REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0337.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: hand sanitizers; hand rubs; alcohol based; disinfection; hand hygiene; coronavirus; COVID-19
Online: 15 September 2020 (09:07:09 CEST)
The global use of alcohol based hand sanitizers (ABHS) as a means of controlling the transmission of infectious disease increased dramatically in 2020 as governments and public health agencies across the world advocated hand hygiene as a preventative measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the performance of these products is most commonly defined as a function of their alcohol concentration, they are multifaceted products in which an interplay of several factors is important in determining efficacy. The hand sanitizer tetrahedron, is a novel concept that considers both ABHS formulation factors and product performance factors from a multi-dimensional perspective. The four faces of the tetrahedron represent input/formulation factors: 1) the type and amount of alcohol, 2) inactive ingredients, 3) the type of formulation/delivery system and 4) manufacturing practices. The four corners of the tetrahedron represent output/product performance factors: 1) efficacy, 2) sensory characteristics, 3) usage, usability and compliance and 4) product safety/adverse effects. All factors are of importance to ensuring the effectiveness and utility of these products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: robot–world-hand-eye calibration; hand-eye calibration; optimization
Online: 19 June 2019 (09:52:57 CEST)
In this paper, we propose two novel methods for robot-world/hand-eye calibration and provide a comparative analysis against six state-of-the-art methods. We examine the calibration problem from two alternative geometrical interpretations, called hand-eye and robot-world-hand-eye, respectively. The study analyses the effects of specifying the objective function as pose error or reprojection error minimization problem. We provide three real and three simulated datasets with rendered images as part of the study. In addition, we propose a robotic arm error modeling approach to be used along with the simulated datasets for generating a realistic response. The tests on simulated data are performed in both ideal cases and with pseudo-realistic robotic arm pose and visual noise. Our methods show significant improvement and robustness on many metrics in various scenarios compared to state-of-the-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0568.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: prosthetic hand; MyWare sensor; force sensing resistors, human hand anatomy
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:22:25 CET)
The present paper describes the development of a prosthetic hand based on the human hand anatomy. The hand phalanges are printed by using 3D printed with Polylactic Acid material. One of the main contributions is the investigation on the prosthetic hand joins; the proposed design enables to create personalized joins that allow the prosthetic hand a high level of movement by increasing the degrees of freedom of the fingers. Moreover, the driven wire tendons show a progressive grasping movement, being the friction of the tendons with the phalanges very low. Another important point is the use of force sensitive resistors for simulating the hand touch pressure. These are used for the grasping stop simulating touch pressure of the fingers. Surface Electromyogram (EMG) sensors allow the user to control the prosthetic hand grasping start. Their use may provide the prosthetic hand the possibility of classification of the hand movements. The practical results included in the paper prove the importance of the soft joins for the object manipulation and to get adapted to the object surface. Finally, the force sensitive sensors allow the prosthesis to actuate with more naturalness by adding conditions and classifications to the Electromyogram sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: hand hygiene opportunities; alcohol-based hand rub; hand wash with soap and water; WHO hand hygiene observation tool; SORT IT; operational research; antimicrobial resistance; infection prevention and control (IPC); hospital acquired infections; gloves
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:21:35 CEST)
In 2021, an operational research study in two tertiary hospitals, Freetown, showed poor hand hygiene compliance. Recommended actions were taken to improve the situation. Between February-April 2023, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the same two hospitals using the WHO Hand Hygiene tool to assess hand hygiene practices and compare hand hygiene compliance with that observed between June-August 2021. In Connaught hospital, overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 51% to 60% (P<0.001), and this applied to both handwash actions with soap and water and alcohol-based-hand-rub: significant improvements were found in all hospital departments and amongst all healthcare worker cadres. In 34 Military Hospital (34MH), overall hand hygiene compliance decreased from 40% to 32% (P<0.001), with significant decreases observed in all departments and amongst nurses and nursing students. The improvements in Connaught Hospital were attributed to more hand hygiene reminders, better handwash infrastructure and more frequent supervision assessments compared with 34MH where interventions were less well applied, possibly due to extensive hospital reconstruction at the time. In conclusion, improved distribution of hand hygiene reminders, better handwash infrastructure and frequent supervision assessments are effective, and need to be strengthened, scaled-up and combined with other innovative ways to promote good hand hygiene practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0435.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: healthcare workers; Hand hygiene; Saudi Arabia
Online: 28 October 2021 (11:44:46 CEST)
Hand hygiene is among the most important factors of infection control in healthcare settings. Healthcare workers are considered the primary source of hospital acquired infection. We assessed the current state of hand hygiene knowledge, perception and practice among the healthcare workers in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study we used the hand hygiene knowledge and perception questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Knowledge and perceptions were classified into good (80 – 100%), moderate (60 – 79%) and poor (<60% score). Majority of the healthcare workers had moderate knowledge (57.8%) and perception (73.4%) of hand hygiene. Males were less likely to have moderate/good knowledge compared to females (OR: 0.52, p<.05). Private healthcare workers were less likely (OR: 0.33, p<0.01) to have moderate/good perception compared to the government healthcare workers. Healthcare workers who received training on hand hygiene were 3.2 times likely (p<.05) to have good/moderate perception and 3.8 times likely (p<0.05) to routinely use alcohol-based hand-rub than the ones without such training. Physicians were 4.9 times likely (p<0.05) to routinely use alcohol-based hand-rub than the technicians. Our research highlighted gaps on hand hygiene knowledge and perception and practice among healthcare workers in Qassim and importance of training in this regard.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0711.v1
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:49:06 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral hygiene (OH) and hand hygiene (HH) behaviour among school adolescents in three Caribbean countries. In all, 7,476 school adolescents (median age 14 years), from Dominican Republic, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago responded the cross-sectional “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2016-2017. The prevalence poor OH (tooth brushing <2 times/day) was 16.9%, poor HH (not always before meals) was 68.2%, poor HH (not always after toilet) was 28.4% and poor HH (not always with soap) was 52.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, current cannabis use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health and low parental support increased the odds for poor OH. Rarely or sometimes experiencing hunger, trouble from alcohol use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health, and low parental support were associated with poor HH (before meals, and/or after toilet, and/or with soap). The survey showed poor OH and HH behaviour practices. Several sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviours, poor mental health and low parental support were found associated with poor OH and/or HH behaviour that can assist with tailoring OH and HH health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0902.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: hand milking; inflammation; public health; udder health
Online: 25 April 2023 (08:35:22 CEST)
The assessment of the prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) in dairy farms is essential to validate the health status of the mammary gland. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of SCM in dual purpose livestock systems in Arauca, Colombian Orinoquia, through the analysis of the values found by the field diagnostic tests California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Electric Conductivity (EC). Milk samples were taken from the individual mammary quarters of 481 cows. The general prevalence, per affected room and the total number of rooms was determined according to the values obtained for each test using two methods of analysis. An ANOVA was performed to determine the difference between prevalence’s, a correlation analysis, and an analysis of sensitivity and specificity. The general prevalence was similar between the tests (CMT = 31.4%; EC = 29.7%) (p > 0.05). The prevalence of the total quarters was lower with EC (11.3% vs 14.2%) (p < 0.05). The correlations between tests were significant, but with low values (rs = 0.20-0.25). CMT and EC test concordance showed a sensitivity between 0.35-0.45 and a specificity of 0.75-0.90. The two tests showed positive results in detecting the same animals with or without the presence of the infection, although some animals that were positive for one test were not positive for the other test. The test EC classified animals and their quarters as SCM positive or negative in a more similar way to that obtained with CMT. The two diagnostic tests showed a general low prevalence of SCM in the livestock systems evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0478.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Datasets, Neural Networks, Hand Detection, Text Tagging
Online: 26 December 2022 (07:30:24 CET)
American Sign Language is a popular language for deaf individuals. Communication is made easier for these people through sign language. However, in a digital era like today, there is a need for these people to be able to communicate online, and even get help from technology to communicate in person with non sign language speakers. This research will present a program able to translate American sign language to plain English. This study aims to use the OpenCV library to recognize hand signals, also a trained model to identify images so that the program can then translate them to words and letters. The program uses a data set of over 2000 images which will be in this case the largest data set available. With over 90\% of accuracy it results in a basic computer program with the largest data set available that would make possible for users to communicate with a wide variety of words and expressions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1125.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Mexican sign language; Dataset; Hand-gestures; Computer-vision
Online: 17 July 2023 (16:17:50 CEST)
In Mexico, the incorporation of deaf people into education has been lacking since only 14% of the deaf population in the age group between 3 and 29 years access education with the support of a hearing aid. Additionally, those who have been incorporated frequently face inappropriate educational strategies which poorly develop the use of Mexican Sign Language (MSL) and therefore academical success and opportunities for insertion in the workplace are difficult. This research explores a novel mexican sign language lexicon video dataset containing the dynamical gestures most frequently used by MSL. Each gesture consists of a set of different versions of videos under uncontrolled conditions. MX-ITESO-100 data set is composed of a lexicon of 100 gestures and 5,000 videos from three participants with different grammatical elements. Additionally, the data set is evaluated in a two-step neural network model with an accuracy greater than 99%. and thus serves as a benchmark for future training of machine learning models in computer vision systems. Finally, this research provides an inclusive environment within society and organizations in particular for people with hearing impairment.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; hand washing; hygiene; behaviour change; communications
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:12:23 CEST)
Whilst large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic immediately and for the longer term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: second-hand smoke; cardiovascular disease; third-hand smoke; passive vaping; electronic cigarettes; heated tobacco; water pipe; myocardial infarction; stroke; diabetes
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:07:13 CEST)
In deaths and diseases attributed to tobacco smoke cardiovascular events exceed cancer and respiratory diseases. Second hand smoke (SHS) promotes the development of arteriosclerosis and can also trigger acute changes of endothelial function and of blood coagulability. Indoor smoking bans reduced coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction 10-20% within one year and were followed by sustainable decreases of stroke and diabetes. With a smoke-free hospitality industry people recognized tobacco smoke as an air pollutant, smoking in public was denormalized and social acceptance of smoking in front of children and pregnant women decreased also in homes and in cars. Combined effects with ambient air pollution are proven for active smoking and suspected for SHS. Contamination with third hand smoke (THS, “cold smoke”) persists for months in homes and cars, creating secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). Remnants found in air, dust, and on surfaces (carpets, wallpapers, upholstery, soft toys) were associated with their metabolites in saliva and urine of children and with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. In animal experiments effects of THS were found on thrombogenesis, insulin resistance through oxidative stress, on the developing immune system, lipid metabolism and alterations in liver, lung, skin and behavior. Much less is known about health effects for bystanders from the aerosols exhaled during “vaping” of e-cigarettes, but nicotine and other toxins from e-cigarettes are certainly a hazard, which should be prevented by the use of dermal and oral nicotine products, which are safer for nicotine replacement and without risk for bystanders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cytokine; EF-hand; S100 protein; S100A6; protein–protein interaction
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:40:50 CEST)
S100 is a family of over 20 structurally homologous, but functionally diverse regulatory (calcium/zinc)-binding proteins of vertebrates. The involvement of S100 proteins in numerous vital (patho)physiological processes is mediated by their interaction with various (intra/extra)cellular protein partners, including cell surface receptors. Furthermore, recent studies revealed the ability of specific S100 proteins to affect cell signaling via direct interaction with cytokines. Previously, we have revealed binding of ca. 71% of the four-helical cytokines by S100P protein due to the presence in its molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the binding site for S100P receptor. Here we show that another S100 protein, S100A6 (pairwise sequence identity with S100P of 35%), specifically binds numerous four-helical cytokines. We have studied affinity of recombinant forms of 35 human four-helical cytokines covering all structural families of this fold to Ca2+-loaded recombinant human S100A6, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. S100A6 recognizes 26 of the cytokines from all families of this fold with the equilibrium dissociation constants ranging from 0.3 nM to 12 µM. Overall, S100A6 interacts with ca. 73% of the four-helical cytokines studied to date with selectivity equivalent to that for S100P protein, with the differences limited to binding of Interleukin-2 and Oncostatin-M. The molecular docking study evidences presence in S100A6 molecule of a cytokine-binding site, analogous to that found in S100P. The findings argue the presence in some of the promiscuous members of S100 family of a site specific to a wide range of the four-helical cytokines. This unique feature of the S100 proteins potentially allows them to serve as universal inhibitors of signaling of the four-helical cytokines, which could be of value for reduction of severity of the disorders accompanied by excessive release of the cytokines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0060.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; soap; hand washing; WHO
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:30:53 CEST)
The greatest pandemic of the century, COVID-19, is an ongoing global public health problem. With a clinically approved treatment available only for those who are acutely ill and are hospitalized, the control of this disease in the general population is still largely dependent on the preventive measures issued by the World Health Organization. Among the general control measures other than immunization with the COVID-19 vaccines, handwashing with soap and water has been emphasized the most because it is cost-effective and easily accessible to the general public. Studies have reported that soaps offer unique chemical properties that can completely destroy enveloped viruses. However, the general public seems to be still uncertain about whether soaps can shield us from a highly contagious disease such as COVID-19. In an attempt to help eliminate the uncertainty, we analyzed the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of soap and its prospect for preventing the spread of COVID-19. In this paper, we provide an overview of the history and characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the current global COVID-19 situation, the possible mechanisms of the deactivation of viruses by soaps, and the potential effectiveness of soap in eliminating coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Clinodactily; Syndactyly; Wedge osteotomy; Congenital; Flaps; Plastic surgery; Hand surgery
Online: 7 September 2023 (08:47:27 CEST)
Syndactyly is the most common congenital malformation of the hand, leading to the fusion of the digits, frequently affecting the ring and middle fingers. The incidence is one out of 2500 children, predominantly occurring in boys and Caucasians. Clinically, the malformation may present as soft tissue or bony fusion, resulting in the union of the fingers characterised as complete or incomplete. This fusion may involve the phalanges but may also extend to the carpal/tarsal bones, even to the metacarpal’s or metatarsal’s level, rarely to the distal end of the forearm and lower leg. Mostly isolated but may occur together with other disorders or malformations such as synostosis, acro-syndactyly, cleft hand, clinodactyly, or polydactyly. Syndromic syndactyly can be observed in cases of Apert Syndrome, Poland’s Syndrome, Pfeiffer Syndrome and many others. A girl born in June of 2019 was diagnosed with congenital malformation of the right hand at birth —affecting the right middle, ring and little fingers, respectively. After X-ray imaging, the fusion of the third and fourth proximal phalanges to a common metacarpal was identified, forming a unique diagnosis of clino-syndactyly with metacarpal aplasia. Surgical intervention was advocated for, including a wedge osteotomy to correct the synchondrosis at the phalangeal base and a dorsal flap to close the interdigital space created during the correction of the III and IV. fingers. A trapezoid flap for the release of the syndactyly of the IV and V. fingers was applied. The paper aims to present the surgical correction and its results regarding an atypical case of syndactyly with clinodactyly and metacarpal aplasia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1935.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: CAPTCHA; authentication; hand gesture recognition; genetic algorithm; multilayer perceptron; MLP
Online: 27 July 2023 (15:48:04 CEST)
To achieve an acceptable level of security on the web, the Completely Automatic Public Turing test to tell Computer and Human Apart (CAPTCHA) was introduced as a tool to prevent bots from doing destructive actions such as downloading or signing up. Mobile devices have small screens, and therefore, using the common CAPTCHA methods (e.g. text CAPTCHAs) in these devices raises usability issues. To introduce a reliable, secure, and usable CAPTCHA that is suitable for mobile devices, this paper introduces a hand gesture recognition CAPTCHA based on applying Genetic Algorithm (GA) principles on Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). The proposed method improves the performance of MLP-based hand gesture recognition. It has been trained and evaluated on 2201 videos of the IPN Hand dataset, and MSE and RMSE benchmarks report the index values of 0.0018 and 0.0424, respectively. Comparison with the related works shows a minimum of 1.79% fewer errors, and experiments produced a sensitivity of 93.42% and accuracy of 92.27% – 10.25% and 6.65% improvement compared to the MLP implementation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1015.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: aging; dietary protein; hand-grip strength; physical function; rehabilitation; sarcopenia
Online: 14 July 2023 (11:32:28 CEST)
It is estimated that about 50% of geriatric rehabilitation patients suffer from sarcopenia. Thereby, malnutrition is frequently associated with sarcopenia and dietary intake is the main modifiable risk factor. During hospitalization, older adults are recommended to consume more dietary protein than the current recommended dietary allowance of 0.8 g/kg body weight per day to optimize the recovery of muscular strength and physical function. This prospective study examined the effect of a short-term protein supplementation with protein-enriched foods and drinks on hand-grip strength, nutritional status and physical function in older patients at risk of malnutrition during a three week inpatient orthopedic rehabilitation stay. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to assess malnutrition. Patients with a MNA score ≤ 23.5 points were randomly assigned to an intervention group (goal: to consume 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg body weight per day) or a control group (standard care). Both groups carried out the same rehabilitation program. Physical recovery parameters were determined at admission and discharge. There was a trend for participants in the intervention group to consume more protein than the control group (P = 0.058): 95.3 (SD 13.2) g/day as compared to 77.2 (SD 24.2) g/day, which corresponds to a mean protein intake of 1.6 (SD 0.3) g/kg/day vs. 1.3 (SD 0.5) g/kg/day. Dietary protein supplementation increased body weight by an average of 0.9 (SD 1.1) kg and fat mass by an average of 0.9 (SD 1.2) kg as compared with baseline (P = 0.039 and P = 0.050, respectively). There was no significant change in hand-grip strength, body composition and physical function. In conclusion, a short-term intervention with protein-enriched foods and drinks enabled older patients at risk of malnutrition to increase their protein intake to levels that are higher than their required intake. In these older individuals with appropriate protein intake, dietary protein supplementation did not result in a greater improvement in physical recovery outcomes during short-term inpatient rehabilitation. The intervention improved dietary protein intake, but further research (e.g., a full-scale randomized controlled trial with sufficient power) is required to determine the effects on physical function outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0368.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: hand gesture classification; transfer learning; three-dimensional convolutional; LSTM network
Online: 27 June 2022 (13:36:40 CEST)
This paper introduces a multi-class hand gesture recognition model developed to identify a set of defined hand gesture sequences in two-dimensional RGB video recordings. The work presents an action detection classifier that looks at both appearance and spatiotemporal parameters of consecutive frames. The classifier utilizes a convolutional-based network combined with a long-short-term memory unit. To leverage the need for a large-scale dataset, the model uses an available dataset to then adopt a technique known as transfer learning to fine-tune the model on the hand gestures of relevance. Validation curves performed over a batch size of 64 indicate an accuracy of 93.95% (± 0.37) with a mean Jaccard index of 0.812 (± 0.105) for 22 participants. The presented model illustrates the possibility of training a model with a small set of data (113,410 fully labelled frames). The proposed pipeline embraces a small-sized architecture that could facilitate its adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: miRNA; mRNA; HIV; network; bioinformatics; HAND; viral infection; CNS damage
Online: 23 February 2022 (14:13:59 CET)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an array of neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection, and the roles of microRNAs in HAND are not completely revealed yet. Based on published data and publicly available databases, we constructed an integrated miRNA-mRNA network involved in HAND. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene ontology, network analysis, and KEGG pathway analysis, were applied for further study of the network and the genes of the network. The axon guidance KEGG pathway, three genes NTNG1, EFNB2, CXCL12, and 17 miRNAs which regulates them, are spotlighted in our study. This study provides new perspectives to the knowledge of miRNAs’ roles in the process of HAND, and our findings provided potential therapeutic targets and clues of HAND.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0728.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Eye-hand coordination; Race model; Flexible behavior; Reaction time variability
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:50:47 CEST)
Significant progress has been made in understanding the computational and neural architecture that mediates eye and hand movements made in isolation. However, less is known about the mechanisms that control these movements when they are coordinated. Here, we outline our computational approaches using accumulation-to-threshold and race-to-threshold models to elucidate the mechanisms that initiate and inhibit these movements. We suggest that, depending on the behavioral context, the initiation and inhibition of coordinated eye-hand movements can operate in two modes- coupled and decoupled. The coupled-mode operates when the task context requires a tight coupling between the effectors; a common command initiates both effectors, and a unitary inhibitory process is responsible for stopping them. Conversely, the decoupled mode operates when the task context demands weaker coupling between the effectors; separate commands initiate the eye and hand, and separate inhibitory processes are responsible for stopping them. We hypothesize that higher-order control processes assess the behavioral context and choose the most appropriate mode. This computational architecture can explain heterogeneous results observed across many studies that have investigated the control of coordinated eye-hand movements and may also serve as a general framework to understand the control of complex multi-effector movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0778.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Finger kinematics; Motion coordination; Grasping and release; Robotic hand; Bio-inspired
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:24:47 CEST)
Bionic robotic hand can perform many movements similar to human hand. But there is still a significant gap in manipulation between robot and human hand. It is necessary to understand the finger kinematics and motion patterns of human hand to improve the performance of robotic hand. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate normal hand motion patterns by evaluating the kinematics of hand grip and release in healthy individuals. The data corresponding to rapid grip and release were collected from the dominant hand of 22 healthy people by sensory glove. The kinematics of 14 finger joints were analyzed, including the dynamic range of motion (ROM), peak velocity, joint sequence and finger sequence. The results show that the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint had a largest dynamic ROM than metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints. Besides, the PIP joint had the highest peak velocity, both in flexion and extension. For joint sequence, the PIP joint moved prior to the DIP or MCP joints during flexion, while extension started in DIP or MCP joints, followed by PIP joint. Regarding the finger sequence, the thumb started to move before four fingers, and stopped moving after the fingers during both grip and release. This study explored the normal motion patterns in hand grip and release, which provided kinematic reference for the design of robotic hand and thus contribute to its development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: hand tracking; virtual reality; leap motion; oculus; user experience; interaction; immersion
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:51:05 CEST)
Hand tracking enables controller-free interaction with virtual environments, which can, compared to traditional handheld controllers, make virtual reality (VR) experiences more natural and immersive. As naturalness hinges on both technological and user-based features, fine-tuning the former while assessing the latter can be used to increase usability. For a grab-and-place use case in immersive VR, we compared a prototype of a camera-based hand tracking interface (Leap Motion) with customized design elements to the standard Leap Motion application programming interface (API) and a traditional controller solution (Oculus Touch). Usability was tested in 32 young healthy participants, whose performance was analyzed in terms of accuracy, speed and errors as well as subjective experience. We found higher performance and overall usability as well as overall preference for the handheld controller compared to both controller-free solutions. While most measures did not differ between the two controller-free solutions, the modifications made to the Leap API to form our prototype led to a significant decrease in accidental drops. Our results do not support the assumption of higher naturalness for hand tracking but suggest design elements to improve the robustness of controller-free object interaction in a grab-and-place scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0443.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: EMG; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Computational models; Hand and wrist gestures
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:06:07 CET)
Electromyographic (EMG) signals provide information about a person's muscle activity. For hand movements, in particular, the execution of each gesture involves the activation of different combinations of the forearm muscles, which generate distinct electrical patterns. Conversely, the analysis of these muscle activation patterns, represented by EMG signals, allows recognizing which gesture is being performed. In this study, we aimed to implement an automatic identification system of hand or wrist gestures based on supervised Machine Learning (ML) techniques. We trained different computational models and determined which of these showed the best capacity to identify six hand or wrist gestures and generalize between different subjects. We used an open access database containing recordings of EMG signals from 36 subjects. Among the results obtained, we highlight the performance of the Random Forest model, with an accuracy of 95.39%, and the performance of a convolutional neural network with an accuracy of 94.77%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0119.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: second-hand cars; p-values; confidence interval; non-parametric bootstrapping; correlation
Online: 10 November 2019 (16:46:47 CET)
In developed countries, especially the big-sized ones like Australia and the USA, a car is almost an inevitable necessity to carry out daily activities. Due to this, used cars have become a great alternative to brand new cars because of their cost effectiveness. In this work, estimation of prices of used cars based on numerous factors is studied statistically. Data is based on prices of used cars sold across Australia. Statistical methods like correlation and permutation tests using linear regression model, exact tests and non-parametric bootstrapping is implemented to study the relationship of price with mileage and year of manufacture of the car using p-values and null hypothesis. Predictions are also made on the price by calculating a 95% confidence interval (CI) of median prices in small portions of the dataset. The study presents potential ideas for understanding correlation between variables and parameters in business studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0172.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: amyloids; Gad m 1, EF-hand motif, calcium carbonate precipitation, calcite
Online: 18 January 2018 (15:13:24 CET)
Acid proteins capable of nucleating Ca2+ and displaying aggregation capacity play key roles in the formation of calcium carbonate biominerals. EF-hands are among the largest Ca2+-binding motif in proteins. Gad m 1, an Atlantic cod β-parvalbumin isoform, is a monomeric EF-hand protein that acts as a Ca2+ buffer in fish muscle and is able to form amyloids under acidic conditions. Since nucleating Ca2+ protein have a propensity to form extended β-strand structures, we wondered whether amyloid assemblies of a protein containing refolded EF-hand motifs were able to influence the in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization. Here we have used the Gad m 1 chain as model to generate monomeric and amyloid assemblies and analyze their effect on in vitro calcite formation. We found that only amyloid assemblies alter calcite morphology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: telepresence; neuromorphic vibrotactile feedback; human-robot interaction; hand tracking; gesture-based teleoperation
Online: 28 December 2018 (03:53:18 CET)
Research on bidirectional human-machine interfaces will enable the smooth interaction with robotic platforms in contexts ranging from industry to tele-medicine and rescue. This paper introduces a bidirectional communication system to achieve multisensory telepresence during the gestural control of an industrial robotic arm. We complement the gesture-based control by means of a tactile-feedback strategy grounding on a spiking artificial neuron model. Force and motion from the robot are converted in neuromorphic haptic stimuli delivered on the user’s hand through a vibro-tactile glove. Untrained personnel participated in an experimental task benchmarking a pick-and-place operation. The robot end-effector was used to sequentially press six buttons, illuminated according to a random sequence, and comparing the tasks executed without and with tactile feedback. The results demonstrated the reliability of the hand tracking strategy developed for controlling the robotic arm, and the effectiveness of a neuronal spiking model for encoding hand displacement and exerted forces in order to promote a fluid embodiment of the haptic interface and control strategy. The main contribution of this paper is in presenting a robotic arm under gesture-based remote control with multisensory telepresence, demonstrating for the first time that a spiking haptic interface can be used to effectively deliver on the skin surface a sequence of stimuli emulating the neural code of the mechanoreceptors beneath.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0110.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Fly ash composites; stir casting; hand lay-up; mechanical properties; correlative microstructural characterisation
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:40:14 CET)
The present decade has witnessed numerous investigations focussed on the determination of the mechanical properties of Fly ash composites. These composites have attracted attention, especially in the form of reinforcements owing to their excellent tensile and compressive properties coupled with impact and hardness response. A number of techniques viz. in-situ deposition, hand-up lay and compo-casting techniques have been reported to fabricate these composites. However, in the context of these composites, a systematic structure-property correlation has not been established till date. The present review is aimed at highlighting the current state of research in the avenue of Fly ash composites from two different viewpoints, viz. (i) fabrication technique and (ii) mechanical properties of the fabricated composites. Moreover, the necessity of establishing systematic structure-property correlation in these materials has also been briefly discussed from the author’s viewpoint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: grip force modulation; embodied language; left hand; right hemisphere; left hemisphere; unimanual task
Online: 10 July 2019 (07:37:58 CEST)
Background and objectives: The language-induced grip force modulation (GFM) can be used to better understand the link between the language and motor functions as an expression of the embodied language. However, the contribution of each brain hemisphere to the language-induced GFM is still unclear. Using six different action verbs as stimuli, this study evaluated the GFM of the left hand in unimanual task to characterize the left- and right-hemisphere contributions. Materials and Methods: The left-hand GFM of 20 healthy consistent right-handers subjects was evaluated using the verbs “to write”, “to hold”, “to pull”(left-lateralized central processing actions), “to draw”, “to tie”, and “to drive” (bi-hemispheric central processing actions) as linguistic stimuli. The time between the word onset and the first interval of statistical significance regarding the baseline (RT) was also measured. Results: The six verbs produced language-induced GFM. The modulation intensity was similar for the six verbs, but the RT was variable. The verbs “to draw”, “to tie”, and “to drive”, whose central processing of the described action is bihemispheric showed a longer Rt compared to the other verbs. Conclusions: The possibility that an action is performed by the left-hand does not interfere with the occurrence of GFM when this action verb is employed as linguistic stimulus. Therefore, the language-induced GFM seems mainly rely on the left hemisphere, and the engagement of the right hemisphere seems to slow down the increase in the GFM intensity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hand Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery (HALS); sensing glove; wearable; collaborative surgical robot, gesture recognition.
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:32:22 CET)
This paper presents a system developed for the assistance with a collaborative robot in hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). The system includes a sensing glove with piezoresistive sensors which capture continuously the flexion degree of the surgeon's fingers. These data are analyzed using an algorithm that detects and recognize the selected movements. This information is sent as commands to the collaborative robot throughout the surgical operation. The bending patterns, speed and execution times of the movements are modelled in a pre-phase in which it will extract all the necessary information for later detection during the motion execution. The results obtained with 10 different volunteers show a high degree of accuracy and a low false discovery rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: facial expression recognition; fusion features; salient facial areas; hand-crafted features; feature correction
Online: 24 January 2017 (03:28:51 CET)
In pattern recognition domain, deep architectures are widely used nowadays and they have achieved fine grades. However, these deep architectures need special demands, especially big datasets and GPU. Aiming to gain better grades without deep networks, we propose a simplified algorithm framework using fusion features extracted from the salient areas of faces. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has achieved a better result than some deep architectures. For extracting more effective features, this paper firstly defines the salient areas on the faces. This paper normalizes the salient areas of the same location in the faces to the same size, therefore it can gain more similar features from different subjects. LBP and HOG features are extracted from the salient areas, fusion features’ dimensions are reduced by Principal Component Analysis( PCA) and we apply softmax to classify the six basic expressions at once. This paper proposes a salient areas definitude method which uses peak expressions frames to compare with their neutral faces. This paper also proposes and applies the idea of normalizing the salient areas to align the specific areas which express the different expressions. This makes the salient areas found from different subjects have the same size. Besides, gamma correction method is firstly applied on LBP features in our algorithm framework which improves our recognition rates significantly. By applying this algorithm framework, our research has gained state-of-the-art performances on CK+ database and JAFFE database.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0846.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: enterovirus A71; coxsackievirus A16; enterovirus; hand, foot and mouth disease; capsid loop; vaccine; immunogenicity
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:37:08 CEST)
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood disease caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). We hypothesize that capsid loops are important epitopes for EV-A71 and CV-A16. Seven chimeric EV-A71 (ChiE71) involving VP1 BC, DE, EF, GH and HI loops, VP2 EF loop, and VP3 GH loop were substituted with corresponding CV-A16 loops. VP3 GH loop is the most conserved (91.3%) while VP1 BC loop has only 45.5% similarity. Only ChiE71-1-BC, ChiE71-1-EF, ChiE71-1-GH and ChiE71-3-GH were viable. EV-A71 and CV-A16 antiserum neutralized ChiE71-1-BC and ChiE71-1-EF. Mice immunized with inactivated ChiE71 elicited high IgG, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10. Neonatal mice receiving passive transfer of WT EV-A71, ChiE71-1-EF and ChiE71-1-BC immune sera had 100%, 80.0% and no survival, respectively, against lethal challenges with EV-A71, suggesting that the substituted CV-A16 loops disrupted EV-A71 immunogenicity. Passive transfer of CV-A16, ChiE71-1-EF and ChiE71-1-BC immune sera provided 40.0%, 20.0% and 42.9% survival, respectively, against CV-A16. One-day-old neonatal mice actively immunized with WT EV-A71, ChiE71-1-BC, ChiE71-1-EF and CV-A16 achieved 62.5%, 60.0%, 57.1% and no survival respectively, after the EV-A71 challenge. Active immunization using CV-A16 provided full protection while WT EV-A71, ChiE71-1-BC, ChiE71-1-EF immunization showed partial cross-protection in CV-A16 lethal challenge with survival rates of 50.0%, 20.0%, and 40%, respectively. Taken together, the EV-A71 VP1 BC loop is essential in immunogenicity of EV-A71 and substitution with CV-A16 VP1 BC loop was insufficient to confer protection against CV-A16. The EF loop maintains the cross-protective immune responses. Disruption of a capsid loop could affect virus immunogenicity, and future vaccine design should include conservation of the enterovirus capsid loops.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: anarchic hand syndrome; DTI; white matter disconnection; lesion mapping; sense of agency; posterior lesions.
Online: 18 March 2021 (10:09:37 CET)
The anarchic hand syndrome refers to an inability to control the movements of one’s own hand which acts as if it had a will of its own. The symptoms may differ depending on whether the brain lesion is anterior, posterior, callosal or subcortical, but the relative classifications are not conclusive. This study investigates the role of white matter disconnections in a patient whose symptoms are inconsistent with the mapping of the lesion site. A repeated neuropsychological investigation was associated with a review of the literature on the topic to identify the frequency of various different symptoms relating to this syndrome. Furthermore, an analysis of the neuroimaging regarding structural connectivity allowed us to investigate the grey matter lesions and white matter disconnections. The results indicated that some of the patient’s symptoms were associated with structures that, although not directly damaged, were dysfunctional due to a disconnection in their networks. This suggests that the anarchic hand may be considered as a disconnection syndrome involving the integration of multiple antero-posterior, insular and interhemispheric networks. In order to comprehend this rare syndrome better, the clinical and neuroimaging data need to be integrated with the clinical reports available in the literature on the topic.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:54:29 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer. Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME). Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed. Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:10:11 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer.Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME).Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed.Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Android; arduino; bluetooth; hand-gesture recognition; low cost; open source; sensors; smart cars; speech recognition
Online: 3 January 2019 (14:32:23 CET)
Gesture recognition has always been a technique to decrease the distance between the physical and the digital world. In this work, we introduce an Arduino based vehicle system which no longer require manual controlling of the cars. The proposed work is achieved by utilizing the Arduino microcontroller, accelerometer, RF sender/receiver, and Bluetooth. Two main contributions are presented in this work. Firstly, we show that the car can be controlled with hand-gestures according to the movement and position of the hand. Secondly, the proposed car system is further extended to be controlled by an android based mobile application having different modes (e.g., touch buttons mode, voice recognition mode). In addition, an automatic obstacle detection system is introduced to improve the safety measurements to avoid any hazards. The proposed systems are designed at lab-scale prototype to experimentally validate the efﬁciency, accuracy, and affordability of the systems. We remark that the proposed systems can be implemented under real conditions at large-scale in the future that will be useful in automobiles and robotics applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0647.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: electromyography; hand movement; health monitoring; maximum entropy reflection coefficients; classification algorithms; machine learning; feature selection
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:01:22 CET)
Classification of electromyographic signals has a wide range of applications, from clinical diagnosis of different muscular diseases to biomedical engineering, where their use as input control of prosthetic devices has become a hot topic of research. Challenge of classifying this signals relies on the accuracy of the proposed algorithm and the possibility of its implementation on hardware. This paper consider the problem of electromyography signal classification, solved with the proposed signal processing and feature extraction stages, with focus lying on the signal model and time domain characteristics for better classification accuracy. The proposal considers a simple preprocessing technique that produces signals suitable for feature extraction, and the Burg reflection coefficients to form learning and classification patterns. These coefficients yield a competitive classification rate compared to used time domain features. Sometimes, the feature extraction from electromyographic signals showed that procedure can omit less useful traits for machine learning models. Using feature selection algorithms provides a higher classification performance with as fewer traits as possible. Algorithms achieved a high classification rate up to 100% with low pattern dimensionality, with other kinds of uncorrelated attributes for hand movement identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: spacetime theorems; naturalism; abiogenesis; panspermia; process structuralism; Cambrian explosion; amino acids; homochirality; hand of God dilemma
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:40:22 CET)
The more than thirty spacetime theorems developed over the past five decades establish that the universe and its spacetime dimensions have emerged from a cause/Causal Agent beyond the cosmos. Thus, to infer that this cause/Causal Agent may have intervened in the origin and history of Earth and Earth’s life resides well within the bounds of reason. Meanwhile, proponents of each of the three prevailing naturalistic models for the origin and history of Earth’s life have marshalled arguments and evidence that effectively undermine and refute the other two models. A biblical perspective and approach to Earth’s life can help resolve this impasse. While a superficial and pervasive appeal to divine intervention thwarts scientific advance, so does a rigid adherence to naturalism. A productive way forward is to identify which models (or parts of models), whether naturalistic, theistic, or a combination, most effectively narrow, rather than widen, knowledge gaps, minimize anomalies, offer the most comprehensive and detailed explanation of the data, and prove most successful in predicting scientific discoveries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0362.v2
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Wearable devices; Wearable sensors; Data glove; Biomechatronic design; Hand kinematics; Joint measurement; Flex sensors; Biomedical engineering
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:40:17 CET)
For technical or medical applications, the knowledge of the exact kinematics of the human hand is key to utilizing its capability to handle and manipulate objects and to communicate with other humans or machines. The optimal relationship between the number of measurement parameters, measurement accuracy as well as complexity, usability and cost of the measuring systems is hard to find. Biomechanic assumptions, the concepts of a biomechatronic system and the mechatronic design process as well as commercially available components are used to develop a sensorized glove. The proposed wearable can measure 14 of 15 angular values of a simplified hand model introduced in this paper. Additionally, five contact pressure values at the fingertips and inertial data of the whole hand with a degree of freedom of six are gathered. Due to the modular design and a hand size examination based on anthropometric parameters, the concept of the wearable is applicable for a large variety of hand sizes and adaptable to different use cases. Validations show a combined root-mean-square error of 0.99° to 2.38° for the measurement of all joint angles at one finger, surpassing the human perception threshold and the current state of the art in science and technology for comparable systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: childhood education; Hygiene; COVID-19; preventive behaviours; staying at home; mask wearing; hand washing; public goods
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:21:57 CET)
Childhood hygiene education has resulted in individuals engaging in hand washing and mask wearing to cope with COVID-19. Individuals can form sustainable development-related habits through childhood education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0427.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Hand sanitizer; COVID-19; alcohol; methanol substitution; gas chromatography; substandard products; falsified products; post-market surveillance
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:25:25 CEST)
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to the fore as a SARS-CoV-2 control measure. To be effective these products must comply with relevant quality parameters such as alcohol concentration, methanol limits and purity. The current study was designed to determine the quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products in the Nairobi metropolitan area. For this purpose, 74 commercially marketed samples were collected and subjected to analysis by gas chromatography. Only three samples (4.1%) complied with the regulatory specifications for alcohol content, methanol limits and pH. Five samples (6.8%) complied with the specification for alcohol content but did not meet methanol or pH limits. A total of 44 (59.5%) samples had methanol levels that exceeded threshold limits. Eleven samples (14.9%) were found with methanol substitution (i.e., methanol, instead of ethanol or isopropanol, was the main alcohol component). The results show that users of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are being exposed to substandard and falsified products which in addition to being non-efficacious pose harm due to unacceptable levels of toxic impurities. Regular, routine post-market surveillance is needed to prevent such products from reaching the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2058.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: atmospheric cold plasma 2; hand sanitization 3; surface decontamination 4; hygiene 5; bacterial inactivation 6; air dryers
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:32:19 CEST)
Good hand hygiene has proven to be essential in reducing the uncontrolled spread of human pathogens. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) may provide an alternative to disinfecting hands with ethanol-based handrubs when hand washing facilities are unavailable. CAP can be safely applied to the skin if the energy is well controlled. In this study, RF and DC plasma sources was built with a pin-to-mesh electrodes configuration inside a fused silica tube of 5 mm of inner diameter. Microbiological assays based on EN 13697:2015+A1:2019 using Escherichia coli DSM 682 or Staphylococcus epidermidis DSM 20044 were used to examine the antimicrobial effect of various plasma conditions. Metal and silicone disks that model skin were used as inoculation matrices. The prototype air radio frequency (RF) CAP achieved significant disinfection in the MHz range on stainless steel and silicone substrates. This is equivalent to half the performance of direct current CAP, which is only effective on conductive substrates. Using only electricity and air CAP could, with further optimization, replace or complement current hand disinfection methods, and mitigate the economic burden of public health crises in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0307.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: neck; isometric assessment; hand‐held dynamometer; functional capacity; cervical flexion/extension ratio; injury prevention; strength asymmetries; rehabilitation; sex effect
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:27:26 CEST)
The functional capacity of the cervical spine plays a central role in healthy living. This study evaluated and created a comprehensive strength, range of motion (ROM), and musculoskeletal pain profile of the cervical spine in young adults. 60 physically active individuals (30 males/30 females; 19-24 year-old) participated in the study. Cervical ROM (forward flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation), maximal isometric strength (forward flexion, extension, lateral flexion), and musculoskeletal pains were assessed using an electronic goniometer, a handheld dynamometer, and the Nordic questionnaire, respectively. Data analysis revealed that: a) fe-males had higher ROM values, during extension and lateral flexion, than males (p<0.05), b) males had higher absolute strength values than females in all movement directions, higher rela-tive strength values/body mass (at forward flexion) and flexion/extension ratio values (p<0.05), c) ROM and strength values were not significantly different between right-left sides (p>0.05), d) a great proportion (43.3%) of the participants had cervical pains (no sex-related differences) and e) cervical strength showed significant small negative correlation with pains (p<0.05; r=-0.225 to -0.345). The reference values created may be used by health and fitness professionals to exten-sively evaluate the cervical spine and to design specific exercise programs for injury prevention and rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0511.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Neonatal infection; hand hygiene; behaviour change; Cambodia; post-natal care; newborn care; formative research; intervention design; health facility; household
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:37:57 CET)
Background: Globally, infections are the third leading cause of neonatal mortality. Predominant risk factors for facility-born newborns are poor hygiene practices that span both the facility and home environments. Current improvement interventions focus on only one environment and tar-get limited caregivers, primarily birth attendants and mothers. To inform the design of a hand hygiene behaviour change intervention in rural Cambodia, a formative mixed-methods research study was conducted to investigate the context specific behaviours and determinants of hand-washing among healthcare workers, maternal and non-maternal caregivers along the early new-born care continuum. Methods: Direct observations of hygiene practices of all individuals providing care to 46 newborns across eight facilities and associated communities were completed and hand hygiene compliance assessed in analysis. Semi structured interactive interviews were subsequently conducted with 35 midwives and household members to explore the corresponding cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors influencing the observed key hand hygiene behaviours. Results: Hand hygiene opportunities during newborn care were frequent in both set-tings (n = 1319) and predominantly performed by mothers, fathers and non-parental caregivers. Compliance to hand hygiene protocol across all caregivers, including midwives, was inadequate (0%). Practices were influenced by the lack of accessible physical infrastructure, time, increased workload, low infection risk perception, nurture-related motives, norms and inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an effective intervention in this context should be multi-modal to address the different key behaviour determinants and target a wide range of caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0625.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: elderly care; hand gesture; computer vision system; Microsoft Kinect depth sensor; Arduino Nano Microcontroller; global system for mobile communication (GSM)
Online: 26 July 2020 (02:07:09 CEST)
Hand gestures may play an important role in medical applications for health care of elderly people, where providing a natural interaction for different requests can be executed by making specific gestures. In this study we explored three different scenarios using a Microsoft Kinect V2 depth sensor then evaluated the effectiveness of the outcomes. The first scenario utilized the default system embedded in the Kinect V2 sensor, which depth metadata gives 11 parameters related to the tracked body with five gestures for each hand. The second scenario used joint tracking provided by Kinect depth metadata and depth threshold together to enhance hand segmentation and efficiently recognize the number of fingers extended. The third scenario used a simple convolutional neural network with joint tracking by depth metadata to recognize five categories of gestures. In this study, deaf-mute elderly people execute five different hand gestures to indicate a specific request, such as needing water, meal, toilet, help and medicine. Then, the requests were sent to the care provider’s smartphone because elderly people could not execute any activity independently. The system transferred these requests as a message through the global system for mobile communication (GSM) using a microcontroller.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0233.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: primate hand use; primate grooming; manual grooming; object manipulation; primate evolution; oral grooming; object play; tool use; Machiavellian Intelligence; Bayesian decision theory
Online: 20 September 2019 (06:39:59 CEST)
The evolution of manual grooming and its implications have received little attention in the quest to understand the origins of simian primates and their social and technical intelligence. All simians groom manually, whereas prosimians groom orally despite comparable manual dexterity between some members of the two groups. Simians also exhibit a variable propensity for the manipulation of inanimate, non-food objects, which has culminated in tool making and tool use in some species. However, lemuriform primates also seem capable of tool use with training. Furthermore, lemuriforms appear to understand the concept of a tool and use their own body parts as “tools”, despite not using inanimate objects. This suggests that prosimian primates are pre-adapted for proprioceptive object manipulation and tool use, but do not express these cognitive abilities by default. This essay explores the paleontological, anatomical, cognitive, ethological, and neurological roots of these abilities and attempts to explain this behavioural divide between simians and prosimians. Common misconceptions about early primate evolution and captive behaviours are addressed, and chronological inconsistencies with Machiavellian Intelligence are examined. A “licking to picking” hypothesis is also proposed to explain a potential link between manual grooming and object manipulation, and to reconcile the inconsistencies of Machiavellian Intelligence. Bayesian decision theory, the evolution of the parietal cortex and enhanced proprioception, and analogies with behavioural changes resulting from artificial selection may help provide new insights into the minds of both our primate kin and ourselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Breast Cancer; Acute Postoperative Pain; Postoperative analgesia; Patient-Controlled Analgesia; Levobupivacaine; Diclofenac; Hand Grip Strength; Quality of life; Treatment Outcome; Long term survival.
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:37:34 CEST)
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women. Preclinical studies have confirmed that the local anesthetic levobupivacaine has a cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. We examined whether postoperative wound infiltration with levobupivacaine influences survival in 120 patients who were operated on for breast cancer and underwent quadrantectomy or mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Groups with continuous levobupivacaine wound infiltration, bolus wound infiltration, and diclofenac analgesia were compared. Long-term outcomes examined were quality of life, shoulder disability, and hand grip strength (HGS) after one year, and survival after 5 and 10 years. Groups that had infiltration analgesia had better shoulder function compared to diclofenac after one year. Levobupivacaine PCA group had the best preserved HGS after 1 year (P=0.022). The most significant predictor of the 5-year outcome was HGS (P=0.03). Although the best survival after 5 and 10 years was registered in the bolus levobupivacaine group, statistical significance was not reached (P=0.36). The extent of the disease at the time of surgery is the most important predictor of long-term survival. A larger prospective clinical study could better confirm the effect of levobupivacaine wound infiltration on outcomes after breast cancer surgery observed in this pilot study. Trial number NCT05829707
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:54:02 CEST)
There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by using sol-gel technique in one step synthesis procedure. Moreover, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 with different loading in order to form different active sites such as isolated lithium ions, nanoparticles of Li2O, and bulky crystals of Li2O. The ability of the new compounds to induce apoptosis and prevent necrosis was evaluated on three different types of cancer cell lines which are; liver HepG-2, Breast MCF-7 and colon HCT116. The obtained results show that Li/TUD-1has the ability to control necrosis and thus reduce the side effects of treatments containing silica in the case of lithium has been added to them, especially in chronic cases. This has been demonstrated by the significant increase in the IC50 value and cell viability comparing to control groups. Consequently, the idea is new, so it definitely needs more develop and test with materials that have more apoptotic impact than silica in order to induce apoptosis without induction of necrosis.