ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0117.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: strategy; government; policy; government programme
Online: 25 May 2017 (18:05:52 CEST)
This article uses strategy metaphors consisting of a plan, a home and a game to study government programme formation in Finland. The strategy approach both contradicts and complements the traditional political science approach to government formation. The government programme has been strategic in the sense of separating the formulation and implementation parts of the strategy. The most important function of the metaphor of plan is to hold coalition parties together. The adopted austerity policy provides a meagre contribution to the expansion of services and the increase in government spending. Consequently, the home metaphor in the government programme appears in the distant future and in combating external threats. The game metaphor is apparent in the goal of making contracts with social partners. The vocabulary change from politics to strategy alters the government programme’s position in terms of catering to the needs of civil servants, citizens and stakeholders. The strategy perspective might be instrumental in shifting open democratic debates to closed and secretive policy formations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0512.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: E-participation; social media; E-government; Twitter; local government
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:23:30 CEST)
Communication and effective interactions are inevitable necessities in every organizational setting. In this era of information and communication technology, where limitations and difficulties in proper communication and interactions between different entities of various organizations have been reduced maximally, the government, stakeholders, and citizens of the different nations should also utilize these available tools in a way to improve the maximum performance in governance through interactions and e-participation between the citizens, stakeholders, and the government parastatals. This research focuses on examining the available and most preferred applications or platforms which encourage the best level of communication and interaction through E-participation among the citizens, stakeholders, and government from the local government lev-el taking Nigeria as a case study
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1822.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Hyperautomation, Digital Transformation, Government
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:08:34 CEST)
Este artigo apresenta o processo de implementação da Hiperautomação no setor público brasileiro, especialmente no âmbito da Procuradoria Geral do Estado de Pernambuco. Devido à atual economia competitiva, a demanda por soluções inteligentes e confiáveis está aumentando. Para atender a essa necessidade, tecnologias inovadoras que abordem a complexidade inerente à transformação digital são desejáveis. Assim, as organizações públicas têm buscado aplicar a automação de processos para atender às necessidades dos cidadãos por um serviço mais eficiente e eficaz. No entanto, podemos observar que a automação pura e direta é apenas parte do processo de transformação. Algumas das razões que explicam a necessidade de ir além da automação de processos e alcançar a hiperautomação é a abundância de dados de várias fontes e tipos. Tudo deve estar dentro dos padrões legais, ressaltando que toda tecnologia deve estar alinhada com transparência e auditabilidade para ser incorporada com segurança. Para a experimentação, foi utilizado o método de pesquisa-ação com a aplicação da Hiperautomação, visando aumentar a arrecadação e a economia do Estado na Procuradoria Geral do Estado de Pernambuco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:22:24 CEST)
Green development ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for green development. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for green development in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about green development and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major green development initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the green development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: management in government; public sector reforms; improvements in government; field research; qualitative research
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:28:31 CEST)
Purpose: When it comes to improving citizen service delivery standard and processes, or broadly, management in government (MIG), many reform programs and improvement efforts are ongoing across different ministries, departments, and agencies. This paper is part of a larger empirical research where we are interested to know what those programs and projects are, and how they are doing, and what the gaps are. Design/methodology/approach: Analyzing the publicly available data on the government portal and donors’ website, this article provides an overall idea of current reforms in various places of government. In parallel, field research was conducted through visiting agency offices, observing office environment and mechanisms, and interviewing public managers who are working at district and sub-district level offices of directorates or agencies.Findings: As a trend, state-led development process and the traditional mode of administration have moved to New Public Management based quality and performance approach. All donors have their own strategy framework document like ‘Country Assistance strategy’, ‘Country Operations and Business Plan’, Logical Framework Document, Focus or Priority Streams, etc. Many of the projects are sectoral and agency or ministry specific and have an inherent limitations, due to ‘cadre’ based organizational structural arrangement. So, it is common ‘not to own the projects’, rather ‘using the fund as much as possible anyway within the given project duration’. When the fund ends, implementing units, either government or NGOs, abandon the projects. That is why many projects are actually half done without significant and sustained direction.Originality/value: We can conclude that the typical ‘top-down’ or ‘trickle down’ conception is still dominant in design and implementation of reforms programs and service quality efforts. So, how to reach systemically at the bottom where public managers provide services to citizens, needs even more deliberation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1034.v1
Online: 15 November 2023 (15:53:04 CET)
The existence of insecurity in a state necessitates immediate government attention and action as it poses a risk to human life and property and impedes socio-economic development. The study aims to evaluate insecurity and its impact on socio-economic development in Oyo state. It will also determine the major causes of insecurity problems and offer data that can help develop effective security strategies and policies. The study population consisted of residents who were randomly selected from the Ibarapa North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey method was adopted and analyzed with the Chi-square technique. According to this research, there is a negative correlation between insecurity and the state's socio-economic development. The study recommends good governance and inclusive government policies to curb insecurity and ensure the state's socio-economic development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0696.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: food chain; sustainability; farmer’s organizations; government
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:38:23 CET)
The manuscript delves into the intricacies of food production chains, offering a comprehensive breakdown of their components. Moreover, it sheds light on the initiatives orchestrated by government agencies to endorse sustainable practices and fortify areas of opportunity for producer organizations. While the context paints a broad picture, we contend that, to the best of our knowledge, there exists no comparable publication that succinctly encapsulates the role of government in bolstering food production chains. The document unfolds with a detailed exploration of the interaction mechanisms among the various components of the chain. Subsequently, it introduces a set of twelve elements meticulously outlining the multifaceted role of the government. Each element undergoes thorough scrutiny, fostering a nuanced understanding of the intricate relationship between the food production chain and the government's pivotal role in enhancing stability and efficiency. In conclusion, the manuscript not only lays bare the structural elements of food production chains but also presents a unique and in-depth analysis of the government's role, encapsulated within the framework of twelve essential elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1093.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: government support; corporate entrepreneurship; innovation performance
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:42:20 CEST)
The study of the effect of corporate entrepreneurship(CE) which is a key indicator of success in corporate innovation performance(IP) is a central research topic. However, an empirical study on whether various types of government support(GS) have a moderating effect between these two variables is of new interest. This study empirically analyzed the effects of CE on IP and analyzed the indirect effects of GS on CE and IP based on 4000 Korean manufacturing firms. The results showed that all five factors of CE (innovativeness, risk-taking, proactiveness, autonomy, and competitive aggressiveness) had a positive effect on IP. In addition, the moderating effect of GS on the relationship between CE and IP was validated in seven categories: taxation, subsidies, financial support, human resources, technology, certification, and procurement. The results showed that five types of GS, other than financial support and technical support, strengthened the effect of CE on IP. This study provides a basis for establishing a strategy for strengthening organizational entrepreneurship and for selecting and focusing on various types of GS. It can be concluded that for more effective government support policies, direct government financial support or technical support should be more elaborately implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Government; Hospitalization; Pandemics; Public policy; Transportation.
Online: 9 February 2022 (11:04:11 CET)
To effectively combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government of Bahia, Brazil, has distributed intensive and non-intensive care units along the nine regions that divide the state of Bahia, such that COVID-19 patients could be easily hospitalized in health care units located at the same regions where they live. However, the observed hospitalizations networks for COVID-19 patients shows that a considerable number of COVID-19 patients had to travel beyond their region of residence to be hospitalized. Hence, this study indicates that the current distribution of health care units in Bahia, Brazil, is not sufficient to effectively reduce the distances traveled by COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization. We believe that such unnecessary travels to distant hospitals may put the sick patients as well as healthy people involved in the transportation process in risk, further delaying the stabilization of the COVID-19 pandemic in each region of the state of Bahia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0307.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:02:07 CEST)
Poverty is one of the indexes that can see how a country succeeds in development. In Indonesia, the poverty rate is high as the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic increases over time. Therefore, a solution is embraced in the form of government policies in tackling poverty in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to analyze the poverty caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.What is the current state of poverty caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia? and what are the previous government policies that have succeeded in reducing poverty in Indonesia? The method used in this study is the literature review method based on the results of critical analysis of journal articles that are relevant to the topic of discussion. The results showed that three government policies have succeeded in lowering the poverty level in Indonesia, namely the PKH program policy, the zakat policy as an indicator of poverty reduction, and the Bank Wakaf Mikro policy. Therefore, this study focuses on the policy as a study for government policy in lowering poverty levels due to the Covid-19 Pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0209.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic Growth; Gross Fixed Capital Formation; Government Expenditure; Government Deficit; Vector Auto-Regression and South Africa
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:36:07 CET)
The study uses annual time series data from the South Africa Reverse Bank (SARB) from 1980 to 2020 to examine the effectiveness of fiscal policy on economic growth in South Africa. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests, as well as the Johansen Co-integration test, Granger causality test, and Vector Auto-Regression (VAR) method, were used in the study. Real GDP per capita (RGDP) is used as proxy of economic growth and gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), government expenditure (GEXP) and government deficit (GOVD) as the proxies of fiscal policy. The ADF test results show that all variables are stationary at the first difference, with the exception of GFCF and GEXP, which are stationary at I(0), whereas the PP test results show that all variables are stationary at I(1), with the exception of GEXP, which is stationary at I(0). At Maximum Eigenvalue, the four variables are not cointegrated. The findings of the Granger causality test demonstrated a unidirectional causation from GOVD to RGDP, as well as a bidirectional causality from RGDP to GFCF and GEXP. Error Correction Model Estimated using VAR shows that GFCF, GEXP have positive effect on RGDP whereas GOVD has a negative effect on RGDP in the short run. The findings also presented that the VAR's residuals are homoscedastic, which means they are normally distributed and have no serial correlation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1513.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: awgbu; assessment; community; community development; government; sustainability
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:53:39 CEST)
This study assesses the impact and sustainability of community development initiatives in Awgbu, Anambra State, spanning from 2015 to 2023. Using qualitative research methods, including interviews with key informants from the Awgbu community and government personnel. The observatory method is also applied which helped the researcher to see activities executed in the community. The research investigates the specific contributions of the Awgbu community to the overall development of Anambra State, how the community has benefitted from state government initiatives, and the extent to which the community responds to government requests and initiatives. The study also explores challenges in the relationship between the state government and Awgbu in terms of community development initiatives and offers recommendations for enhancing this relationship. The findings reveal that the Awgbu community has made significant contributions to the development of Anambra State, particularly in areas such as security, education, and infrastructure. The community has actively responded to government calls, participating in initiatives like the Choose Your Project Initiative (CYPI) and vigilante groups, thus fostering a positive and mutually beneficial relationship with the state government. However, challenges such as leadership crises and communication gaps exist, hindering the community's progress. Recommendations include improving community leadership, enhancing communication, and promoting peace to ensure sustainable community development. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the dynamics between communities and government in achieving sustainable development and highlights the importance of collaborative efforts for positive outcomes. The findings have managerial and policy implications for both local communities and governments seeking to enhance community development initiatives and foster mutually beneficial relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0339.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: citizen; modern government; monument; phenomenon; representation; statistics
Online: 24 February 2020 (02:26:06 CET)
This study aims to identify modern bureaucratic government phenomenon expressed in W.H. Auden’s poem “The Unknown Citizen” (UC). This phenomenon will be revealed through the use of figures of speech, symbols and imagery in the poem. This poem is chosen as the object of the study since phenomenon happened in the poem represents people’s life and government practice in the modern era. Government, in the poem, seems to be very dominant. Its bureaucratic apparatus is powerful. Through its sophisticated technology, the bureau of statistics is able to detect the citizen’s identity. But, ironically, it could have not identified UC’s name as he lived in the world. He, then, was honored by the state by being erected the marble monument. The poem is analyzed by applying phenomenological criticism. The analysis finds that the representation of modern government is expressed through symbols emphasized by dramatic irony and supported by the use of internal sensation imagery. UC is the allegory of the average person with his bravery he sacrifices for the country. The state ought to give him an honor. In this poem Auden, actually, wants to write a parody for establishing monuments in some countries to honor the struggles of their soldiers who died in the World War I. Those monuments are really tombs since the function of a monument is a state’s thanksgiving for their sacrifice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0073.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: VET, Government Plan, effectiveness, exploratory survey, Malaysia
Online: 7 May 2019 (10:32:49 CEST)
In Malaysia, as in many parts of the world, vocational education and training (VET) is frequently perceived as the solution to improving the opportunities of youths who lack the resources, skills or motivation to continue with higher education. The focus of the study falls on the effectiveness of the apprenticeship scheme during the 10th Malaysia Plan. This study may provide an opportunity to find out how the related parties react towards the apprenticeship scheme. This is important, as feedbacks are central to the success or failure of any scheme. It is expected that the relevant government bodies, private sectors, trainers and trainees will have a valuable insight on the progress this far and what need to be done in the future based on the outcome of the research. This study follows snowballing sampling method and gathers the information from apprentices from variety of industrial sectors. The findings indicate effectiveness at some types of training but lacks comprehensiveness and efficient use of resources and future direction, especially during the 10th Malaysia plan period from 2011 to 2016. This exploratory research is a first chapter of the deeper study in this niche.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable cooperation; evolutionary game theory; school; enterprise; government
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:15:37 CEST)
Promoting close and sustainable cooperation between schools, enterprises, and government has become an important concern in many countries. Based on evolutionary game theory, this paper constructs a tripartite evolutionary game model of schools, enterprises, and government in order to analyze the stability of strategies of the different players. The results show that the main factor that influences the stability of the strategies of schools and enterprises is the reward of positive cooperation from sources other than the government, and the main factor that influences the stability of the strategy of the government is the benefit of positive cooperation strategy under the scenario where schools cooperate with enterprises. Therefore, the government should focus on implementing more effective policies, such as increasing the incentives and penalties, improving the mechanism for managing conflicts, ensuring the fairness of benefits distribution, and clarifying the responsibilities of different departments; schools should focus on providing more practical curricula and programs for students, training high-quality teachers, and perfecting talent cultivation to meet the needs of enterprises; and enterprises should focus on providing job experiences for students and transforming the results of schools’ teaching and theoretical research into practical productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0244.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital skills; DESI index; EGDI index; e-Government
Online: 14 February 2023 (12:03:43 CET)
Digitalisation is one of the European Union's priorities. The European Parliament is shaping and helping to shape new legislation in this area. Digitisation should also help in the transition to a greener economy and in achieving climate neutrality. E-government is one area of digitisation that has been under way for several years in European countries. In this paper, we have focused on identifying different indices that are aimed at measuring digitalization or e-Government. The results of the analysis showed that there are several indices that focus on this area within the EU, such as EGDI, EPI, LOSI, DGI, e-Government benchmark, Eurostat - internet use, GII, DSGI, Going Digital toolkit and DESI. Subsequently, the index areas to be used in the DEA method to measure the effectiveness of e-Government related inputs and outputs within the EU were identified. As can be seen from the analysis, the DEA method has various uses. In order to be able to use the method properly it was necessary to select the most appropriate parameter and to verify their suitability by means of correlation analysis. Among the input and output indices were chosen Internet usage, DSGI, GII, e-Government benchmark, Interaction with public administration online. From the analysis 3 inputs and 3 outputs were used. After implementing the correlation, it can be said that the values between the selected sub-variables are suitable for DEA analysis. Two models were chosen for the calculation, namely CCR and BCC model. CCR model evaluated 10 states as efficient and BCC model evaluated 13 states as efficient. In addition, in the close analysis, we have taken a closer look at the CCR model's inference. Countries such as Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Malta, Portugal, etc. were efficient outliers. When comparing the regions within the EU, we can conclude that the countries of Northern Europe are the most efficient in the field of digitalization (e-Government). As many as 4 countries out of 7 are efficient. In a future study it would be useful to use the SBM model and try to measure the impact of digitalization on selected areas such as economy, society, environment, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0247.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: digital skills; DESI index; EGDI index; e-Government
Online: 16 September 2022 (10:58:47 CEST)
Digital technologies play a key role in reviving the world economy. The EU has pledged to combine recovery support with resilient digital transformation. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the lack of digitization in Slovakia and the shortcomings of digital skills in citizens and communication with institutions. Digital skills are important and should form part of educational policy. ICT skills can help people succeed in the labour market and improve communication with public administration. Digitization and globalization increase the importance to communicate through the Internet, applications and other e-based gadgets. Digital skills are one of the essential parts of e-Government, so people can use e-Government services in communication with public administration. The current crisis citizens' use of online services. In-dices concerning the digital economy are analysed, such as the digital economy and society index DESI and e-government digital skills (EGDI) from 2018 to 2021 revealed a stagnant state in 2018 and 2019 and 2020, there was a decrease in basic digital skills". The next index is E-Government Digital Index It focuses on human capital and digital skills in these indices. The paper analyses and identifies the digital skills of citizens in the context of e-Government development and describes the use of e-Government services by EU citizens with a focus on the Slovak republic. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey with citizens in Slovak republic's digital skills according to selected categories, the use of e-Government services as well as awareness of e-Government services. Solutions that improve e-government in the Slovak Republic are gradually being implemented. Improving digital skills according to National Coalition for Digital Skills and professions in the Slovak republic and is one of the priorities of The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic which has adopted an action plan for 2019 – 2022 to improve the results in the DESI index by 2025 and focus on the digital skills required by employers. The survey revealed that in Slovakia, the majority of schools offer only weak support for digital education (about the EU-27 average of 68% and 45%, respectively). The research revealed also decreased level of digital literacy among young people. These competencies are very important to gain a position in the labour market in the digital society. The projects aim to support the development of digital skills of primary and secondary school students, and the integration of new technologies into teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy; Misinformation; Government Actions; Communication
Online: 21 March 2022 (10:29:33 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the adverse consequences created by an infodemic specifically on compliance with public health guidance and vaccine uptake. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a complex construct that is related to health beliefs, misinformation exposure, and perceptions of governmental institutions. This study draws on theoretical models and current data on the COVID-19 infodemic to explore the association between perceived risk of COVID-19, levels of misinformation endorsement, and opinions about the government response on vaccine uptake. We surveyed a sample of 2,697 respondents from the US, Canada, and Italy using a mobile platform between 21-28 May, 2021. Using multivariate regression, we found that country of residence, risk perception of contracting and spreading COVID-19, perception of government response and transparency, and misinformation endorsement was associated with the odds of vaccine hesitancy. Higher perceived risk was associated with lower odds of hesitancy, while lower perceptions of government response, and higher misinformation endorsement were associated with higher hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: 21st century; Covid 19; education; the government system
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:46:38 CEST)
In this modern era, continuous change is the first step in forming a new structure between theory and practice. The idea of a juggernaut is very relevant to the theory of structuration with current conditions in the 21st century, where technology becomes a reference that can crush anyone who is not responsive to its power. This technology takes one path and takes many roles from various fields: economic, social, political, legal, and educational. This 21st century is marked by great momentum for changes in human behavior and civilization, namely the industrial revolution 4.0 and the arrival of Covid-19, which have changed many social structures and human activities. This makes history a means of connecting the problems in the 21st century with past events. By using a descriptive qualitative method, this paper will reveal how technological developments are very influential on educational and political developments and what are the challenges faced based on historical perspective?. In this case, the study aims to discuss the history and challenges of Indonesia's education system and government system in the 21st century and give a solution. The data used are from 2 books, 14 journal articles, and 4 websites with a span of 2019-2021. The research results are expected to be used as a further study in the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government. This study also has limitations, namely only on the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0368.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: health promotion; physical activity; local government; policy analysis
Online: 13 November 2020 (09:31:28 CET)
Policy is a lever for initiating the structural and environmental changes that foster health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) promotion. However, little is known about the evidence in support of local governments regarding their HEPA-promoting policies. This study collected comprehensive information on municipal HEPA policies on the French Riviera to gain an overview of HEPA policy development in this territory. Mid-sized cities from the two counties constituting the French Riviera were targeted (n = 17). In each city, a local tool for HEPA policy analysis, CAPLA-Santé, was used to gain information from key informants heading the departments of sports, health services and social services. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Ten mid-sized cities volunteered to participate. Key informants from the sports (n = 10), health services (n = 5) and social services (n = 6) departments were interviewed. Written HEPA policy documents were formalized in six cities. These documents (n = 14) were mainly from the sports (n = 8) and health services (n = 4) sectors. The key informants reported that support from that national policy, the commitment of elected officials, and large local stakeholder networks facilitated HEPA promotion, whereas the lack of intersectoral collaboration and limited resources were limitations. The results provide insight into the development of municipal HEPA policies, highlighting some of the barriers, facilitators and perspectives. These findings could be valuable to scale up HEPA promotion at the local level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0102.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainability; transparency; local governments; administrative cultures; e-government
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:35:43 CET)
Nowadays, the transparency of governments with respect to the sustainability of public services is a very interesting issue for stakeholders and academics. It has led to previous research and international organisations (EU, IMF, OECD, United Nations, IFAC, G-20, World Bank) to recommend promotion of the online dissemination of economic, social and environmental information. Based on previous studies about e-government and the influence of administrative cultures on governmental accountability, this paper seeks to identify political actions useful to improve the practices of transparency on economic, social and environmental sustainability in European local governments. We perform a comparative analysis of sustainability information published on the websites of 72 local governments in 10 European countries grouped into main three cultural contexts (Anglo-Saxon, Southern European and Nordic). Using international sustainability reporting guidelines, our results reveal significant differences in local government transparency in each context. The most transparent local governments are the Anglo-Saxon ones, followed by Southern European and Nordic governments. Based on individualized empirical results for each administrative style, our conclusions propose useful policy interventions to enhance sustainability transparency within each cultural tradition, such as development of legal rules on transparency and sustainability, tools to motivate local managers for online diffusion of sustainability information and analysis of information needs of stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; government; cross-sectional survey; perceived risk
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:21:45 CEST)
Introduction: This study explores exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors to negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire is an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: 1) misinformation about vaccination; 2) risk perception toward COVID-19; 3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; 4) intention to get vaccinated; and 5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. Results: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0186.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: food security; riverbank erosion; rural development; agriculture; local government
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:33:57 CEST)
Bangladesh is located in the alluvial floodplain of the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna (GMB) river system and its numerous tributaries. In this country, the frequency, as well as severity, of riverbank erosion is high. To examine the impacts of riverbank erosion on rural food security, a baseline survey was conducted in Zajira, Bangladesh. The findings show that most people in the study area are affected by riverbank erosion. Moreover, agricultural production is gradually decreasing as a result of loss of farmland due to the catastrophe and its impacts. In some cases, people lose their entire homestead and are left with few income opportunities and low purchasing power. Consequently, they face the constant threat of a food crisis. The affected people follow some coping mechanisms to face these stressful situations, such as relying on less expensive or less preferred food items. While the local-government authorities have implemented some programmes to assist them, such as food aid and social-safety-net schemes, these are insufficient, due to the government's limited institutional resources and capacities. These findings suggest that for formulating effective rural-development plans, assessing the impact of riverbank erosion on the food security of people living in the affected areas is a prerequisite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0505.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Government; Citizen; Service Delivery; Integrated Statistical Management; Registration; Information
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:48:14 CET)
Statistical management policy and system plays significant role in development of any nation as it guides the planner to analyze the gaps, design programs and allocate budget in efficient manner. Globally, design and usage of statistical management system varies relying on country specific ability and resources availability. Government of Nepal has been managing database in individual as well as thematic manner. Policy wise, thematic database is in operation based on Statistics Act 1958 and individual database is in operation based on Birth, Death and Other Personal Related Events Registration Act 1976. Though civil registration related policies have been either updated or newly formed, sectoral statistic management related policy has not been updated since its first promulgation period (1958). With no policy supporting the consolidated statistical management system, government as well as non-government agencies has been investing millions of dollars annually to collect, compile and analyze individual related data and fulfill their respective objectives. It has forced the government services and performance to be paper-based, time-consuming and tedious thus creating dis-trust among citizen each passing day. Though, formulation of legal instrument promoted digital movement and mandated shift towards e-government modality, the process has been low. Theoretically, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) state the need of having advanced and efficient technology to be in place in current setting to improve governance, efficiency, accountability, transparency and trust. Also, the same theory state the requirement of strong willingness and motivation from the users (government, non-government and citizen) to adopt the technology based policy and system. As the integrated statistical management policy emphasizes on technology-based system or digital system, the perspectives of Technology Acceptance Model also termed as Information System Theory aid in understanding the context, conceptualizing and addressing the needs with an establishment and implementation of digital system or technology based system. This policy paper applied the Technology Acceptance Model (TAP) to examine the underlying opportunities and challenges associated with an integrated statistical management policy. With existing gaps in existing policy, system and practice alongside an overview of opportunities and challenges, this paper recommends the need of stand-alone integrated statistical management policy to consolidate sectoral as well as civil related information through single system based on recommended policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0027.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental accounting; LCIA method; local government; OECD; statistical information
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:50:41 CET)
Environmental accounting should be performed by both private companies and local governments. However, it may be difficult for government agencies to objectively measure their current environmental impact, and there is currently no internationally standardized methodology of environmental accounting for local governments. This study therefore attempts to incorporate life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) into the calculation of environmental loads for administrative divisions. In LCIA, environmental loads for several impact categories, such as “Climate change” and “Land use,” are integrated into a simple indicator expressed in terms of monetary units. This study leverages the LIME-3 assessment theory, one of the endpoint-type and global-scale LCIA methods. Annual environmental loads for administrative divisions in 42 countries were measured in a tentative assessment. Results showed that the annual damages for the 42 countries to be USD 10.5 trillion. Assessment results are shown on the world map to highlight the regionality of the damages in the 42 countries’ administrative divisions. This study seeks to provide new knowledge that local governments around the world can use in environmental accounting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: post-disaster community; sustainable development; social network; government management
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:04:53 CEST)
The current urban environment is faced with the potential threat of frequent natural disasters, and the sustainable development of post-disaster community has become a global issue. As an intrinsic motivation influencing the social interaction and capital operation of community, social network is an important mechanism promoting such sustainable development. However, the difference in social network caused by different member structure, spatial arrangement and management mechanism of post-disaster communities in different reconstruction modes has influenced such sustainable development process. Therefore, reasonable selection of reconstruction mode is crucial. This paper applied analytic hierarchy process to comprehensively measure and compare the social network strength in post-disaster communities in the four reconstruction modes adopted by the government of China, i.e. unified planning and unified construction, unified planning and independent construction, in situ reconstruction and relocation resettlement, with communities after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in Chengdu, China as study objects from the perspective of three social relations (the relations between residents and residents, residents and managers, and residents and servers). The results showed that strong connections are generally presented in the social network of post-disaster communities in unified planning modes, that the strength is significantly higher than that of those in non-unified planning modes, and that the strength of UPIC communities is the highest. Meanwhile, government intervention, residents’ free participation and market operation are positively correlated to government trust, community interaction and community service respectively. The positive impact of government intervention is the most significant, but it has a peak value. No government management and excessive government intervention will exert negative impacts. The coordination of government, society and market is the key contents of post-disaster community reconstruction. The reconstruction modes based on “government leadership, resident participation and market operation” may become a feasible path for such sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Somali; conflict; health system; resilience; fragile; access; government; NGO
Online: 12 June 2017 (06:26:20 CEST)
Background: Human Immnodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people with worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people living with diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu and their resilience in access to care and social support. Method: Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving Antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Benader Hospital. These were tape recorded, transcribed and translated for content analysis. Results: Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouces or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainity of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants’ coping mechansms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. Conclusions: The people living with diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with diagnosed HIV infection and efficacy of HIV treatment. Our small sample suggests adequate access to ART through NGOs. However, widespread HIV stigma limits HIV status disclosure to the families and communities which creates a risk of self isolation and ill health. But affected individuals have developed resilient mechanisms of managing the risks. They strive to remain employed for economic security, adhere to HIV treatment, engage in support groups and maintain utmost optimism about their prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Government support; Innovation probability; Innovation destiny; Propensity score matching
Online: 10 May 2017 (18:04:33 CEST)
Government support plays an important role in Chinese economy. New energy industries, concerning innovation-driven source and environmental protection, are also supported by government. This paper aims to study the effects of the traditional government support at supply side on firms’ innovation and development. In this paper, we propose enterprise behavior model including characteristics of new energy industries, and study the innovation reaction of firms to government support in different situation. We further use propensity score matching to verify the results in theoretical model, and conduct robustness analysis. Our main conclusions include: (1) In the normal years government support can only promote the innovation output of firms which have innovated, however, can not promote the innovation probability of firms which have not innovated. That is to say, government support can only enhance the intensive margin of innovation, but can not enhance the extensive margin of innovation with less competition. (2) In the situation of bad economic environment and intense competition, firms’ innovation probability rises as the government support increase. Therefore, government should provide more R&D special subsidies and implement strict financial supervision to make the effectiveness of support policies especially in the normal years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1716.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Policy proposal, elderly government officials, the employment, public sector organizations.
Online: 27 September 2023 (16:01:19 CEST)
A promoting work for the elderly is an important way of empowering the participation of the elderly in society for economic development, which will lead to the well-being of the elderly. This is presented the policy proposal for elderly government officials employment in public sector organizations landscape study by policy research on EDFR which combines MACR, especially, elderly civil servants in public sector organizations of 56 - 60 years, and aged of 60 years to over, include the experts into the data. Comparing the employment forms elderly civil servants in public sector organizations of flexible employment and new employment models to differences at statistical significance level of 0.01, 0.05, respectively. Significance the policy proposal for elderly government officials employment at “Key” factors of the strategies, goals, measures, and operational guidelines to effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1077.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: economic freedom; factor analysis; MEFI; labor market; government spending; taxation
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:26:59 CEST)
The Metropolitan Economic Freedom Index (MEFI) ranks cities based on their support of free market enterprise. In its current state, MEFI purports to measure three constructs (government spending, taxation, and labor market freedom) with three equally weighted variables for each one, assuming perfect substitutability of variables. This study investigates the statistical consistency of MEFI through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Multiple models investigate current variable selection by providing a potentially better indicator of labor market freedom, aggregation assumptions by removing the requirements for fixed and equal weights, and statistical consistency by evaluating the fit between the data and models. Results indicate that the current MEFI model is not statistically consistent with the data, that weighting of variables should not be equal, that variable selection should be investigated, and that constructs should be re-imagined. The models investigated provide an initial starting point for redefining MEFI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1377.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Local government emergency management; emergency response capacity; Gray-Dematel; AISM
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:36:57 CEST)
Major emergencies can have a devastating impact on society, becoming a catalyst for social disorder and unrest and a trigger for social or political change. In today's world of frequent emergencies, the emergency management capacity of local governments is key to promoting safe operations and maintaining stability in cities and towns. Aiming to explore the direction and focus of local government emergency management capacity building, this paper establishes a local government emergency capacity evaluation system based on the emergency management process and combines Gray-Dematel, a gray decision laboratory analysis method, and AISM, an adversarial explanatory agency model, to derive the importance and intrinsic relationship among emergency capacity indicators. The algorithm describes the importance degree of each indicator in the system and also helps better understand the intrinsic relationship among the indicators. The outcomes of this research can be used to outline directional suggestions for the development of local government emergency response capacity and provide a new theoretical basis for more effective construction of local government emergency response capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: new energy vehicles; “dual carbon” targets; evolutionary games; government subsidies
Online: 5 April 2023 (10:15:18 CEST)
To promote low-carbon and green travel, this study proposes a tripartite evolutionary game model among new energy vehicle manufacturers, consumers, and government agencies. The game strategy combinations of each party and the stability conditions of the equilibrium point in the evolutionary game system are analyzed, and the validity of the conclusions is verified through simulation results. The study shows a strong correlation between the three parties in the evolutionary game system. From the perspective of car manufacturers, the probability of producing new energy vehicles is positively proportional to the subsidy received from new energy policy, the additional revenue gained from the management of the carbon trading scheme, and the fine received for producing conventional fuel vehicles. However, from the consumer perspective, the likelihood that consumers purchase new energy vehicles is positively related to the utility value to consumers and the coverage of public charging points in the city, and inversely related to the sales price of new energy vehicles. From the government perspective, a combination of direct subsidy policies and indirect support strategies should be considered to stimulate the rapid development of the new energy vehicle industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0166.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; local self-government; institutional support; longitudinal research; Serbia
Online: 10 January 2023 (01:24:53 CET)
The objective of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of selected factors on the level and state of public health in local self-government units in 2021, with the consideration of data from 2020 and 2019. This survey included 77 out of 145 local self-government units in the Republic of Serbia and examined six dimensions defined by the Law on Public Health: social care for the public health of the city/municipality in regard to the physical, mental, and social health of the population; health promotion and disease prevention; the environment and health; working environments and population health; the organization and functioning of the health system; and actions in emergency situations. The results of the Pearson correlation showed that there were statistically significant correlations between the effectiveness of the realized program budget and microbiologically defective drinking water samples from the so-called village water supply systems, defective samples of drinking water from public taps, unsatisfactory analyses of wastewater samples, the total number of air samples on an annual level for PM25s, and the number of mandated fines issued. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the local self-government units that received assistance from the Permanent Conference of Cities and Municipalities were 5.6 times more likely to perform analyses of their health status. Furthermore, we determined that the units of local self-governments that appointed a coordinator of the health council identified vulnerable groups in the analysis of the state of health four and a half times more often. In contrast, the units of local self-governments that prepared health status analyses could be used to identify vulnerable groups to a six times greater extent within the framework of the health status analysis. The results showed that in improving the state of public health at the local level, it is necessary to provide systematic institutional support to cities and municipalities in exercising their responsibilities. Based on these results, recommendations were made for the further development of support, i.e., the planning of further activities aimed at strengthening the capacity of the health councils and local self-government units in this area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0214.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Drinking water; potable water; public health surveillance; quality control; government.
Online: 15 September 2022 (02:17:24 CEST)
This study identified and mapped worldwide surveillance actions and initiatives of drinking water quality implemented by government agencies or public health services. The scoping review was conducted between July 2021 and August 2022 based on the Joanna Briggs Institute. The search was performed in relevant databases and grey literature; 49 studies were obtained. Quantitative variables were presented as absolute and relative frequencies, while qualitative variables were analyzed using the IRaMuTeQ software. The actions developed worldwide and their impacts and results provided four thematic classes: (1) assessment of coverage, accessibility, quantity, and drinking water quality in routine and emergency situations; (2) analysis of physical-chemical and microbiological parameters in public supply networks or alternative water supply solutions; (3) identification of household water contamination, communication, and education with the community; (4) and investigation of water-borne disease outbreaks. Preliminary results were shared with stakeholders to favor early knowledge dissemination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0284.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: government debt, escape of capital, money creation, Kalman filter, simulation
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:15:49 CEST)
The work proposes a model of funds formation in current and fixed-term (ruble and currency) accounts and transfers of funds between them. The sources of money are loans issued by commercial banks, placement of government domestic debt, the positive balance of foreign trade. The financial parameters and characteristics of the system are estimated using the Kalman filter. The adequacy of the model is confirmed by simulation modeling. It was found that the rate of creation of rubles in current accounts increased from ≈ 8% per annum in 2015-16 ≈ to 12% in 2017-18 and to 29% in 2019-20. The leakage of foreign currency from accounts (in addition to the official outflow of capital) was ≈ 12, 50, 35 billion dollars per annum during the same periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0284.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: public debt; government spending efficiency; public investment; public sector corruption
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:09:52 CEST)
This study examines whether government spending efficiency is associated with differential effects of public investment on debt-to-GDP ratio for a panel data consisting of 16 developing countries in Asia-Pacific region over the period 2007-2017. Public investment is central to implementing the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — but high debt-to-GDP ratio poses a key risk. The empirical results indicate that public investment efficiency moderates debt-to-GDP ratio whereas public investment in the midst of public sector corruption accentuates debt-to-GDP ratio. The results have important policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0967.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Decision-Making; Devolved functions; Devolved Government; Technology Acceptance Model; Technology; Innovations
Online: 16 October 2023 (16:26:13 CEST)
This study is grounded on evidence-based decision-making in the implementation of devolved functions in Kenya. Promulgation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 set stage for devolution of functions, power, resources, and representation closer to the people. The researcher applies principles of technology acceptance modelling to investigate the extrinsic factors, Perceived-Ease-Of-Use, Perceived-Usefulness, attitudes, behavioural-intention and actual use of Research findings, Innovations and Technologies. Furthermore, the researcher applies contingent valuation technique to investigate cost-benefit analysis of using research findings, innovations and technologies. Multi-stage cluster sample of 156 managers from ten counties, randomly distributed in the six devolved functions that were randomly selected, including: agriculture, county health service, early childhood education and village polytechnic, natural resources and environment, county administration and governance, and county public works and services, took part in this study. Building on basic statistical analysis, structural equation modelling was employed to explain the adoption process. Results proved that all TAM model constructs were decisive in the adoption process. Furthermore, managers were willing to pay extra to optimize decision making and for accrued benefits on service delivery. Findings from this study are critical for stimulating the uptake of research findings, innovations, and technologies in making informed decisions for improved service delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0400.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: crypto assets; Theory of Planned Behavior; financial literacy; trust; government regulation
Online: 23 January 2023 (07:49:08 CET)
Indonesian crypto asset owners are expanding despite the government's ban. Crypto assets are too risky for Indonesian investors. This study uses the Theory of Planned Behavior and exogenous variables like financial literacy, trust, and government regulation to determine the causes of the intention to invest in crypto assets. Exogenous variables and behavioral intentions were moderated by gender. The study employs a quantitative approach, collecting data through a questionnaire survey of 149 adults over the age of 17 who have invested in non-crypto assets. SmartPLS was used to analyze research data. Financial literacy and trust, according to the study's findings, have an impact on the intention to invest in crypto assets. Gender can moderate the relationship between belief and behavioral intention. Women are more likely than men to invest in crypto assets due to the block chain system's security, transparency, and ease of use. This research is expected to help the government address the risks associated with investing in crypto assets by increasing transaction security with futures clearing and monitoring by using third parties as depositors. It also governs the laws governing crypto exchanges' liability to their investors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0448.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental Tax; Government Innovation Subsidy; Green Process Innovation; Double Threshold Model
Online: 17 November 2020 (11:51:02 CET)
China is in the climbing phase of the "Inverted U" environmental Kuznets curve, from excessive environmental consumption to the development stage of governance and protection, and green innovation. It is the most complex period of environmental quality. Environmental and policy regulation are very important. Select panel data of 29 provinces of China (excluding Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Hainan and Tibet) from 2008 to 2017, construct a nonlinear two-threshold regression model, empirically analyse the impact of environmental tax and government innovation subsidies to green processes innovation, and attempt to explore whether the implementation of these two policies at the same time can make enterprises more inclined to green process innovation and whether there is an optimal space for policy implementation. It is proposed that the synergy effect of environmental tax and government innovation subsidy policies on enterprise green process innovation should be fully utilized, and the enterprise green process innovation environment and incentive mechanism should be improved to promote the green transformation and sustainable development of enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0162.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Xinchang Thai; quantile regression; functional classification of government expenditure; Xiao Kang
Online: 15 October 2019 (05:48:07 CEST)
On October 18, 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping presented the blueprint for building a modernized socialist nation through the realization of the Xiao Kang (Every nation enjoys a peaceful and affluent life, it is meaningless to eliminate the poor) social construction at the 19th Congress of China. Subsequent to the 2008 financial crisis, the world has moved on to the new economic status of the New Normal. China has also entered the era of “Xinchang Thai,” which is moving from the high-growth to the moderate-growth phase. Therefore, the government of China emphasizes privatization, liberalization, and deregulation. China is also influenced by government policies due to the nature of socialism. This study confirms China’s current stage of economic development based on Barro’s theory. Thus, we use a quantile regression model and examine the correlation between economic growth and functional classification of government expenditure during Xi Jinping's term of office. Furthermore, we selected Korea as a comparative country as the two countries have common features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0080.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: LCIA method; local government; statistical information; gross regional product; environmental accounting
Online: 12 June 2019 (05:54:02 CEST)
It is important for enterprises to decide their environmental policies after carefully examining their future paths based on the relationship between the environment and the economy. This study focused on Japanese minimum administrative divisions (municipalities) and attempted to quantify the annual environmental efficiency of production activities within each division according to the theory of life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA). This study leverages the assessment theory LIME2, which is an endpoint-type LCIA method developed in 2010 that integrates environmental loads for certain impact categories, such as global warming and land use into a simple indicator by monetary unit. First, annual environmental impact assessments were conducted for all Japanese municipalities based on statistical information that was reliable, verifiable, and comparable. Next, the environmental efficiency of productivity for each division was conceptualized by dividing the gross domestic product by the environmental damage amounts as calculated above. Assessment results for each municipality were placed on a map of Japan in order to visualize the regionality of each indicator. The findings revealed in this study will aid public administrators in their decision-making process with respect to environmental policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0042.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: performance-based management; performance measurement; good governance; local government; public agency
Online: 3 April 2019 (11:27:59 CEST)
Performance appraisal is a fundamental indicator in public accountability to achieve the good governance principles. Hence, this study aims to analyze the performance measurement that can improve performance on government agencies in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in qualitative approach. The research found that non-integrated models of performance measurement in South Sulawesi are inefficient and ineffective. Inefficiency happens because it uses time and cost resources separately, while being ineffective is because both models focuses on each goal instead on performance goals and the process is not supported by the actual management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0025.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainability reporting; local government organizations; sustainable development; mail Survey; public sector
Online: 8 September 2017 (06:24:14 CEST)
The role of public-sector organizations (PSOs) for promoting the agenda of sustainability accounting and accountability is often not adequately considered . In the public sector universe, Local Governments are close to their communities and thus have a particularly important role to play in the pursuit of sustainability goals [2,3]. Hence, further research is still needed to understand if Local Governments Organizations (LGOs) are still using reporting tools to promote sustainable development. The empirical data show that the Sustainability Report (SR) is not having the spread assumed in the past years; over time, the great majority of Italian Municipalities does not continue or embark on a path of sustainability reporting. The findings suggest the fashion of SR in Italy is falling and it seems that the SR tool is a “mere trend reporting based on descriptive indicators leads to decreasing interest from internal and external audiences” . The carrot is unsuccessful; maybe the mandatory requirements could be a stick?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Islamophobia; British politics; Coalition Government; Conservative Party; discrimination; Muslims; minority communities
Online: 19 June 2017 (13:18:48 CEST)
Soon after the Conservative-led Coalition government came to power in 2010, Baroness Sayeeda Warsi announced that Islamophobia had passed the ‘dinner-table test’ in contemporary Britain. Resultantly, the need to address Islamophobia was identified as a priority for the Coalition. This article critically analyses how the Coalition sought to achieve this and the extent to which it was successful. Focusing on the period 2010-5, this article initially frames what is meant by Islamophobia before briefly setting out how it had been responded to by previous British governments. As regards the Coalition, a threefold approach is adopted that considers the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Islamophobia, the Cross-Government Working Group on Anti-Muslim Hate and the political discourses used by the Coalition about Muslims and Islam more generally. Concluding that the Coalition failed to meet the high expectations set by Warsi’s speech, this article considers why this might have been so.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0592.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education sector; management in government; citizen experience; qualitative research; public sector reforms
Online: 8 August 2023 (04:01:28 CEST)
This is a case study in the domain of public sector management or management in government, with particular reference to education as a sector as a whole. Bangladesh has shown persistent upward trends in development indicators during the last four decades. In the education sector also, many indicators improved - literacy, the female proportion of literacy, number of educational institutions, etc. Quantity wise investment and indicators increased and improved at all levels and dimensions like primary, secondary, tertiary, technical, and so on. But qualitative improvement remained mysteriously low, despite government intention to increase quality of teaching, learning, and administration. This paper aimed to draw an overall picture of qualitative scenario of the education sector. Analyzing secondary sources like public media, and primary sources like citizen interactions, this qualitative study consolidated the problems of the education sector in a coherent whole. It argues that many problems of education sector are not education problems or budget problems, rather purely and simply ‘management’ problems, and so, can effectively be solved with basic but thorough understanding of the basic technicalities of management as a discipline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0769.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Indigenous peoples, Latin American, Covid 19, indigenous rights, health culture, government agencies.
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:15:25 CEST)
Background: and objectives: Covid-19 is a global pandemic that requires a culturally integrated response in all Latin American government systems. In this study, we investigate the multidimensional associations of actions in Latin American indigenous peoples against Covid-19 Methods: We performed a data mining analysis of scientific literature records from 19 academic journals, using the topics Covid-19, mortality, indigenous peoples, and future measures, rights and actions. The literature is analyzed in a multidimensional way, either isolated or combined. It uses switchable statistical methods, the R Studio, worddj, Gephi, and Iramuteq for both textual and multidimensional analysis. Results and Conclusions: In this analysis, the literature is classified into 4 linked groups which are the indigenous people, the rights of territorial protection, the indigenous health culture, the Covid-19 pandemic with its protection efforts. Taking the indigenous peoples as an axis, we observe that the covid pandemic and the protection of their territories do not have the same force in the current context, the indigenous people are more linked to the protection of their territory. Indigenous peoples have a link of cultural strength in traditional health independent of Covid treatment. It should be noted that government agencies are taking measures regarding the covid pandemic with an effort not marked within the health culture of indigenous peoples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0162.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: upstream social marketing; mobile government; marketing mix; public services; public administration; behavior
Online: 12 July 2019 (05:07:56 CEST)
The article analyses the main aspects of upstream social marketing for implementing of mobile government (MGov). The methodology of current research is based on the systematic literature review in the fields of MGov and social marketing. According to our findings, most researchers investigated MGov from the side of citizens (consumers) and emphasised the benefits to them while changing their attitudes and behaviours in employing mobile applications. However, as there is a lack of the researches from the side of governmental bodies, in this paper, we were contrary looking for new meanings, attitudes and values from their perspective. Limitations of employment of MGov occur due knowledge gap among decision makers and public policy formers (upstream audience). Therefore, we argue that upstream social marketing for the upstream audience would bring the success in faster MGov implementation. Specific social marketing would be mostly valuable on the municipal level that is the closest substance to the society. Thus, in our paper we emphasise the benefit of the MGov for the local upstream audience and propose possible external marketers as well as the motivating theses based on these 7P of marketing mix for the successful MGov on municipal level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0669.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Government intervention; Pest and disease control outsourcing; Evolutionary game; Simulation analysis; Policy instruments
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:55:43 CEST)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore, from the perspective of government interven-tion, behavioral logic and game relationship among farmers, service organizations and the gov-ernment in the pest and disease control outsourcing system, as well as the endogenous motiva-tion of each subject. The results indicate that the stronger the willingness of each subject, the faster the stable state of joint pest and disease control among the three parties can be formed; In the case of implementing a single policy tool, the convergence rate of each party that imple-ments the regulatory policy alone is fast but may be unstable, while the rate is slow but more stable when a guidance- or incentive-based policy is solely applied; The effect of policy tool combination is much better than that of a single policy tool applied. The simultaneous imple-mentation of the three types of policy tools can form a policy system with both positive and negative mechanisms, which can maximize complementary and superposition effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2092.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Administrative bureaucracy; per diems; financial management; environmental sustainability; public universities; e-government; travel expenses
Online: 31 August 2023 (02:39:46 CEST)
The paper discusses the experience of implementing an efficient economic management system at the University of Vigo in Spain. This system, which focuses on managing secondments, aims to minimize bureaucracy and standardize economic procedures for various staff groups. By adopting a qualitative methodology and utilizing content analysis, the study compares the University of Vigo's fully digital administrative procedure with other universities in the CRUE network. The results show significant time and cost savings due to this implementation. The improved traceability and information for users support the administrative change, and the positive environmental impacts highlight the commitment to a more sustainable approach. The paper's originality lies in demonstrating how this approach enhances efficiency, reduces costs, and improves sustainability within a Spanish public administration setting.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0582.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: village independence; village; building the village; sustainability; regional analysis; region; rural development; governance; government
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:38:18 CET)
Village has a vital role in the national development efforts. The concept of development considered village as an object instead of a subject of development. This study focused on determining the important points in enabling a village to be independent by shifting the paradigm of “building the village” into “the building village”. This study was an exploratory research of public policies with qualitative legal studies. This study was conducted in 3 villages in Bandung regency with different characteristics, namely Neglawangi with urban characteristics, Cibiru Wetan with sub-urban characteristics, and Rancamanyar with plural characteristics. The results of this study showed that the wise step in building an independent village is through “the building village” road maps. First, encourage the inception of critical and care community and community organizations who dynamically interact in the policy making processes of village development. Second, implement a participative, accountable, and transparent planning and budgeting system within the limits of their authorities. Third, empower inclusive village economic institutions. The three road maps can succeed if they are supported by good implementation of participative, systematic, effective and efficient planning and budgeting system, as well as good monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0508.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: China’s Rural Pension Program; Pension contribution; Trust in government; Propensity Score Matching method; Rural China
Online: 27 December 2022 (03:22:26 CET)
This paper estimates the effect of trust in government on rural residents’ contributions in China’s rural pension program using the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method. We construct an analytical framework for rural residents' decision-making in pension program and provide analysis using data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and 25 provincial Departments of the Human Resources and Social Security (DOHRSS) in China. Our analysis shows that rural residents’ trust in government will influence their contributions to the pension programs by affecting their expected return of the investments. Our results suggest that the government should improve rural residents’ trust in government in order to develop a successful and sustainable rural pension program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1413.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Smart Government Strategies; Crisis Environments; Governance Robustness; Institutional Capacities; Effective Local Governance; Evaluation; Indicators Analytical Model.
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:40:37 CEST)
Crisis environments, which are becoming systemic, pose significant challenges to smart government strategies. The paper aims to contribute to academic debate by proposing an analytical framework for examining the institutional capacities of smart government systems in addressing local crises. The paper focuses on the recent approach of robust governance and highlights a set of variables that promote effective smart government: contingency planning capacity, analytical capacity, organizational management capacity, and collaborative capacity. The study presents an analytical model for evaluating the robustness and effectiveness of local smart government systems in crises. One of the significant findings of this study has been the identification of critical indicators that inform institutional capacities of smart government systems. By analyzing these indicators, the proposed analytical framework provides a comprehensive approach to assess the preparedness of smart government systems in dealing with crises. Moreover, it can be used to benchmark the performance of local smart government systems in similar contexts and identify best practices for improving crisis management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1649.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: rural crowdsourcing spaces; returning to hometown and pioneering; structural model; government policy; the innovation performance of businesses
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:25:37 CEST)
In order to investigate the relationship between government policy, the service and design of rural crowdsourcing spaces, the self-efficacy of returning youth, and the innovation performance of businesses, this study focuses on gathering data by distributing questionnaires to returning youth in rural crowdsourcing spaces and developing a structural model. The results demonstrate how important government policies are in encouraging youth entrepreneurship in their local communities. It has the potential to enhance both the development of rural crowdsourcing spaces and the self-efficacy of young entrepreneurs, thereby enhancing the innovative capabilities of local entrepreneurial businesses. Therefore, in order to encourage economic development in rural areas, the government should improve pertinent support measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1799.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Carbon tax; Carbon tax and NDC; CGE Cobb-Douglas model; Carbon tax and the United States Government
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:39:12 CEST)
Our study shows how the United States government can achieve its goal of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2025, 2030, and 2050 by reducing energy consumption through a pure carbon tax. To achieve its emissions reduction goals, it is necessary for the US to impose a long-term carbon tax that balances taxes on labour, capital, energy, and carbon. Therefore, in this study, through the two-layer CGE Cobb-Douglas model, the carbon tax rate is set while balancing the production and profit functions of government, businesses, and households. This study concludes that the carbon price will increase from US$ 0.4391/kg CO2 in 2020 to US$ 2.5671/kg CO2 in 2050 when the CO2 emissions reduction target is increased from 17% reduction in 2020 to 83% reduction in 2050 for the US.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Institutions and Services; General; Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages; Investment Banking, Government Policy, and Regulation
Online: 5 May 2022 (11:14:25 CEST)
We have estimated the level of Risk Weighted Assets among 30 countries in Europe, in 30 trimesters, using data of the European Banking Authority-EBA of 139 variables. We perform an econometric model using Pooled OLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Weighted Least Squares. We found that Risk Weighted Assets is negatively associated, among others, to the level of NFC loans in mining and quarrying, in public administration and defence, and in financial and insurance activities and positively associated, among others to distribution of NFC loans in human health services and social work activities, in education and the level of net fee and commission income. Furthermore, we apply a cluster analysis with the k-Means algorithm, and we find the presence of two clusters. A comparison was then made between eight different machine learning algorithms for predicting the value of the RWAs and we found that the best predictor is the linear regression. The RWA value is predicted to increase by 1.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0450.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Credit to Private Sector; Foreign Direct Investment; Government Consumption Expenditure; Public Investment; Error Correction Model and South Africa
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:15:23 CET)
This study aims to explore the link between public investment and private investment in South Africa, using time series data spanning 40 years (1980–2020). Private investment is subdivided into credit to private sector (CPS) and foreign direct investment (FDI). Several econometric methodologies were used in the study, including the unit root test, cointegration test, and Error Correction Method (ECM). The Phillips-Perron (PP) test results point out that all the variables are stationary at levels with the exception of public investment (PI) which is stationary at first difference. The co-integration test reveals that the variables have a long-run equilibrium relationship. According to the findings of the ECM, public investment has a negative relationship with private investment (as measured by credit to private sector and foreign direct investment). The conclusion implies that in South Africa, public investment crowds out private investment. Other results revealed that, RGDP crowds in credit to private sector while crowding out foreign direct investment. Finally, the ECM findings show that government consumption expenditure crowds out credit to private sector and foreign direct investment. The residuals are homoskedastic and show no serial correlation, indicating that the model is adequate, according to the test for adequacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: corpus linguistics; language modeling; big data; language data; databases; monitor corpora; documentary analysis; nuclear power; government regulation; tobacco documents
Online: 3 December 2018 (09:16:14 CET)
With the influence of Big Data culture on qualitative data collection, acquisition, and processing, it is becoming increasingly important that social scientists understand the complexity underlying data collection and the resulting models and analyses. Systematic approaches for creating computationally tractable models need to be employed in order to create representative, specialized reference corpora subsampled from Big Language Data sources. Even more importantly, any such method must be tested and vetted for its reproducibility and consistency in generating a representative model of a particular population in question. This article considers and tests one such method for Big Language Data downsampling of digitally-accessible language data to determine both how to operationalize this form of corpus model creation, as well as testing whether the method is reproducible. Using the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's public documentation database as a test source, the sampling method's procedure was evaluated to assess variation in the rate of which documents were deemed fit for inclusion or exclusion from the corpus across four iterations. The findings of this study indicate that such a principled sampling method is viable, thus necessitating the need for an approach for creating language-based models that account for extralinguistic factors and linguistic characteristics of documents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0182.v4
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: open access initiative; challenges of data sharing; data management; open government data; human-computer interaction; documentation; human factors; standardization; information policy
Online: 17 January 2018 (11:09:52 CET)
The Release of government dataset for public use can potentially strengthen the relationship between the government and its constituents. However, research shows that there are several challenges for open data effectiveness. This paper reviews current determinants and issues associated with the open government data (OGD) procedures. The review concentrates on two ends of the spectrum: First, from the perspective of the preparation by the government, focusing on the organization of traditional governmental datasets and how the recording of the data is administered. Second, from the perspective of the users, focusing on the way in which the data is released to the general public and on human-computer interaction (HCI) issues between end-user and data-consumption interfaces. Following a thorough analysis of these two opposing challenges, the paper proposes approaches to mitigate them. This review and subsequent recommendations contribute and expand current understanding of open government data effectiveness and can lead to public policy changes, development of new procedures and strategies, and ultimately improvements at both ends of the federal open data endeavor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0257.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: FDI; Domestic Investment; Government Investment Expenditure; Economic Growth; Real exchange rate; Gross Domestic Savings; Trade openness; ARDL-ECM Approach and South Africa
Online: 18 January 2022 (12:42:00 CET)
The aim of this study is to empirically examine the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and domestic investment (DI) in South Africa over the period of 41 years (1975-2016). Accurately, it attempts to determine whether FDI crowds in or crowds out DI in South Africa. DI is sub-divided into private domestic investment (credit to domestic private sector) and public corporation investment (state owned enterprises). We used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (ARDL-ECM) technique to ascertain long run and short run effects concurrently after establishing that the variables were stationary (using the PP test). The results of the unit root test shows that all variables are integrated of order zero I(0) or integrated of order one I(1), indicating that the series of variables are stationary in the level or first difference form. The findings revealed that variables are cointegrated in the long run. The ARDL model found a negative link between FDI and domestic investment. The result implies that FDI crowds out domestic investment. Moreover, the long run estimate revealed that domestic investment is crowded in by government investment expenditure (GINV). Other findings uncovered that, GDP crowds out private domestic investment while crowding in public corporation investment. Moreover, the long run estimate revealed that domestic investment is crowded in by gross domestic savings (SAV). On the other hand, the real exchange rate (EXCR) crowds out private domestic investment while crowding in public corporation investment. Trade openness (TRA) crowds out domestic investment. Additionally, the short run estimate uncovered that private domestic investment is crowded out by FDI, EXCR, and TRA whereas GINV, GDP and SAV is crowding in private domestic investment. Other findings discovered that, in the short run, public corporation investment is crowded out by FDI, GDP, EXCR and TRA, while GINV and SAV crowd in public corporation investment. The CUSUM confirms that the models are structurally firmness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0549.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Africa; SARS-CoV-2 virus spread; lower COVID-19 disease burden; African populations; demographic pyramid; trained immunity; government measures
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:56:05 CEST)
COVID-19 differential spread and impacts across regions is a major focus for researchers and policy makers. Africa has attracted tremendous attention due to predictions of catastrophic impacts that have not yet materialized. Early in the pandemic, the seemingly low African case count was largely attributed to low testing and case reporting. However, there is also reason to consider that many African countries got out ahead of the virus early on. Factors explaining low spread include early government mandated lockdowns, community-wide actions, population distribution, social contacts, and ecology of human habitation. While recent data from seroprevalence studies posit more extensive circulation of the virus, continuing low COVID-19 burden may be explained by the demographic pyramid, prevalence of pre-existing conditions, trained immunity, genetics, and broader sociocultural dynamics. Though all these prongs contribute to the observed profile of COVID-19 in Africa, some provide stronger evidence than others. This review is important to expand what is known about the differential impacts of pandemics enhancing scientific understanding and gearing appropriate public health responses. Also, highlighting potential lessons the world may draw from Africa for global health on assumptions regarding deadly viral pandemics given its long experience with infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0579.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: green development in agriculture; grain security; frontier movement effect; catch-up effect; Chinese government-led agricultural science and innovation system; Malmquist-Luenberger Productivity Index
Online: 10 October 2023 (05:09:42 CEST)
China is striving to leverage the power of science and technology to green its agriculture while increasing grain productivity. In this context, this study presents the green growth rate of agriculture from the DEA-based Green Total Factor Productivity (GTFP) indicator, together with the growth rate of grain yields, and applies it to the case of Jiangsu, a major grain-producing province with a well-developed economy. It is found that Jiangsu's agriculture has generally performed well in the implementation of the two major national strategies of green development and grain security, especially in the northern Jiangsu, which is a major grain-producing area. In contrast, the phased fluctuations of green growth in agriculture in Southern Jiangsu are more pronounced, with even negative green growth occurring during the green agriculture movement. Much of the volatility in agricultural green growth at the provincial, subregional, municipal level comes from the effects of the movement of the green technology frontier led by best practitioners. Accordingly, the possibility of improving the weak state of the catch-up effect on green growth is explored from the perspective of the Chinese government-led agricultural science and innovation system; it also traces the green agricultural initiatives in the main grain-marketing areas that have failed to deliver the expected green growth, and recommends a review of such policies and refinement of the GTFP Index tool for assessing sustainable green growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0199.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: analysis of health care markets; health behaviors; health insurance; public and private; health and inequality; health and economic development; government policy • regulation • public health
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:19:05 CEST)
In the following article, we analyse the determinants of the number of physicians in the context of ISTAT BES-Benessere Equo Sostenibile data among twenty Italian regions in the period 2004-2022. We apply Panel Data with Random Effects, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, and Pooled OLS-Ordinary Least Squares. We found that the number of Physicians among Italian regions is positively associated, among others, to “Trust in the Police and Firefighters”, “Net Income Inequality”, and negatively associated, among others, to “Research and Development Intensity” and “Soil waterproofing by artificial cover”. Furthermore, we apply the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient and we find the presence of two clusters. Finally, we confront eight different machine-learning algorithms to predict the future value of physicians and we find that the PNN-Probabilistic Neural Network is the best predictive algorithm.