ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0329.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: phase transition; diffusion; granular matter
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:35:29 CEST)
We study an air-fluidized granular monolayer, composed in this case of plastic spheres, which roll on a metallic grid. The air current is adjusted so that the spheres never loose contact with the grid, so that the dynamics may be regarded as pseudo two-dimensional (or two-dimensional, if the effects of sphere rolling are not taken into account). We find two surprising continuous transitions, both of them displaying two coexisting phases. Moreover, in all cases, we found the coexisting phases display strong energy non-equipartition. In the first transition, at weak fludization, a glassy phase coexists with a disordered fluid-like phase. In the second transition, a hexagonal crystal coexists with the fluid phase. We analyze, for these two-phase systems, the specific diffusive properties of each phase, as well as the velocity correlations. Surprisingly, we find a glass phase at very low packing fraction and for a wide range of granular temperatures. Both phases are characterized also by a strong anti-correlated velocities upon collision. Thus, the dynamics observed for this quasi two-dimensional system unveils phase transitions with peculiar properties, very different from the predicted behavior in well know theories for their equilibrium counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0251.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: granular superconductors; trapped flux; hysteresis; magnetoresistance; critical current
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:03:11 CEST)
It has been suggested that the measured magnetic properties of hydrides under pressure claimed to be high temperature superconductors indicate that the materials are granular superconductors. Such materials will show reduced or no magnetic field expulsion under field cooling, and will trap magnetic fields when the external magnetic field is removed. They will also exhibit hysteretic behavior in magnetoresistance and other transport properties. Here we point out that hysteresis in transport properties has never been reported for hydrides under pressure. Its presence, with the expected features, would indicate that the materials trap magnetic flux, hence that they can sustain persistent currents without dissipation, something that all superconductors can do. Conversely, its absence would indicate that these materials are not superconductors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0172.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: granular materials; displacement fluctuations; $q$-gaussian; strain localization
Online: 9 October 2018 (05:13:57 CEST)
The statistics of grain displacements probability distribution function (pdf) during the shear of a granular medium displays an unusual dependence with the shear increment upscaling as recently evinced [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 238301 2015]. Basically, the pdf of grain displacements has clear nonextensive ($q$-Gaussian) features at small scales but approaches to Gaussian characteristics at large shear window scales -- the granulence effect. Here, we extend this analysis studying a larger system (more grains considered in the experimental setup) which exhibits a severe shear band fault during the macroscopic straining. We calculate the pdf of grain displacements and the dependency of the $q$-statistics with the shear increment. This analysis have shown a singular behavior of $q$ at large scales, displaying a non-monotonic dependence with the shear increment. By means of an independent image analysis, we demonstrate that this singular non-monotonicity could be associated with the emergence of a shear band within the confined system. We show that the exact point where the $q$-value inverts its tendency coincides with the emergence of a giant percolation cluster along the system, caused by the shear band. We believe that this original approach using Statistical Mechanics tools to identify shear bands can be a very useful piece to solve the complex puzzle of the rheology of dense granular systems.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Kullback–Leibler divergence; granular gases; kinetic theory; molecular dynamics
Online: 8 October 2020 (10:43:55 CEST)
Finding the proper entropy functional associated with the inelastic Boltzmann equation for a granular gas is a yet unsolved challenge. The original H-theorem hypotheses do not fit here and the H-functional presents some additional measure problems that are solved by the Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD) of a reference velocity distribution function from the actual distribution. The right choice of the reference distribution in the KLD is crucial for the latter to qualify or not as a Lyapunov functional, the “homogeneous cooling state” (HCS) distribution of the freely cooling system being a potential candidate. Due to the lack of a formal proof, the aim of this work is to support this conjecture aided by molecular dynamics simulations of inelastic hard disks and spheres in a wide range of values for the coefficient of restitution (α). Our results reject the Maxwellian distribution as a possible reference, whereas reinforce the HCS one. Moreover, the KLD is used to measure the amount of information lost on using the former rather than the latter, and reveals a nonmonotonic dependence with α. Additionally, a Maxwell-demon-like velocity-inversion experiment highlights the microscopic irreversibility of the granular gas dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0307.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: granular flow；drag and lift forces；discrete element method
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:12:46 CEST)
Both drag and lift forces impact an inclined plane when it is dragged through a granular bed. In this paper, the following results have been obtained: the drag and lift forces grow with the velocity of motion; when the immersion depth is constant, the inclination angle has no effect on drag force, however, the lift force increases linearly with this inclination angle; the ratio of drag and lift forces is exactly equal to the tangent value of the inclined angle. In order to describe this physical process macroscopically, a continuum wedge model based on the Coulomb model is established to predict drag and lift forces. Particularly，the dynamic friction angle in the assumed shear band is predicted as a function of both inclined angle and moving velocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tinospora cordifolia; Neutrophils; Systemic deterioration; Hyperactivation; Granular cargoes; Immunomodulation; Cancer
Online: 25 April 2022 (10:22:39 CEST)
Cancer has emerged as a systemic disease which targets various organs thus challenging the overall physiology of the host. Recently, we have shown that hyperactive neutrophils infiltrate various organs of tumor bearing host and contribute significantly to gradual systemic deterioration. Therefore, taming neutrophils via potent immunomodulators could be an appropriate therapeutic approach in regulating systemic damage. Tinospora cordifolia (TC), an Ayurvedic panacea, is known for its immense medicinal values in traditional literature and recent reports have also documented its strong immunomodulatory potential. However, whether TC can regulate neutrophils to exert its therapeutic effectiveness has not been deciphered so far. To discern this, we utilized murine model of Dalton’s Lymphoma (DL) wherein, we have earlier reported heightened infiltration of neutrophils and their hyperactivation. Our findings showed that TC treatment significantly reduced neutrophil count in peripheral blood and their infiltration in vital organs of tumor bearing host. Further, it ameliorated neutrophil hyperactivation by down regulating the expression of its key cargoes including neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), MMP-8, MMP-9 and cathepsin G (CSTG) at early and mid stage of tumor growth. In addition, TC treatment prevented histopathological alterations and restored the normal serum enzyme levels at different stages of tumor growth. Importantly, TC treatment also showed significant reduction in tumor burden which was accompanied by a remarkable increase in survival of the tumor-bearing mice. We conclude that Tinospora cordifolia could limit systemic damage via regulating neutrophil infiltration and hyperactivation which can further lead to cancer control at both prophylactic and therapeutic level.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: abdominal collision tumors; colon signet-ring carcinoma; peritoneal granular cell tumor
Online: 2 November 2023 (06:51:32 CET)
Collision tumors, even uncommon, characterized by two distinctive (morphological, as well immunohistochemical) and spatially independent tumor components in the same location, are always puzzling for clinicians, pathologists and patients because they don’t fit in usual approaching schemes, neither diagnostic, nor therapeutic. Reviewing the specialized literature, until now, collision tumors have been reported in multiple locations such as the skin, esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney, bladder, adrenal gland or thyroid. We report a case of coexistence on the same site of a malignant tumor of ascending colon and a benign one emerging from peritoneal lining, thought initially by the surgeon to be right sided serosal carcinomatosis. But the histopatological examination reveals that those multiple serosal nodules were benign granular cell tumors collided with highly aggressive transparietal signet-ring colon carcinoma. These results put the patient's prognosis and therapeutic strategy in a different light than the clinical-imaging and intraoperative assessment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1524.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: granular cell tumor; Abrikossoff tumor; multifocal tumor; gastrointestinal tract; inherited tumor
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:32:40 CEST)
Granular cell tumors (GCTs), known also as Abrikossoff tumors, are rare tumors that originates from Schwann cells that primarily localize in the tongue, skin, and submucosal tissues and involve the gastrointestinal tract in 11% of cases. We present a case of a young woman who first presented to our centre in 2018, for an EGDS to assess a thickening of the esophageal wall, seen on a CT. In that occasion, a diagnosis of Abrikossoff tumor was made. She underwent endoscopic resection with subsequent yearly follow-up without evidence of recurrence. 5 Years later, on a routine colonoscopy, we found numerous white submucosal formations in all of the explored tracts, with a histological examination compatible with GCT. Her daughter presented with a white nodule on her tongue, also diagnosed as GCT. Her daughter was also diagnosed with GCT of the tongue a few months later.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0283.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: shales; sandstone; diagenesis; cementation; compaction; seismic velocities; granular media; Gassmann equation
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:12:21 CET)
We simulate the effects of diagenesis, cementation and compaction on the elastic properties of shales and sandstones with four different petro-elastical theories and a basin-evolution model, based on constant heating and sedimentation rates. We consider shales composed of clay minerals, mainly smectite and illite, depending on the burial depth, and the pore space is assumed to be saturated with water at hydrostatic conditions. Diagenesis in shale (smectite/illite transformation here) as a function of depth is described by a 5th-order kinetic equation, based on an Arrhenius reaction rate. On the other hand, quartz cementation in sandstones is based on a model that estimates the volume of precipitated quartz cement and the resulting porosity loss from the temperature history, using an equation relating the precipitation rate to temperature. Effective pressure effects (additional compaction) are accounted for by using Athy equation and the Hertz-Mindlin model. The petro-elastic models yield similar seismic velocities, despite the different level of complexity and physics approaches, with increasing density and seismic velocities as a function of depth. The methodology provides a simple procedure to obtain the velocity of shales and sandstones versus temperature and pressure due to the diagenesis-cementation-compaction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Heterotrophic denitrification; Granular activated carbon (GAC); Bacterial Community; 3D-BER system
Online: 9 July 2020 (01:51:11 CEST)
In this study, a three-dimensional bioelectrochemical reactor system (3D-BERs) with granular activated carbon (GAC) epitomizes a novel treatment technology for treating nitrate-polluted water. The conventional denitrification process faces many challenges, including the huge demand for organic carbon, long-term accumulation of intermediate products, and the adaptation period. Results shown that under the optimal conditions of the COD/NO3--N ratio was 1.5, the denitrification efficiency reached 98.62%, when compared to 81.12% at COD/ NO3--N ratio of 3.5, and the initial pH of 7.5 ± 0.5, NO3--N was entirely removed at 2.2 h without accumulation of nitrite. The high initial ratio of NO2--N/NO3--N is mainly to accelerate the denitrification rate by accelerating the reduction of nitrite. Denitrification process followed by zero-order kinetics linear model for at different concentrations of inlet NO3--N, and achieved higher denitrification rate at greater inlet NO3--N concentration. High-throughput sequencing shows that the community structure and relative abundance of bacteria changed significantly, especially at the genes and the phyla level in immobilized GAC particles. Microbial composition enhanced the removal of nitrogen at the inner surface (IS) and bottom surface (BS) of immobilized GAC carriers. Therefore, this system is expected to be a more efficient and useful supplement or a cost-effective alternative compared to the traditional low carbon to nitrogen wastewater treatment system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1506.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Emulsion; Free fatty acid; Gastrointestinal tract; Granular nanocellulose; In vitro digestion; Lipid digestibility
Online: 22 August 2023 (08:51:41 CEST)
This research evaluated the role and feasibility of the granular nanocellulose particles (GNC) from sugarcane bagasse obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis in reducing lipid digestibility and permeability in the in vitro simulated gastrointestinal (GI) system. GNC concentration (0.02%, w/v) had significantly affected the released free fatty acid (FFA) reduction of approximately 20%. The Pick-ring emulsion of the GNC and olive oil simulation mixture revealed higher oil droplet size distribution and stability in the initial stage than the vortexed mixture formation. The difference in particle size distribution and zeta potential of the ingested GNC suspension and GNC-olive oil emulsion were displayed during the in vitro gastrointestinal simulation. GNC particles interacted and distributed surrounding the oil droplet leading to the interfacial emulsion. The GNC concentration (0.01-0.10%, w/v) showed low toxicity on the HIEC-6 cell, ranging from 80.0 to 99% of cell viability. The release of FFA containing the ingested GNC suspension and GNC-olive oil emulsion was about 30% reduction compared to without GNC digest solution. The FFA and triglyceride permeability through the HIEC-6 intestinal epithelium monolayer were deceased in the digesta containing the ingested GNC and emulsion. This work indicated that GNC represented a significantly critical role and properties in the GI tract and reduced lipid digestion and absorption. This GNC could be utilized as an alternative food additive or supplement in fatty food for weight control due to their inhibiting lipid digestibility and assimilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0257.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Aerobic granular sludge; Biopolymers; Circular Economy; Extracellular Polymeric Substances; Polyhydroxyalkanoates; Sewage Sludge; Wastewater Treatment.
Online: 14 December 2022 (13:59:00 CET)
Valorization of excess sludge through the recovery of high-value products, such as biopolymers, could be a crucial step to implement circular economy principles in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this frame, the present study was aimed at evaluating the simultaneous production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), obtainable from the treatment of an agro-industrial wastewater. Two biological systems, one implementing aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and the other a conventional activated sludge operating as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were operated for 204 and 186 days, respectively. Both the systems involved a three-stage process for mixed microbial culture enrichment and biopolymers accumulation. The maximum biopolymers accumulation capacity was close to 0.60 mg gVSS-1 in the AGS when the enrichment reactor was operated at 3 kgCODm-3d-1, whereas in the SBR it was slightly more than half (0.35 mg gVSS-1). Biopolymers extracted from the AGS were mainly constituted by EPS (>70%), which percentage increased with the organic loading rate applied in the enrichment reactor up to 95%. In contrast, SBR enabled to obtain a higher PHA production (50% of the biopolymers). Results suggested that organic carbon was mainly channeled toward metabolic pathways for extracellular storing in AGS, likely as a consequence of metabolic stressors (e.g., hydraulic selection pressure, shear forces) applied for promoting aerobic granulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1365.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: algal-bacterial granular sludge; hexavalent chromium; extracellular polymeric substances; anti-oxidant enzymes; self-defensive responses
Online: 20 October 2023 (16:16:10 CEST)
Algal-bacterial granular sludge, a new biological technology, has been widely recognized due to its highly effective pollutant treatment and energy efficiency. This study investigated the effects of environmental concentrations of Cr(VI) (0.5-2.5 mg/L) on the performance of algal-bacterial gran-ular sludge and self-defensive responses after 90 days of cultivation. The results showed that Cr(VI) affected chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-N and phosphate removal with different trends being apparent. A linear decline in COD removal was observed, whereas an initial de-creasing and then increasing ammonia-N and phosphate removal took place. Algal-bacterial granular sludge effectively removed Cr(VI) from wastewater through biological adsorption and reduction, showing the potential to treat Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater. Cr(VI) affected the community abundance of the algal-bacterial granular sludge, in which Chlorophyceae and cya-nobacteria were vulnerable under Cr(VI)-induced stress. To reduce the toxicity of Cr(VI), over-produced EPS-PN and antioxidant enzymes (MDA, SOD and CAT) acted as self-defensive responses to resist oxidative damage. This study showed that algal-bacterial granular sludge can remove 00.5 mg/L of Cr(VI) without performance loss. It is hoped that this study can provide useful information for improved engineering feasibility of algal-bacterial granular sludge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Selective Laser Sintering; Metal powder manufacturing; post processing; Eulerian model; Computational Fluid Dynamics; granular flow
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:54:57 CEST)
A critical challenge underpinning the adoption of Additive Manufacture (AM) as a technology is the postprocessing of manufactured components. For Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) this can involve the removal of powder from the interior of the component, often by vibrating the component to fluidise the powder to encourage drainage. In this paper we develop and validate a computational model of the flow of metal powder suitable for predicting powder removal from such AM components. The model is a continuum Eulerian multiphase model of the powder including models for the granular temperature; the effect of vibration can be included through appropriate wall boundaries for this granular temperature. We validate the individual sub-models appropriate for AM metal powders by comparison with in-house and literature experimental results, and then apply the full model to a more complex geometry typical of an AM Heat Exchanger. The model is shown to provide valuable and accurate results at a fraction of the computational cost of a particle-based model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0250.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: granular gases; kinetic theory; Enskog--Fokker--Planck equation; direct simulation Monte Carlo; event-driven molecular dynamics
Online: 16 September 2022 (14:12:00 CEST)
We study in this work a dilute granular gas immersed in a thermal bath made of smaller particles with nonnegligible masses as compared with the granular ones. The kinetic theory for this system is developed and described by an Enskog--Fokker--Planck equation for the one-particle velocity distribution function. Granular particles are assumed to have inelastic and hard interactions, losing energy in collisions as accounted by a constant coefficient of normal restitution. The interaction with the thermal bath is based on a nonlinear drag force plus a white-noise stochastic force. To get explicit results of the temperature aging and steady states, Maxwellian and first Sonine approximations are developed. The latter takes into account the coupling of the excess kurtosis with the temperature. Theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo and event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. While good results for the granular temperature are obtained from the Maxwellian approximation, a much better agreement, especially as inelasticity and drag nonlinearity increase, is found when using the first Sonine approximation. The latter approximation is, additionally, crucial to account for memory effects like Mpemba and Kovacs-like ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; Chemical oxygen demand; Optimization; Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater; Response surface methodology; Static Granular Bed Reactor
Online: 4 February 2019 (13:53:16 CET)
In this study, the efficiency of an anaerobic treatment system for wastewater from a South African poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated using a lab-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR). The down-flow SGBR (2 L) was operated continuously for 138 days under mesophilic conditions (35-37 ˚C), at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 24 to 96 h and average organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.78 to 5.74 g COD/L.day. The SGBR achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 80% and the maximum COD removal achieved was 95%, at an HRT of 24 h and average OLR of 5.74 g COD/L.day. The optimization of the SGBR, with regard to a suitable HRT and OLR, was determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal SGBR performance with regard to the maximum COD removal efficiency was predicted for an OLR of 12.49 g COD/L.day and a HRT of 24 h, resulting in a 95.5% COD removal efficiency. The model R2 of 0.9638 indicated that the model is a good fit and is suitable to predict the COD removal efficiency for the SGBR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: dynamic pile-soil interaction; numerical modeling; crash test simulation; granular soil; vehicle barrier systems; lateral impacts; large soil deformation
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:32:33 CEST)
Understanding the dynamic interaction between piles and surrounding soil under vehicular impacts is essential for effectively designing and optimizing soil-embedded vehicle barrier systems. The complex behavior of pile-soil systems under impact loading, attributed to the soil’s nonlinear behavior and large deformation experienced by both components, presents significant simulation challenges. Popular computation techniques, such as the Updated Lagrangian Finite Element Method (UL-FEM), encounter difficulties in scenarios marked by large soil deformation, e.g., impacts involving rigid piles. While mesh-free particle and discrete element methods offer another option, their computational demands for field-scale pile-soil impact simulations are considerable. We introduce the erosion method to bridge this gap by integrating UL-FEM with an erosion algorithm designed for simulating large soil deformations during vehicular impacts. Validation against established physical impact tests confirmed the method’s effectiveness for flexible and rigid pile failure mechanisms. Additionally, this method was used to investigate the effects of soil mesh density, soil domain sizes, and boundary conditions on the dynamic impact response of pile-soil systems. Our findings provide guidelines for optimal soil domain size, mesh density, and boundary conditions. This investigation sets the stage for improved, computationally efficient techniques for the pile-soil impact problem, leading to better pile designs for vehicular impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0181.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Construction practices using nanotechnology applications; nano-modified emulsion stabilisation of granular materials; nano-modified emulsion stabilised layers in highway construction; central plant
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:52:06 CET)
The introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology is based on the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In such cases, the fact that the material design methods are based on fundamental scientific principles and have been proven in laboratories and through Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT), may be of little influence. However, the general acceptance of new disruptive technologies, e.g. telecommunications and Information Technologies (IT), have been based on the considerable advantages it presented. The same principles are applicable to the general acceptance and use of NME stabilisation/enhancement of materials in the road construction industry. This article is aimed at the practical cost-effective demonstration of the general application of the use of nanos-silane modified emulsions in the construction of the highest order roads, i.e. inter-city multi-lane highways, lower order roads (including Low-Volume-Roads (LVR)) and even local accesses to farms and in villages/townships. The implementation of NME technologies is directly associated with ease of use, time and cost savings and the addressing and reduction of risks applicable to the use thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0357.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Quantum gravity, granular matter, Lorentz symmetry break down at the Planck scale, Heisen- berg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale, indivisible particles, gravity and Lorentz symmetry break down.
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:31:56 CEST)
We have recently presented a unified quantum gravity theory . Here we extend on that work and present an even simpler version of that theory. For about hundred years, modern physics has not been able to build a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, a solution may be found here; we present our quantum gravity theory, which is rooted in indivisible particles where matter and gravity are related to collisions and can be described by collision space-time. In this paper, we also show that we can formulate a quantum wave equation rooted in collision space-time, which is equivalent to mass and energy.The beauty of our theory is that most of the main equations that currently exist in physics are not changed (in terms of predictions), except at the Planck scale. The Planck scale is directly linked to gravity and gravity is, surprisingly, actually a Lorentz symmetry as well as a form of Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our theory gives a dramatic simplification of many physics formulas without altering the output predictions. The relativistic wave equation, the relativistic energy momentum relation, and Minkowski space can all be represented by simpler equations when we understand mass at a deeper level. This not attained at a cost, but rather a reflection of the benefit in having gravity and electromagnetism unified under the same theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsion (NME) stabilisation; identifying construction problems; preventing construction related problems; material related problems; constructability using nanotechnology applications; nano-silane stabilisation of granular materials; construction quality control problems; construction equipment problems; practical implementation of nano-silane stabilisation.
Online: 11 January 2022 (10:37:34 CET)
The use of New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME) for the stabilisation of marginal materials for use in the upper-pavement layers of roads have been proven in laboratories, through Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) and in practice. In addition, material design methods have been developed based on the scientific analysis of granular material mineralogy and the chemical interaction with the binder to design a material compatible NME stabilising agent for naturally available (often marginal) materials. However, the introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology enables the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In practice, few road construction projects are without any problems. The introduction of new-technologies obviously makes it an easy target to blame for any non-related problem that may arise during construction. This article aims to assist in pre-empting, recognising, preventing and resolving material or non-material related construction problems through the correct identification of the cause of the problem and recommending the best, most cost-effective way to correct any deficiencies on site.