ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0080.v1
Online: 3 August 2018 (20:36:50 CEST)
There are many welded structures in the world such as bridges and viaducts that are subject to fatigue. These structures, generally made of non-alloy or low-alloy steels, have been put into operation some of them with many years ago and have accumulated a large number of variable load cycles over the time. For this reason the occurrence of fatigue phenomenon is inevitable and consists in the occurrence of failures at stresses applied to the structure, below the yield limit of the material. These stresses under the static loads would not cause the failures to appear..This paper will investigate whether two reconditioning techniques “weld toe grinding” and “WIG remelting weld toe”, influences favorably the behavior of welded structures made from HSLA steel, in static and variable loads and therefore if the application of these techniques is justified in both cases. In the paper will be presented the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the base and filler materials, micro and macrostructures, graphics with the variation of microhardness, static and fatigue tensile tests will be performed, and it will be rised durability curve in case of fatigue tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: grinding, wheel wear, wear flat, precision, tribometry, pin on disk
Online: 10 July 2018 (13:24:06 CEST)
Manufacturing of grinding wheels is continuously adapting to new industrial requirements. New abrasives and new wheel configurations, together with wheel wear control allow for grinding process optimization. However, the wear behavior of the new abrasive materials is not usually studied from a scientific point of view due to the difficulty to control and monitor all the variables affecting the tribochemical wear mechanisms. In this work an original design of pin on disk tribometer is developed in a CNC grinding machine. An Alumina grinding wheel with special characteristics is employed and two types of abrasive are compared: White Fused Alumina (WFA) and Sol-Gel Alumina (SG). The implemented tribometer reaches sliding speeds of between 20 and 30 m/s and real contact pressures up to 190 MPa. The results show that the wear behavior of the abrasive grains is strongly influenced by their crystallographic structure and the tribometer appears to be a very good tool for characterizing the wear mechanisms of grinding wheels, depending on the abrasive grains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0261.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: particle size distribution; grinding kinetics; slag; alkali activated materials; compressive strength
Online: 22 October 2019 (15:49:42 CEST)
This study aims to model grinding of a Polish slag and evaluate the particle size distributions of the products obtained after different grinding times. Then, selected products were alkali activated in order to investigate the effect of particle size on the compressive strength of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). Other parameters affecting alkali activation, i.e. temperature, curing and ageing time were also examined. Among the different mathematical models used to simulate the particle size distribution, Rosin-Rammler (RR) was found to be the most suitable. When piecewise regression analysis was applied to experimental data it was found that the particle size distribution of the slag products exhibits multi fractal character. In addition, grinding of slag exhibits non-first-order behavior and the reduction rate of each size is time dependent. The grinding rate and consequently the grinding efficiency increases when the particle size increases, but drops sharply near zero after prolonged grinding periods. Regarding alkali activation, it is deduced that among the parameters studied, particle size (and the respective specific surface area) of the raw slag product and curing temperature have the most noticeable impact on the compressive strength of the produced AAMs.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Discrete element method, simulation, multibody dynamics, particle replacement, high-pressure grinding rolls.
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:36:08 CEST)
It has been known that the performance of the High-Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR) varies as a function of method used to confine laterally the rolls, their diameter/length (aspect) ratio as well as their condition, if new or worn. However, quantifying these effects through direct experimentation in machines with reasonably large dimensions is not straightforward given the challenge, among others, of guaranteeing that the feed material remains unchanged. The present work couples the discrete element method (DEM) to multibody dynamics (MBD) and a novel particle replacement model (PRM) to simulate the performance of pilot-scale HPGRs grinding pellet feed. It shows that rotating side plates, in particular when fitted with studs, allow reaching more uniform forces along the bed, which also translates in a more constant product size along the rolls as well as higher throughput. It also shows that the edge effect is relatively constant with roll length, leading to substantially larger proportional edge regions for high-aspect ratio rolls. On the other hand, the product from the center region of such rolls was found to be finer when pressed at identical specific forces. Finally, rolls were found to have higher throughput, but generate a coarser product when worn following the commonly observed trapezoidal profile. The approach used in industry to compensate for roller wear by increasing the specific force and roll speed has then been demonstrated to be effective to maintain and potentially even increase product fineness and throughput, as long as the minimum safety gap is not reached.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0013.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fish scale powder; high-speed grinding; heat treatment; hydroxyapatite; magnesium whitlockite; nanosized grain
Online: 1 July 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Mixture of abramis brama (freshwater bream), carassius carassius (crucian carp), and sander lucioperca (pike perch) scales was used for the preparation of fish scale powder containing about 26.5 wt. % of removed when heating components preferably of organic nature, and 63.5 wt. % of mineral components. Fish scale powder enriched with inorganic components was prepared from washed, dried, and ground fish scale mixture using vibration sieving. Inorganic powders consisting of hydroxyapatite and magnesium whitlockite were obtained via heat treatment of this fish scale powder at 800-1000 oC. Particles of these inorganic powders consisted of sintered grains with dimensions less than 100 nm after heat treatment at 800 oC, less than 200 nm after heat treatment at 900 oC, and 100-500 nm after heat treatment at 1000 oC. Fish scale powder enriched with inorganic components as well as heat-treated inorganic powders consisting of hydroxyapatite and magnesium whitlockite can be recommended for the production of different materials such as ceramics or composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: grinding; multivariate statistics; maintenance decision; condition-based maintenance; condition monitoring; health management; prognostics; fault diagnosis
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:44:46 CEST)
Grinding processes’ stochastic nature poses a challenge in predicting the quality of the resulting surfaces. Post-production measurements for form, surface roughness, and circumferential waviness are commonly performed due to infeasibility in measuring all quality parameters during the grinding operation. Therefore, it is challenging to diagnose the root cause of quality deviations in real-time resulting from variations in the machine’s operating condition. This paper introduces a novel approach to predicting the overall quality of the individual parts. The grinder is equipped with sensors to implement condition-based maintenance and is induced with five frequently occurring failure conditions for the experimental test runs. The crucial quality parameters are measured for the produced parts. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) and Hotelling’s T-squared (T2) have been evaluated to generate quality labels from the multi-variate quality data. Benchmarked random forest regression models are trained using fault diagnosis feature set and quality labels. Quality labels from the T2 statistic of quality parameters are preferred over FCM approach for their repeatability. The model, trained from T2 labels achieves more than 94% accuracy when compared to the measured ring disposition. The predicted overall quality using the sensors’ feature set is compared against the threshold to reach a trustworthy maintenance decision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: oxygen vacancy; extended x-ray absorption fine structure; high-intensity grinding; local structure; quantum effect
Online: 13 April 2019 (05:18:11 CEST)
Prolonged high-intensity grinding can modify the crystal structure of solid substances and/or induce chemical reaction, which is referred to as mechanochemical reaction. Such reactions can exert positive influences on hydrometallurgical processes, therefore, many researchers have applied mechanochemical reactions for metals dissolution from minerals. The mechanism of mechanochemical reaction has been investigated using solid analyses and simulations. Structural changes caused by mechanochemical reaction are not yet sufficiently clarified because the ground samples are amorphous. The objective of this study was to analyze structural changes of cerianite in weathered residual rare earth ore by mechanochemical reduction. Structural change was analyzed by x-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis at the cerium LIII- and K-edges. These analyses revealed that the structural change of cerianite in this ore induced by mechanochemical reduction involved oxygen vacancy production. The process of the oxygen vacancy formation was closely coupled with the quantum effect of localization–delocalization of the 4f electron of cerium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: fuel reduction; slash pile; grinding operation; grapple excavator; horizontal grinder; simulation; Sierra Nevada; California; wildfire
Online: 12 October 2017 (11:45:44 CEST)
The processing of woody biomass waste piles for use as fuel instead of burning them was investigated. At each landing slash pile location, a 132 kW grapple excavator was used to transfer the waste piles into a 522 kW horizontal grinder. Economies of scale could be expected when grinding a larger pile, although the efficiency of the loading operation might be diminished. Here, three piles were ground and the operations were time-studied: Small (20 m long × 15 m wide × 4 m high), Medium (30 × 24 × 4 m), and Large (35 × 30 × 4 m) piles. Grinding the Medium pile was found to be the most productive at 30.65 bone dry tons per productive machine hour without delay (BDT/PMH0), thereby suggesting that there might be an optimum size of slash pile for a grinding operation. We also examined modeling of the excavator and grinder operations, and we observed that the constructed simulation model well-replicated the actual operations. Based on the modeling, we estimated that the productivity of grinding at a landing area of 710 m2 of slash pile location was 31.24 BDT/PMH0, which was the most productive rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: rubber; environmental sustainability; end-of-life tires; critical raw materials; rubber processing; disintegrator; reclaiming; devulcanisation; ozone cutting; grinding; composite material
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:29:25 CEST)
Despite the development of technologies, modern methods of disposal of end-of-life tires most often represent either the incineration in cement kilns or the destruction of tires in special landfills, showing a lack of sustainable recycling of this valuable material. The fundamental role of recycling is evident, and the development of high-efficiency processes represents a priority for the European market. Therefore, investigation of end-of-life rubber processing methods is of high importance for manufacturers and recyclers of rubber materials. In this paper, methods of processing of end-of-life tires are reviewed in order to obtain rubber crumb, which can later be used in the production of new industrial rubber goods and composite The processes of separation end-of-life tire into fractions by type of materials using mechanical processing methods along with mechanochemical and mechanical processes of processing the materials of used tires in order to obtain crumb rubber of various fractions and chemical reactivity are considered.