey diluent. As a result, the viability of frozen–thawed sperm decreased by 20.3% compared to fresh sperm, and overall motility decreased by 25-fold. The measurement of the sperm concentration in the spermatheca of artificially inseminated queens showed that it varied from 0.22 to 4.4 million/μL. Therefore, the use of honey in sperm cryopreservation has great potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee; deformed wing virus; RNA virus vector; invertebrate virus; virus evolution; pollination; food security
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:15:14 CET)
We developed a honey bee RNA-virus vector based on the genome of a picorna-like Deformed wing virus (DWV), the main viral pathogen of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). To test the potential of DWV to be utilized as a vector, the 717 nt sequence coding for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), flanked by the peptides targeted by viral protease, was inserted into an infectious cDNA clone of DWV in-frame between the leader protein and the virus structural protein VP2 genes. The in vitro RNA transcripts from egfp-tagged DWV cDNA clones were infectious when injected into honey bee pupae. Stable DWV particles containing genomic RNA of the recovered DWV with egfp inserts were produced, as evidenced by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. These particles were infectious to honey bee pupae when injected intra-abdominally. Fluorescent microscopy showed GFP expression in the infected cells and Western blot analysis demonstrated accumulation of free eGFP rather than its fusions with DWV LP and/or VP2 proteins. Analysis of the progeny egfp-tagged DWV showed gradual accumulation of genome deletions for egfp, providing estimates for the rate of loss of a non-essential gene an insect RNA virus genome during natural infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0138.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: host resistance; tolerance; honey bee; Varroa destructor; marker assisted selection; host-parasite interactions
Online: 9 April 2020 (06:06:11 CEST)
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most significant pathological threat to the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, leading to the death of most colonies if left untreated. An alternative approach to chemical treatments is to selectively enhance heritable honey bee traits of resistance or tolerance to the mite through breeding programs, or select for naturally surviving untreated colonies. We conducted a literature review of all studies documenting traits of A. mellifera populations either selectively bred or naturally selected for resistance and tolerance to mite parasitism. This allowed us to conduct an analysis of the diversity, distribution and importance of the traits in different honey bee populations that can survive V. destructor throughout the globe. In a second analysis, we investigated the genetic bases of these different phenotypes by comparing ’omics studies (genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) of A. mellifera resistance and tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, this review provides a detailed overview of the current state of the research projects and breeding efforts against the most devastating parasite of A. mellifera. By highlighting the most promising traits of varroa-surviving bees and our current knowledge on their genetic bases, this work will help direct future research efforts and selection programs to control this pest. Additionally, by comparing the diverse populations of honey bees that exhibit the traits, this review highlights the consequences of anthropogenic and natural selection on the interactions between hosts and parasites.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Honey bees; Apis mellifera; acaricides; pesticides; Toxic Unit; Varroa destructor; Nosema ceranae; bee viruses; tau-fluvalinate; coumaphos
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:55:42 CEST)
In this Case Report we analyze the possible causes of the poor health status of a professional Apis mellifera iberiensis apiary located in Gajanejos (Guadalajara, Spain). Several factors that potentially favor colony collapse were identified, including Nosema ceranae infection, alone or in combination with other factors (eg, BQCV and DWV infection), and the accumulation of acaricides commonly used to control Varroa destructor in the beebread (coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate). Based on the levels of residues, the average toxic unit estimated for the apiary, suggests a possible increase in vulnerability to infection by N. ceranae due to the presence of high levels of acaricides. These data highlight the importance of evaluating these factors in future monitoring programs, as well as the need to adopt adequate preventive measures as part of national and international welfare programs aimed at guaranteeing the health and fitness of bees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0134.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: stingless bees; honey; pollen; Serra dos Carajás; Amazônia; Melipona; Iron mining
Online: 11 October 2019 (11:49:06 CEST)
The pollen content of honey samples collected in the years 2017 and 2019 from experimental apiaries of Melipona seminigra pernigra Moure & Kerr 1950 installed in campo rupestre on canga (CRC) vegetation of the Serra dos Carajás, southeastern Amazonia, was analyzed to understand the local variability of floral resources occurring on natural and disturbed areas. Around one hundred pollen types were identified mainly belonging to Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Euphorbiaceae (31, 6 and 5 types, respectively). The N5 mine presented the highest pollen richness with 95 pollen types identified, almost twice of those identified in the other areas, including the better preserved ones. Eighty percent of the pollen types are rare with concentrations ≤ 2,000 pollen grains/10 g; the remaining types are the most abundant and frequent, and are considered the primary bee sources (PBS). PBS correspond mostly to native plants such as Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Protium spp., Aparisthmium cordatum (A.Juss.) Baill., Mimosa acutistipula var. ferrea Barneby, Periandra mediterrânea (Vell.) Taub., Miconia spp., Pleroma carajasense K.Rocha, Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC., Serjania spp. and Solanum crinitum Lam. All pollen types were identified during both seasons, but higher pollen concentration are related to the dry period (June-September). The statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in honey pollen data between the natural and disturbed areas since the plant species considered as PBS in this work are intensively used in revegetation of degraded area (RDA) processes by mining activities.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: beekeeping; honey bees; honey production; bee forage plants; honey producing capacity
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:26:48 CEST)
Pakistan is an important country located in South Asia and ranks the world's sixth most populous country. It has diverse landscapes with their own specific vegetation. The country specific vegetative diversity has a great ecological and economic impact on the conservation of local fauna. It has huge potential for sustainable beekeeping industry if properly exploited. Beekeeping in Pakistan is mainly focused in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and central and north regions of Punjab provinces but nowadays it is growing rapidly across the country. Honey produced in Pakistan enjoys good repute in the Middle East due to its unique taste and quality. Pakistan exports around 4000 tons of the honey with the worth of about $ 23.00 million to Arab countries every year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1862.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: glycemic index; satiety response; highland honey; avocado honey
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:29:51 CEST)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the glycemic index and the satiety response of three Mexican kinds of honey. The values of fructose ranged from 272.40-395.10 g/kg, while the glucose value ringed 232.20-355.50 g/kg. The ratio F/G of sample honey was 1.45, 1.00, and 1.17 for Highland, Multifloral, and Avocado honey, respectively. Twenty-six participants completed this study, which was previously approved by the ethics committee of the Facultad de Salud Pública y Nutrición (CE 2/2018-19). Highland and Avocado honey is classified as medium-GI (69.204.07 and 66.365.74, respectively), while Multifloral honey is classified as high-GI (74.245.98). The Highland honey presented the best satiety response. The difference in IG values and the effect of the satiety response of Highland honey could be explained by the different fractions of carbohydrates in samples and other components such as phytochemicals.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: NMR spectroscopy; honey; honeydew honey; geographical origin; classification
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:58:24 CEST)
Bulgaria and North Macedonia have a long history of production and use of honey, however, there is an obvious lack of systematic and in-depth research on honey from both countries. Of particular interest is the oak honeydew honey, highly valued by consumers because of its health benefits. Aim of this study was to characterize honeydew and floral honeys from Bulgaria and North Macedonia based on their NMR profiles. 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectra were measured of 16 North Macedonian and 22 Bulgarian honey samples. 25 individual substances were identified, including quinovose, which was found for the first time in honey. Chemometric methods (PCA - principal component analysis, PLS-DA - partial least squares discriminant analysis, ANOVA) were used to detect similarities and differences between samples, as well as to determine their botanical and geographical origin. Semiquantitative data on individual sugars and some other constituents were obtained; which allowed reliable classification of honey samples by botanical and geographical origin, based on chemometric approaches. The results enabled to distinguish oak honeydew honey from other honey types, and to determine the country of origin. NMR was a rapid and convenient method, avoiding the need for other more time-consuming analytical techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0243.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: melissopalynology; honey identity; forage biodiversity
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:23:56 CEST)
Due to the great nutritional and medicinal value of honey, there has been growing consumer’s preference towards honey of a known identity. However, honey now is the third food in the world subjected to adulteration. Therefore, the current study was focused on judging the identity of Sudanese honeys and checking whether there is any misdesignation from originality. Melissopalynology was used as a tool for this purpose. A number of 60 honey samples were purchased from honey sellers. Results indicated that honey bees foraged on a bio-diversified number of plant species constituted of 11 major families [Fabaceae (43.3%), being the predominant family] and 8 minor families. Respectively, 18.3% & 2% of the honey samples were found to be misdesignated by the honey sellers from their botanical and geographical identities. Some samples were predicted by melissopalynology to be originated from Ethiopia by the presence of marker pollens such as Kniphofia foliosa, Guizotia abyssinica, and Acacia abyssinica an indigenous Ethiopian flora. Thus these findings proved that melissopalynology is an effective tool in judging the identity of honey and pro of being inexpensive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: stingless bees; Scaptotrigona mexicana; honey; propolis
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:17:56 CEST)
The chemical composition of stingless bee honey and propolis depends on the plant sources they are derived from, and thus reflects the flora available in the vicinity of the hives, the preference of the bee species, and the climate (altitude and temperature). To understand the relative influence of these factors, we studied the composition of honey and propolis. Samples from 24 colonies were analyzed: 12 from each of two Scaptotrigona mexicana meliponiaries located in the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico approximately 8.5 km apart. The chemical composition of honey and propolis was studied using NMR, and GC-MS, respectively. Antioxidant activity of propolis was also studied. Chemometric analyses were applied. The Tuxtla Chico honey samples contained higher concentrations of glucose and fructose, while the Cacahoatán samples displayed a rich composition of di- and trisaccharides. These differences can be attributed to the distinct nectar sources utilized by the bees in each location. Propolis composition in the two locations also demonstrated qualitative differences, indicating a specific choice of resins by the bees. The observed substantial variations in the chemical composition of propolis and honey of S. mexicana from two relatively close locations support the assumption that bee species cannot be regarded as the most important factor determining their chemistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: care wound; wound diabetic; honey; staphylococcus aureus
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:07:32 CET)
Background : Diabetic wounds are very easy to experience complications in the form of infection due to bacterial invasion, and sugar conditions blood which tall encourage the growth of bacteria.Bacteria that can cause infection in diabetic wounds wrong one is staphylococci aureus . Wound diabetes can treated with honey. Honey contains antibacterial , antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide properties that help kill bacteria dangerous. Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the wound dressing contains honey against bacterial colonization Staphylococcus aureus on wound diabetic . Methods : The research design used is pre-experimental with o ne-group pre-test and post-test design . Sampling method using consecutive sampling as many as 7 respondents. Results : Analysis data use test dependent t-test and obtained score p value 0.000 ( p value < = 0.05), so could concluded there is influence care wound use honey to colonization bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in wounds diabetic Diabetes Mellitus patients in the region work Public health center Banjarmasin . Conclusion : best Use honey as product care wound because nature the antibacterial which could prevent infection and speed up process healing wound .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0379.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: heavy metal; pesticides; honey bee; trace elements
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:15:21 CET)
Over the centuries, honey is known for its superior usage in culinary, and for its rich nutrition and therapeutic values which are scientifically proven in the medical field. The chemical composition of honey varies depending on its botanical sources and environment. Therefore, the nutrition content in honey is highly likely to be affected by contaminants, such as heavy metals and pesticides. To ensure the quality of honey, parameters such as the heavy metal content should be within the safe range of total standard mineral and trace elements as defined by the International Food Standard (Codex Alimentarius), and pesticides should not be present at all. The high concentration of heavy metal and pesticides not only deteriorates the quality and quantity of honey, but also causes harm to the bee colony itself. In the agriculture sector, the excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizer negatively impacts the overall honey production process. Bees, a pollinating agent, bring the polluted nectar back to their beehives, eventually contaminating the honey and depreciating its value. Hence, this article will comprehensively review the activities that contribute to heavy metal and pesticide contamination, the interactions of bees as a pollinating agent, the impact of the pollutant to the colonies, and subsequently to the honey production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1894.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biocement; honey; antimicrobial properties; antioxidant properties; osteogenic potential
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:27:27 CEST)
New biocements based on a powdered mixture of calcium phosphate/monetite (TTCPM) modified with the honey addition were prepared by mixing the powder and honey liquid components at a non-cytotoxic concentration of honey (up to 10% (w/v)). The setting process of the cements was not affected by the addition of honey, and the set-ting time of ~4 min corresponded to the fast setting calcium phosphate cements (CPC´s). The cement powder mixture was completely transformed into calcium-deficient nanohydroxyapatite after 24 hours of hardening in simulated body fluid, and columnar growth of long needle-like nanohydroxyapatite particles around the original calcium phosphate particles was observed in honey cements. The compressive strength of honey cements was reduced with the content of honey in the cement. The comparable antibacterial activity of cements with honey solutions was found on Escherichia coli, but very low antibacterial activity was found for Staphylococus aureus for all cements. The enhanced antioxidant inhibitory activity of composite extracts was verified. In vitro cytotoxicity testing verified the non-cytotoxic nature of honey cement extracts, and the addition of honey promoted alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposit production, and upregulation of osteogenic genes (osteopontin, osteocalcin, and osteonectin) by mesenchymal stem cells, demonstrating a positive synergistic effect of honey and CPC on the bioactivity of cements that could be promising therapeutic candidates for the repair of bone defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0528.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fermentation; Honey production; Principal component analysis; Organoleptic characteristics; Coffea arabica
Online: 30 June 2021 (12:50:43 CEST)
The post-harvest processes of coffee are widely accepted as key factors in determining the quality of the product. In the Cauca department, Southwestern Colombia, this stage is carried out empirically by farmers in the region, using old methods that do not assure consistent quality. This study proposes to determine the best post-harvest temperature and time conditions for coffee produced in the region. For this purpose, we carried the fermentation and honey process out on different coffee samples of the Coffea Arabica species of the Castillo variety. Subsequently, the cup profile quality of the coffee samples was determined by a sensory evaluation by experts. Finally, we applied descriptive statistical techniques to the resulting data and principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to find similarities between the samples. The results suggest that the honey process gets better evaluations in the cup profile over any condition of temperature and fermentation time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0374.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Host-parasite; honey bee; varroa; virus; mite control
Online: 2 April 2020 (12:16:16 CEST)
The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has shaken the beekeeping and pollination industries since its spread from its native host, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), to the naïve European honey bee (A. mellifera) used commercially for pollination and honey production around the globe. Varroa is the greatest threat to honey bee health. Worrying observations include increasing acaricide resistance in the varroa population and sinking economic treatment thresholds, suggesting that the mites or their vectored viruses are becoming more virulent. Highly infested weak colonies facilitate mite dispersal and disease transmission to stronger and healthier colonies. Here, we review recent developments in the biology, pathology and management of varroa, and integrate older knowledge that is less well known.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Paenibacillus larvae; optimized qPCR; quantification; honey; hive debris
Online: 20 September 2018 (14:13:42 CEST)
The application of quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a routine method to detect and enumerate Paenibacillus larvae in honey and hive debris could greatly speed up the estimation of prevalence and outbreak risk of the American foulbrood (AFB) disease of Apis mellifera. However, none of the qPCR tests described so far has been officially proposed as a standard procedure for P. larvae detection and enumeration for surveillance purposes. Therefore, in this study inclusivity, exclusivity and sensitivity in detection of P. larvae spores directly in samples of honey and hive debris were re-evaluated for the previously published qPCR methods. To this aim recently acquired P. larvae sequence data were considered to assess inclusivity in silico and more appropriate non-target species were used to verify exclusivity experimentally. This led to the modification of one of the previously described methods resulting in a new test capable to allow the detection of P. larvae spores in honey and hive debris down to 1 CFU/g. The application of the qPCR test optimized in this study can allow to reliably detect and quantify P. larvae in honey and hive debris, thus circumventing the disadvantages of late AFB diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and possible underestimation of spore numbers that is the main drawback of culture-dependent procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: antibacterial activity, cinnamon, honey, checkerboards method, synergistic activity
Online: 23 December 2016 (18:37:59 CET)
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were performed using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction combination between extract of cinnamon bark and honey was determined by using a checkerboards method. The results showed that he MIC of extract of cinnamon bark and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of extract of cinnamon against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, showed additive activity with the FICI value 0.625. Therefore, the combination of extract of cinnamon bark and honey has potential activity against acne causing bacteria.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: honey; antimicrobials; methylglyoxal; hydrogen peroxide; bee-defensin 1; wound treatment
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:45:51 CET)
Honey is a complex sweet food stuff with well-established antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. It has been used for millennia in a variety of applications, but those most noteworthy include treatment of surface wounds, burns and inflammation. A variety of substances in honey have been suggested as the key component to its antimicrobial potential; polyphenolic compounds, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and bee-defensin 1. These components vary greatly across honey samples due to botanical origin, geographical location and the individual bee. The use of medical grade honey, Medihoney and Revamil, in the treatment of surface wounds and burns has been seen to improve the healing process, reduce healing time, reduce scarring and prevent microbial contamination. Therefore, medical grade honeys should be used for these treatments and reduce the demand for antibiotic usage. In this review, we aim to outline the constituents of honey and how they affect the antibiotic potential of honeys in a clinical setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Antibacterial activity; Melissopalynological and Physiochemical analysis; Moringa alfileria honey
Online: 8 November 2022 (04:49:57 CET)
Objective: The aim of the study was to characterize varieties of Moringa alfileria honey (unfloral and polyfloral) from Saudi Arabia based on antibacterial, antioxidant activities, physicochemical, melissopalynological analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Material and Methods: The fresh 376 honey samples (3 kg of each) were kindly provided by Alnahal aljwal Company, 2021 flowering season. The honey samples collected in sterile universal glass containers and kept at 2– 8°C until tested. Antibacterial, antioxidant activities and physiochemical analysis were done. Determination of sediment content, total grains, moisture content, water-soluble solids, acidity, electrical conductivity, total sugars content, inverted sugars, glucose (g/100 g), fructose (g/100 g), total glucose + fructose, fructose/ glucose ratio, sucrose (g/100 g), diastase enzyme activity and HMF were calculated. As well as total phenolic and flavonoid contents Results: Antibacterial activity and physiochemical analysis of honey samples w varied. All parameters studied were significantly different (P < 0.05) among all honey varieties. The results of the physiochemical analysis were compared with Saudi National Standard, Codex standard, as well as published data in the literature. Conclusion: It was obvious that the honey quality was varied based on the botanical origins
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiological characterization; safety; VanZ; isolation; vancomycin resistant gene; genome; bee; honey
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:17:45 CET)
Bifidobacteria have long been recognized as bacteria with probiotic and therapeutic features. The aim of this work is to characterize the Bifidobacterium asteroides BA15 and BA17 strains, isolated from honeybee gut. An in-depth assessment was carried out on safety properties (antibiotic resistance profiling, β-haemolytic, DNAse and gelatinase activities and virulence factor presence) and other properties (antimicrobial activity, auto-aggregation, co-aggregation and hydrophobicity). Based on phenotypic and genotypic characterization, both strains satisfied all the safety requirements. More specifically, genome analysis showed the absence of genes encoding for glycopeptide (vanA, vanB, vanC-1, vanC-2, vanD, vanE, vanG), resistance to tetracycline (tet-M, tet-L and tetO), and virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, hyl).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1687.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: honey bee; Apis mellifera; diets; gut microbiome; lactobacillus; rhizobiaceae; vitellogenin
Online: 27 November 2023 (09:15:43 CET)
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) health is crucial for honey bee products, and effective pollination and is closely associated with gut bacteria. Various factors such as reduced habitat, temperature, disease, and diet affect the health of honey bees, by disturbing the homeostasis of the gut microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota of Apis mellifera subjected to seven different diets. The identified microbiota in the Apis mellifera gut from all the diets consisted of Lactobacillus (62%), followed by Rhizobiaceae (21%), Snodgrassella (4%), and Erwiniaceae (4%) among other 33 genera. Based on diet types, Lactobacillus a lactic acid bacteria (LAB), dominates the microbiota with the highest relative abundance in AIGT+SAC (91%), AIGT+Soytide (88%), and AIGT+Apple juice (69%) diet groups. Bifidobacterium and Commensalibacter appeared as the second most abundant genera in AIGT+SAC and AIGT+Soytide diet groups, respectively. These bacteria are important markers for honey bee health. Considering the importance of these diets in shaping their host microbiome into a healthy status. Individual honey bee health (IHH) was observed to validate the quality and correlation between the microbiota and honey bee health. The results were consistent, indicating that Apis mellifera fed on AIGT+Soytide and AIGT+SAC diet showed the highest health expression level of vitellogenin. The group with 60%Syrup possessing Rhizobiaceae as the dominant taxa showed poor health status. This finding paved the way for establishing a link between gut microbiota and IHH under different diets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0107.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fire management; human activities; participation; firewood; charcoal; grazing; water; honey; farming; community forest association
Online: 12 June 2018 (11:20:43 CEST)
This paper proposes an Integrated Fire Management (IFM) framework that can be used to support communities and resource managers in finding effective and efficient approaches to prevent damaging fires, as well as maintain desirable fire regimes in Kenya. Designing and implementing an IFM approach in Kenya calls for a systematic understanding of the various uses of fire and the underlying perceptions and traditional ecological knowledge of the local people. The here proposed IFM framework allows an evaluation of the risks posed by fires, while balancing them with their beneficial ecological and economic effects, and thus developing effective fire management approaches. A case study of the proposed IFM framework was conducted in Gathiuru Forest that is part of the larger Mt. Kenya Forest Ecosystem. Focus group discussions were held with key resource persons, primary and secondary data on socio-economic activities were studied, fire and weather records were analyzed and the current fire management plans were consulted. Questionnaires were used to assess how the IFM is implemented in the Gathiuru Forest Station. The results show that the proposed IFM framework is scalable and can be applied in places with fire-dependent ecosystems as well as in places with fire-sensitive ecosystems in Kenya. The effectiveness is dependent on the active participation, formulation and implementation of the IFM activities by the main stakeholder groups (Kenya Forest Service (KFS), Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and the Community Forest Associations (CFA)). The proposed IFM framework helps in implementing cost-effective approaches to prevent damaging fires and maintain desirable fire regimes in Kenya.