ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0504.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: geospatial; computation; spatial benchmark; cybergis
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:12:06 CEST)
Technologies around the world produce and interact with geospatial data instantaneously, from mobile web applications to satellite imagery that is collected and processed across the globe daily. Big raster data allows researchers to integrate and uncover new knowledge about geospatial patterns and processes. However, we are also at a critical moment, as we have an ever-growing number of big data platforms that are being co-opted to support spatial analysis. A gap in the literature is the lack of a robust framework to assess the capabilities of geospatial analysis on big data platforms. This research begins to address this issue by establishing a geospatial benchmark that employs freely accessible datasets to provide a comprehensive comparison across big data platforms. The benchmark is a critical for evaluating the performance of spatial operations on big data platforms. It provides a common framework to compare existing platforms as well as evaluate new platforms. The benchmark is applied to three big data platforms and reports computing times and performance bottlenecks so that GIScientists can make informed choices regarding the performance of each platform. Each platform is evaluated for five raster operations: pixel count, reclassification, raster add, focal averaging, and zonal statistics using three different datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0142.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: clustering; vague neighbourhoods; geospatial data; hierarchical; recursive
Online: 14 May 2019 (11:16:12 CEST)
This work is developed over the question ”How to automatically create a good clustering on spatial dataset with high different local densities?” opened by previus work of Berzi . To answer the main question, this work describe a approach of recursive clustering process based on a technique of finding ”vague-solution”, where the output is an hierarchical clustering of initial dataset. In particularly the the approach is developed and tested on DBSCAN algorithm  with large dataset gathered by Google Place in Metropolitan Area of Milan. The core solutions developed in this algorithm are condensed in the capacity of generation a Hierarchical Clustering with a recursive select the best solutions in according tothe our goals, previously dfined by some sets of rules. The algorithm described here, and developed in my Master Thesis, rosolve two problem: - When we use an algorithm of clustering that can create a set of differents clustering, but equally valid and don’t know exctly what we must have as good solution, we areled to ask ourselves: ”What are the better?” This obviously depends by our goals, sonow the question is: ”What are our goals?”; - The second problem is condensed in the sentence ”Not all clusters can be found in one-shot clustering process, more often we must reapply the process to some part of datataset”, so there we have a second question that this paper answering: ”How to create clustering of data with ad-hoc processing for each different part of input dataset?”; These questions are resolved by the approaches named in this work as: Space of Solutions, Vague-Solution, Vague-Solution finding Method and finaly Recursive Clustering. All of these approaches was drafted and tested in mine Master Thesis titled ”Geospatial data analysis for Urban informatics applications: the case of the Google Place of the City of Milan” .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: airborne laser scanning; geospatial database; data retrieval; road median; attributes
Online: 11 April 2018 (04:27:42 CEST)
Laser scanning systems make use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology to acquire accurately georeferenced sets of dense 3D point cloud data. The information acquired using these systems produces better knowledge about the terrain objects which are inherently 3D in nature. The LiDAR data acquired from mobile, airborne or terrestrial platforms provides several benefit over conventional sources of data acquisition in terms of accuracy, resolution and attributes. However, the large volume and scale of LiDAR data have inhibited the development of automated feature extraction algorithms due to the extensive computational cost involved in it. Moreover, the heterogeneously distributed point cloud, which represents objects with varying size, point density, holes and complicated structures pose a great challenge for data processing. Currently, geospatial database systems do not provide a robust solution for efficient storage and accessibility of raw data in a way that data processing could be applied based on optimal spatial extent. In this paper, we present Global LiDAR and Imagery Mobile Processing Spatial Environment (GLIMPSE) system that provides a framework for storage, management and integration of 3D LiDAR data acquired from multiple platforms. The system facilitates an efficient accessibility to the raw dataset, which is hierarchically represented in a geographically meaningful way. We utilise the GLIMPSE system to automatically extract road median from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud. In the first part of this paper, we detail an approach to efficiently retrieve the point cloud data from the GLIMPSE system for a particular geographic area based on user requirements. In the second part, we present an algorithm to automatically extract road median from the retrieved LiDAR data. The developed road median extraction algorithm utilises the LiDAR elevation and intensity attributes to distinguish the median from the road surface. We successfully tested our algorithms on two road sections consisting of distinct road median types based on concrete and grass-hedge barriers. The use of GLIMPSE improved the efficiency of the road median extraction in terms of fast accessibility to ALS point cloud data for the required road sections. The developed system and its associated algorithms provide a comprehensive solution to the user's requirement for an efficient storage, integration, retrieval and processing of large volumes of LiDAR point cloud data. These findings and knowledge contribute to a more rapid, cost-effective and comprehensive approach to surveying road networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0207.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Open-access; geospatial; remote sensing; hydrodynamic model; CAESAR-LISFLOOD; data-sparse; flood risk management
Online: 10 July 2020 (08:13:07 CEST)
Consistent data is seldom available for whole-catchment flood modelling in many developing regions, thus this study demonstrates how the complementary strengths of open and readily available geospatial datasets and tools can be leverage to map flood risk within acceptable levels of uncertainty for flood risk management. Available fragmented remotely-sensed and in situ datasets (including hydrological data, altimetry, digital elevation model, bathymetry, aerial photos, optical and radar imageries) are systematically integrated using 2-dimensional CAESAR-LISFLOOD model to quantify and recreate the extent and impact of the historic 2012 flood in Nigeria. Experimental modelling, calibration and validation is undertaken for the whole Niger-South hydrological catchment area of Nigeria, then segmented into sub-domains for re-validation to understand how data variability and uncertainties impact on the accuracy of model outcomes. Furthermore, aerial photos are applied for the first time in the study area for flood model validation and to understand how different physio-environmental properties influence synthetic aperture radar flood delineation capacity in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0268.v1
Online: 29 January 2018 (05:29:38 CET)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0267.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digitization; Spatial and urban planning; eSpace; ePlan; Geospatial Data; Data pro-duction; Data distribution; Value co-creation
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:10:22 CEST)
The introduction of digitization has changed all spheres of business on a global level, including geospatial data. In the Republic of Serbia, the process on this topic should begin with the introduction of the terms ePlan and eSpace. The general goal of the paper implies the construction and implementation of the ePlan as a future part of the eSpace for digital management of geospatial data, by creating co-creating value. For this purpose, the authors conducted research in which representatives of local self-governments and holders of public authority participated, by means of structured online research. The focus was on the digitization of urban and planning documents and the establishment a central database of spatial and planning documents in electronic format, and its further distribution through the one system. In that way, easy access to digital plan data expands the user community, and enables communication with different stakeholder groups. Ac-cording to the results of the research, the authors point out that it is necessary to form a new model for managing geospatial data through a eSpace system. This is achieved by shifting the focus from urban and spatial planning to other databases and their registers that are related to geospatial data. The goal of the paper indicates that it is necessary to raise the awareness of society, to introduce the concept of value co-creation, because conditions are created for the implementation of all measures aimed at digitization and management of electronic services in sustainable project society, at all countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0179.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: GeoSPARQL; GeoSPARQL 1.1; spatial; geospatial; Semantic Web; RDF; OWL; OGC; Open Geospatial Consortium; standard; ontology.
Online: 9 November 2021 (14:05:34 CET)
In 2012 the Open Geospatial Consortium published GeoSPARQL defining “an RDF/OWL ontology for [spatial] information”, “SPARQL extension functions” for performing spatial operations on RDF data and “RIF rules” defining entailments to be drawn from graph pattern matching. In the 8+ years since its publication, GeoSPARQL has become the most important spatial Semantic Web standard, as judged by references to it in other Semantic Web standards and its wide use for Semantic Web data. An update to GeoSPARQL was proposed in 2019 to deliver a version 1.1 with a charter to: handle outstanding change requests and source new ones from the user community and to “better present” the standard, that is to better link all the standard’s parts and better document & exemplify elements. Expected updates included new geometry representations, alignments to other ontologies, handling of new spatial referencing systems, and new artifact presentation. In this paper, we describe motivating change requests and actual resultant updates in the candidate version 1.1 of the standard alongside reference implementations and usage examples. We also describe the theory behind particular updates, initial implementations of many parts of the standard, and our expectations for GeoSPARQL 1.1’s use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land surface temperature; operational land imager; thermal infrared sensor; normalized difference vegetation Index; geospatial technology
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:28:24 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature is a one of the key variable of Global climate changes and model which estimate radiating budget in heat balance as control of climate model. It is a major influenced factor by the ability of the surface emissivity. In this study, were used Landsat 8 satellite image that have Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor to calculate Land Surface Temperature through geospatial technology over Ampara district, Sri Lanka. The Land Surface Temperature was estimated with respect to Land Surface Emissivity and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values determined from the Red and Near Infrared channels. Land Surface Emissivity was processed directly by the thermal Infrared bands. Pixels based calculation were used to effort at LANDSAT 8 images that thermal Band 10 various dates in this study. The results were achievable to compute Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Land Surface Emissivity, and Land Surface Temperature with applicable manner to compare with land use/ land cover data. It determines and predicts the changes of surface temperature to favorable to decision making process for the society. Study area faces seasonal drought in Sri Lanka, the prediction method that how land can be efficiently used with the present condition. Therefore, the Land Surface Temperature estimation can prove whether new irrigation systems for agricultural activities or can transformed source of energy into useful form that introducing solar hubs for energy production in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1792.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: peripheral neighborhoods; public space assessment tools; co-location network; open access data; geospatial data science; network analysis; cartography.
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:18:00 CEST)
Adequate public spaces and urban green areas are key criteria for urban development and infrastructure implementation of healthy cities. Latterly, there has been an increasing number of research methods using artificial intelligence (AI) to monitor, quantify, and control the state of these spaces with an aim towards pioneering research in Urban Studies. However, in informal areas, open-data access tends to lack adequate and updated information, making it difficult to use AI methods. Hence, we propose a methodology for restricted open data collection and preparation for future use in machine learning or spatial data science models for similar areas. To that extent, we examine two peripheral and low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador, La Bota and Toctiuco, to analyze their public spaces, urban green areas, points of interest, and road networks, and how they address healthy cities criteria. We develop an original methodological approach that combines an index of proximity, accessibility, quantity, and quality of these spaces with geospatial and network analysis techniques. Results indicate that the connectivity and structure of these spaces are centralized and nodal, representing exclusion and segregation. This work provides insights on potential healthy spaces, and information to urban planners and policymakers in decision-making for healthy urban infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0042.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: geospatial economic supply; biomass; risk assessment; vulnerability
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:17:33 CEST)
Assessing the economic supply of biomass in a geospatial context while accounting for risk from natural disasters was studied. Risk levels were estimated from a component of factors which included: population density, road density, federal ownership, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ecoregions, and Presidential Disaster Declarations. The Presidential Disaster Declarations included risks due to: coastal storm, drought, fire, flood, freezing, hurricane, mud land slide, severe ices, severe storms, snow, tornado, and tropical storm. Presidential Disaster Declarations included summaries based on a short-term time period from 2000-2011, and on a long-term time period from 1964-2011. Risk categories were developed as a function of the number of disaster declarations, agricultural-to-forest land ratio, average road density, and average population density. A significant contribution of the research was the allocation of spatially explicit data using GIS technology at the 5-digit zip code tabulation area. The average area for 5-digit ZCTAs in the Eastern U.S. study region was approximately 169 kilometers2. Long-term risk (1964-2011) from disaster declarations had a greater impact on the economic availability of biomass supply relative to short-term declarations (2000-2011). The greatest risk to biomass supply came from population density relative to the other risk factors studies. Of the 25,044 total ZCTAs, 12,256 ZCTAs were in locations that did not include population density ≥ 150/km2, road density ≥ 14 km/km2, federal ownership, and US Environmental Protection Agency Level III ecoregions. Of the remaining 12,256 ZCTAs, 26.8% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on short-term declarations (2000-2011) and 29.4% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on long-term declarations (1964-2011). Lower risk locations for procuring biomass supply for both short-term and long-term declarations, across all risk factors, were in southern Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: geospatial technologies; distance learning; resource allocation; AIOU
Online: 3 April 2018 (04:29:44 CEST)
Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the largest distance learning institute of Pakistan and providing education to 1.4 million students. This is fairly a large setup across the country where students are geographically distributed. Currently the system works on a manual approach which is not efficient. Allocation of tutors and study centers to students plays a key role in distance learning for a better learning environment. Assigning tutors and study centers to distance learning students is a challenging task when there is huge geographical spread. The utilization of geospatial technologies in open and distance learning can fix allocation problems. This research analyzes the real data of twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The results show that the geospatial technologies can be used for efficient and proper resource utilization and allocation, which in turn can save the time and money. The overall idea fits into improved distance learning framework and related analytics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: community transformations; species loss; geospatial classification; Spartina patens
Online: 12 January 2023 (07:20:07 CET)
Salt marshes are globally important ecosystems, but many have been lost or transformed due to the impacts of global change. There have been attempts to broadly quantify salt marsh communities, especially the ubiquitous grasses which serve as foundation species such as Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens, the latter of which is being lost due to sea level rise. However, few researchers have used high-resolution geospatial imagery to quantify fine-scale changes in the distribution of grasses or to track losses of S. patens. To address this issue, we utilized a simple and rapid method of classifying geospatial marsh imagery with cloud-based machine learning in Google Earth Engine (>92% accuracy for S. patens regardless of imagery age). Our methods allowed us to characterize full landscapes (two geospatially proximal areas, >7,000 ha each) of critical salt marshes on the New Jersey coast and to evaluate fine-scale (1-m) community transformations in response to global change with imagery from 2006 to 2019. Notably, one marsh experienced very little change while the other experienced an 81.17% (1,087 ha) loss of S. patens, illuminating disparate patterns of change for two geographically proximal ecosystems. Further exploration revealed an association in the loss of S. patens with increases in streamflow and total nitrogen content in the rivers that run through each marsh. These results signify the importance of broad-scale ecological studies that evaluate fine-scale community transformations and for management strategies that do not generalize across landscapes of an ecosystem-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0079.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Groundwater quality; Shallow aquifers; agronomics; geospatial techniques; Aligarh
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:57:47 CEST)
Monitoring of groundwater quality in today's scenario is very much important. Due to urbanization and population pressure regular monitoring of groundwater for drinking as well as irrigation purposes need a major concern. With this aim, a study has been carried out consisting 26 groundwater samples in May 2017, to access the physiochemical characteristic, water quality index (WQI) of groundwater by using GIS software and to find out the groundwater suitableness for drinking as well as for irrigation purpose. The pH is slightly alkaline and the TDS is much more than prescribed limits of BIS. The trend of cations in groundwater are Ca2+>Na+>Mg2+>K+ while anions trend is HCO3->SO42->Cl->NO3->CO32->F-. The Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-K-Cl-SO4 types of groundwater facies were dominant. Generally, the chemical changes in groundwater are administered by the evaporation process with ion exchange, and mixing of particles is the significant source of the solute acquisition process. WQI of the study area suggested that the 15% sample is unsuitable, 69% is poor and remaining is good for drinking uses. The potential salinity of the groundwater sample is nearly high although the majority of the sample is suited for irrigation activities.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0339.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID19; Bounce Back Loans; BBLS; Clustering, Geospatial; Temporal
Online: 18 January 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
Bounce Back Loan is amongst a number of UK business financial support schemes launched by UK Government in 2020 amidst pandemic lockdown. Through these schemes, struggling businesses are provided financial support to weather economic slowdown from pandemic lockdown. £43.5bn loan value has been provided as of 17th Dec2020. However, with no major checks for granting these loans and looming prospect of loan losses from write-offs from failed businesses and fraud, this paper theorizes prospect of applying spatiotemporal modelling technique to explore if geospatial patterns and temporal analysis could aid design of loan grant criteria for schemes. Application of Clustering and Visual Analytics framework to business demographics, survival rate and Sector concentration shows Inner and Outer London spatial patterns which historic business failures and reversal of the patterns under COVID-19 implying sector influence on spatial clusters. Combination of unsupervised clustering technique with multinomial logistic regression modelling on research datasets complimented by additional datasets on other support schemes, business structure and financial crime, is recommended for modelling business vulnerability to certain types of financial market or economic condition. The limitations of clustering technique for high dimensional is discussed along with relevance of an applicable model for continuing the research through next steps
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0329.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Geospatial Regression; Health Disparities; Public Health
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:48:57 CEST)
COVID-19 is a potentially fatal viral infection. This study investigates geography, demography, socioeconomics, health conditions, hospital characteristics, and politics as potential explanatory variables for death rates at the state and county levels. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Census Bureau, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Definitive Healthcare, and USAfacts.org were used to evaluate regression models. Yearly pneumonia and flu death rates (state level, 2014-2018) were evaluated as a function of the governors’ political party using repeated measures analysis. At the state and county level, spatial regression models were evaluated. At the county level, we discovered a statistically significant model that included geography, population density, racial and ethnic status, three health status variables along with a political factor. State level analysis identified health status, minority status, and the interaction between governors’ parties and health status as important variables. The political factor, however, did not appear in a subsequent analysis of 2014-2018 pneumonia and flu death rates. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 has greater and disproportionate effect within racial and ethnic minority groups, and the political influence on the reporting of COVID-19 mortality was statistically relevant at the county level and as an interaction term only at the state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1793.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Clusters; Multivariate geospatial model; Minas Gerais state
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:12:34 CEST)
Abstract. Background: COVID-19's first victim was announced by Chinese health authorities on the 11th of January 2020. On January 13, the first official case was reported outside China, in Thailand. On January 25, the same occurred in São Paulo and on March 8, the first case was recorded in Minas Gerais. From that point onwards until the 3rd of October 2020, a total of 370,911 cases and 9,204 deaths were recorded in the state. This study aims to investigate spatiotemporal patterns of COVID-19 with incidence from March 22 to October 3 of 2020. Methods: The database itself was obtained from Health Division of Minas Gerais state. The vulnerability index was calculated using a principal component analysis. Moran's I autocorrelation was tested, z-score and P-value < 0.05. Results: From March 22 to October 3 of 2020 the incidence level varied from 45.680/100,000 to 312.130/100,000. The most influential variables were: illiteracy, gross domestic product and breath apparel per municipality. The clusters were concentrated in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Zona da Mata and Triangulo Mineiro. Conclusion: The spatial distribution of COVID-19 from week 13 until week 40 showed that different levels of endemicity and mesoregional vulnerabilities were represented in these maps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0050.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: groundwater exploration; fracture trace analysis; geophysics; geomorphology; geospatial tools
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:46:03 CET)
Groundwater is a strategic resource for economic development, social justice, environmental sustainability, and water governance. The Lower Casas Grandes Basin located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico is in a semi-arid region that has increasing groundwater demands while confronting regional challenges such as adverse climate change scenarios and depleting aquifers. Even though there is official information about the availability of groundwater, comprehensive aquifer characterization is still uncertain and needs interdisciplinary investigation using a diverse suite of tools and multiple data sources. This study presents a multi-technique framework to evaluate potential sites to drill for groundwater resources. The main components of the methodology included: wellhead leveling correction with a differential global positioning survey to define piezometric levels, principal component analysis using Landsat-8 images, application of geospatial tools, geophysics using Time Domain Electromagnetic Surveys and Vertical Electric Soundings and structural geohydrology to define aquifer characteristics. Results show that the application of the framework enhances the possibility of successful drilling for groundwater while saving time and money using “pin-point” positioning for drilling sites as compared to a traditional extensive groundwater exploration approach. Low resistivity values (35 Ohm-m) were found at depths from 50m to 85m at sites where the regional static water level reached 245 m deep adding a shallow groundwater potential at sites where the intersection of fracture trace was identified. This procedure can be used at other sites where limited or minimum information is available for groundwater exploration to reduce the risk of drilling dry wells in complex hydrogeological environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0110.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: best practice; crop mapping; crowdsourcing; drought risk assessment; exposure; flood risk assessment; geospatial data; spaceborne remote sensing; unsupervised classification; rule-based classification
Online: 17 December 2017 (08:26:29 CET)
Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data -such as municipality-level records of crop seeding- for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using ``good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The paper presents the problem, the constraints and the adopted solutions; it then summarizes the main findings including that efforts and costs can be saved on the side of Earth Observation data processing when additional ground-based data are available to support the mapping task.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Head/tail breaks, natural cities, Zipf’s law, geospatial big data
Online: 25 April 2019 (12:06:45 CEST)
Authorities define cities – or human settlements in general – through imposing top-down rules in terms of whether buildings belong to cities. Emerging geospatial big data makes it possible to define cities from the bottom up, i.e., buildings determine themselves whether they belong to a city based on the notion of natural cities that is defined based on head/tail breaks, a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. In this paper, we used 125 million building locations – all building footprints of America (mainland) or their centroids more precisely – to derive 2.1 million natural cities in the country (http://lifegis.hig.se/uscities/). These natural cities – in contrast to government defined city boundaries – constitute a valuable data source for city-related research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: nutrient loading; geospatial model; dissolved inorganic nitrogen; water quality; island management
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:23:41 CET)
Excessive nutrient discharge to tropical island coastlines drives eutrophication and algal blooms with significant implications for reef ecosystem condition and provision of ecosystem services. Management actions to address nutrient pollution in coastal ecosystems include setting water quality standards for discharging surface waters. However, these standards do not account for the effects of groundwater discharge, variability in flow, or dilution, all of which may influence assessment of true nutrient impacts on nearshore reef habitats. We developed a method to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loads to coastal zones by integrating commonly available datasets within a geospatial modeling framework for Tutuila, American Samoa. The DIN loading model integrated an open-source water budget model, water sampling results, and publically available streamflow data to predict watershed-scale DIN loading to the island’s entire coastline. When compared to surface water pathways, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was determined to be the most important coastal delivery mechanism of terrigenous DIN, which supports findings from other tropical islands. Onsite wastewater disposal systems were also found to be the primary anthropogenic sources DIN to coastal waters. Our island-wide DIN loading model provides a simple and robust metric to define spatially-explicit sources and delivery mechanisms of nutrient pollution to nearshore reef habitats. Understanding the sources and primary transport modes of inorganic nitrogen to nearshore reef ecosystems can have significant implications for place-based management interventions aimed at increasing the adaptive capacity of unique island ecosystems to environmental variation and disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0752.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: geospatial models; model integration framework; model servicized structure; prioritization-based orchestration; heuristic scheduling
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:03:34 CET)
With the rapid development of Earth observation and information technology, people are increasingly able to access geospatial models. Geospatial models, based on principles of geography, utilize mathematical, statistical, as well as computer science methods to interpret and predict geographic phenomena. These models can be applied in the fields such as urban planning, environmental protection, traffic management to help decision-makers solve geography-related problems. However, integrating different geospatial models to collaboratively solve complex geographic problems still faces significant obstacles due to heterogeneity in model structure, dependencies, and running modes. In this study, we propose a containerized service-based integration framework for heterogeneous geospatial models (GeoCSIF). GeoCSIF consists of three main components: (1) Model encapsulation. It breaks down complicated geospatial models into independently manageable model units, and builds as unified service packages with a templated constraint method. (2) Model orchestration. It achieves an optimal combination of large-scale models with complex dependencies using a prioritization-based orchestration method. (3) Model publication. It incorporates heuristics into the model scheduling process, which can provide adaptive deployment for different model runs. Finally, a prototype system was developed to validate the effectiveness and progressiveness of GeoCSIF by the integrating process of heterogeneous flood disaster models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: geoportal; location intelligence; geospatial data; emergency response; health expert system; decision support system
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:42:06 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 is a public health emergency that caused disastrous results in many countries. The global aim is to stop transmission and prevent the spread of the disease. To achieve it, every country needs to scale up emergency response mechanisms, educate and actively communicate with the public, intensify infected case finding, contact tracing, monitoring, quarantine of contacts, and isolation of cases. Responding to an emergency requires efficient collaboration and a multi-skilled approach (medical, information, statistical, political, social, and other expertise), which makes it hard to define one interface for all. As actors from different perspectives and domain backgrounds need to address diverse functions, the possibility to exchange available information quickly would be desirable. Geoportal provides an entry point to access a variety of data (geospatial data, epidemiological data) and could be used for data discovery, view, download, and transformation. It helps to deal with challenges like data analysis, confirmed cases geocoding, recognition of disease dynamics, vulnerable groups identification, and capacity mapping. Predicting and modeling the spread of infection, along with application support for communication and collaboration, are the biggest challenges. In response to all these challenges, we have established the Epidemic Location Intelligence System (ELIS) using open-source software components in the cloud, as a working platform with all the required functionalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1773.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: geospatial entities; annotation system; deep learning; BiLSTM+CRF+AGG model; active Learning; human-assisted
Online: 26 September 2023 (13:59:37 CEST)
When analyzing user geospatial information through deep learning methods, it is typically necessary to annotate existing geospatial data. Currently, manual annotation methods are commonly employed, suffering from issues related to low efficiency and accuracy. This design is based on the TensorFlow deep learning framework and first realizes the BiLSTM+CRF+AGG deep learning model. Among the models, AGG is the aggregation layer, which is introduced to solve the problem of solid particle size equilibrium. Secondly, based on the characteristics of original data and professional data, an automatic labeling algorithm is proposed. The algorithm first preprocesses the acquired original data set and professional data set, The most valuable unlabeled data set which can make the training model converge quickly is selected from the original data set as the target data set. Sort the target data set based on preset rules and set annotation parameters for the sorted target data set. Based on the set annotation parameters, the corpus is synthesized and used as the annotation result. Thirdly, based on the active learning strategy, a manual annotation auxiliary scheme is proposed, and an Excel generation module that is convenient for manual annotation correction is designed and developed to further improve the efficiency and quality of annotation through iterative processing. The combination of the BiLSTM+CRF+AGG deep learning model and high-quality annotation can accurately identify non-standard, incomplete, or even incorrect geographical information entities. This annotation method has found successful practical application within the context of the research project and has been granted an invention patent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: climate change; vector-borne disease; artificial intelligence; explainable AI; geospatial modeling; infectious disease; arbovirus
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:21:32 CEST)
As recent history has shown, changing climate not only threatens to increase the spread of known disease, but also the emergence of new and dangerous phenotypes. This occurred most recently with West Nile virus: a virus previously known for mild febrile illness rapidly emerged to become a major cause of mortality and long-term disability throughout the world. As we move forward, into increasingly uncertain times, public health research must begin to incorporate a broader understanding of the determinants of disease emergence – what, how, why, and when. The increasing mainstream availability of high-quality open data and high-powered analytical methods presents promising new opportunities. Up to now, quantitative models of disease outbreak risk have been largely based on just a few key drivers, namely climate and large-scale climatic effects. Such limited assessments, however, often overlook key interacting processes and downstream determinants more likely to drive local manifestation of disease. Such pivotal determinants may include local host abundance, human behavioral variability, and population susceptibility dynamics. The results of such analyses can therefore be misleading in cases where necessary downstream requirements are not fulfilled. It is therefore important to develop models that include climate and higher-level climatic effects alongside the downstream non-climatic factors that ultimately determine individual disease manifestation. Today, few models attempt to comprehensively address such dynamics: up until very recently, the technology simply hasn’t been available. Herein, we present an updated overview of current perspectives on the varying drivers and levels of interactions that drive disease spread. We review the predominant analytical paradigms, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight promising new analytical solutions. Our focus is on the prediction of arboviruses, particularly West Nile virus, as these diseases represent the pinnacle of epidemiological complexity – solution to which would serve as an effective “gatekeeper”. We present the current state-of-the-art with respect to known drivers of arbovirus outbreak risk and severity, differentially highlighting the impact of climate and non-climatic drivers. The reality of multiple classes of drivers interacting at different geospatial and temporal scales requires advanced new methodologies. We therefore close out by presenting and discussing some promising new applications of AI. Given the reality of accelerating disease risks due to climate change, public health and other related fields must begin the process of updating their research programs to incorporate these much needed, new capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0137.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Nighttime light data; Urban-rural regions; Geospatial dynamics; Local contour tree method; Dezhou city of China
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:25:03 CEST)
Analyzing urban-rural spatial structures and changes are of great significance for under-standing the urban-rural relationship evolution. While previous studies mostly focused on the urban internal spatial structure evolution, less from the regional scale to explore the urban and rural evolution. Here, taking Dezhou city, a rapidly urbanization city in China as a case study, we employed the local contour tree method and nighttime light data to map urban and active rural regions’ range during 2012-2020, and further explored the respective development processes of them. This study found that different from rural regions, internal structures of urban regions are more complex, and there are often multiple hot spots inside them. The urban-rural regions’ area had increased significantly by 39.3% during 2012-2020 (p<0.05). The urban and rural region rankings of the identified counties are basically consistent with the urban and rural population rankings. Particularly, different from perspectives of earlier land use (i.e., built-up land or impervious surface), this study identified urban and active rural regions in view of the scope of active human activities. This study therefore found populations were greatly responsible for affecting changes of urban and active rural region structures. These findings could be helpful for understanding urban-rural dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Tourism; Measuring sustainability; Tourist satisfaction; E-reputation; Sustainable development; Sentiment analysis; ETIS; Open data; Geospatial Index
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:58:47 CEST)
The importance of measuring sustainability in tourism has been significantly advancing in recent years, following the need to manage the impact of tourism on territories and hosting communities. It was further boosted by the pandemic, where sustainability has been defined as one of the central elements to restart global tourism. The ETIS model, developed by the European Commission, is a point of reference based on self-assessment, data collection and analysis by the destinations themselves. The application of ETIS toolkit has faced many challenges, especially at sub-national level, mostly related to the lack of available and updated data to feed the model. The hypothesis explored by the authors is to solve the implementation issues, developing an indicator based on the use of the Sentiment Analysis to frame e-reputation and tourism satisfaction, and further combining it with other open data sources. The Tourism Sustainability Index (TSI) can provide a scalable and geo-referenced evaluation of tourism sustainability, measuring the four pillars and sub-components referenced to ETIS criteria, applicable to any tourism destination. Results show that the TSI can be seen as a consistent and valid tool for destinations to analyze sustainability, monitor its evolution through time periods and sub-areas, and compare it to other benchmark or competitive areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0499.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: SDGs; urban inequality; urban governance; inclusive development; participatory geospatial methods; citizen-generated data; data practices; urban indicators
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:16:51 CET)
There is much discussion regarding the Sustainable Development Goals’ (SDGs) capacity to promote inclusive development. While some argue that they represent an opportunity for goal-led alignment of stakeholders and evidence-based decision-making, other voices express concerns as they perceive them as a techno-managerial framework that measures development according to quantitatively defined parameters and does not allow for local variation. We argue that the extent to which the positive or negative aspects of the SDGs prevail depends on the monitoring system’s ability to account for multiple and intersecting inequalities. The need for sub-nationally (urban) representative indicators poses an additional methodological challenge – especially in cities with intra-urban inequalities related to socio-spatial variations across neighbourhoods. This paper investigates the extent to which the SDG indicators’ representativeness could be affected by inequalities. It does so by proposing a conceptual framing for understanding the relation between inequalities and SDG monitoring, which is then applied to analyse the current methodological proposals for the indicator framework of the “urban SDG”, Goal 11. The outcome is a call for 1) a more explicit attention to intra-urban inequalities, 2) the development of a methodological approach to “recalibrate” the city-level indicators to account for the degree of intra-urban inequalities, and 3) an alignment between methodologies and data practices applied for monitoring SDG 11 and the extent of the underlying inequalities within the city. This would enable an informed decision regarding the trade-off in indicator representativeness between conventional data sources, such as censuses and household surveys, and emerging methods, such as participatory geospatial methods and citizen-generated data practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0073.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: ISIS, ISIL, DAESH, insurgency, conflict, security, non-state actor, emerging-state actor, combat simulator, geospatial, national security.
Online: 13 March 2018 (14:37:09 CET)
This paper seeks to explain the rapid growth of the Islamic State of Iraq & Syria (ISIS) and approach the question of “what is” the Islamic State? The paper offers several contributions. First is the proposal of a dynamic hypothesis that ISIS is an emerging-state actor and differs notably from traditional non-state actors and insurgencies. The theory consists of both a causal loop diagram and key propositions. A detailed system dynamics simulation (E-SAM) was constructed to test the theory. The propositions of emerging-state actor theory are constructed as synthetic experiments within the simulation and confirm evidence of emerging-state actor behavior. E-SAM’s novelty is its combination of combat simulation with endogenous geospatial feedback, ethnographic behavior in choosing sides in conflict, and details internal simulation of key actor mechanisms such as financing, recruiting and governance. E-SAM can be loaded with scenarios to simulate non-state actors in different geospatial domains: ISIS in Libya, Boko Haram in Nigeria, Taliban in Afghanistan and even expatriated ISIS fighters returning to pursue new conflicts such as in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1827.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Conservation imperatives; 30 by 30; Protected area targets; Rare species; Land cover fraction mapping; Geospatial analysis; Land costs analysis
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:31:14 CEST)
Ambitious biodiversity goals to protect 30% or more of the Earth’s surface by 2030 to prevent the most likely and imminent extinctions require strategic near-term targets. We propose Conservation Imperatives, spanning 164 Mha across 16,825 unprotected sites harboring rare and threatened species. These sites should be prioritized for conservation action over the next three to five years as part of a broader strategy to expand the global protected area network. The expansion of global protected areas between 2018–2023 incorporated only 7% of sites harboring range-limited and threatened species, highlighting a renewed urgency to conserve these habitats. Permanently protecting only 0.74% of land found in the tropics, where Conservation Imperatives sites are concentrated, at a cost of US$34 to $56 billion per year over the next 3-5 years, could prevent the majority of predicted near-term extinctions once adequately resourced. Multiple approaches could achieve this goal: providing rights and title to Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) conserving traditional lands, government designation of new protected areas on federal and state lands; or land purchase and long-term leasing of privately held lands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0556.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Three Lines One Permit; web-based interactive analysis; online environmental planning analysis platform; EIA approval; Web-GIS; geospatial data; Guangzhou
Online: 29 December 2022 (08:56:25 CET)
Currently, an interactive environmental planning analysis system platform based on " Three Lines One Permit " (TLOP) is being developed to support environmental planning, construction project approval, and the application of TLOP outcome data in Guangzhou. The main objective is to provide governments, businesses and the public with environmental planning analysis tools to determine the site of construction projects. The platform is using the system architecture of the browser and server. Its core functions are interactive environmental planning analysis tool for construction project and the results display tool supporting map viewing. It provides users with a large number of detailed geospatial data and TLOP results data access and environmental planning analysis functions. This article describes the system architecture and implementation of the system platform and has a case study illustrating the system functionality. At present, the platform has been deployed and trial-operated. The content of the analysis framework is constantly expanding. This promotes the matching of environmental planning and analysis with local conditions. This will implement the application of TLOP and improve the efficiency of project construction and the level of ecological environment planning and management.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Spatial Data Infrastructure; Social Determinants of Health; Healthcare; Health; Geospatial Data Analytics; Geocoding; GeoHealth; GIS; Open Standards; Population Health; Disaster Response; Emergency Response
Online: 23 October 2019 (10:27:16 CEST)
Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) support the harvesting, curating, storage, and sharing of data along with providing access to development, analytic, and visualization tools that enable the building of innovative applications to address broad or specific challenges. SDIs can be especially powerful in bringing together data and tools supporting a particular theme – and this paper discusses and demonstrates the value of an SDI focused on Health. Many potential benefits of a Health SDI are proposed, and the case of supporting emergency response efforts is developed in detail. Leveraging a Health SDI, a Health Risk Index was created that provides emergency response personnel (both Emergency Operations Managers and Emergency Medical Responders) key insights into the unique health risks the impacted population faces due to the disaster. In order to establish the Health Risk Index, datasets from multiple national and global sources representing health data and social data that influences health outcomes – typically called social determinants of health – are harvested, merged, and republished to support further efforts at advancing the Health Risk Index. Visualizations of the Health Risk Index at the global, national, and sub-national levels down to the address level are presented along with demonstrations of its use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0083.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: mobile network data; call detail records; geospatial data; data analysis; human mobility; urban mobility; large social event; social sensing; socioeconomic status; machine learning; clustering
Online: 17 January 2023 (12:12:07 CET)
Mobile phones have become an integral part of our lives in the last two decades, leaving a digital trace of our activities and communication. This study aims to develop a data processing framework to evaluate human mobility and socioeconomic status based on call detail records. The methodology proposed first calculates radius of gyration and entropy for each user, then estimates the socioeconomic status by the price and age of the subscribers' phones. Finally, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm was used to group the cells into clusters based on their mobility and socioeconomic metrics. The research showed differences between Buda and Pest during a large scale social event using mobile phone ages and prices. Additionally, the clustering results revealed homogenous groups of cells around Budapest, with similar mobility and socioeconomic metrics. The main conclusion is that mobile network data combined with mobile phone properties offer a useful tool for characterising urban mobility and socioeconomic status.