ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0329.v1
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:35:29 CEST)
We study an air-fluidized granular monolayer, composed in this case of plastic spheres, which roll on a metallic grid. The air current is adjusted so that the spheres never loose contact with the grid, so that the dynamics may be regarded as pseudo two-dimensional (or two-dimensional, if the effects of sphere rolling are not taken into account). We find two surprising continuous transitions, both of them displaying two coexisting phases. Moreover, in all cases, we found the coexisting phases display strong energy non-equipartition. In the first transition, at weak fludization, a glassy phase coexists with a disordered fluid-like phase. In the second transition, a hexagonal crystal coexists with the fluid phase. We analyze, for these two-phase systems, the specific diffusive properties of each phase, as well as the velocity correlations. Surprisingly, we find a glass phase at very low packing fraction and for a wide range of granular temperatures. Both phases are characterized also by a strong anti-correlated velocities upon collision. Thus, the dynamics observed for this quasi two-dimensional system unveils phase transitions with peculiar properties, very different from the predicted behavior in well know theories for their equilibrium counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0251.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: granular superconductors; trapped flux; hysteresis; magnetoresistance; critical current
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:03:11 CEST)
It has been suggested that the measured magnetic properties of hydrides under pressure claimed to be high temperature superconductors indicate that the materials are granular superconductors. Such materials will show reduced or no magnetic field expulsion under field cooling, and will trap magnetic fields when the external magnetic field is removed. They will also exhibit hysteretic behavior in magnetoresistance and other transport properties. Here we point out that hysteresis in transport properties has never been reported for hydrides under pressure. Its presence, with the expected features, would indicate that the materials trap magnetic flux, hence that they can sustain persistent currents without dissipation, something that all superconductors can do. Conversely, its absence would indicate that these materials are not superconductors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0172.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: granular materials; displacement fluctuations; $q$-gaussian; strain localization
Online: 9 October 2018 (05:13:57 CEST)
The statistics of grain displacements probability distribution function (pdf) during the shear of a granular medium displays an unusual dependence with the shear increment upscaling as recently evinced [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 238301 2015]. Basically, the pdf of grain displacements has clear nonextensive ($q$-Gaussian) features at small scales but approaches to Gaussian characteristics at large shear window scales -- the granulence effect. Here, we extend this analysis studying a larger system (more grains considered in the experimental setup) which exhibits a severe shear band fault during the macroscopic straining. We calculate the pdf of grain displacements and the dependency of the $q$-statistics with the shear increment. This analysis have shown a singular behavior of $q$ at large scales, displaying a non-monotonic dependence with the shear increment. By means of an independent image analysis, we demonstrate that this singular non-monotonicity could be associated with the emergence of a shear band within the confined system. We show that the exact point where the $q$-value inverts its tendency coincides with the emergence of a giant percolation cluster along the system, caused by the shear band. We believe that this original approach using Statistical Mechanics tools to identify shear bands can be a very useful piece to solve the complex puzzle of the rheology of dense granular systems.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Kullback–Leibler divergence; granular gases; kinetic theory; molecular dynamics
Online: 8 October 2020 (10:43:55 CEST)
Finding the proper entropy functional associated with the inelastic Boltzmann equation for a granular gas is a yet unsolved challenge. The original H-theorem hypotheses do not fit here and the H-functional presents some additional measure problems that are solved by the Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD) of a reference velocity distribution function from the actual distribution. The right choice of the reference distribution in the KLD is crucial for the latter to qualify or not as a Lyapunov functional, the “homogeneous cooling state” (HCS) distribution of the freely cooling system being a potential candidate. Due to the lack of a formal proof, the aim of this work is to support this conjecture aided by molecular dynamics simulations of inelastic hard disks and spheres in a wide range of values for the coefficient of restitution (α). Our results reject the Maxwellian distribution as a possible reference, whereas reinforce the HCS one. Moreover, the KLD is used to measure the amount of information lost on using the former rather than the latter, and reveals a nonmonotonic dependence with α. Additionally, a Maxwell-demon-like velocity-inversion experiment highlights the microscopic irreversibility of the granular gas dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0307.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: granular flow；drag and lift forces；discrete element method
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:12:46 CEST)
Both drag and lift forces impact an inclined plane when it is dragged through a granular bed. In this paper, the following results have been obtained: the drag and lift forces grow with the velocity of motion; when the immersion depth is constant, the inclination angle has no effect on drag force, however, the lift force increases linearly with this inclination angle; the ratio of drag and lift forces is exactly equal to the tangent value of the inclined angle. In order to describe this physical process macroscopically, a continuum wedge model based on the Coulomb model is established to predict drag and lift forces. Particularly，the dynamic friction angle in the assumed shear band is predicted as a function of both inclined angle and moving velocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0222.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Tinospora cordifolia; Neutrophils; Systemic deterioration; Hyperactivation; Granular cargoes; Immunomodulation; Cancer
Online: 25 April 2022 (10:22:39 CEST)
Cancer has emerged as a systemic disease which targets various organs thus challenging the overall physiology of the host. Recently, we have shown that hyperactive neutrophils infiltrate various organs of tumor bearing host and contribute significantly to gradual systemic deterioration. Therefore, taming neutrophils via potent immunomodulators could be an appropriate therapeutic approach in regulating systemic damage. Tinospora cordifolia (TC), an Ayurvedic panacea, is known for its immense medicinal values in traditional literature and recent reports have also documented its strong immunomodulatory potential. However, whether TC can regulate neutrophils to exert its therapeutic effectiveness has not been deciphered so far. To discern this, we utilized murine model of Dalton’s Lymphoma (DL) wherein, we have earlier reported heightened infiltration of neutrophils and their hyperactivation. Our findings showed that TC treatment significantly reduced neutrophil count in peripheral blood and their infiltration in vital organs of tumor bearing host. Further, it ameliorated neutrophil hyperactivation by down regulating the expression of its key cargoes including neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), MMP-8, MMP-9 and cathepsin G (CSTG) at early and mid stage of tumor growth. In addition, TC treatment prevented histopathological alterations and restored the normal serum enzyme levels at different stages of tumor growth. Importantly, TC treatment also showed significant reduction in tumor burden which was accompanied by a remarkable increase in survival of the tumor-bearing mice. We conclude that Tinospora cordifolia could limit systemic damage via regulating neutrophil infiltration and hyperactivation which can further lead to cancer control at both prophylactic and therapeutic level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0283.v1
Subject: Keywords: shales; sandstone; diagenesis; cementation; compaction; seismic velocities; granular media; Gassmann equation
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:12:21 CET)
We simulate the effects of diagenesis, cementation and compaction on the elastic properties of shales and sandstones with four different petro-elastical theories and a basin-evolution model, based on constant heating and sedimentation rates. We consider shales composed of clay minerals, mainly smectite and illite, depending on the burial depth, and the pore space is assumed to be saturated with water at hydrostatic conditions. Diagenesis in shale (smectite/illite transformation here) as a function of depth is described by a 5th-order kinetic equation, based on an Arrhenius reaction rate. On the other hand, quartz cementation in sandstones is based on a model that estimates the volume of precipitated quartz cement and the resulting porosity loss from the temperature history, using an equation relating the precipitation rate to temperature. Effective pressure effects (additional compaction) are accounted for by using Athy equation and the Hertz-Mindlin model. The petro-elastic models yield similar seismic velocities, despite the different level of complexity and physics approaches, with increasing density and seismic velocities as a function of depth. The methodology provides a simple procedure to obtain the velocity of shales and sandstones versus temperature and pressure due to the diagenesis-cementation-compaction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Heterotrophic denitrification; Granular activated carbon (GAC); Bacterial Community; 3D-BER system
Online: 9 July 2020 (01:51:11 CEST)
In this study, a three-dimensional bioelectrochemical reactor system (3D-BERs) with granular activated carbon (GAC) epitomizes a novel treatment technology for treating nitrate-polluted water. The conventional denitrification process faces many challenges, including the huge demand for organic carbon, long-term accumulation of intermediate products, and the adaptation period. Results shown that under the optimal conditions of the COD/NO3--N ratio was 1.5, the denitrification efficiency reached 98.62%, when compared to 81.12% at COD/ NO3--N ratio of 3.5, and the initial pH of 7.5 ± 0.5, NO3--N was entirely removed at 2.2 h without accumulation of nitrite. The high initial ratio of NO2--N/NO3--N is mainly to accelerate the denitrification rate by accelerating the reduction of nitrite. Denitrification process followed by zero-order kinetics linear model for at different concentrations of inlet NO3--N, and achieved higher denitrification rate at greater inlet NO3--N concentration. High-throughput sequencing shows that the community structure and relative abundance of bacteria changed significantly, especially at the genes and the phyla level in immobilized GAC particles. Microbial composition enhanced the removal of nitrogen at the inner surface (IS) and bottom surface (BS) of immobilized GAC carriers. Therefore, this system is expected to be a more efficient and useful supplement or a cost-effective alternative compared to the traditional low carbon to nitrogen wastewater treatment system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Selective Laser Sintering; Metal powder manufacturing; post processing; Eulerian model; Computational Fluid Dynamics; granular flow
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:54:57 CEST)
A critical challenge underpinning the adoption of Additive Manufacture (AM) as a technology is the postprocessing of manufactured components. For Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) this can involve the removal of powder from the interior of the component, often by vibrating the component to fluidise the powder to encourage drainage. In this paper we develop and validate a computational model of the flow of metal powder suitable for predicting powder removal from such AM components. The model is a continuum Eulerian multiphase model of the powder including models for the granular temperature; the effect of vibration can be included through appropriate wall boundaries for this granular temperature. We validate the individual sub-models appropriate for AM metal powders by comparison with in-house and literature experimental results, and then apply the full model to a more complex geometry typical of an AM Heat Exchanger. The model is shown to provide valuable and accurate results at a fraction of the computational cost of a particle-based model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0250.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: granular gases; kinetic theory; Enskog--Fokker--Planck equation; direct simulation Monte Carlo; event-driven molecular dynamics
Online: 16 September 2022 (14:12:00 CEST)
We study in this work a dilute granular gas immersed in a thermal bath made of smaller particles with nonnegligible masses as compared with the granular ones. The kinetic theory for this system is developed and described by an Enskog--Fokker--Planck equation for the one-particle velocity distribution function. Granular particles are assumed to have inelastic and hard interactions, losing energy in collisions as accounted by a constant coefficient of normal restitution. The interaction with the thermal bath is based on a nonlinear drag force plus a white-noise stochastic force. To get explicit results of the temperature aging and steady states, Maxwellian and first Sonine approximations are developed. The latter takes into account the coupling of the excess kurtosis with the temperature. Theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo and event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. While good results for the granular temperature are obtained from the Maxwellian approximation, a much better agreement, especially as inelasticity and drag nonlinearity increase, is found when using the first Sonine approximation. The latter approximation is, additionally, crucial to account for memory effects like Mpemba and Kovacs-like ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; Chemical oxygen demand; Optimization; Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater; Response surface methodology; Static Granular Bed Reactor
Online: 4 February 2019 (13:53:16 CET)
In this study, the efficiency of an anaerobic treatment system for wastewater from a South African poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated using a lab-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR). The down-flow SGBR (2 L) was operated continuously for 138 days under mesophilic conditions (35-37 ˚C), at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 24 to 96 h and average organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.78 to 5.74 g COD/L.day. The SGBR achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 80% and the maximum COD removal achieved was 95%, at an HRT of 24 h and average OLR of 5.74 g COD/L.day. The optimization of the SGBR, with regard to a suitable HRT and OLR, was determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal SGBR performance with regard to the maximum COD removal efficiency was predicted for an OLR of 12.49 g COD/L.day and a HRT of 24 h, resulting in a 95.5% COD removal efficiency. The model R2 of 0.9638 indicated that the model is a good fit and is suitable to predict the COD removal efficiency for the SGBR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0181.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Construction practices using nanotechnology applications; nano-modified emulsion stabilisation of granular materials; nano-modified emulsion stabilised layers in highway construction; central plant
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:52:06 CET)
The introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology is based on the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In such cases, the fact that the material design methods are based on fundamental scientific principles and have been proven in laboratories and through Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT), may be of little influence. However, the general acceptance of new disruptive technologies, e.g. telecommunications and Information Technologies (IT), have been based on the considerable advantages it presented. The same principles are applicable to the general acceptance and use of NME stabilisation/enhancement of materials in the road construction industry. This article is aimed at the practical cost-effective demonstration of the general application of the use of nanos-silane modified emulsions in the construction of the highest order roads, i.e. inter-city multi-lane highways, lower order roads (including Low-Volume-Roads (LVR)) and even local accesses to farms and in villages/townships. The implementation of NME technologies is directly associated with ease of use, time and cost savings and the addressing and reduction of risks applicable to the use thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0357.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Quantum gravity, granular matter, Lorentz symmetry break down at the Planck scale, Heisen- berg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale, indivisible particles, gravity and Lorentz symmetry break down.
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:31:56 CEST)
We have recently presented a unified quantum gravity theory . Here we extend on that work and present an even simpler version of that theory. For about hundred years, modern physics has not been able to build a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, a solution may be found here; we present our quantum gravity theory, which is rooted in indivisible particles where matter and gravity are related to collisions and can be described by collision space-time. In this paper, we also show that we can formulate a quantum wave equation rooted in collision space-time, which is equivalent to mass and energy.The beauty of our theory is that most of the main equations that currently exist in physics are not changed (in terms of predictions), except at the Planck scale. The Planck scale is directly linked to gravity and gravity is, surprisingly, actually a Lorentz symmetry as well as a form of Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our theory gives a dramatic simplification of many physics formulas without altering the output predictions. The relativistic wave equation, the relativistic energy momentum relation, and Minkowski space can all be represented by simpler equations when we understand mass at a deeper level. This not attained at a cost, but rather a reflection of the benefit in having gravity and electromagnetism unified under the same theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsion (NME) stabilisation; identifying construction problems; preventing construction related problems; material related problems; constructability using nanotechnology applications; nano-silane stabilisation of granular materials; construction quality control problems; construction equipment problems; practical implementation of nano-silane stabilisation.
Online: 11 January 2022 (10:37:34 CET)
The use of New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME) for the stabilisation of marginal materials for use in the upper-pavement layers of roads have been proven in laboratories, through Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) and in practice. In addition, material design methods have been developed based on the scientific analysis of granular material mineralogy and the chemical interaction with the binder to design a material compatible NME stabilising agent for naturally available (often marginal) materials. However, the introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology enables the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In practice, few road construction projects are without any problems. The introduction of new-technologies obviously makes it an easy target to blame for any non-related problem that may arise during construction. This article aims to assist in pre-empting, recognising, preventing and resolving material or non-material related construction problems through the correct identification of the cause of the problem and recommending the best, most cost-effective way to correct any deficiencies on site.