REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0119.v1
Online: 10 October 2019 (15:02:17 CEST)
The aim of this study was to establish the blood glucose response to different cooking methods of pasta. Participants consumed three identical meals in a random order that were freshly cooked (hot), cooled and reheated. Blood glucose concentrations were assessed before, and every 15 minutes after ingestion of each meal for 120 minutes. There was a significant interaction between temperature and time (F(8.46-372.34) = 2.75, p = 0.005), with the reheated (90 minutes) condition returning to baseline faster than both cold (120 minutes) and hot conditions. Blood glucose AUC was significantly lower in the reheated (703 ± 56 mmol L-1 min-1) compared with the hot condition (735 ± 77 mmol L-1 min-1, t(92) = -3.36, pbonferroni = 0.003), with no significant difference with the cold condition (722 ± 62 mmol L-1 min-1). To our knowledge, the current study is the first to show that reheating pasta causes changes in post-prandial glucose response, with a quicker return to fasting levels in both the reheated and cooled conditions compared with the hot condition. The mechanisms behind the changes in post-prandial blood glucose seen in this study are most likely related to changes in starch structure and how these changes influence glycaemic response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0137.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: glibenclamide therapies; glycemic; Glucose-6-phosphatase
Online: 31 October 2016 (08:35:41 CET)
Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an enzyme found mostly in the kidneys and the liver, acting significant role of supplying glucose through starvation. This study includes (84) subjects, their age ranged from (40 to 54) years. (20) subjects were healthy chosen as control group and (64) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into three groups according to their type of anti diabetic therapy : (23) newly diagnosed group without therapy (Group1), (20) with metformin therapy (Group2) and (21) with metformin plus glibenclamide therapies( Group3). The study found that G-6-Pase activity is increased, thereby leading to an increase in endogenous glucose production (EGP) in patients with type 2 diabetes and, therefore FPG will increase. The result found that increasing G-6-Pase activity will increase the concentration of glucose in the blood and that will increase the long-term glycemic control (HbA1c%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:40:02 CEST)
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk-factor for cardiovascular diseases. Plant-based dietary-patterns have been shown to positively impact the effects this cardiovascular risk-factor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of adherence to moringa, plantains, moringa-plantain combined, and other plant based dietary-patterns with glycemic-control among persons with type-2-diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Facility-based cross-sectional-study was conducted among 530 T2DM patients in Ghana. Structured-questionnaires were used to collect demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables. Adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns were assessed with 24-hour dietary-recall questionnaire. SPSS version-22 was used in data analysis. BMI, HbA1c%, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated with adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns (p-value < 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, adherence to: Plantain diets, standardized regression coefficient β (95%CI): -0.098 (-0.321, -0.022), Yam, β (95%CI): 0.148 (0.066, 0.496), Moringa diets β (95%CI): -0.095 (-0.325,-0.011) and Bean-diets β (95%CI): -0.112 (-0.577-.007) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Also adherence to: Plantain-moriga combined diets β (95%CI): -0.406 (-0.413, -0.049) and Plantain-beans combined diets β (95%CI): -0.128 (-0.188, -0.038) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Adherence to Plantain, Yam, Beans, Plantain-moriga combined diets, and Plantain-beans combined diets could be associated with glycemic control. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: type 2 diabetes; glycemic control; insulin resistance; nutrients; umbrella review
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:05:33 CEST)
Background: Nutrient supplements are widely used for type 2 diabetes (T2D) yet evidence-based guidance for clinicians is lacking. Methods: We searched the four electronic databases from November 2015–December 2021. The most recent, most comprehensive, high-ranked systematic reviews, meta-analyses and/or umbrella reviews of randomised controlled trials in adults with T2D were included. Data were extracted on study characteristics, aggregate outcome measures per group (glycemic control, measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion), adverse events, and GRADE assessments. Quality was assessed using AMSTAR-2. Results: Twelve meta-analyses and one umbrella review were included. There was very low certainty evidence that chromium, Vitamin C and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-3 PUFAs) were superior to placebo for the primary outcome of HbA1c (MD -0.54%, -0.54% and ES -0.27 respectively). Probiotics were superior to placebo for HbA1c (WMD -0.43%). There was very low certainty evidence that Vitamin D was superior to placebo for lowering HbA1c in trials of <6 months (MD -0.17%). Magnesium, zinc, Vitamin C, probiotics and polyphenols were superior to placebo for FBG. Vitamin D was superior to placebo for insulin resistance. Data on safety was limited. Conclusions: Future research should identify who may benefit from nutrient supplementation, safety, and optimal regimens and formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: glycemic variability; continuous glucose monitoring; dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 inhibitor; metformin
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:06:31 CET)
To cope the high glycemic variability (GV) is crucial in the management of multiple daily insulin (MDI) in diabetes. We compared the effect of low dose metformin 750mg/d adding vildagliptin 100mg/d (DPP4+LMET) or the high dose metformin 1500mg/d (HMET), in type 2 diabetes (T2D) with MDI, evaluating GV by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Single center, open-label, 12 weeks - 2 period crossover design. Twenty T2D with inadequately controlled (7.0% <HbA1c ≦9.0%) with MDI + LMET were enrolled. Primary endpoints were GV and hypoglycemia derived from CGM performed after each 12 weeks treatment periods. There was no significant difference in HbA1c, body weight changes, total daily dose of insulin. DPP4+LMET compared to the HMET, significantly reduced the calculated GV value, mean (7.15±1.3 vs 7.82±1.6, p<0.05), standard deviation (1.78±0.55 vs 2.27±1.11, p=0.03), continuous overlapping net glycemic action (6.44±1.28 vs 7.12±1.69, p<0.05), J-Index (26.7±11.0 vs 34.9±19.8, p<0.05), high blood glucose index (3.01±1.96 vs. 6.73±4.85, p=0.02), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (4.53±1.35 vs 5.50±2.34, p=0.03). The GV metrics with hypoglycemia and nocturnal hypoglycemia were not significantly different. DPP4+LMET decreased GV associated with hyperglycemia. Adding DPP4 inhibitor to the lower dose of metformin is an alternative approach to the stable GV in MDI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0245.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; glycated hemoglobin; glycemic changes; physical inactivity; chronic diseases; public health
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:18:55 CET)
The covid-19 pandemic has generated substantial changes in the lives of the population, such as increased physical inactivity, which can lead to overweight and, consequently, repercussions on glucose homeostasis. A population-based household epidemiological survey was conducted by stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling (October and December 2020) in Brazil. Participants were classified as physically active or inactive during leisure time according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. HbA1c levels were categorized as normal (≤6.4%) or with glycemic changes (≥ 6.5%). The mediating variable was excess weight (overweight and obese). Multivariate logistic regression analyzes were performed to examine the association between physical inactivity and glycemic changes. Mediation was analyzed using the Karlson–Holm–Breen method to verify the influence of excess weight on the association. We interviewed 1,685 individuals, mostly women (52.4%), 35–59 years old (45.8%), race/ethnicity brown (48.1%), and excess weight (56.5%). The mean HbA1c was 5.68% (95% CI: 5.58-5.77). Individuals physically inactive were 2.62 times more likely to have glycemic alterations (OR:2.62.95% CI:1.29-5.33), and 26.87% of this association was mediated by excess weight (OR:1.30:95% CI:1.06-1.57). Physical inactivity in leisure time increases the chances of glycemic alterations, and part of this association can be explained by excess weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: astrocytes; hypoglycemia; diabetes mellitus, type 1; mitochondria; glycemic control; hypothalamus; glutamic acid.
Online: 18 August 2022 (14:24:35 CEST)
Recurrent hypoglycaemia, a common side-effect of insulin therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes, induces impaired glucose-sensing. Better understanding of how astrocytes, important non-neuronal cells in the brain, function in low glucose environments may improve our understanding of recurrent hypoglycaemia-induced defective counterregulation. Astrocytes contribute to glutamatergic signalling, which is required for hypoglycaemia counterregulation and is impaired by recurrent insulin-induced hypoglcyaemia. This study examined the glutamate response of astrocytes when challenged with acute and recurrent low glucose (RLG) exposure. The metabolic responses of cortical (CRTAS) and hypothalamic (HTAS) primary rat astrocytes were measured in acute and recurrent low glucose using extracellular flux analyses. RLG caused mitochondrial adaptations in both HTAS and CRTAS, many of which were attenuated by glutamate exposure during low glucose treatments. We observed an increase in capacity of HTAS to metabolise glutamine after RLG exposure. Demonstrating astrocytic heterogeneity in the response to LG, CRTAS increased cellular acidification, a marker of glycolysis in LG, whereas this decreased in HTAS. The directional change in intracellular Ca2+ levels of each cell type, correlated with the change in extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) during LG. Further examination of glutamate-induced Ca2+ responses in low glucose treated CRTAS and HTAS identified sub-populations of glucose-excited- and glucose-inhibited-like cells with differing responses to glutamate. Lastly, release of the gliotransmitter ATP by HTAS was elevated by RLG, both with and without concurrent glutamate exposure. Therefore, hypothalamic astrocytes adapt to RLG by increasing glutamate uptake and oxidation in a manner that attenuates RLG-induced mitochondrial adaptations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: γ-butyrobetaine; glycemic control; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry; obesity; trimethylamine N-oxide; type 2 diabetes
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:08:33 CEST)
High circulating concentrations of the gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are significantly associated with the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed at evaluating the impact of glycemic control and bariatric surgery on circulating concentrations of TMAO and its microbiota-dependent intermediate, γ-butyrobetaine (γBB), in newly diagnosed T2D patients and morbidly obese subjects. An additional experiment was carried out in eight male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western-type diet for twelve weeks. The strategy for glycemic control in the T2D patients significantly improved the HbA1c concentrations without producing changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. However, the plasma TMAO and γBB concentrations were significantly increased following the glycemic control in T2D patients. Bariatric surgery was very effective in reducing weight in obese subjects. Nevertheless, the surgery reduced plasma γBB concentrations without affecting TMAO concentrations and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Neither diet-induced obesity nor insulin resistance were associated with circulating TMAO and γBB concentrations in mice. Our findings do not support that glycemic control or bariatric surgery improve the circulating concentrations of TMAO in newly diagnosed T2D and morbidly obese patients. The contribution of antidiabetic drugs to gut microbiota composition could explain TMAO elevations in treated T2D subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antioxidants; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; type 2 diabetes; pediatrics; redox; glycemic control; exercise; vitamin E; glutathione
Online: 19 January 2023 (15:10:23 CET)
The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prediabetes is rapidly increasing, particularly in children, adolescents, and young adults. Oxidative stress (OxS) has emerged as a likely initiating factor in T2D. The role of natural antioxidant products in combating T2D is best evaluated in the context of the complex physiological processes that modulate T2D-OxS such as glycemic control and exercise. The role of natural antioxidant compounds such as vitamin E in T2D must likewise be considered beyond their roles as inhibitors of OxS. In addition to antioxidant properties, vitamin E vitamers (tocopherols and tocotrienols) also exhibit distinct abilities to regulate cellular signal transduction pathways important to T2D progression. Most research on the role of vitamin E in T2D or prediabetes has been limited to tocopherols (Ts) but emerging trials with tocotrienols (T3s) show promise. Minimizing factors that induce chronic damaging OxS and maximizing natural antioxidant protective factors may provide a means of preventing or slowing T2D progression. This “optimal redox” (OptRedox) approach also provides a framework in which to discuss the potential benefits of natural antioxidant factors such as antioxidant products. Since early, effective intervention is critical, the OptRedox strategy would be optimally effective if implemented in the pediatric population.