ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0693.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Citrullus lanatus; grafting tool; rootstock regrowth; scion growth; vegetable grafting
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:56:14 CEST)
Grafting is an effective way to increase plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stressors, it is widely used in watermelon production. However, grafting is labor intensive due to the additional time is required, such as the management of rootstock regrowth. This study used a new grafting tool to destroy (remove) the epidermis of pumpkin and bottle gourd rootstock cotyledon base during grafting, we called this a new grafting method. Compared with the traditional grafting (100%), the new grafting method had significantly lower rate of rootstock regrowth (2-23%), higher watermelon scion dry weight and leaf area. In addition, the time used for the new hole insertion and one cotyledon grafting method to destroy (remove) the epidermis of rootstock cotyledon base (4.2 s/plant, 4.2 s/plant) is significantly shorter than the time required to remove the rootstock regrowth manually in the traditional grafting (9.3 s/plant, 8.8 s/plant). Thus, this study developed a new grafting method for watermelon to inhibit rootstock regrowth and enhance scion growth, and this new method is cost-effective for grafted watermelon seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0682.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: watermelon; polyploidy; grafting; branches
Online: 29 September 2020 (08:54:26 CEST)
Polyploid seeds production is laborious, complicated, and costly work. Tetraploid and triploid plants produce a fewer number of seeds/fruit, and triploid embryos are fairly weak, covered with a more hardened seed coat as compared to diploid seeds. Here we investigated the interactive effect of new grafting technique of polyploid watermelon scion onto rootstock on plants' survival rate, biochemical, and hormones contents. In this study, three different branches, apical meristem (AM), branch with 1 node (1N), and 2 nodes (2N) from di, Tri, and tetraploid watermelon plants, were used as scion and grafted onto squash rootstock. The results showed highly significant differences between polypoid watermelon when 1N using as a scion, tetraploid showed maximum survival rates, higher contents of hormones, and antioxidants (AOX) activities, compared to diploid, these may be the possible reasons for high compatibility in tetraploid and degrading the grafting zone in diploid. RTq-PCR results confirm that the expression of genes linked to compatibility is consistent with the hormonal and AOX activities. This study provides an alternative and economical approach to produce more tetraploid and triploid plants for breeding or seeds production by using branches as scions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: watermelon; polyploidy; grafting; branches; compatibility
Online: 2 December 2020 (08:07:11 CET)
Polyploid seed production is complicated, and costly work, produce a fewer number of seeds/fruits as compared to diploid seeds. Here we investigated the interactive effect of a new grafting technique of polyploid watermelon scion onto rootstock on plants' survival rate. In this study, three different branches, apical meristem (AM), branch with 1 node (1N), and 2 nodes (2N) from di, tri, and tetraploid watermelon plants, were used as scion and grafted onto squash rootstock. The results showed highly significant differences between polypoid watermelon when 1N was used as a scion. Tetraploid showed maximum survival rates, higher contents of hormones, carbohydrates, and antioxidants activities, compared to diploid. Here, we also performed applied sucrose exogenously, on the rootstocks seedlings before grafting to enhance survival rates. Significant survival rates were observed in the case of 2% sucrose application in all polyploids when 1N was used as a scion. RTq-PCR results confirm that the expression of genes linked to compatibility is consistent with the carbohydrates, hormonal and antioxidants activities. This study provides an alternative and economical approach to produce more tetraploid and triploid plants for breeding and seed production by using branches as scions, furthermore, provides more understanding of graft compatibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Grafting; Pecan; Transcriptome; Graft union; Hormone
Online: 7 December 2017 (17:21:15 CET)
Pecan (Carya illinoinensis), as a popular nut tree, is widely planted in China in recent years. Grafting is an important technique for its cultivation. For a successful grafting, graft union development generally involves the formation of callus and vascular bundles at the graft union. To explore the molecular mechanism of graft union development, we applied high through-put RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptomic profiles of graft union at four time points (0d, 8d, 15d, and 30d) during pecan grafting process. We identified a total of 12,180 differentially expressed genes. In addition, we found that the content of auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin were accumulated at the graft unions during the grafting process. Correspondingly, genes involved in those hormone signaling were found to be differentially expressed. Interestingly, we found that most genes associated with cell division were up-regulated at callus formative stages, while genes related to cell elongation, secondary cell wall deposition, and programmed cell death were generally up-regulated at vascular bundle formative stages. In the meantime, genes responsible for reactive oxygen species were highly up-regulated across the graft union developmental process. These results will aid in our understanding of successful grafting in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0599.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polypropylene; suspension grafting; melt-blown spinning; adsorption; aniline
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:27:29 CEST)
This paper uses polypropylene (PP) as the matrix and acrylic acid (AA) and maleic anhydride (MAH) as functional monomers to prepare PP-g-(AA-MAH) fibers by suspension grafting and melt-blown spinning technology that are easy to industrially scale-up. The fibers can be used to adsorb aniline from wastewaters. Results showed that the grafting ratio reached the maximum of 12.47%. The corresponding optimal conditions were grafting time of 3h, AA : MAH = 0.75, total monomer content of 55%, benzoyl peroxide 1.4%, xylene concentration of 6 mL/g PP, and deionized water content of 8 mL/g PP. Owing to its good fluidity and thermal stability, the product of suspension grafting can be used for melt-blown spinning. Infrared spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses indicated that AA and MAH were successfully grafted onto PP fibers. After grafting, the hydrophilicity of PP-g-(AA-MAH) fiber increased. Therefore, it had higher adsorptivity for aniline and the adsorption capacity could reach 42.2 mg/g at 45 min. Moreover, the PP-g-(AA-MAH) fibers showed good regeneration performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Cucumis sativus L.; Tobamovirus; greenhouse sanitization; disease resistance; grafting
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:28:37 CEST)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a re-emerging threat to greenhouse cucumber and other Cucurbitaceae crop productions worldwide. This seed-borne virus can easily spread from a contaminated seed to seedlings and to adjacent plants through mechanical contact of the foliage of diseased and healthy plants causing extensive yield losses. Additionally, infection may not be limited to the current crop but may also affect subsequent crops due to the long-term persistence of the virus on contaminated crop residues, greenhouse hard surfaces and soil or soil-less greenhouse substrates. In the present work, three greenhouse trials were conducted to develop an integrated pest management strategy towards controlling CGMMV in commercial cucumber greenhouses, by implementing an effective sanitization program and using resistant and grafted cucumber varieties. Results of sanitization trial highlighted that pressure washing and cleansing with an alkaline foam cleanser has eliminated CGMMV on some of the most heavily infested areas. However, three successive applications of cleanser and disinfectants were essential to completely eliminate CGMMV on porous and uneven surfaces, such as cement alleyway, tray gutter and floor mats. The varietal trial revealed that out of 15 cucumber varieties evaluated, two Mini (‘Katrina’ and ‘Khassib’) and three Long English (‘Sepire’, ‘Bomber’ and ‘LC13900’) had reduced or delayed CGMMV infection spread in the greenhouse but were intermediate in yield. The varieties ‘Sunniwell’ and ‘Bonbon’ were the most tolerant to CGMMV. They showed a high CGMMV infection level without compromising yield. These results proved the need for new productive cucumber varieties with CGMMV resistance. Grafting experiment showed only yield increase in case of grafted ‘Picowell’ over ‘Bonbon’ and not marked CGMMV resistance, which is a much desirable result when the grafting experiments are evaluated for their economic potential. In all, the current experimental trials unfold unique methodologies on CGMMV management in commercial greenhouses that are recommended to the growers to be followed for reducing crop losses and get benefitted on revenue compromise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0109.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: nano-Au particles; NIPAAm hydrogel; plasma treatment; UV grafting
Online: 28 September 2016 (09:49:23 CEST)
In this study, a new type of temperature sensor device was developed. The circular electrode of the thermal sensitive sensor was modified with TMT and O2 plasma to enhance the conductivity by forming a thin SnOxCy layer on the electrode surface. The Nano-Au particles were subjected to O2 plasma pretreatment to form peroxide groups on the surface. The thermally sensitive sensor was made by mixing the above-treated Nano-Au particles with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) to form solution and then UV-induced grafting polymerization of the NIPAAm-containing solution onto the electrode substrate. The composite hydrogels on the electrode introduce thermo-sensitive polymeric surface films for temperature sensing. Using ambient environment resistance test to measure the resistance, the LCST (lower critical solution temperature) of Nano-Au (MUA) mixed with NIPAAm hydrogel was found to be 32 °C. At ambient temperatures higher than LCST, the electrode resistance decreases linearly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Almond; Persian walnut; Pistachio; Hazelnut; Pecan; Chestnut; grafting; graft compatibility
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:52:06 CEST)
The production and consumption of nuts are increasing in the world due to strong economic returns and the nutritional value of their products. With the increasing role and importance given to nuts (i.e., walnuts, hazelnut, pistachio, pecan, almond) in a balanced and healthy diet and in the prevention of various diseases, breeding of the nuts species has also been stepped up. Most recent fruit breeding programs have focused on scion genetic improvement. However, the use of locally adapted grafted rootstocks also enhanced the productivity and quality of tree fruit crops. Grafting is an ancient horticultural practice use in nut crops to manipulate scion phenotype and productivity and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses. There are complex rootstock breeding objectives and physiological and molecular aspects of rootstock–scion interactions in nut crops. In this review, we provide an overview of these, considering the mechanisms involved in nutrient and water uptake, regulation of phytohormones, and rootstock influences on the scion molecular processes, including long-distance gene silencing and trans-grafting. Understanding the mechanisms resulting from rootstock × scion × environmental interactions will contribute to developing new rootstocks with resilience in the face of climate change, but also of the multitude of diseases and pests and of the possible increase of their aggressiveness. They will also have to offer the premises of economic production, respectively yield and the quality, according to multiple destinations of nuts in the current consumption and food industry, but also the increasing exigencies of the consumer market and the profile industry.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: muscle-skeletal traumas (MST); injury; fracture stabilization; local flaps; skin-grafting
Online: 9 December 2022 (07:13:55 CET)
The combined muscle-skeletal traumas (MST) are very frequent over the last few years. The emergency care try to save the life of the patient and to receive resuscitation treatment. The role of Trauma surgeon is to choose the right moment for surgery. Aim: To present the management of patient with combined height injury, fracture stabilization, partial foot amputation, local flaps, skin grafting and HIFU – thermotherapy as scar treatment. Materials and methods: 40 years old mail patient, injured after a fall from 8 meters in an elevator shaft. After resuscitation treatment to control the shock the Imaging results are: burst fracture of L3 with spinal canal stenosis, fracture of the sacral bone Denis I, fracture of the right humerus in the proximal third, Monteggia fracture of the left arm, fracture of the proximal third of the right tibia as well as comminuted fractures of both calves and of both heel bones. Results: After a few operations his final result was well healed bone fractures and a good quality soft tissue coverage allowing the patient a satisfactory quality of life. Conclusions: Combined traumas of the muscle- skeletal system are severe, serious and difficult to manage. The good outcome in their treatment requires a team approach between the different medical specialists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0590.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: 3D printing; Bioprinting; Additive Manufacturing, Tissue Engineering, Blood Vessels, Vascular Grafting
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:39:44 CET)
Abstract: The broad clinical use of synthetic vascular grafts for vascular diseases is limited by their thrombogenicity and low patency rate, especially for vessels with a diameter inferior to 6 mm. Alternatives such as tissue-engineered blood grafts (TEBGs) have gained increasing interest. Among the different manufacturing approaches, 3D bioprinting presents numerous advantages and enables the fabrication of multi-scale, multi-material, and multicellular tissues with heterogeneous and functional intrinsic structures. Extrusion-, inkjet- and light-based 3D printing techniques have been used for the fabrication of TEBG out of hydrogels, cells, and/or solid polymers. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of 3D printing for TEBG with a focus on the biomaterials and deposition methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0543.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: grafting; polypropylene; gamma rays; methyl methacrylate; N-vinylimidazole; pH-responsiveness; vancomycin; release
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:04:44 CET)
Surface modification of polypropylene (PP) films is achieved using gamma-irradiation-induced grafting to proffer with antimicrobial activity. The copolymer was obtained through a versatile two-step route; pristine PP is exposed to gamma rays and grafted using methyl methacrylate (MMA), then N-vinylimidazole (NVI) is grafted onto the copolymer PP-g-MMA by simultaneous irradiation. The characterization included Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and physicochemical analysis of swelling and contact angle. The copolymer (PP-g-MMA)-g-NVI was loaded with vancomycin, and the drug released was quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry at different pH. The surface of (PP-g-MMA)-g-NVI exhibited pH-responsiveness and moderate hydrophilicity, suitable properties for controlled drug release.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: single coronary artery; aortic valve surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery; case report
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:42:53 CET)
A single coronary artery is a very rare condition, commonly associated with other congenital anomalies. It could be generally classified as neither benign nor malignant form of congenital coronary artery anomalies since its pathophysiological and clinical implications grossly depend on different anatomical patterns defined by the site of origin and distribution of the branches. By presenting the patient with an isolated single coronary artery, who underwent successful combined aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, we intend to distinguish casual from causal in this extremely rare clinical and surgical scenario. This is the first-ever case published, combining such underlying pathology, clinical presentation, and surgical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: chronic postoperative pain; erector spinae plane block; coronary artery bypass grafting; Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory
Online: 13 September 2022 (11:24:28 CEST)
Up to 56% of patients develop chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). CPSP can affect patients’ moods and decrease daily activities. The primary aim of this study was to investigate CPSP severity in patients following off-pump (OP)-CABG using the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a cardiac surgery department of a teaching hospital. Patients undergoing OP-CABG were enrolled in an erector spinae plane block (ESPB) group (n = 27) or a control (CON) group (n = 24). Before the induction of general anesthesia, ESPB was performed on both sides under ultrasound guidance using 0.375% ropivacaine. The secondary outcomes included cumulative oxycodone consumption, acute pain intensity, mechanical ventilation time, hospital length of stay, and postoperative complications. CPSP intensity was lower in the ESPB group than in the CON group 1, 3, and 6 months postsurgery (p < 0.001). Significant between-group differences were also observed in other outcomes, including postoperative pain severity, opioid consumption, mechanical ventilation time, and hospital length of stay in favor of the ESPB group. Preemptive ESPB appears to decrease the risk of CPSP development in patients undergoing OP-CABG. Reduced acute pain severity and shorter mechanical ventilation times and hospital stays should improve patients’ satisfaction and reduce perioperative complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: novel cytorhabdovirus; high-throughput sequencing; aphid transmission; mechanical inoculation; grafting-mediated virus transmission; fragaria spp.; chaetosiphon fragaefolii
Online: 19 September 2019 (11:17:42 CEST)
Virus diseases of strawberry present several complex problems. More than 25 viruses have been described in the genus Fragaria thus far. Here, we describe a novel rhabdovirus, tentatively named strawberry virus 1 (StrV-1), that infects F. ananassa and F. vesca plants. Genomic sequences of three distinct StrV-1 genotypes co-infecting a single F. ananassa host were obtained using combined Illumina and Ion Proton high-throughput sequencing. StrV-1 was transmitted to herbaceous plants via Aphis fabae and A. ruborum, further mechanically transmitted to Nicotiana occidentalis 37B and sub-transferred to N. benthamiana, N. benthamiana DCL2/4i, N. occidentalis 37B and Physalis floridana plants. Irregular chlorotic sectors on leaf blades and the multiplication of calyx leaves seem to be the diagnostic symptoms for StrV-1 on indexed F. vesca clones. StrV-1 was detected in asymptomatic grafted plants and in 49 out of 159 field strawberry samples via RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. The bacilliform shape of the virions, which have a cytoplasm-limited distribution, their size, and phylogenetic relationships support the assignment of StrV-1 to a distinct species of the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Acyrthosiphon malvae, A. fabae and A. ruborum were shown to transmit StrV-1 under experimental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: congenital breast asymmetry; PROM, autologous fat injections, fat grafting, lipograft, implant augmentation, breast augmentation, 3D volumetry, three-dimensional imaging, Breast-QTM; human adipose stem cells
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:06:09 CEST)
Congenital breast asymmetry represents a particular challenge to the classical techniques of plastic surgery due to a young group of patients. This study compares traditional breast augmentation using silicone implants to the more innovative lipograft technique regarding long-term results. To achieve this, we not only captured subjective parameters like satisfaction with outcome and symmetry, but also objective parameters such as breast volume and anthropometric measurements. Objective examination was performed manually and by using the Vectra® H2 photogrammetry scanning system. Patients who underwent implant augmentation and lipograft both showed no significant differences in patient´s satisfaction with surgical outcome (p = 0.55) and symmetry (p = 0.69). Furthermore, a breast symmetry of 93 % in both groups was reported. Likewise, no statistically significant volume difference between left and right breast was observed in both groups (p<0.41). However, on average, lipograft patients needed 1.3 procedures more until the desired result was achieved. In contrast, patients treated with implant-based breast augmentation usually need several implant changes during their life. In conclusion, both methods should be considered for patients with congenital breast asymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0106.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Tricalcium phosphate putty scaffold; bioactive ceramics; bone formation, osteogenesis, osteogenic markers, hard tissue histology; immunohistochemical analysis; split-mouth design; sinus floor augmentation; bone grafting materials
Online: 22 June 2017 (18:33:01 CEST)
This study examines the effect of a hyaluronic acid (HyAc) containing tricalcium phosphate putty scaffold material (TCP-P) and of a particulate tricalcium phosphate (TCP-G) graft on bone formation, volume stability and osteogenic marker expression in biopsies sampled 6 months after bilateral sinus floor augmentation (SFA) in 7 patients applying a split-mouth design. Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemical analysis of resin embedded sections. Sections were stained for collagen type I (Col I), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Furthermore, the bone area and particle area fraction were determined histomorphometrically. Cone-beam CT data recorded after SFA and 6 month later were used for calculating the graft volume at these two time points. TCP-P displayed more advantageous surgical handling properties and a significantly greater bone area fraction and smaller particle area fraction. This was accompanied by significantly greater expression of Col I and BSP and in osteoblasts and osteoid and a less pronounced reduction in grafting volume with TCP-P. SFA using both types of materials resulted in formation of sufficient bone volume for facilitating stable dental implant placement with all dental implants having been in function without any complications for 6 years. Since TCP-P displayed superior surgical handling properties and greater bone formation than TCP-G, without the Hyac hydrogel matrix having any adverse effect on bone formation or graft volume stability, TCP-P can be regarded as excellent grafting material for SFA in a clinical setting.