ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0054.v2
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: RFID; honey bee behavior; queen tracking; foraging activity; transponder
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:44:00 CET)
The fields of electronics and information technology have witnessed rapid development during the last decades, providing significant technical support to the field of biological sciences. Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been used to automate the monitoring of animal location and behaviors in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, including social insects such as ants and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) This technology relies on electromagnetic fields to identify and track transponders attached to objects automatically. Implementing new technologies to serve research purposes could be time-consuming and require technical expertise from entomologists and researchers. Herein, we present a detailed description on how to harness RFID technology to serve honey bee research effectively. We describe how to build and operate a 32-antenna RFID system used to monitor various honey bee behaviors such as foraging, robbing, queen and drone mating, which can be used in other social insects as well. Preliminary data related to queen nuptial flights were obtained using this unit and presented in this study. Virgin queens labeled with ~5mg transponders performed multiple (1-4) nuptial/orientation flights a day (9 am to 5 pm) ranging from 8 to 145 seconds each. Contrary to virgin queens, no hive exit was recorded for mated-queens. At full capacity, this unit can monitor up to 32 honey bee colonies concurrently and is self-sustained by a solar panel to work in remote areas. All materials, hardware and software needed to build and operate this unit are detailed in this study, offering researchers and beekeepers a practical solution and a comprehensive source of information enabling the implementation of RFID technology in their research perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0291.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: classification, stingless bee honey, bee species origins, metabolomics, NMR, LC-MS, chemometrics
Online: 16 July 2018 (14:05:59 CEST)
Background: The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and do not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Methods: Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. Results: The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. D-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-D-Glucose, D-Xylose, α-D-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and L-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, L-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) identified via 1H NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. Conclusion: It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using classification technique by bee species origins via 1H NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0181.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee virus; Hymenoptera; insect cell culture; cell lines; Apis mellifera; Deformed wing virus
Online: 12 February 2020 (09:06:34 CET)
With ongoing colony losses driven in part by the Varroa mite and the associated exacerbation of virus load, there is an urgent need to protect honey bees (Apis mellifera) from fatal levels of virus infection and from nontarget effects of insecticides used in agricultural settings. A continuously replicating cell line derived from the honey bee would provide a valuable tool for study of molecular mechanisms of virus – host interaction, for screening of antiviral agents for potential use within the hive, and for assessment of the risk of current and candidate insecticides to the honey bee. However, the establishment of a continuously replicating, honey bee cell line has proved challenging. Here we provide an overview of attempts to establish primary and continuously replicating hymenopteran cell lines, methods (including recent results) for establishing honey bee cell lines, challenges associated with the presence of latent viruses (especially Deformed wing virus), in established cell lines and methods to establish virus-free cell lines. We also describe the potential use of honey bee cell lines in conjunction with infectious clones of honey bee viruses for examination of fundamental virology.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Microsporidia; Nosema ceranae; honey bee; cDNA subtraction
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:35:21 CET)
The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a high prevalent parasite of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). This parasite is spreading across the world into its novel host. The developmental process and some mechanisms of N. ceranae infected honey bees has been studied thoroughly, however, few studies have been carried out in the mechanism of gene expression in N. ceranae during infection process. We therefore performed suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach to investigate the candidate genes of N. ceranae during its infection process. Each 96 clones of infected (forward) and non-infected (reverse) library were dipped onto the membrane for hybridization. A total of 118 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) had been sequenced. For the host responses, 20% of ESTs (13 ESTs, 10 genes and 1 non-coding RNA) from forward library and 83% of ESTs (44 ESTs, 28 genes) from reverse library were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the hosts. High percentage of DEGs involved in catalytic activity and metabolic processes, revealed the host gene expression change after N. ceranae infection might lead to the unbalance of physiological mechanism. Among the ESTs from forward library, 75.4% ESTs (49 ESTs belonged to 24 genes) were identified as N. ceranae genes. Of 24 N. ceranae genes, nine DEGs were subjected to real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) for validation. The results indicated that these genes showed highly up-regulated during N. ceranae infection. Among nine N. ceranae genes, one N. ceranae gene (AAJ76_1600052943) showed the highest expression level after infection. These identified differentially expressed genes from this SSH could provide information about the pathological effects of N. ceranae. Validation of nine up-regulated N. ceranae genes revealed highly potential for the detection of early nosemosis in the field and provide insight for further applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee; deformed wing virus; RNA virus vector; invertebrate virus; virus evolution; pollination; food security
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:15:14 CET)
We developed a honey bee RNA-virus vector based on the genome of a picorna-like Deformed wing virus (DWV), the main viral pathogen of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). To test the potential of DWV to be utilized as a vector, the 717 nt sequence coding for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), flanked by the peptides targeted by viral protease, was inserted into an infectious cDNA clone of DWV in-frame between the leader protein and the virus structural protein VP2 genes. The in vitro RNA transcripts from egfp-tagged DWV cDNA clones were infectious when injected into honey bee pupae. Stable DWV particles containing genomic RNA of the recovered DWV with egfp inserts were produced, as evidenced by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. These particles were infectious to honey bee pupae when injected intra-abdominally. Fluorescent microscopy showed GFP expression in the infected cells and Western blot analysis demonstrated accumulation of free eGFP rather than its fusions with DWV LP and/or VP2 proteins. Analysis of the progeny egfp-tagged DWV showed gradual accumulation of genome deletions for egfp, providing estimates for the rate of loss of a non-essential gene an insect RNA virus genome during natural infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0138.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: host resistance; tolerance; honey bee; Varroa destructor; marker assisted selection; host-parasite interactions
Online: 9 April 2020 (06:06:11 CEST)
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most significant pathological threat to the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, leading to the death of most colonies if left untreated. An alternative approach to chemical treatments is to selectively enhance heritable honey bee traits of resistance or tolerance to the mite through breeding programs, or select for naturally surviving untreated colonies. We conducted a literature review of all studies documenting traits of A. mellifera populations either selectively bred or naturally selected for resistance and tolerance to mite parasitism. This allowed us to conduct an analysis of the diversity, distribution and importance of the traits in different honey bee populations that can survive V. destructor throughout the globe. In a second analysis, we investigated the genetic bases of these different phenotypes by comparing ’omics studies (genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) of A. mellifera resistance and tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, this review provides a detailed overview of the current state of the research projects and breeding efforts against the most devastating parasite of A. mellifera. By highlighting the most promising traits of varroa-surviving bees and our current knowledge on their genetic bases, this work will help direct future research efforts and selection programs to control this pest. Additionally, by comparing the diverse populations of honey bees that exhibit the traits, this review highlights the consequences of anthropogenic and natural selection on the interactions between hosts and parasites.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0311.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Honey bees; Apis mellifera; acaricides; pesticides; Toxic Unit; Varroa destructor; Nosema ceranae; bee viruses; tau-fluvalinate; coumaphos
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:55:42 CEST)
In this Case Report we analyze the possible causes of the poor health status of a professional Apis mellifera iberiensis apiary located in Gajanejos (Guadalajara, Spain). Several factors that potentially favor colony collapse were identified, including Nosema ceranae infection, alone or in combination with other factors (eg, BQCV and DWV infection), and the accumulation of acaricides commonly used to control Varroa destructor in the beebread (coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate). Based on the levels of residues, the average toxic unit estimated for the apiary, suggests a possible increase in vulnerability to infection by N. ceranae due to the presence of high levels of acaricides. These data highlight the importance of evaluating these factors in future monitoring programs, as well as the need to adopt adequate preventive measures as part of national and international welfare programs aimed at guaranteeing the health and fitness of bees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0134.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: stingless bees; honey; pollen; Serra dos Carajás; Amazônia; Melipona; Iron mining
Online: 11 October 2019 (11:49:06 CEST)
The pollen content of honey samples collected in the years 2017 and 2019 from experimental apiaries of Melipona seminigra pernigra Moure & Kerr 1950 installed in campo rupestre on canga (CRC) vegetation of the Serra dos Carajás, southeastern Amazonia, was analyzed to understand the local variability of floral resources occurring on natural and disturbed areas. Around one hundred pollen types were identified mainly belonging to Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Euphorbiaceae (31, 6 and 5 types, respectively). The N5 mine presented the highest pollen richness with 95 pollen types identified, almost twice of those identified in the other areas, including the better preserved ones. Eighty percent of the pollen types are rare with concentrations ≤ 2,000 pollen grains/10 g; the remaining types are the most abundant and frequent, and are considered the primary bee sources (PBS). PBS correspond mostly to native plants such as Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Protium spp., Aparisthmium cordatum (A.Juss.) Baill., Mimosa acutistipula var. ferrea Barneby, Periandra mediterrânea (Vell.) Taub., Miconia spp., Pleroma carajasense K.Rocha, Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC., Serjania spp. and Solanum crinitum Lam. All pollen types were identified during both seasons, but higher pollen concentration are related to the dry period (June-September). The statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in honey pollen data between the natural and disturbed areas since the plant species considered as PBS in this work are intensively used in revegetation of degraded area (RDA) processes by mining activities.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0503.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: beekeeping; honey bees; honey production; bee forage plants; honey producing capacity
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:26:48 CEST)
Pakistan is an important country located in South Asia and ranks the world's sixth most populous country. It has diverse landscapes with their own specific vegetation. The country specific vegetative diversity has a great ecological and economic impact on the conservation of local fauna. It has huge potential for sustainable beekeeping industry if properly exploited. Beekeeping in Pakistan is mainly focused in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and central and north regions of Punjab provinces but nowadays it is growing rapidly across the country. Honey produced in Pakistan enjoys good repute in the Middle East due to its unique taste and quality. Pakistan exports around 4000 tons of the honey with the worth of about $ 23.00 million to Arab countries every year.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: NMR spectroscopy; honey; honeydew honey; geographical origin; classification
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:58:24 CEST)
Bulgaria and North Macedonia have a long history of production and use of honey, however, there is an obvious lack of systematic and in-depth research on honey from both countries. Of particular interest is the oak honeydew honey, highly valued by consumers because of its health benefits. Aim of this study was to characterize honeydew and floral honeys from Bulgaria and North Macedonia based on their NMR profiles. 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectra were measured of 16 North Macedonian and 22 Bulgarian honey samples. 25 individual substances were identified, including quinovose, which was found for the first time in honey. Chemometric methods (PCA - principal component analysis, PLS-DA - partial least squares discriminant analysis, ANOVA) were used to detect similarities and differences between samples, as well as to determine their botanical and geographical origin. Semiquantitative data on individual sugars and some other constituents were obtained; which allowed reliable classification of honey samples by botanical and geographical origin, based on chemometric approaches. The results enabled to distinguish oak honeydew honey from other honey types, and to determine the country of origin. NMR was a rapid and convenient method, avoiding the need for other more time-consuming analytical techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0243.v1
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:23:56 CEST)
Due to the great nutritional and medicinal value of honey, there has been growing consumer’s preference towards honey of a known identity. However, honey now is the third food in the world subjected to adulteration. Therefore, the current study was focused on judging the identity of Sudanese honeys and checking whether there is any misdesignation from originality. Melissopalynology was used as a tool for this purpose. A number of 60 honey samples were purchased from honey sellers. Results indicated that honey bees foraged on a bio-diversified number of plant species constituted of 11 major families [Fabaceae (43.3%), being the predominant family] and 8 minor families. Respectively, 18.3% & 2% of the honey samples were found to be misdesignated by the honey sellers from their botanical and geographical identities. Some samples were predicted by melissopalynology to be originated from Ethiopia by the presence of marker pollens such as Kniphofia foliosa, Guizotia abyssinica, and Acacia abyssinica an indigenous Ethiopian flora. Thus these findings proved that melissopalynology is an effective tool in judging the identity of honey and pro of being inexpensive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0379.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: heavy metal; pesticides; honey bee; trace elements
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:15:21 CET)
Over the centuries, honey is known for its superior usage in culinary, and for its rich nutrition and therapeutic values which are scientifically proven in the medical field. The chemical composition of honey varies depending on its botanical sources and environment. Therefore, the nutrition content in honey is highly likely to be affected by contaminants, such as heavy metals and pesticides. To ensure the quality of honey, parameters such as the heavy metal content should be within the safe range of total standard mineral and trace elements as defined by the International Food Standard (Codex Alimentarius), and pesticides should not be present at all. The high concentration of heavy metal and pesticides not only deteriorates the quality and quantity of honey, but also causes harm to the bee colony itself. In the agriculture sector, the excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizer negatively impacts the overall honey production process. Bees, a pollinating agent, bring the polluted nectar back to their beehives, eventually contaminating the honey and depreciating its value. Hence, this article will comprehensively review the activities that contribute to heavy metal and pesticide contamination, the interactions of bees as a pollinating agent, the impact of the pollutant to the colonies, and subsequently to the honey production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0528.v3
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fermentation; Honey production; Principal component analysis; Organoleptic characteristics; Coffea arabica
Online: 30 June 2021 (12:50:43 CEST)
The post-harvest processes of coffee are widely accepted as key factors in determining the quality of the product. In the Cauca department, Southwestern Colombia, this stage is carried out empirically by farmers in the region, using old methods that do not assure consistent quality. This study proposes to determine the best post-harvest temperature and time conditions for coffee produced in the region. For this purpose, we carried the fermentation and honey process out on different coffee samples of the Coffea Arabica species of the Castillo variety. Subsequently, the cup profile quality of the coffee samples was determined by a sensory evaluation by experts. Finally, we applied descriptive statistical techniques to the resulting data and principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to find similarities between the samples. The results suggest that the honey process gets better evaluations in the cup profile over any condition of temperature and fermentation time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0374.v2
Online: 2 April 2020 (12:16:16 CEST)
The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has shaken the beekeeping and pollination industries since its spread from its native host, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), to the naïve European honey bee (A. mellifera) used commercially for pollination and honey production around the globe. Varroa is the greatest threat to honey bee health. Worrying observations include increasing acaricide resistance in the varroa population and sinking economic treatment thresholds, suggesting that the mites or their vectored viruses are becoming more virulent. Highly infested weak colonies facilitate mite dispersal and disease transmission to stronger and healthier colonies. Here, we review recent developments in the biology, pathology and management of varroa, and integrate older knowledge that is less well known.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0413.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Paenibacillus larvae; optimized qPCR; quantification; honey; hive debris
Online: 20 September 2018 (14:13:42 CEST)
The application of quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a routine method to detect and enumerate Paenibacillus larvae in honey and hive debris could greatly speed up the estimation of prevalence and outbreak risk of the American foulbrood (AFB) disease of Apis mellifera. However, none of the qPCR tests described so far has been officially proposed as a standard procedure for P. larvae detection and enumeration for surveillance purposes. Therefore, in this study inclusivity, exclusivity and sensitivity in detection of P. larvae spores directly in samples of honey and hive debris were re-evaluated for the previously published qPCR methods. To this aim recently acquired P. larvae sequence data were considered to assess inclusivity in silico and more appropriate non-target species were used to verify exclusivity experimentally. This led to the modification of one of the previously described methods resulting in a new test capable to allow the detection of P. larvae spores in honey and hive debris down to 1 CFU/g. The application of the qPCR test optimized in this study can allow to reliably detect and quantify P. larvae in honey and hive debris, thus circumventing the disadvantages of late AFB diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and possible underestimation of spore numbers that is the main drawback of culture-dependent procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: antibacterial activity, cinnamon, honey, checkerboards method, synergistic activity
Online: 23 December 2016 (18:37:59 CET)
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were performed using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction combination between extract of cinnamon bark and honey was determined by using a checkerboards method. The results showed that he MIC of extract of cinnamon bark and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of extract of cinnamon against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, showed additive activity with the FICI value 0.625. Therefore, the combination of extract of cinnamon bark and honey has potential activity against acne causing bacteria.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: honey; antimicrobials; methylglyoxal; hydrogen peroxide; bee-defensin 1; wound treatment
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:45:51 CET)
Honey is a complex sweet food stuff with well-established antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. It has been used for millennia in a variety of applications, but those most noteworthy include treatment of surface wounds, burns and inflammation. A variety of substances in honey have been suggested as the key component to its antimicrobial potential; polyphenolic compounds, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and bee-defensin 1. These components vary greatly across honey samples due to botanical origin, geographical location and the individual bee. The use of medical grade honey, Medihoney and Revamil, in the treatment of surface wounds and burns has been seen to improve the healing process, reduce healing time, reduce scarring and prevent microbial contamination. Therefore, medical grade honeys should be used for these treatments and reduce the demand for antibiotic usage. In this review, we aim to outline the constituents of honey and how they affect the antibiotic potential of honeys in a clinical setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0166.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: microbiological characterization; safety; VanZ; isolation; vancomycin resistant gene; genome; bee; honey
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:17:45 CET)
Bifidobacteria have long been recognized as bacteria with probiotic and therapeutic features. The aim of this work is to characterize the Bifidobacterium asteroides BA15 and BA17 strains, isolated from honeybee gut. An in-depth assessment was carried out on safety properties (antibiotic resistance profiling, β-haemolytic, DNAse and gelatinase activities and virulence factor presence) and other properties (antimicrobial activity, auto-aggregation, co-aggregation and hydrophobicity). Based on phenotypic and genotypic characterization, both strains satisfied all the safety requirements. More specifically, genome analysis showed the absence of genes encoding for glycopeptide (vanA, vanB, vanC-1, vanC-2, vanD, vanE, vanG), resistance to tetracycline (tet-M, tet-L and tetO), and virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, hyl).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0107.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: fire management; human activities; participation; firewood; charcoal; grazing; water; honey; farming; community forest association
Online: 12 June 2018 (11:20:43 CEST)
This paper proposes an Integrated Fire Management (IFM) framework that can be used to support communities and resource managers in finding effective and efficient approaches to prevent damaging fires, as well as maintain desirable fire regimes in Kenya. Designing and implementing an IFM approach in Kenya calls for a systematic understanding of the various uses of fire and the underlying perceptions and traditional ecological knowledge of the local people. The here proposed IFM framework allows an evaluation of the risks posed by fires, while balancing them with their beneficial ecological and economic effects, and thus developing effective fire management approaches. A case study of the proposed IFM framework was conducted in Gathiuru Forest that is part of the larger Mt. Kenya Forest Ecosystem. Focus group discussions were held with key resource persons, primary and secondary data on socio-economic activities were studied, fire and weather records were analyzed and the current fire management plans were consulted. Questionnaires were used to assess how the IFM is implemented in the Gathiuru Forest Station. The results show that the proposed IFM framework is scalable and can be applied in places with fire-dependent ecosystems as well as in places with fire-sensitive ecosystems in Kenya. The effectiveness is dependent on the active participation, formulation and implementation of the IFM activities by the main stakeholder groups (Kenya Forest Service (KFS), Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and the Community Forest Associations (CFA)). The proposed IFM framework helps in implementing cost-effective approaches to prevent damaging fires and maintain desirable fire regimes in Kenya.