ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cystic fibrosis; gene therapy; gene targeting; gene integration
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:14:02 CET)
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited monogenic disorder, amenable to gene based therapies. Because CF lung disease is currently the major cause of mortality and morbidity, and lung airway is readily accessible to gene delivery, the major CF gene therapy effort at present is directed to the lung. Although airway epithelial cells are renewed slowly, permanent gene correction through gene editing or targeting in airway stem cells is needed to perpetuate the therapeutic effect. Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) has been utilized widely for a variety of gene editing applications. The stringent requirement for nuclease binding target sites allows for gene editing with precision. In this study, we engineered helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors to deliver a pair of TALENs together with donor DNA targeting the human AAVS1 locus. With homology arms of 4 kb in length, we demonstrated precise insertion of either a LacZ reporter gene or a human CFTR minigene into the target site. Using the LacZ reporter, we determined the efficiency of gene integration to be about 5%. In the CFTR vector transduced cells, we have detected both CFTR mRNA and protein expression by qPCR and Wetern analysis, respectively. We have also confirmed CFTR function correction by flurometric Image Plate Reader (FLIPR) and iodide efflux assays. Taking together, these findings suggest a new direction for future in vitro and in vivo studies in CF gene editing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: piRNA; miRNA; KLOTHO gene; FGF23 gene; anti-aging gene
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:00:00 CEST)
The problem of increasing life expectancy is solved with the help of many medical and social areas. It has been established that piRNAs and miRNAs can significantly modify the expression of protein-coding genes by suppressing the translation process. The aim of this work was to establish the possibility of binding piRNAs and miRNAs with mRNA of the KLOTHO and FGF23 genes, which promote health and increase life expectancy through participation in key metabolic processes. We used the MirTarget program, which determines the quantitative characteristics of complementary interactions of all piRNAs and miRNAs nucleotides with mRNA of the genes. piR-44682, piR-1940042, piR-3008660, piR-3215034, piR-6885965, piR-7980636 and one miRNA (ID00756.3p-miR) binding to the mRNA of the KLOTHO gene were found in one cluster of binding sites (BSs). piRNA-6890096 interacted with the mRNA of KLOTHO gene in a fully complementary manner using only canonical nucleotides. Among 17494 human genes, target genes interacting with five piRNAs that bind to the mRNA of KLOTHO gene were identified. mRNA of the AFF2, BCL2L11, CPT1A, DAZAP1, NDRG3, SKIDA1, WBP4, ZIC5, ZSWIM6 genes interacted with piR-3215034 and piR-6885965, which formed clusters of BSs located in 5'UTR, CDS and 3'UTR. The piR-576442, piR-1501557, piR-1845735, piR-2069834, and piR-3029987 had BSs in the mRNAs of the FGF23 gene, located only in the 3'UTR. It is proposed to use piRNAs and miRNAs as regulators of the expression of KLOTHO and FGF23 anti-aging genes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: gene editing; gene therapy; FDA; regulatory approval
Online: 31 July 2023 (04:55:07 CEST)
Gene or genome editing (GE) revises, removes, or replaces a mutated gene at the DNA level; it is a tool. Gene therapy (GT) offsets mutations by introducing a "normal" version of the gene into the body while the diseased gene remains in the genome; it is a medicine. So far, no GE product has been approved, as opposed to 22 GT products that cost up to millions of dollars per dose. The FDA has recently added a guideline specific to gene editing that should be understood to enable faster development of GE products; at the same time, the FDA also needs to bring more clarification and make several amendments to this guideline to make it more rational.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1145.v1
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:46:25 CEST)
Transcription factors (TFs) in the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) family serve as essential regulators of plant development and control responses to environmental stimuli. To date, however, the HD-ZIP gene family in Prunus nana remains to be fully characterized. Accordingly, a genome-wide analysis of P. nana HD-ZIP family genes was performed using the most recent genomic data available, leading to the classification of 30 HD-ZIP TFs. These genes were annotated and subjected to systematic analyses of phylogenetic relationships, protein physicochemical properties, sequence-based structural characteristics, chromosomal distributions, and associated cis-acting regulatory elements. High levels of diversity were observed with respect to the gene structures for these PnaHD-Zip genes and the cis-regulatory elements found in the promoter regions upstream of these genes, suggesting that they play diverse roles in a range of biological contexts. These 30 PnaHD-Zip genes were further classified into four subgroups based on the results of phylogenetic, gene structure, and conserved motif analyses. Subsequent qPCR analyses indicated that PnaHD-Zip1 and PnaHD-Zip7 expression levels tended to increase was continuously inhibited in response to cold stress, suggesting that proteins in this HD-ZIP gene family may exhibit distinct responses to low-temperature stress exposure. Overall, these results offer a robust foundation for future studies seeking to explore the functional roles that HD-ZIP TFs play as regulators of cold stress tolerance in P. nana, in addition to offering more general insight regarding the regulatory functions and characteristics of these different HD-ZIP genes in P. nana.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene expression; Gene Ontology; Enrichment analysis; Transcriptomics
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:51:32 CEST)
Gene expression profiling data contains more information than is routinely extracted with standard approaches. Here we present Fold-change-Specific Enrichment Analysis (FSEA), a new method for functional annotation of differentially expressed genes from transcriptome data with respect to their fold changes. FSEA identifies GO terms, which are shared by the group of genes with a similar magnitude of response, and assesses these changes. GO terms found by FSEA are fold-change-specifically (e.g. weakly, moderately or strongly) affected by a stimulus under investigation. We demonstrate that many responses to abiotic factors, mutations, treatments and diseases occur in a fold-change-specific manner. FSEA analyses suggest that there are two prevailing responses of functionally-related gene groups, either weak or strong. Notably, some of the fold-change-specific GO terms are invisible by classical algorithms for functional gene enrichment, SEA and GSEA. These are GO terms not enriched compared to the genome background but strictly regulated by a factor within specific fold-change intervals. FSEA analysis of a cancer-related transcriptome suggested that the gene groups with a tightly coordinated response can be the valuable source to search for possible regulators, markers and therapeutic targets in oncogenic processes. Availability and Implementation: FSEA is implemented as the FoldGO Bioconductor R package and a web-server https://webfsgor.sysbio.cytogen.ru/ .
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0107.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: horizontal gene transfer; alien index; lateral gene transfer
Online: 31 August 2017 (15:03:30 CEST)
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the transmission of genes between organisms by other means than parental to offspring inheritance. While it is prevalent in prokaryotes, HGT is less frequent in eukaryotes and particularly in metazoan. Here, we propose Alienness, a taxonomy-aware web application that parses BLAST results against public libraries to rapidly identify candidate HGT in any genome of interest. Alienness takes as input the result of a BLAST of a whole proteome of interest against any NCBI protein library. The user defines recipient (e.g. metazoan) and donor (e.g. bacteria, fungi) branches of interest in the NCBI taxonomy. Based on the best BLAST E-values of candidate donor and recipient taxa, Alienness calculates an Alien Index (AI) for each query protein. An AI >0 indicates a better hit to candidate donor than recipient taxa and a possible HGT. Higher AI represent higher gap of E-values between candidate donor and recipient and a more likely HGT. We confirmed the accuracy of Alienness on phylogenetically confirmed HGT of non-metazoan origin in plant-parasitic nematodes. Alienness scans whole proteomes to rapidly identify possible HGT in any species of interest and thus fosters exploration of HGT more easily and largely across the tree of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cancer; microRNA; gene therapy; oncogene; tumor suppressor gene
Online: 9 January 2017 (10:24:03 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of conserved small non-coding RNAs that participate in regulating gene expression by targeting multiple molecules. Early studies have shown that the expression of miRNAs changes significantly in different tumor tissues and cancer cell lines. It is well acknowledged that such variation is involved in almost all biological processes, including cell proliferation, mobility, survival and differentiation. Increasing experimental data indicate that miRNA dysregulation is a biomarker of several pathological conditions including cancer, and that miRNA can exert a causal role, as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, in different steps of the tumorigenic process. Anticancer therapies based on miRNAs are currently being developed with a goal to improve outcomes of cancer treatment. In our present study, we review the function of miRNAs in tumorigenesis and development, and discuss the latest clinical applications and strategies of therapy targeting miRNAs in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Gene Editing; Gene Therapy; Oncology; Comparative Medicine; One Health
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:45:43 CEST)
With rapid advances in gene editing and gene therapy technologies, the development of genetic, cell, or protein-based cures to disease are no longer the realm of science fiction but that of today’s practice. The impact of these technologies are rapidly bringing them to the veterinary market as both enhanced therapeutics and towards modeling their outcomes for translational application. Simply put, gene editing enables scientists to modify an organism’s DNA a priori through the use of site-specific DNA targeting tools like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). Gene therapy is a broader definition that encompasses the addition of exogenous genetic materials into specific cells to correct a genetic defect. More precisely, the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines gene therapy as “a technique that modifies a person’s genes to treat or cure disease” by either (i) replacing a disease-causing gene with a healthy copy of the gene; (ii) inactivating a disease-causing gene that was not functioning properly; or (iii) introducing a new or modified gene into the body to help treat a disease. In some instances, this can be accomplished through direct transfer of DNA or RNA into target cells of interest or more broadly through gene editing. While gene therapy is possible through the simple addition of genetic information into cells of interest, gene editing allows the genome to be reprogrammed intentionally through the deletion of diseased alleles, reconstitution of wild type sequence, or targeted integration of exogenous DNA to impart new function. Cells can be removed from the body, altered, and reinfused, or edited in vivo. Indeed, manufacturing and production efficiencies in gene editing and gene therapy in the 21st century has brought the therapeutic potential of in vitro and in vivo reprogrammed cells, to the front lines of therapeutic intervention (Brooks et al., 2016). For example, CAR-T cell therapy is revolutionizing hematologic cancer care in humans and is being translated to canines by us and others, and gene therapy trials are ongoing for mitral valve disease in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gene doping; gene therapy; droplet digital PCR; adenoviral vector
Online: 25 April 2019 (12:45:49 CEST)
With the rapid progress of genetic engineering and gene therapy, World Anti-Doping Agency has alerted to gene doping and prohibited its use in sports. However, there is no standard method available yet for detection of transgenes delivered by recombinant adenoviral (rAdV) vectors. Here we aimed to develop a detection method for transgenes delivered by rAdV vectors in a mouse model that mimics gene doping. rAdV vectors containing mCherry gene was delivered in mice through intravenous injection or local muscular injection. After five days, stool and whole blood samples were collected, and total DNA was extracted. As additional experiments, whole blood was also collected from mouse tail tip until 15 days from injection of the rAdv vector. Transgene fragments from different DNA samples were analyzed using semi-quantitative PCR (sqPCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). In the results, transgene fragments could directly be detected from blood cell fraction-DNA, plasma-cell free DNA and stool-DNA by qPCR and ddPCR, depending on specimen type and injection methods. We observed that a combination of blood cell fraction-DNA and ddPCR was more sensitive than other combinations used in this model. These results could accelerate the development of detection methods for gene doping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1585.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: prime editing; CRISPR/Cas9; gene editing; gene therapy; RYR1-related diseases; neuromuscular diseases; RYR1 gene; mutations
Online: 24 November 2023 (08:51:01 CET)
We report the first correction by Prime editing of a mutation in the RYR1 gene, paving the way to gene therapies for RYR1-related myopathies. The RYR1 gene codes for a calcium channel named Ryanodine receptor 1, which is expressed in skeletal muscle fibers. The failure of this channel causes muscle weakness in patients, which degenerates into motor disabilities. Currently, there are no effective treatments for these diseases, which are mainly caused by point mutations. Prime editing allows the modification of precise nucleotides in the DNA. Our results showed a 59% correction rate of the T4709M mutation in the RYR1 gene in human myoblasts by RNA delivery of the Prime editing components. It is to be noted that the T4709M is recessive, and thus, persons having a heterozygous mutation are healthy. These results are the first demonstration that it is possible to correct mutations in the RYR1 gene.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0905.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: phylogenetics; hybridization; introgression; horizontal gene transfer; lateral gene transfer; phylogenetic incongruence; gene-tree-species-tree discordance
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:50:27 CEST)
Phylogenomics has enriched our understanding of the Tree of Life. Non-vertical modes of evolution—such as hybridization/introgression and horizontal gene transfer—deviate from a strictly bifurcating tree model, mirroring a network-like or reticulate structure. Here, we present an overview of a phylogenomic workflow for inferring organismal histories, calibrating those histories to evolutionary time, and detecting reticulate evolution. Mitigating analytical sources of error facilitates accurate reconstructions of evolutionary history and, in turn, characterization of non-vertical modes of evolution. Workflows and methods discussed herein may aid in the rigorous inference of organismal histories in geologic time and reticulation, providing a clearer understanding of the evolutionary process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Magnesium; Evolution analysis; Plant gene families; Gene sequence analysis; Stresses
Online: 21 June 2022 (03:47:50 CEST)
Magnesium transporters (MGTs) play a prominent role in the absorption, transport and storage of magnesium in plant cells. In the present study, MGT gene family members were identified and characterized in two species of cucurbitaceae, including C. sativus and C. lanatus. 20, 19, and 20 MGT genes were recognized in C. lanatus, C. sativus, and C. melo, respectively. According to physicochemical properties, the members of each sub-class of MGTs in the species of cucurbitaceae showed the close relationship. Proteins from NIPA were identified as hydrophilic proteins with high stability. Based on phylogenetic analysis, MGT family members were classified into three groups, and NIPAs showed more diversity. Besides, duplication events were not identified between the MGT members in C. lanatus, and C. sativus. According to pocket analysis, residues such as L, V, S, I, and A were frequently observed in the binding sites of MGT proteins in both species. The prediction of post-translation modifications revealed that MSR2 proteins have high phosphorylation potential than other sub-classes in both studied plants. The expression profile of MGTs showed that MGTs are more expressed in root tissues. In addition, MGTs showed differential expression in response to abiotic/biotic stresses as well as hormone application and NIPAs were more induced in response to stimuli in watermelon. The results of this study, as the primary work of MGT gene family, can be used in programs related to cucurbitaceae breeding.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gene doping; gene therapy; in vivo transfection; in vivo imaging
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:46:32 CEST)
The World Anti-Doping Agency has prohibited gene doping in the context of progress in gene therapy. There is a risk that the artificial regulation of genes using plasmids could be applied for gene doping. However, no gold standard method to detect this has been established. Here, we aimed to develop a method to detect multiple transgene fragments as proof of gene doping. First, gene delivery model mice as a mimic of gene doping were created by injecting firefly luciferase plasmid with polyethylenimine (PEI) into the abdominal cavity. The results confirmed successful establishment of the model, with sufficient luminescence upon in vivo imaging. Next, multiple transgene fragments in the model were detected in plasma cell-free (cf)DNA, blood-cell-fraction DNA, and stool DNA using the TaqMan-qPCR assay, with the highest levels in plasma cfDNA. Using just a single drop of whole blood from the model, we also attempted long-term detection. The results showed that multiple transgene fragments were detected until 11 days. These findings indicate that the combination of plasma cfDNA or just one drop of whole blood with TaqMan-qPCR assay is feasible to detect plasmid-PEI-based gene doping. Our findings could accelerate the development of methods for detecting gene doping in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Adra1b; cardiac ischemia; hypoxia; Crem; gene expression control; gene expression coordination; gene hierarchy; heart failure; transcriptomic stoichiometry
Online: 15 June 2022 (07:37:53 CEST)
Decades of research identified numerous gene biomarkers of cardiac diseases whose restored sequence or/and expression level was hoped to recover the normal cardiac function. However, each human has unique and dynamic pathophysiological characteristics resulting from the unrepeatable combination of favoring factors such are: race, sex, age, medical history, diet, stress, exposure to toxins, habits etc. As such, no treatment fits everybody and finding personalized solutions is a top priority for medicine of 21st century. The Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP) provides the most theoretically possible comprehensive characterization of the transcriptome, its alterations in disease and recovery following a treatment. By attaching to each gene the independent average expression level, expression variation and expression coordination with each other gene, GFP delivers thousands times more information than the traditional analysis. This report presents the theoretical bases of the GFP and some applications to our microarray data from mouse models of post ischemic, and constant and intermittent hypoxia-induced heart failure. The GFP analyses revealed novel transcriptomic aspects of the gene expression control and networking under ischemic conditions. Through all-inclusive characterization of the transcriptome and the unrepeatable gene hierarchy in each condition, GFP is an essential avenue towards development of a truly personalized cardiogenomic therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1474.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; mitochondrial gene; MT-TL2 gene; mutation; sequencing
Online: 23 November 2023 (05:44:55 CET)
(1) Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the second largest cause of mortality in female worldwide. Besides from basic risk factors, there are several hereditary variables that contribute to BC. Breast cancer has been linked to a variety of nuclear DNA changes as well as mitochondrial DNA alterations. The aim of this study was to analysis the association of mitochondrial tRNA leucine2 gene with BC. (2) Material and methods: In the current study, 24 samples have been collected from various families in Peshawar. DNA was extracted from Blood. PCR was used to amplify the mitochondrial tRNA MT-TL2 gene, and 22 samples were sequenced. The sequence was compared with accession #NC-012920.1 of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). (3) Results: The results (Chromatograph, nucleotide sequence and rCRS alignment) shows mutations in mitochondrial tRNA MT-TL2 gene in our participants is not the cause of Breast cancer. (4) Conclusion: Yet, a significant number of BC patients must be studied, and their full mitochondrial DNA must be analyzed. This will provide an indication of the potential DNA marker that might be used to prevent BC deaths at the earliest stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: mustard (Brassica juncea L.); CDPK gene family; gene expression; cold stress
Online: 7 November 2023 (13:19:40 CET)
The CDPK family genes play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways during plant develop-ment and stress response. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the CDPK family genes in mustard (Brassica juncea L.), resulting in the identification of 101 genes (BjuCDPK1–101) located on chromosomes AA_Chr01 to BB_Chr08. RNA-seq analysis showed that most BjuCDPK genes were predominantly expressed in the root and flower bud, suggesting their organ-specific expression patterns. Furthermore, the expression levels of most BjuCDPK genes were significantly altered by cold stress. The promoter regions of BjuCDPK genes had abundant cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress. The interaction network analysis predicted that BjuCDPK proteins respond to abiotic stress probably via interaction with ABF1, ABF4, and/or DI19. Our findings provide valu-able information for further investigation of the cold stress adaption of mustard via the CDPK signaling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Cotton; virus-induced gene silencing; plant architecture; expression QTL; candidate gene
Online: 7 April 2023 (05:30:25 CEST)
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a major source of natural fiber and an important cash crop. The cotton growth habit and architecture determine its productivity and influence management strategies for commercial production. The GATA transcription factors (TFs) control various developmental processes in plants, such as flower, bract and embryo development, and petal differentiation. As stable transformation is still a bottleneck in many plant species, TRV-VIGS was used to manipulate gene expression in different plants, including Gossypium hirsutum L. In this study, we undertook the TRV-based VIGS to functionally characterize two candidate genes, Gohir.D05G103700 and Gohir.D12G153600, identified through the expression QTL analysis for five floral induction and meristem identity genes using the upland cotton mini-core collection. Virus-induced silencing of the Gohir.D05G103700 gene resulted in up to a 1.4-fold reduction in the transcript level in two inoculated plants, G3 and G4, and Gohir.D12G153600 gene resulted in up to a 2.3-fold reduction in transcript level in a single inoculated plant P05 relative to the mock-treated plant. The TRV2-Gohir.D05G103700 inoculated plants precisely G3 and G4 also exhibited loss of the supernumerary (fourth) floral bract in the squares, whereas the TRV2-Gohir.D12G153600 inoculated plants did not show any observable phenotypic change relative to the mock-treated plants. Altogether, this study suggested that TRV-VIGS can be used to characterize genes in cotton relatively rapidly and the cotton Gohir.D05G103700 gene is a positive regulator of the indeterminate growth habit in cotton, which could be manipulated to obtain a cotton plant with architecture best suited for the cultivation area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene doping; Gene therapy; Erythropoietin; Adenoviral vector; Sports; Athlete; RNA sequencing
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:30:04 CEST)
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has prohibited gene doping in the context of progress in gene therapy. In addition, there is a risk of the EPO gene being applied in gene doping among athletes. Along with this, development of a gene-doping test has been underway in worldwide. Here, we had two purposes: to develop a robust gene doping mouse model using the human EPO gene (hEPO) transferred using recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) as a vector and to develop a detection method to prove gene doping using this model. The rAdV including the hEPO gene were injected intravenously to transfer the gene to the liver. After injection, the mice developed significantly increased red blood cell counts in whole blood and increased gene expressions of hematopoietic markers in the spleen, indicating successful development of the gene doping model. Next, we detected direct and indirect proof of gene doping in whole blood DNA and RNA using qPCR assay and RNA sequencing. Proof was detected in one drop of whole blood DNA and RNA over a long period; furthermore, the overall RNA expression profiles significantly changed. Therefore, we have advanced detection of hEPO gene doping in humans.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: hybridization; gene flow; different sunflower forms; imazamox; tribenuron-methyl; ALS gene
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:41:09 CEST)
Weedy sunflower is an invasive plant on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, which causes high yield losses in many crops. During the harvesting of the sunflower crops the dispersal of the seeds occurs, and as a result- the volunteer plants appear next year. Weedy sunflowers originate from volunteer plants that live through a longer period in one place. Spontaneous hybridization of weedy sunflower with other sunflower forms makes them more aggressive. If the volunteer plants originate from the hybrids tolerant to ALS inhibiting herbicides, they can be the carriers of herbicide tolerance genes and thus will not be sensitive to these herbicides. The exchange of the genetic material also enables the transfer of the ALS (AHAS) gene (responsible for the tolerance to the ALS inhibiting herbicides) to the progeny. In this study we have examined the spontaneous hybridization between different sunflower forms (volunteer sunflowers, weedy sunflowers, susceptible and tolerant sunflower hybrids to ALS inhibiting herbicides) in field conditions during three years. The progeny (F1 generation), which was assumed to possess the ALS gene, was tested with the application of the recommended doses of the Express (a.i. tribenuron-methyl) and Pulsar 40 herbicides (a.i. imazamox). The significant percent of the progeny of different forms of sunflowers, survived the herbicide treatment (6-31%). Molecular analysis of the ALS gene sequence in weedy sunflower progeny confirmed gene transfer in two cases at a distance of 30 and 120 m from the gene donor, i.e. tolerant hybrid Sumo 1 PR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0330.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: steatosis; fibrosis; gene; Yakutia
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:39:04 CEST)
Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are the most common type of genetic polymorphism. SNP can significantly affect the expression activity of genes and the level of protein production. Researching the role of SNP in the occurrence of diseases is an important and urgent task, as it allows to predict the risk of pathology, its severity and outcome. Purpose of the study: study of the frequency of I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene in residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), associated with a high risk of steatosis and liver fibrosis. Methods A total of 3132 peripheral venous blood samples were used for population studies, studies patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, studies patients with NAFLD. Genotyping of DNA samples was carried out by real time-PCR. Reagent kits were used for genotyping I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene. Results In the present study, it was found that in the Yakut population the carriage of the GG genotype (49%) of the PNPLA3 gene I148M polymorphism predominates. When conducting a comparative frequency analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the control group and the group with NAFLD patients(p=0,82). A comparative frequency analysis of the distribution of genotypes and alleles of I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene in the control group and the group of patients with chronic hepatitis B and C showed that we did not reveal significantly significant differences (p = 0.45). Conclusions The frequency of homozygotes for the mutant G allele of the I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene in the Yakut population significantly exceeds the frequency indicator of the G allele in other world populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0785.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mandible; retrognathism; gene; polymorphism
Online: 31 March 2021 (17:28:37 CEST)
: In this study we evaluated, if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding PTH, VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 are associated with Mandibular Retrognathism (MR). Samples from biologically-unrelated patients receiving orthodontic treatment were included in this study. Pre-orthodontic lateral cephalograms were used to determine the phenotype. Patients having a retrognathic mandible (SNB<78º) were selected as cases and those with an orthognathic mandible (SNB=78º–82º) were selected as controls. Genomic DNA was used for genotyping analysis of SNPs in PTH (rs694, rs6256 and rs307247), VDR (rs7975232), CYP24A1 (rs464653) and CYP27B1 (rs927650). Chi-squared or Fisher’s tests were used to compare genotype and allele distribution among groups. Haplotype analysis was performed for the SNPs in PTH. The established alpha was p<0.05. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify SNP-SNP interactions. A total of 48 MR and 43 controls were included. In the genotype and allele distribution analysis, the SNPs rs694, rs307247 and rs464653 in were associated with MR (p<0.05). MDR analyses predicted the best interaction model for MR was rs694-rs927650, followed by rs307247-rs464653-rs927650. Some haplotypes in the PTH gene presented statistical significance. Our results suggest that SNPs in PTH, VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 genes are associated with the presence of mandibular retrognathism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1867.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Brassica rapa L.; GSTs gene family; BraGSTF2 gene; over-expression; cold stress
Online: 27 July 2023 (07:28:46 CEST)
The largest gene families in plants were found to be Glutathione transferase (GSTs), which played significant roles in regulating plant growth, development, and stress response. Within the GSTs gene family, members were found to play a crucial role in the low-temperature response process of plants. A comprehensive study identified a total of 70 BraGSTs genes. Cluster analysis results demonstrated that the BraGSTs in Brassica rapa(B.rapa) could be categorized into eight sub-families and were unevenly distributed across ten chromosomes. The 39 BraGSTs genes were found to be organized into 15 tandem gene clusters, with the promoters containing multiple cis-elements associated with low-temperature response. Cold stress was observed to stimulate the expression of 15 genes, with the BraGSTF2 gene exhibiting the highest level of expression, sug-gesting its significant involvement in winter B.rapa's response to low-temperature stress. Sub-cellular localization analysis of the BraGSTF2 protein indicated its potential expression in both the cell membrane and nucleus. The analysis of stress resistance in BraGSTF2 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines emon-strated that the over-expression of this gene resulted in significantly elevated levels of SOD, POD activity, and SP content compared to the wild type following exposure to low temperatures. These levels reached their peak after 24 hours of treatment. Conversely, the MDA content was lower in the transgenic plants compared to the wild type. Additionally, the survival rate of BraGSTF2 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was higher than that of the wild type, suggesting that the BraG-STF2 gene may play a crucial role in enhancing the cold stress tolerance of winter B. rapa. This study lay a foundation for further study on the role of BraGSTs gene in the molecular regulation of cold resistance in winter B.rapa.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1931.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 16S rRNA gene; phylogenetics; amplicon metagenomics; bacterial species; gene structure and sequence
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:38:01 CEST)
Bacterial phylogenetics has largely been determined via 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Observed utility of this approach has driven the popularity of the 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomics method for profiling and identifying diverse microbes from specific habitats. This work sought to develop universal primers for amplifying the 16S rRNA gene from a consortium of disparate microbial species. Using multiple sequence alignment of the 16S rRNA gene of a variety of microbes, the resulting highly conserved region of the consensus sequence was used for design of universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for 16S rRNA gene. Application of the universal primers in simulated PCR reveals poor amplification efficiency where only 12 species out of 31 generated an amplicon. BLAST analysis of the resulting amplicons reveals a classification error of 50%. More significantly, analysis of the amplicon length indicates variable read length ranging from 81 to 122 base pair compared to the predicted read length of 100 base pairs. This suggests that the 16S rRNA gene harbours significant hitherto underappreciated sequence diversity, and may have unknown alternative splicing and recombination mechanisms. Overall, results from this study suggests that primer design for 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomics may be application and habitat specific, where it is difficult to design universal primers for all bacterial species. Conceptually, this meant that there may be sequence co-evolution in 16S rRNA gene for microbial species in the habitat where environmental and nutritional conditions impact on 16S rRNA gene structure and sequence. In essence, 16S rRNA gene may habour epigenetics signals at the gene level.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gene evolution; gene formation; long non-coding RNA genes; pseudogenes; USP18; GGT5
Online: 20 July 2020 (04:39:41 CEST)
A small phylogenetically conserved sequence of 11,231 bp termed FAM247 is repeated in human chromosome 22 by segmental duplications. This sequence forms part of diverse genes that span evolutionary time, the protein genes being the earliest as they are present in zebrafish and/or mice genomes, the long non-coding RNA genes and pseudogenes the most recent as they appear to be present only in the human genome. We propose that the conserved sequence provides a nucleation site for new gene development at evolutionary conserved chromosomal loci where the FAM247 sequences reside. The FAM247 sequence also carries information in its open reading frames that provides protein exon amino acid sequences; one exon plays an integral role in immune system regulation, specifically, the function of ubiquitin specific protease (USP18) in the regulation of interferon. An analysis of this multifaceted sequence and the genesis of genes that contain it are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0289.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: chickens; IGF-1 gene; TGFβ2 gene; DNA extraction; purification; sequencing and bioinformatics
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:17:40 CEST)
Molecular analysis is an easier means to identify and isolate a specific gene which has imperative function for growth, body composition , fat deposition, metabolic and skeletal traits as well as the molecular genetics selection on individual genes is a very efficient method to genetically improve economically important traits in chickens. Insulin- like growth factor 1 ( IGF-1)is a member of a heterogeneous group of peptides with important growth.Transforming growth factorβ ( TGF-β) belongs to a large family of growth and differentiation factors that play a pivotal role in a great variety of biological activities including morphogenesis, development and differentiation. DNA was extracted from 48 chickens sampled from three strains Lohman (17) , Sinai (24) and Gimmizah (7) IGF-1 gene and TGFβ2 gene were amplified using PCR protocol. Electrophoresis was carried out on the products of PCR , bands viewed on transilluminator. The size of IGF-1 gene was 675 bp while the size of TGFβ2 gene was 188bp. Sharp bands were purified and sequenced and used the dendrogram to show the relationships between other vertebrate species
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy; SMN1 gene; SMN2 gene; nuclear gems; antisense oligonucleotides; splicing correction.
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:19:28 CEST)
Spinal muscular atrophy is a neuromuscular disorder caused by mutationsin both copies of the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1) which lead to reduction in the production of the SMN protein. Currently, there are several therapies that have been approved for SMA, with much more undergoing active research. While various biomarkers have been proposed for assessing the effectiveness of SMA treatment, a universally accepted one still hasnot been identified. This study aimed to investigate whether the number of gems in cell nuclei could serve as a potential biomarker for SMA. To gain insight into whether the number of gems in cell nuclei varies based on their SMN genotype and whether the increase in gems number is associated with therapeutic response, we utilized fibroblast cell cultures obtained from a patient with SMA type II and from healthy individual. We have discovered a remarkable difference in the number of gems found in the nuclei of these cells, specifically when counting gems per 100 nuclei. Then the SMA fibroblasts were treated with antisense oligonucleotides the beneficial effects in correcting the abnormal splicing of SMN2 exon 7 have been demonstrated. It was observed that there was a significant increase in the number of gems in the treated cells compared to the intact SMA cells. The results obtained significantly correlate with an increase of full-length SMN transcripts share. Based on our findings, it is evident that the quantity of gems can be regarded as a reliable biomarker for SMA drugs development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1996.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Polypedates megacephalus; ATP8 gene,; Mitogenome,; Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA); Mitochondrial gene expression
Online: 30 August 2023 (09:43:56 CEST)
In this study, we resequenced the mitogenomes of P. megacephalus from different regions using a “primer bridging” approach with Sanger sequencing technologies. The mitogenome of this species was found to contain two copies of the ND5 genes and three copies of the control regions. Furthermore, multiple tandem repeats were identified in the control regions. Notably, we observed that there was no correlation between the distribution of species and their genetic distance. However, our research revealed the discovery of the “missing” ATP8 gene in P. megacephalus as well as three other previously published Polypedates, as a result of manual data curation. Using the mitogenome, gene expression analysis was performed via RT-qPCR of liver samples and determined that COIII, ND2, ND4, and ND6 were reduced to 0.64±0.24, 0.55±0.34, 0.44±0.21 and 0.65±0.17 under the low-temperature stress (8℃), respectively, as compared with controls (P<0.05). Remarkably, the transcript of long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) between positions 8029 and 8612 decreased significantly with exposure to low-temperature stress (8℃). Antisense ND6 gene expression showed a downward trend but this was not significant. These results reveal that modulations of protein-coding mitogenomes genes and lncRNAs of P. megacephalus play a crucial part in the molecular response to cold stress.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0753.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HOX genes; Hox gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; vertebrates; elongated gene cluster
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:30:15 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important during embryogenesis. It relates events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order H1, H2, H3 … along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the DNA sequence. The corresponding embryonic tissues (E1, E2, E3, …) are activated along the Anterior – Posterior axis in the same order. Besides this collinearity a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is H1 expressed in E1, later is H2 in E2, followed by H3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated and tested in the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. In the present work two equivalent realizations of BM are presented which explain the recent findings on TC as observed in the vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Gene Regulatory Networks; Non-Linear Variable Order Fractional System; Gene Expression; Epigenetic Memory
Online: 4 November 2020 (15:35:24 CET)
Complex diseases such as cancer are caused by changes in the Gene Regulatory Networks. Systems that model the complex dynamics of these networks along with adapting to real gene expression data are closer to reality and can help understand the creation and treatment of cancer. In this paper, for the first time, modelling of gene regulatory networks is performed using delayed nonlinear variable order fractional systems in the state space by a new tool called GENAVOS. This tool uses gene expression time series data to identify and optimize system parameters. This software has several tools for analyzing system dynamics. The results show that the nonlinear variable order fractional systems have very good flexibility in adapting to real data. We found that regulatory networks in cancer cells actually have a larger delay parameter than in normal cells. It is also possible to create chaos, periodic and quasi-periodic oscillations by changing the delay, degradation and synthesis rates. Our findings indicate a profound effect of time-varying order on these networks, which may be related to a type of cellular memory due to epigenetic and environmental factors. We showed that by changing the delay parameter and the variable order function for a normal cell system, its behavior changes and becomes quite similar to the behavior of a cancer cell. This work also confirms the effective role of the miR-17-92 cluster in the cancer cell cycle. GENAVOS is available at https://github.com/hanif-y/GENAVOS with its user guide and MATLAB codes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Candida spp; cryptic species; Honduras; PCR-RFLP; hwp1 gene; gpi gene; C. auris
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:05:45 CET)
Candida spp. are the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. The taxonomy of Candida is controversial and has undergone recent changes due to novel genetically related species. Therefore, some complexes of cryptic species have been proposed. In clinical settings, the correct identification of Candida species is relevant since some species are associated with high resistance to antifungal drugs and increased virulence. This study aimed to identify the species of four Candida complexes (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. haemulonii) by molecular methods. This is the first report of six cryptic Candida species in Honduras: C. dubliniensis, C. africana, C. duobushaemulonii, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, and it is also the first report of the allele hwp1-2 of C. albicans sensu stricto. It was not possible to demonstrate the existence of C. auris among the isolates of the C. haemulonii complex. We also propose a simple method based on PCR-RFLP for the discrimination of the multi-resistant pathogen C. auris within the C. haemulonii complex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: c-di-GMP; Cupriavidus metallidurans; cadmium; phosphodiesterase; biofilm; urf2 gene; mer gene; PleD
Online: 26 July 2018 (15:51:36 CEST)
Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal for biological systems. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is a model strain for heavy metal resistance and bioremediation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the c-di-GMP pathway in the C. metallidurans CH34 response to cadmium in both planktonic and biofilm cells. Increasing cadmium concentrations correlates with an inhibition of biofilm formation and EPS production in C. metallidurans cells. Planktonic and biofilm cells showed similar tolerance to cadmium. During exposure to cadmium an acute decrease of c-di-GMP levels in planktonic and biofilm cells was observed. Transcription analysis by RT-qPCR showed that cadmium induced in planktonic cells and strongly induced in biofilm cells the expression of the urf2 gene and the mercuric reductase encoding merA gene, which belong to the Tn501/Tn21 mer operon. After exposure to cadmium the cadA gene involved in cadmium resistance was equally upregulated in both lifestyles. Bioinformatic analysis and null mutant complementation assays indicated that the protein encoded by the urf2 gene is a functional phosphodiesterase involved in the c-di-GMP metabolism. We propose to rename the urf2 gene as mrp gene for metal regulated phosphodiesterase. An increase of the second messenger c-di-GMP content by the heterologous expression of the constitutively active diguanylate cyclase PleD* correlated with an increase in biofilm formation and cadmium susceptibility. These results indicate that the response to cadmium in C. metallidurans CH34 involves a decrease in c-di-GMP content that inhibits the biofilm lifestyle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: corneal; pediatric; adult; corneal endothelial dystrophies; total RNA; gene expression; gene sets; transcriptome
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:42:13 CEST)
The eyes are the sense organs through we view the world around us, and the cornea is the transparent layer which covers the outer, visible part of the eye. It is known that the gene expression of corneal endothelium depends on age. And the expressed genes of the endothelium of cornea for pediatric samples is different than that of the adult samples. The purpose or objective of this study was to characterize human corneal endothelial cell (HCEnC) gene expression and differential gene expression and to detect the expressed genes mapped to chromosomal loci associated with some corneal endothelial dystrophies. Both upregulated and downregulated genes were analyzed. For this purpose, total RNA was isolated from ex vivo corneal endothelium taken from six pediatric and five adult corneas. The complementary DNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST array. The data analysis was performed using the Enrichr software for both upregulated and downregulated genes. These are described in more detail in the results and discussion section. This study uses bioinformatics tools to identify and analyse gene sets present in the transcriptome of the corneal endothelium, and tries to find out and observe the relation of the aging effect on the corneal endothelium gene expression. The human subjects had participated voluntarily and informed consent was obtained from all before carrying out any testing procedure. Proper guidelines from the hospital ethical committee were also followed and no harmful chemicals were used on the participants. This study simply aims to raise some awareness of the given topic among the local people so that they are better able to take informed choices about their health in the near future, and also so that they seek medical help when necessary and have no inhibitions in doing so.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Pax6; Xiphosura; eye evolution; chelicerates; visual system; horseshoe crab; subfuctionalization; gene family evolution; gene duplication; gene regulatory network evolution; whole genome duplication
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:16:05 CEST)
Horseshoe crabs represent the most ancestral chelicerate lineage characterized by marine ecology and the possession of lateral compound eyes. While considered living fossils, recent studies reported an unusual number of Pax6 transcription factor genes in the Atlantic horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Pax genes encode a family of ancient metazoan transcription factors, which comprise seven subfamilies. Among these, the members of the Pax6 subfamily confer critical functions in the development of the head, the visual system, and further body plan components. Arthropods are characterized by two Pax6 subfamily homologs that were discovered in Drosophila and named eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy). However, whole genome sequence searches uncovered three homologs of ey and two homologs of toy in L. polyphemus. These numbers are explained by the occurrence of three whole genome duplications (WGD) in the lineage to the last common ancestor of L. polyphemus and its closely related three additional members of the extant horseshoe crab species cluster. Here we report comparative sequence evidence for the functional conservation of the five L. polyphemus Pax6 transcription factor homologs. Our analyses reveal that all paralogs are conserved in the approximately 135 million-year-old horseshoe crab species cluster and that they evolve under strong purifying selection. These findings identify subfunctionalization as the likeliest post-WGD outcome for the five Pax6 homologs. While awaiting confirmation by gene expression studies, this scenario would reconcile the discrepancy between the WGD-expanded gene repertoires and phenotypic stasis in the horseshoe crabs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Metazoans; gene family; evolution; development
Online: 17 October 2022 (10:38:56 CEST)
Hox genes represent an important gene family that is involved in the segmentation pattern and identity of the segments during the formation of the body plan in metazoans. For many years, several studies have sought to establish a correlation between the evolution of these genes and the evolution of large groups of metazoans. Here, we use publicly available sequences of Hox gene clusters to reconstruct the evolutionary history of anterior Hox genes. We show that information harbored by these genes, in part, reflects the evolution and diversification of most animal archetypes, but in many cases, there were conflicts between the evolutionary history of some genes and the history of large groups, these cases may have occurred due to specific and similar selective pressures in relatively distant groups, which may have led to evolutionary convergences. Our findings also reveal that the evolution of Hox genes (and clusters) as a multigene family is consistent to a birth-and-death model constrained by development, where there is a trade-off between a relatively fast gene turnover and their central developmental roles
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene expression; Helianthus; microsatellites; transcriptomics
Online: 20 April 2021 (08:21:06 CEST)
Mutations that provide environment dependent selective advantages drive adaptive divergence among species. Many phenotypic differences among related species are more likely to result from gene expression divergence rather than from non-synonymous mutations. In this regard, cis-regulatory mutations play an important part in generating functionally significant variation. Some proposed mechanisms that explore the role of cis-regulatory mutations in gene expression divergence involve microsatellites. Microsatellites exhibit high mutation rates and are abundant in both coding and non-coding regions and could influence gene function and products. Here we tested the hypothesis that microsatellites contribute to gene expression divergence among species with 50 individuals from nine closely related Helianthus species using an RNA-seq approach. Differential expression analyses of the transcriptomes revealed that genes containing microsatellites in non-coding regions (UTRs and introns) are more likely to be differentially expressed among species when compared to genes with microsatellites in the coding regions and transcripts lacking microsatellites. We detected a greater proportion of shared microsatellites in 5’UTRs and coding regions compared to 3’UTRs and non-coding transcripts among Helianthus spp. Further, allele frequency differences measured by pairwise FST at single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indicate greater genetic divergence in transcripts containing microsatellites compared to those lacking microsatellites. A gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that microsatellite-containing differentially expressed genes are significantly enriched for GO terms associated with regulation of transcription and transcription factor activity. Collectively, our study provides compelling evidence to support the role of microsatellites in gene expression divergence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: AHR; Cancer; Gene Profiling; Therapeutic
Online: 8 November 2020 (16:16:29 CET)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that has been shown to be an essential regulator of a broad spectrum of biological activities required for maintaining the body's vital functions. AhR also plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Its role in cancer is complex, encompassing both pro- and anti-tumorigenic activities. Its level of expression and activity are specific to each tumor and patient, increasing the difficulty of understanding the activating or inhibiting roles of AhR ligands. We explored the role of AhR in tumor cell lines and patients using genomic data sets and discuss the extent to which AhR can be considered as a therapeutic target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRISPR system; yeast; gene edition
Online: 2 December 2018 (10:13:38 CET)
This review summarizes the use of CRISPR system in yeasts, identifying advantages and disadvantages of its applications. 39 articles were evaluated including 12 articles that discussed the advantages of new CRISPR systems that improved the initial system, and another 27 were evaluated, among these: three were applications in Cryptococcus neoformans, four in candida sp., three in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, nine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, four in Yarrowia lipolytica, and four in industrially important yeasts such as Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces pastorianus. It was concluded that the CRISPR system is one of the most versatile genetic editing systems available nowadays. It can be applied in different organisms for several effects including gene knock-outs, performing point mutations, gene expression, or even applying multiple edition operations in several genes. However, we recognize that numerous studies lack a control group of the mutated strains, which leaves many questions unanswered. For instance, the extent and precision of this techniques, it also represents a risk to biosecurity standards. Therefore, this review shows the compilation of CRISPR system information, which could be used to generate different alternatives in the industry and clinical fields.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0751.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; large ribosome subunit; small ribosome subunit; 16S rRNA gene; 23S rRNA gene
Online: 12 July 2023 (09:18:55 CEST)
Phylogenetic tree analysis is commonly used to understand the evolutionary distance between different species or strains of the same species. This work originally aimed to gain an understanding and visual depiction of the evolutionary distance in 23S rRNA gene of different Helicobacter pylori strains. Using an in-house MATLAB multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis software, the phylogenetic tree constructed for 23S rRNA gene reveals two major lineages with further subdivisions in each cluster. This suggests two major evolutionary forces driving the evolution of the 23S rRNA gene. In comparison, there is relatively short evolutionary distance in the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree of H. pylori, suggesting lack of major evolutionary forces driving mutational changes of the gene. Overall, the data suggests that the large ribosome subunit which houses the 23S rRNA of H. pylori is undergoing significant conformational changes that may be a response to the frequent use of various antibiotics that target the ribosome of H. pylori.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0257.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene expression; transcriptome diversity; transcriptional variation; transcript diversity; isoform-level diversity; gene-level diversity
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:07:07 CEST)
Following the central dogma of molecular biology, gene expression heterogeneity can aid in predicting and explaining the wide variety of protein products, functions, and, ultimately, heterogeneity in phenotypes. There is currently overlapping terminology used to describe the types of diversity in gene expression profiles, and overlooking these nuances can misrepresent important biological information. Here, we describe transcriptome diversity as a measure of the heterogeneity in 1) the expression of all genes within a sample or a single gene across samples in a population (gene-level diversity) or 2) the isoform-specific expression of a given gene (isoform-level diversity). We first overview modulators and quantification of transcriptome diversity at the gene level. Then, we discuss the role alternative splicing plays in driving transcript isoform-level diversity and how it can be quantified. Additionally, we overview computational resources for calculating gene-level and isoform-level diversity for high-throughput sequencing data. Finally, we discuss future applications of transcriptome diversity. This review provides a comprehensive overview of how gene expression diversity arises, and how measuring it determines a more complete picture of heterogeneity across proteins, cells, tissues, organisms, and species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: biomarker gene; doses of drugs; fold change gene expression; error rate; toxicity; hierarchical clustering
Online: 3 July 2019 (07:44:28 CEST)
Assessment of drugs toxicity and associated biomarker genes is one of the most important tasks in the pre-clinical phase of drug development pipeline as well as in the toxicogenomic studies. There are few statistical methods for the assessment of doses of drugs (DDs) toxicity and their associated biomarker genes. However, these methods consume more time for computation of the model parameters using the EM (Expectation-Maximization) based iterative approaches. To overcome this problem, in this paper, an attempt is made to propose an alternative approach based on hierarchical clustering (HC) for the same purpose. There are several types of HC approaches whose performance depends on different similarity/distance measures. Therefore, we explored suitable combinations of distance measures and HC methods based on Japanese Toxicogenomics Project (TGP) datasets for better clustering/co-clustering between DDs and genes as well as to detect toxic DDs and their associated biomarker genes. We observed that Word’s HC method with each of Euclidean, Manhattan and Minkowski distance measures produces better clustering/co-clustering results. For an example, in case of glutathione metabolism pathway (GMP) dataset LOC100359539/Rrm2, Gpx6, RGD1562107, Gstm4, Gstm3, G6pd, Gsta5, Gclc, Mgst2, Gsr, Gpx2, Gclm, Gstp1, LOC100912604/Srm, Gstm4, Odc1, Gsr, Gss are the biomarker genes and Acetaminophen_Middle, Acetaminophen_High, Methapyrilene_High, Nitrofurazone_High, Nitrofurazone_Middle, Isoniazid_Middle, Isoniazid_High are their regulatory (associated) DDs explored by our proposed co-clustering algorithm based on the distance and HC method combination Euclidean: Word. Similarly, for the PPAR signaling pathway (PPAR-SP) dataset Cpt1a, Cyp8b1, Cyp4a3, Ehhadh, Plin5, Plin2, Fabp3, Me1, Fabp5, LOC100910385, Cpt2, Acaa1a, Cyp4a1, LOC100365047, Cpt1a, LOC100365047, Angptl4, Aqp7, Cpt1c, Cpt1b, Me1 are the biomarker genes and Aspirin_Low, Aspirin_Middle, Aspirin_High, Benzbromarone_Middle, Benzbromarone_High, Clofibrate_Middle, Clofibrate_High, WY14643_Low, WY14643_High, WY14643_Middle, Gemfibrozil_Middle, Gemfibrozil_High are their regulatory DDs. These results are validated by the available literature and functional annotation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CTCF; tumour suppressor gene; haploinsufficiency; zinc finger; CRISPR/Cas9; cancer; endometrial cancer; gene editing
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:29:01 CEST)
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a conserved transcription factor that performs diverse roles in transcriptional regulation and chromatin architecture. Cancer genome sequencing reveals diverse acquired mutations in CTCF, which we have shown, functions as a tumour suppressor gene. While CTCF is essential for embryonic development, little is known of its absolute requirement in somatic cells and the consequences of CTCF haploinsufficiency. We examined the consequences of CTCF depletion in immortalised human and mouse cells using shRNA knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and examined the growth and development of heterozygous Ctcf (Ctcf+/-) mice. We also analysed the impact of CTCF haploinsufficiency by examining gene expression changes in CTCF-altered endometrial carcinoma. Knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of CTCF reduced the cellular growth and colony-forming ability of K562 cells. CTCF knockdown also induced cell cycle arrest and a pro-survival response to apoptotic insult. However, in p53 shRNA-immortalised Ctcf+/- MEFs we observed the opposite: increased cellular proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression and decreased survival after apoptotic insult compared to wild type MEFs. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting in Ctcf+/- MEFs revealed a predominance of in-frame microdeletions in Ctcf in surviving clones, however protein expression could not be ablated. Examination of CTCF mutations in endometrial cancers showed locus-specific alterations in gene expression due to CTCF haploinsufficiency, in concert with downregulation of tumour suppressor genes and upregulation of estrogen-responsive genes. Depletion of CTCF expression imparts a dramatic negative effect on normal cell function. However, CTCF haploinsufficiency can have growth-promoting effects consistent with known cancer hallmarks in the presence of additional genetic hits. Our results confirm the absolute requirement for CTCF expression in somatic cells and provide definitive evidence of CTCF’s role as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene. CTCF genetic alterations in endometrial cancer indicate that gene dysregulation is a likely consequence of CTCF loss, contributing to, but not solely driving cancer growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: objective clustering; biclustering; gene regulatory networks; reconstruction; validation; gene expression profiles; noise component; systems stability
Online: 11 September 2018 (13:48:12 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Genome; MADS; gene family; fruit maturation
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:06:19 CET)
MADS-box genes play a crucial role in fruit ripening, yet limited research has been conducted on mango. Based on the conserved domains of this gene family, 84 MADS-box genes were identified in the mango genome, including 22 type I and 62 type II MADS-box genes. Gene duplication analysis revealed that both tandem duplication and segmental replication significantly contributed to the expansion of MADS-box genes in the mango genome, with purifying selection playing a vital role in the segmental duplication events within the MiMADS gene family. Cis-acting element analysis demonstrated that most MiMADS genes were hormonally regulated and participated in the growth, development, and stress resistance of mango fruit. Moreover, through expression pattern analysis and phylogenetic tree construction, we identified six MiMADS genes belonging to the SEP1 subfamily and two belonging to the AG subfamily as potential candidates involved in mango ripening regulation. Notably, Mi08g17750 and Mi04g18430 from the SEP1 subfamily were identified as key regulators inhibiting mango fruit maturation; their interaction network was also analyzed. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation into the regulatory mechanisms underlying mango ripening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1961.v1
Online: 28 September 2023 (07:56:15 CEST)
Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a common mitochondrial genetic disease, causing irreversible blindness in young individuals. Current treatments are inadequate, and there is no definitive cure. This study evaluates the effectiveness of delivering wildtype human NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (hND4) gene using mito-targeted AAV(MTSAAV) to rescue LHOH mice. We observed declining pattern electroretinograms amplitudes as mice aged across all groups (P< 0.001), with significant differences among groups (P = 0.023, Control vs. LHON, P = 0.008; Control vs. Rescue, P = 0.228). Inner retinal thickness and intraocular pressure do not change significantly with age or groups. Compared to LHON mice, those rescued with wildtype hND4 exhibit improved retinal visual acuity (0.29± 0.1 cy/deg vs.0.15 ± 0.1 cy/deg) and increased functional hyperemia response (effect of flicker, P<0.001, effect of Group, P=0.004; Interaction Flicker x Group, P<0.001). Postmortem analysis shows a marked reduction in retinal ganglion cell density in the LHON group compared to the other groups (Effect of Group, P<0.001, Control vs. LHON, P<0.001, Control vs. Rescue, P=0.106). These results suggest that MTSAAV-delivered wildtype hND4 gene rescues, at least in part, visual impairment in an LHON mouse model and has the therapeutic potential to treat this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1684.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; gene family; rice blast; bioinformatics.
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:51:49 CEST)
In order to enhance understanding of RNA-binding proteins in rice, a comprehensive investigation was conducted on the RRM1 gene family of rice, encompassing genome-wide identification and exploration of its role in rice blast resistance. Physical and chemical properties of the OsRRM1 gene family in rice was analyzed, including conserved domain, motif, location information, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, collinearity analysis, cis-acting elements, GO, and KEGG. Furthermore, the expression patterns of the OsRRM1 gene were examined at different time intervals following rice blast treatment. Furthermore, the alterations in expression patterns of selected OsRRM1 genes were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). A total of 212 members of the OsRRM1 gene family were identified, which were dispersed across 12 chromosomes. Many of these genes exhibit multiple exons and introns, all of which encompass the conserved RRM1 domain and share analogous motifs. This observation suggests a high degree of conservation within the encoded sequence domain of these genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of five subfamilies within the OsRRM1 gene family. Furthermore, the investigation of the promoter region identified homeopathic elements that are involved in nucleic acid binding and interaction with multiple transcription factors. By employing GO and KEGG analysis, four RRM1 genes were tentatively identified as crucial contributors to plant immunity, while the RRM1 gene family was also found to have a significant involvement in the complex of alternative splicing. Additionally, gene expression analysis indicated that the majority of OsRRM1 genes exhibited constitutive expression. The results of the qRT-PCR analysis revealed distinct temporal changes in the expression pattern of the OsRRM1 gene following rice blast treatment. These findings contribute to the existing knowledge of the OsRRM1 gene family, establish a foundation for further investigation into the role of the OsRRM1 gene in response to rice blast infection, and hold theoretical significance for future studies on the functionality of the OsRRM1 gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1399.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Salvia; CYP76AH; P450; biosynthesis; functional gene
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:52:34 CEST)
Salvia is a large genus in traditional Chinese medicine with hundreds of species. Tanshinones are a highly representative class of exclusive compounds found in the Salvia genus that exhibit significant biological activity. Tanshinone components have been identified in 16 species of the Salvia genus. The CYP76AH subfamily (P450) is crucial for the synthesis of tanshinone due to its catalytic generation of polyhydroxy structures. 420CYP76AH genes were obtained, clear clustering relationships. In this study 15 CYP76AH genes from 10 Salvia species were cloned and studied from the perspectives of evolution and catalytic efficiency. Structure-function relationship revealed several conserved residues which might be related to the function of CYP76AHs. Amino acids (97I, 116V, and 290T) are conserved in CYP76AH1 group, while amino acids (117G, 208S, 237Y, and 479F) are CYP76AH3 group protein sequence characteristics with unique enzyme function.This research holds significant implications for the classification of the Salvia genus and provide efficient catalytic elements for the synthetic biology production of tanshinones.Keywords: Salvia; CYP76AH; P450; biosynthesis; functional gene
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Sheep, genome, transcriptome, pangenome, gene editing
Online: 13 April 2023 (14:08:04 CEST)
Sheep (Ovis aries) provide a vital source of protein and fibre to human populations. In coming decades, as the pressures associated with rapidly changing climates increase, breeding sheep sustainably as well as producing enough protein to feed a growing human population will pose a considerable challenge for sheep production across the globe. High quality reference genomes and other genomic resources can help to meet these challenges by: 1) informing breeding programmes by adding a priori information about the genome, 2) providing tools such as pangenomes for characterising and conserving genetic diversity, and 3) improving our understanding of fundamental biology using the power of genomic information to link cell, tissue and whole animal scale knowledge. In this review we describe recent advances in the genomic resources available for sheep, discuss how these might help to meet future challenges for sheep production, and provide some insight into what the future might hold.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; bacteria; gene; developing countries
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:54:28 CET)
Antibiotic resistance is a major public health issue that requires a multifaceted approach. One potential source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is wastewater in developing countries, which often lacks proper treatment infrastructure and can release high levels of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the environment. This review article summarizes current knowledge on strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in wastewater in developing countries. Our review highlights the importance of improving wastewater treatment infrastructure to effectively remove antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, implementing measures to reduce the release of antibiotics into the environment, and monitoring and surveillance to track the presence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater. We also discuss the potential challenges and barriers to implementing these strategies and the need for further research to determine their effectiveness in real-world settings. Overall, this review highlights the need for a comprehensive approach to address antibiotic resistance in wastewater in developing countries and underscores the importance of addressing this issue to protect public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; gene therapy; retrovirus vector
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:28:59 CEST)
Therapeutic efficacy of retroviral replicating vector (RRV)-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy has been demonstrated in a variety of tumor models, but clinical investigation of this approach has so far been restricted to glioma and gastrointestinal malignancies. In the present study, we evaluated replication kinetics, transduction efficiency, and therapeutic efficacy of RRV in experimental models of lung cancer. RRV delivering GFP as a reporter gene showed rapid viral replication in a panel of lung cancer cells in vitro, as well as robust intratumoral replication and high levels of tumor transduction in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in vivo. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec), a clinical-stage RRV encoding optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the active drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), showed potent cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells upon exposure to 5-FC prodrug. In vivo, Toca 511 achieved significant tumor growth inhibition following 5-FC treatment in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent hosts, resulting in significantly increased overall survival. This study demonstrates that RRV can serve as highly efficient vehicles for gene delivery to lung cancer, and indicates the translational potential of RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy with Toca 511/5-FC as a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Vibrio parahaemolyticus; PirA gene; AHPND; Shrimp
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:21:33 CET)
Background: Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), is a bacterial disease of whiteleg shrimp, which has a high mortality rate (100%) and incurs economic losses. Our objective was to identify the genes which lead to cell and organ damage and investigate bioproducts to prevent and treat. Methods: Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam were collected from an infected pond and analysed at the Institute of Biotechnology, Hue University. The PirA gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain K5 was isolated and analyzed for nucleotide sequence and paired with the expression vector pQE30. The expression vector was transformed into E. coli strain M15, the PirA recombinant protein was expressed in the form of 6xHis-PirA fusion protein of about 15 kDa. PirA recombinant protein was purified and determined the PirAvp binding ratio, cloning and sequencing of PirA gene from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain K5 causing AHPND by PCR method with specific primers and molecular weights of PirAvp and the PirAvp complex. Results: PirA gene from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain K5 was cloned into pGEM-T easy vector (Promega, USA) and screened E. coli TOP10 colonies containing pGEM T easy/PirA recombinant plasmid on LB agar/ampicillin/IPTG/X-Gal medium. PCR showing a band of about 347 bp, matching the size of PirA gene and two nucleotide sequences (BamHI and HindIII). The results showed that PirA gene has a length of 336 bp and similar to PirA gene on GenBank (Code: KU556825.1). The results of protein extracted from E. coli M15 recombinant cells and 6xHis-PirA target protein was collected in elution fractions from EF2 to EF6, showed that the concentration of 6xHis-PirA protein and EF3 elution fraction collected a highest protein concentration (1,586.54 µg/ml). Conclusions: The purified PirA recombinant protein will provide materials for development research to create biological products to prevent and treat AHPND.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ROR2; cancer; oncogene; tumor-suppressor gene.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:39:15 CET)
The Wnt pathway plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of various types of cancer. ROR1 and ROR2 are Wnt receptors that are critical for β-catenin-independent (non-canonical) pathways and have been linked to processes driving tumor development and progression, such as cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and therapy resistance. Both receptors have garnered interest as potential therapeutic targets since they are largely absent in adult tissue, are overexpressed in several cancers, and, as members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, are easier to target than all other components of the pathway. Unlike ROR1 which always promotes tumorigenesis, ROR2 has a very complex role in cancer acting either to promote or inhibit tumor progression in different tumor types. In the present article, we summarize the findings on ROR2 expression in cancer patients and its impact on clinical outcome. Further, we review the biological processes and signaling pathways regulated by ROR2 that explain its dual role in cancer. Finally, we describe the ongoing strategies to target ROR2 in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0153.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Adenovirus; viral vector; gene therapy; vaccines
Online: 22 July 2021 (09:45:08 CEST)
The human adenovirus phylogenetic tree is split across seven species (A-G). Species D adenoviruses offer potential advantages for gene therapy applications, with low rates of preexisting immunity detected across screened populations. However, many aspects of the basic virology of species D, such as their cellular tropism, receptor usage and in vivo biodistribution profile, remain unknown. Here, we have characterized human adenovirus type 49 (HAdV-D49), a relatively understudied species D member. We report that HAdV-D49 does not appear to use a single pathway to gain cell entry but appears able to interact with various surface molecules for entry. As such, HAdV-D49 can transduce a broad range of cell types in vitro, with variable engagement of blood coagulation FX. Interestingly, when comparing in vivo biodistribution to adenovirus type 5, HAdV-D49 vectors show reduced liver targeting whilst maintaining transduction of lung and spleen. Overall, this presents HAdV-D49 as a robust viral vector platform for ex vivo manipulation of human cells and for in vivo applications where the therapeutic goal is to target the lung or gain access to immune cells in the spleen whilst avoiding liver interactions, such as intravascular vaccine applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: growth rate; carcass traits; gene expression.
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:15:47 CEST)
The aim of present study was to link the gene expression profile of selected candidate genes with blood profile, growth performance and carcass traits of Barki lambs. Thirty-eight Barki lambs were divided into 3 groups (fast, intermediate and slow growing) according to growth perfor-mance. Body tissues (muscle, liver and fat) were taken from for RNA isolation and Real-time PCR. The results indicated that, the final body weight hot carcass weight were heavier (P ≤ 0.05) in fast (49.9 Kg and 24.57) than intermediate (40.7 and 19.07 Kg) and slow (30.8 and 15.10 Kg) growing animals. The blood profile of total protein, total lipids, calcium, T3 and T4 hormones did not differ among sheep groups. Genes involved in protein biosynthesis (RPL7), fatty acid oxidation (CPT1) and lipolysis (FABP4) were up regulated in fast and intermediate growing lambs in all studied tissues. While, gene-regulating lipogenesis (ADIPOQ) was expressed simi-larly in fat and liver tissues, but increased its expression in muscle of fast and intermediate growing lambs. Expression of CAPN3 was increased in fast and intermediate growing compared to slow growing lambs. In conclusion, the current study providing an evidence for the im-portance of co-expression of these genes in main body tissues linked with growth performance of Barki lambs.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Gene expression; Regulation; Signalling; Stress
Online: 23 October 2020 (12:26:14 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are highly diverse, widely distributed photosynthetic bacteria inhabiting various environments ranging from deserts to the cryosphere. Throughout this range of niches, they have to cope with various stresses and kinds of deprivation which threaten their growth and viability. In order to adapt to these stresses and survive, they have developed several global adaptive responses which modulate the patterns of gene expression and the cellular functions at work. Sigma factors, two-component systems, transcriptional regulators and small regulatory RNAs acting either separately or collectively, for example, induce appropriate cyanobacterial stress responses. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge about the diversity of the sensors and regulators involved in the perception and transduction of light, oxidative and thermal stresses and nutrient starvation responses. The studies discussed here point to the fact that various stresses affecting the photosynthetic capacity are transduced by common mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0670.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: MTHFR; bovine; bioinformatics; gene expression; testes
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:00:47 CEST)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme expressed in mammalian testes exerts direct effect on spermatogenesis; however, its protein characteristics in bovine testes remain unknown. Here, we analysed bovine testicular structure, MTHFR bioinformatics profile, mRNA, and protein expression characteristics in yellow-cattle (y-c) and yak testis using histological procedures, bioinformatics analysis, qRT-PCR, and western blot. Testes from 13 bovines, ≤ 2 years juvenile (y-c, n = 3; yak, n=3) and ≥ 3 years adult (y-c, n = 3; yak, n = 4) were collected and analysed. Anatomical characteristics of testis in y-c and yak were similar except the weight or size for which that of y-c was significantly higher or greater than yak. In y-c, an open reading frame (ORF) for 2600 nucleotides sequence, encoding 655 amino acids showed high homology with zebu cattle (99.51%) and wild yak (98.68%). Secondary and 3D protein structures were similar to that of humans with differences in number of nucleotides, amino acids, and some physico-chemical characteristics. MTHFR mRNA expression in y-c and yak were significantly higher in adult testes compared with juvenile ones. However, its protein expression was higher but not statistically significant in adult y-c and yak compared to the juvenile ones. The highlights and inferences of these and other findings are discussed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: alternative splicing; microRNA; gene expression; Arabidopsis
Online: 16 April 2020 (07:37:32 CEST)
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a typical class of small RNAs that could modulate gene expression in trans at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs bind to the miRNA binding sites (MBSs) in target mRNAs by sequence complementarity. Alternative splicing (AS) is another commonly occurred process in pre-mRNAs that changes the isoforms of a gene. It is hypothesized that there should be an interaction for gene regulation that involves both AS and miRNA targeting. Studies have verified this hypothesis in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. High-throughput sequencing data suggested that in Arabidopsis a considerably large fraction of MBSs are affected by AS events. The overlapping between MBS and AS exceeds the randomly simulated number. Functional experiments have indicated that the AS events are required for the gene expression changes of miRNA targets. Therefore, AS and MBS are mutually favored. The observed expression changes caused by miRNAs could also be contributed by AS events. In the present perspective article, we propose that the AS analysis should be incorporated in the differential-expression analysis of miRNA studies. When defining a differentially-expressed gene, it should be clarified whether the change in gene expression is caused by AS events or solely by miRNA targeting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Crohn’s disease; NOD2 gene; variation; WES.
Online: 20 November 2018 (08:44:01 CET)
The NOD2 gene, involved in innate immune responses to bacterial peptidoglycan, has been found to be strongly associated with Crohn’s Disease, with an Odd Ratio ranging from 3 to 36. Families with 3 or more CD affected patients were related to high frequency of NOD2 gene variations as R702W, G908R, 1007fs and were reported in EPIMAD Registry. However, some rare CD multiplex families were described without identification of common NOD2 linked-to-disease variations. In order to identify new genetic variation(s) with a major effect on Crohn’s disease (CD), whole exome sequencing was performed in available subjects comprising 4 patients on 2 generations affected with Crohn’s disease without R702W and G908R variation, and 3 unaffected related subjects. A new rare and not yet reported missense variation of the NOD2 gene, the N1010K, was detected and co-segregated across affected patients. In silico evaluation and modeling highlighted evidences for a deleterious effect of the N1010K variation regarding CD. Moreover cumulative characterization of N1010K and 1007fs as compound heterozygous state in two more severely CD family members strongly suggesting that the N1010K should be a new risk factor involved in Crohn’s disease genetic susceptibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0030.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Sigmoid functions; dynamical systems; gene networks
Online: 5 February 2018 (10:54:21 CET)
Predicting how a genetic change affects a given character is a major challenge in biology, and being able to tackle this problem relies on our ability to develop realistic models of gene networks. However, such models are rarely tractable mathematically. In this paper, we propose a mathematical analysis of the sigmoid variant of the Wagner gene-network model. By considering the simplest case, that is, one unique self-regulating gene, we show that numerical simulations are not the only tool available to study such models: theoretical studies can be done too, by mathematical analysis of discrete dynamical systems. It is first shown that the particular sigmoid function can be theoretically investigated. Secondly, we provide an illustration on how to apply such investigations in the case of the dynamical system representing the one self-regulating gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: P21; CDKN1A; glioblastoma; senescence; cancer senescence; gene overexpression; gene knock-in; CRISPR/Cas9; dCas; dCas-VPR
Online: 23 December 2022 (04:10:22 CET)
High-grade gliomas are the most common and aggressive adult primary brain tumors with a median survival of only 12-15 months. Current standard therapy consists of maximal safe surgical resection followed by DNA-damaging agents, such as irradiation and chemotherapy that can delay but not prevent inevitable recurrence. Some have interpreted glioma recurrence as evidence of glioma stem cells which persist in a relatively quiescent state after irradiation and chemotherapy, before the ultimate cell cycle re-entry and glioma recurrence. Conversely, latent cancer cells with a therapy-induced senescent phenotype have been shown to escape senescence, giving rise to more aggressive stem-like tumor cells than those present in the original tumor. Therefore, approaches are needed to either eliminate or keep these glioma-initiating cells in a senescent state for a longer time to prolong survival. In our current study, we demonstrate that the radiation-induced cell cycle inhibitor P21 can provide a powerful route to induce cell death in short-term explants of PDXs derived from three molecularly diverse human gliomas. Additionally, cells not killed by P21 overexpression were maintained in a stable senescent state for longer than control cells. Collectively, these data suggest that P21 activation may provide an attractive therapeutic target to improve therapeutic outcomes.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: sleeping Beauty transposon; bidirectional promoters; gene expression; gene therapy; synthetic biology; RPBSA; EF-1; LMP2/TAP1
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:35:53 CEST)
Promoter choice is an essential consideration for transgene expression in gene therapy. The expression of multiple genes requires ribosomal entry or skip sites, or the use of multiple promoters. Promoters systems comprised of two separate, divergent promoters may significantly increase the size of genetic cassettes intended for use in gene therapy. However, an alternative approach is to use a single, compact bidirectional promoter. We identified strong and stable bidirectional activity of the RPBSA synthetic promoter comprised of a fragment of the human Rpl13a promoter, together with additional intron / exon structures. The Rpl13a-based promoter drove long-term bidirectional activity of fluorescent proteins. Similar results were obtained for the EF1-α and LMP2/TAP1 promoters. However, in a lentiviral vector, the divergent bidirectional systems failed to produce sufficient titres to translate into an expression system for dual chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) expression. Although bidirectional promoters show excellent applicability to drive short RNA in Sleeping Beauty transposon systems, their possible use in the lentiviral applications requiring longer and more complex RNA, such as dual CAR cassettes, is limited.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0330.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gene expression; gene regulation; evolution; allele specific expression; eQTL; RNAseq; ChIPseq; chromatin; ATACseq; genotype-phenotype map
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:29:26 CEST)
Research in various fields of evolutionary biology has shown that divergence in gene expression is a key driver for phenotypic variation. An exceptional contribution of cis-regulatory evolution has for instance been found to contribute to morphological diversification. In the light of these findings, the analysis of genome-wide expression data has become one of the central tools to link genotype and phenotype information on a more mechanistic level. However, in many studies, especially if general conclusions are drawn from such data, a key feature of gene regulation is often neglected. With our article, we want to raise awareness that gene regulation and thus gene expression is highly context dependent. Genes show tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression. We argue that the regulatory context must be considered when studying evolution of gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: gene network; network analysis; transcription regulation network; Cytoscape; gene family evolution; divergence; A. thaliana; abiotic stress
Online: 15 November 2018 (09:02:34 CET)
Phylostratigraphic analysis is a way to look anew on phylogenetic data in the evolutionary aspect. It allows counting the evolutionary age based on the analysis of genes, their orthologs and finding the last common ancestor. We performed phylostratigraphic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana genes associated with several types of abiotic stresses (heat, cold, water-related, light, osmotic, salt, and oxidative) determined by the Gene Ontology annotation. Comparison of the distributions of ages of genes associated with stresses of different type has shown the heat stress to involve older genes while the light stress – younger genes. At the same time, all types of stress are characterized by a significantly higher proportion of old genes (common to all eukaryotes) compared to the whole set of A.thaliana genes. This can be explained by the involvement of basic molecular processes in plant cells into the stress response. Reconstruction and graphical analysis of the gene network of the heat stress educed several clusters associated with different response functions. Some of these clusters contain only ancient genes. The results obtained show that the phylostratigraphic analysis reveals the fundamental features of the organization of gene networks and their evolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gene therapy; non-viral vectors; gene delivery; cancer; nucleic acid delivery; nanoparticles; lipids; lipid nanoparticles; mRNA; siRNA
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:01:41 CET)
The research and development of non-viral gene therapy has been extensive over the past decade and has received a big push thanks to the successful approval of non-viral gene therapy products in recent times. Despite these developments, gene therapy applications in cancer have been limited. One of the main causes of this has been the imbalance in development of delivery vectors as compared to nucleic acid payloads. This paper reviews non-viral vectors that can be used to deliver nucleic acids for cancer treatment. It discusses various types of vectors and highlights their current applications. Additionally, it also discusses perspective on regulatory landscape to facilitate commercial translation of gene therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Gene therapy, gene editing, CRISPR/Cas9, Cas12a, dual AAV, triple AAV, clinical trials, retina, hereditary retinal dystrophies
Online: 1 October 2018 (13:52:23 CEST)
Recently, there have been revolutions in the development of both gene therapy and genome surgical treatments for inherited diseases. Much of this progress has been centered around hereditary retinal dystrophies, because the eye is an immune-privileged and anatomically ideal target. Gene therapy treatments, already demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in numerous clinical trials, are benefitting from the development of new viral vectors, such as dual and triple AAVs. CRISPR/Ca9, which revolutionized the field of gene editing, is being adapted into more precise “high fidelity” and catalytically dead variants. New CRISPR endonucleases, such as CjCas9 and Cas12a, are generating excitement in the field as well. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative, allowing human embryo derived stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to be edited precisely in vitro and then reintroduced into the body. This article highlights recent progress made in gene therapy and genome surgery for retinal disorders, and it provides an update on precision medicine FDA treatment trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0330.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ancestry of orthogs, ancestry of gene families; gene genealogy; FUCA; LUCA; origins of life; gradualism; evolutionary biology
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:24:09 CEST)
Genes and gene trees have been extensively used to study the evolutionary relationships among populations, species, families and higher systematic clades of organisms. This brought modern Biology into a sophisticated level of understanding about the evolutionary relationships and diversification patterns that happened along the entire history of organismal evolution in Earth. Genes however have not been placed in the center of questions when one aims to unravel the evolutionary history of genes themselves. Thus, we still ignore whether Insulin share a more recent common ancestor to Hexokinase or DNA polymerase. This brought modern Genetics into a very poor level of understanding about sister group relationships that happened along the entire evolutionary history of genes. Many conceptual challenges must be overcome to allow this broader comprehension about gene evolution. Here we aim to clear the intellectual path in order to provide a fertile research program that will help geneticists to understand the deep ancestry and sister group relationships among different gene families (or orthologs). We aim to propose methods to study gene formation starting from the establishment of the genetic code in pre-cellular organisms like the FUCA (First Universal Common Ancestor) until the formation of the highly complex genome of LUCA (Last UCA), that harbors hundreds of genes families working coordinated into a cellular organism. The deep understanding of ancestral relationships among orthologs will certainly inspire biotechnological and biomedical approaches and allow a deep understanding about how Darwinian molecular evolution operates inside cells and before the appearance of cellular organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0525.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Sweetpotato; Stem rot; Transcriptome; Gene; Transcription factor
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:15:22 CET)
Sweetpotato is an important miscellaneous grain crop in China, which is threatened by a variety of diseases and insect pests in the process of cultivation and production. sweetpotato stem rot is one of the common sweetpotato diseases, which seriously affects the yield and quality of sweetpotato. However, there are few studies on the mechanism of resistance to stem rot in sweetpotato. In this study, transcriptome sequencing analysis was carried out on the samples at different stages (T1, T2, T3) of stem rot pathogen infecting Xushu 48, and 44839 (T1-VS-T2), 81436 (T1-VS-T2) and 61932 (T2-VS-T3) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. The DEGs were mainly concentrated in Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism (ko00250), Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (ko00710) and Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism (ko00520) and some candidate genes related to plant pathogen infection, such as receptor-like protein kinase (RLK5, RLK7), LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (SERK1), bHLH137, ERF9, MYB73 and NAC053, were screened. The results of this study provide genetic resources for the research on stem rot resistance of sweetpotato and provide theoretical basis for sweetpotato resistance breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; gene expression; mitochondria; phytohormones; RPOTmp
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:04:28 CET)
Coordination of activities between nuclei and organelles in plant cells involves information exchange, in which phytohormones may play an essential role. Therefore, dissection of the mechanisms of hormone-related integration between phytohormones and mitochondria is an important and challenging task. Here, we found that inputs from multiple hormones may cause changes in transcript accumulation of mitochondrial-encoded genes and nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial (mt) proteins. In particular, treatments with exogenous hormones induced changes in GUS expression in the reporter line possessing a 5'-deletion fragment of the RPOTmp promoter. These changes corresponded in part to up- or downregulation of RPOTmp in wild-type plants, which affected the transcription of mt-encoded genes, implying that promoter fragments of the RPOTmp gene are functionally involved in responses to IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), and ABA (abscisic acid). Hormone-dependent modulations in the expression of mt-encoded genes can also be mediated through mitochondrial transcription termination factors 15, 17, and 18 of the mTERF family and genes for tetratricopeptide repeat proteins that are coexpressed with mTERF genes, in addition to SWIB5 encoding a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodelling) complex B protein. These genes specifically responded to hormone treatment, displaying both negative and positive regulation in a context-dependent manner. According to bioinformatic resources, their promoter regions possess putative cis-acting elements involved in responses to phytohormones. Alternatively, hormone-related transcriptional activity of these genes may be modulated indirectly, which is especially relevant for brassinosteroids (BS). In general, the results of the study indicate that hormones are essential mediators that are able to cause alterations in the transcript accumulation of mt-related nuclear genes, which in turn trigger the expression of mt genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Algeria; cyanobacteria; mcyE gene; morphology; Picocyanobacteria; phylogeny
Online: 5 October 2023 (10:28:19 CEST)
Monitoring water supply requires, among other quality indicators, the identification of the cyanobacte-ria community taking into account their potential impact in terms of water quality. In this work, cya-nobacteria strains were isolated from Cheffia reservoir and identified based on morphological features, 16S rRNA gene, phylogenetic analysis, and toxin production by PCR screening of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of cyanotoxins (mcyA, mcyE, sxtA, sxtG, sxtI, cyrJ, and anaC). Thirteen strains repre-senting six different genera: Aphanothece, Microcystis, Geitlerinema, Lyngbya, Microcoleus, and Pseudanabaena were obtained. The results demonstrated the importance of morphological features in determining the genus or the species when incongruence between the morphological and phylogenetic analysis occurs and only the utility of the 16S rRNA gene on determining higher taxonomic levels. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the polyphyly of cyanobacteria for the Microcystis and Oscillatoriales genera. Unexpectedly, Aphanothece sp. CR 11 had the genetic potential to produce microcystins. Our study gives new insight instead of picocyanobacteria toxic genotype in this ecosystem. Thus, conven-tional water treatment methods in this ecosystem have to be adapted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1960.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Water use efficiency; Gene expression; Senescence; Drought
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:35:02 CEST)
Water deficit greatly affects global crop growth and productivity, particularly in water-limited environments like upland rice cultivation, leading to reduced grain yield. Plants activate various defense mechanisms during water deficit, involving numerous genes and complex metabolic pathways. Exploring orthologous genes, linked to enhanced drought tolerance, can aid functional validation in target species using genomic data from model organisms. Here, we studied the OsCPK5 gene in upland rice, an AtCPK6 ortholog from A. thaliana, by overexpressing it in the BRSMG Curinga cultivar. Transformants were assessed under two conditions: water deficit applied 79 days after seeding, lasting 14 days, followed by 7 days of irrigation at 80% field capacity. Physiological data and samples were collected at R3, R6, and R8 stages. GM plants consistently exhibited higher OsCPK5 gene expression across stages, peaking during grain filling. During this phase, GM plants displayed reduced stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and increased water use efficiency compared to non-GM plants under drought. GM plants also exhibited higher filled grain percentage in both irrigation conditions. Their drought susceptibility index was 0.9 times lower than NGM plants, and they maintained a higher chlorophyll a/b index, indicating sustained photosynthesis. NGM plants under water deficit exhibited more leaf senescence, while OsCPK5-overexpressing plants retained green leaves. Overall, OsCPK5 overexpression induced diverse drought tolerance mechanisms, hinting at potential for future development of more drought-tolerant rice cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0615.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: non-coding RNA; deep learning; Gene expression
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:36:00 CEST)
This paper presents ConF, a novel deep learning model designed for accurate and efficient prediction of non-coding RNA families. NcRNAs are essential functional RNA molecules involved in various cellular processes, including replication, transcription, and gene expression. Identifying ncRNA families is crucial for comprehensive RNA research, as ncRNAs within the same family often exhibit similar functionalities. Traditional experimental methods for identifying ncRNA fam-ilies are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Computational approaches relying on annotated secondary structure data face limitations in handling complex structures like pseudoknots and have restricted applicability, resulting in suboptimal prediction performance. To overcome these chal-lenges, ConF integrates mainstream techniques such as residual networks with dilated convolutions and cross multi-head attention mechanisms. By employing a combination of dual-layer convolu-tional networks and BiLSTM, ConF effectively captures intricate features embedded within RNA sequences. This feature extraction process leads to significantly improved prediction accuracy compared to existing methods. Experimental evaluations conducted on a ten-fold publicly available dataset demonstrate the superiority of ConF in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and other perfor-mance metrics. Overall, ConF represents a promising solution for accurate and efficient ncRNA family prediction, addressing the limitations of traditional experimental and computational methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0335.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Cardiac conduction system,; pacemaker; gene regulatory network
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:05:09 CEST)
Heart is composed of muscle cells called cardiomyocytes, including a specialized population, named pacemaker cells, that form the Cardiac Conduction System (CCS), responsible for generating the action potential dictating heart contractions. Failure of the CCS system leads to cardiac arrhythmias requiring complicated therapies and often surgical implantation of electrical pacemakers. However, recent research focusses on development of novel therapies using biological pacemakers aiming to substitute electrical devices. While most signalling pathways and transcription factors involved in the development of the pacemaker cells are known, the upstream regulatory networks need to be predicted through computer-based databases, mathematical modelling as well as functional testing of the regulatory elements in vivo, indicating the need for further research. Here we summarise the current knowledge about the vertebrate myocardial CCS system and development of the pacemaker cells and emphasise areas of future research to clarify the regulation of muscle pacemaker cells and ease development of biological therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; PARP inhibitors; DDR gene; CRPC
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:22:22 CEST)
The possibility of treating more patients for a longer time, has exploded the concept of anticipation in the systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). The genetic analysis of Damage DNA Repair (DDR) mutations in pathogenetic variants (PV) and the development of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors led to the first valid precision medicine option tailored for mPC. PARP inhibitors are repeating the same evolutionary path experienced for androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI), starting from the late stage of second line mCRPC in a limited population and time frame. Inevitably also PARP inhibitors will be absorbed by the concept of anticipation and intensification of care. The anticipation of PARP inhibitors in the first line mCRPC therapy is already underway and further one in mHSPC will soon be verified. According to the crosstalk between androgen receptors (AR) and DNA repair, the new message that is emerging is that the combination of PARP inhibitors with ARSI, disconnects PARP from the genetic analysis. Most of the recent trials analyzing PARP inhibitors plus abiraterone or enzalutamide, enrolled first line mCRPC irrespectively to gene PV. The conclusion of the PROPEL trial was that the advantage was independent to PV status, however the highest advantage was reported in BRCA1/2 mutated subgroup. The conclusion of the MAGNITUDE trial was different, with a significant advantage only in the DDR mutated subgroup and the DDR non-mutated was closed for further enrollment. The combination of PARP inhibitors with ARSI represents a significant strategy in the concept of anticipation and intensification of care in mPC. However, it should not nullify the advantages of precision medicine linked to the genetic analysis of DDR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2204.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Orchidaceae; Plastome; Mitogenome; Horizontal gene transfer; Mycoheterotorphy
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:37:51 CEST)
Gastrodia pubilabiata is a nonphotosynthetic and mycoheterotrophic orchid belonging to subfamily Epidendroideae. Compared to other typical angiosperm species, the plastome of G. pubilabiata is dramatically reduced in size to be only 30,698 base pairs (bp). This reduction has led to the loss of most photosynthesis-related genes and some housekeeping genes in the plastome, which now only contains 19 protein coding genes, three tRNAs, and three rRNAs. This study decoded the entire mitogenome of G. pubilabiata, which consisted of 44 contigs with a total length of 867,349 bp. Its mitogenome contained 38 protein coding genes, nine tRNAs, and three rRNAs. To determine possible gene transfer events between the plastome and the mitogenome, individual BLASTN searches were conducted, using all available orchid plastome sequences and flowering plant mitogenome sequences. Plastid rRNA fragments were found at a high frequency in the mitogenome. Seven plastid protein coding gene frangments (ndhC, ndhJ, ndhK, psaA, psbF, rpoB, and rps4) were also identified in the mitogenome of G. pubilabiata. Phylogenetic trees using these seven plastid protein coding gene fragments suggested that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from plastome to mitogenome occurred before losses of photosynthesis related genes, leading to the lineage of G. pubilabiata. Compared to species phylogeny of the lineage of orchid, it was estimated that HGT might have occurred approximately 30 million years ago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; microenvironment; lung metastases; gene expression
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:46:51 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) Lung metastases are rarely resected, therefore PCa lung metastases are insufficiently molecularly characterized. We recently identified carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) as a potential driver of pulmonary metastatic spread. Here, we show the biological significance of CEACAM6 in PCa cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. CEACAM6 was silenced by siRNA in PC3 cells. Functional assessment of apoptosis, cell viability, proliferation and migration were performed in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3 cells. Non-treated and scrambled (scr) RNA PC3 cells were used as control. Following a specific knockdown of CEACAM6 in PC3 cells, the expression of CEACAM6 protein was significantly decreased in comparison to controls. Cell viability and cell counts decreased in CEACAM6 silent PC3 cells. In contrast, caspase-3 activity was highly elevated in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3. Furthermore, by performing a cell scratch assay, the migration ratio in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3 cells were significantly diminished compared with the control group after 48 hours of post transfection incubation. CEACAM6 as a cell adhesion molecule has been implicated in promoting metastatic disease in several solid tumours such as colorectal or gastric cancer. We could show that silencing of CEACAM6 has a significant functional effect on PCa cells. CEACAM6 might play an important role in fostering metastatic spread to the lung of PCa patients via enhancing proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. CEACAM6 might therefore pose an attractive therapeutic target to prevent metastatic disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Sport; Micronuclei; Gene Polymorphisms; Buccal Mucosa Cells
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:35:44 CEST)
Regular physical activity is considered one of the most valid tools able to reduce the risk of on-set of many diseases in humans. However, it is known that intense physical activity is able to induce high levels of genomic damage, while a moderate exercise was found to induce a favora-ble adaptive response by the organism. We evaluated, in a sample of amateur athletes practicing different disciplines, the level of genomic damage by means of the buccal micronuclei assay, comparing obtained data with those of subjects who practiced sport occasionally or that do not practiced any sport. The aim was to evaluate whether physical activity affects background levels of genomic damage and whether the different sports disciplines, as well as some genes poly-morphisms, differentially affect these levels. A total of 206 subjects, 125 athletes and 81 controls, were recruited. Athletes showed significantly lower values of micronuclei, nuclear buds and bi-nucleated cells with respect to controls. Sprinters and martial arts athletes showed significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei than other categories of athletes. Finally, neither sex nor gene polymorphisms seem to influence the levels of genomic damage, confirming that the observed genomic damage is probably due to the type of the sport activity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DMD; Dystrophin; gene expression; transcription; mRNA; RNAseq
Online: 29 June 2023 (16:33:49 CEST)
At 2.3 megabases in length, the dystrophin gene is enormous: transcription of a single mRNA requires approximately 16 hours. Principally expressed in skeletal muscle, the dystrophin protein product protects the muscle sarcolemma against contraction-induced injury, and dystrophin deficiency results in the fatal muscle-wasting disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This gene is thus of key clinical interest, and therapeutic strategies aimed at eliciting dystrophin restoration require quantitative analysis of its expression. Approaches for quantifying dystrophin at the protein level are well established, however study at the mRNA level warrants closer scrutiny: measured expression values differ in a sequence-dependent fashion, with significant consequences for data interpretation. In this manuscript we discuss these nuances of expression and present evidence to support a transcriptional model whereby the long transcription time is coupled to a short mature mRNA half-life, with dystrophin transcripts being predominantly nascent as consequence. We explore the effects of such a model on cellular transcriptional dynamics, and then discuss key implications for the study of dystrophin gene expression, focussing both on conventional (qPCR) and next-gen (RNAseq) approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1920.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Amorphophallus; reference genes; RT-qPCR; gene expression
Online: 27 June 2023 (13:43:45 CEST)
Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the most classic and widely used technology for evaluating the expression level of target gene. In order to select the proper internal reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae), eight candidate internal reference genes, including 25S ribosomal RNA gene (25S rRNA), 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA), actin gene (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH), Ubiquitin gene (UBQ), β-tubulin gene (β-TUB), eukaryotic elongation factor 1-αgene(eEF-1α), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4α-1 gene (eIF-4α) were selected and tested the corresponding expression level in different tissues at different growing stages. The results showed that 25S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ACT at the reproductive periods, eEF-1α and eIF-4α at the nutritional periods, and eEF-1α, UBQ, and ACT at different leaf developmental periods had a stable level of gene expression, respectively. These results might be useful for the study of gene function in A. konjac.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0878.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease; PXT3003; gene therapy
Online: 13 June 2023 (07:20:15 CEST)
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) and associated neuropathies constitute the most predominant genetically transmitted neuromuscular conditions; however, effective pharmacological treatments remain elusive. The extensive genetic heterogeneity of CMT, which impacts the peripheral nerves and results in a lifelong disability, presents a significant barrier to the development of comprehensive treatments. An estimated 100 loci within the human genome are linked to various forms of CMT and its related inherited neuropathies. This review delves into prospective therapeutic strategies used for the most frequently encountered CMT variants, namely CMT1A, CMT1B, CMTX1, and CMT2A. Compounds such as PXT3003, which are currently under clinical and preclinical investigation, and a broad array of therapeutic agents and their corresponding mechanisms have been discussed in this review. Furthermore, the progress in established gene therapy techniques, including gene replacement via viral vectors, exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides, splicing modification, and gene knockdown, has been appraised. Each of these gene therapies has the potential for substantial advancements in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0772.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: MiR159; Soybean; Phosphorus; NaCl; ABA; Gene function
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:45:34 CEST)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate plant growth and development and their responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although extensive studies show that miR159 family members regulate leaf and flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana, the roles of miRNAs in soybean (Glycine max) are poorly understood. Here, we identified six MIR159 genes in soybean, MIR159aMIR159f, and investigate their expression patterns in plants under low-phosphorus (low-P), NaCl, or abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. In soybean leaves, MIR159e and MIR159f expression was induced by low-P treatment, while in roots, MIR159b, MIR159c, MIR159e, and MIR159f expression was upregulated. In flowers, low-P led to upregulation of MIR159a, MIR159b, MIR159c, and MIR159f, but downregulation of MIR159d and MIR159e. In soybean nodules, MIR159b was upregulated but MIR159a, MIR159c, and MIR159d was downregulated under P deficiency. NaCl treatment induced MIR159a, MIR159b, MIR159c, and MIR159e expression in leaves, and MIR159aMIR159f expression in roots. ABA treatment upregulated MIR159a, MIR159b, and MIR159c but downregulated MIR159d, MIR159e, and MIR159f in leaves. These results suggest that miR159 family members function in plant abiotic stress responses. Moreover, total P content in leaves was significantly lower in plants overexpressing MIR159e than in the wild type, suggesting that miR159e may regulate P absorption and transport in soybean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0420.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; anaerobic exercise; glut4 gene expression; streptozocin
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:52:56 CEST)
Diabetes is a chronic condition that worsens living conditions and causes significant problems, particularly in the vascular system. Many different treatment options are used to prevent these negative effects of diabetes. The most important of these is changing living conditions and exercising regularly.This study aimed todetermining the impacts of a 6-week anaerobic exercise protocol on the blood glucose levels and Glut4 gene expression in the muscle tissues of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A total of 45 rats were separate control, sedentary, and exercise groups (n=15 each). The STZ used to induce diabetes in rats was applied once with a single intraperitoneal injection. No diabetes was created in the control group, and no exercise was performed, whereas in the sedentary group, diabetes was induced, and no exercise was applied. It was determined that the Glut4 gene expression in the muscle tissue of the exercise group was importantly increased when compared with the sedentary diabetes group.Glut4 gene is an important gene involved in blood glucose regulation and anaerobic exercise significantly increased the expression level of this gene in our study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Fibromyalgia (FM); miRNA; pleiotropy; gene regulation; epigenetics
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:50:50 CEST)
MicroRNAs are tissue-specifically expressed short RNAs that serve post-transcriptional gene reg-ulation. A specific microRNA can bind to mRNAs of different genes and thereby suppress their protein production. In the context of the complex phenotype of fibromyalgia, we used the Axiom miRNA Target Site Genotyping Array to search genome-wide for DNA variations in microRNA genes, their regulatory regions and in the 3'UTR of protein-coding genes. To identify dis-ease-relevant DNA polymorphisms, a cohort of 176 female fibromyalgia patients was studied in comparison to a cohort of 162 healthy women. The association between 48.329 markers and fibromyalgia was investigated using logistic regression adjusted for population stratification. 29 markers had p-values < 1 × 10-3 and the strongest asso-ciation was observed for rs758459 (p-value of 0.0001), located in the Neurogenin 1 gene, targeted by hsa-miR-130a-3p. Furthermore, we identified a gene locus (rs2295963) predicted to disrupt binding of hsa-miR-1-3p. Both microRNAs were previously reported to be differentially expressed in fi-bromyalgia patients. Despite its limited statistical power, this study reports two microRNA-related polymorphisms which may play a functional role in the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. For a better understanding of the disease pattern, further functional analyses on the biological significance of microRNAs and microRNA-related polymorphisms are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; gene expression; immunogenetics; RNA-seq
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:33:59 CEST)
Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) is a chronic contagious disease that affects small ruminants and is characterized by the formation of pyogranulomas in lymph nodes and other organs. However, the pathogenesis of this disease and the response of the host genome to infection are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the whole blood transcriptome and evaluate differential gene expression during the later stages of CL in naturally infected ewes. The study included diseased, serologically positive (EP), exposed, serologically negative (EN) ewes from the same infected flock and healthy ewes (CN) from a different flock. RNA sequencing was performed using the Illumina NextSeq system, and differential gene expression was estimated using DESeq2 and Edge R approaches. The analysis identified 191 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the EP group (102 upregulated and 89 downregulated) and 256 DEGs in the EN group (106 upregulated and 150 downregulated). Infection influenced numerous immunoregulatory interactions between lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells in both EP and EN ewes. Immune DEGs were preferentially assigned to antigen presentation through the MHC complex, T-lymphocyte mediated immunity, and extracellular matrix interactions. Furthermore, the EP group showed altered regulation of cytokine and chemokine signalling and activation and recombination of B-cell receptors. Conversely, NF-kappa B signalling, apoptosis, and stress response were the main processes influenced in the EN group. In addition, statistically significant enrichment of the essential immune pathways of Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors in EP and p53 signalling in the EN group was found. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the disease course and host‒pathogen interaction in naturally CL-infected sheep by investigating the blood transcriptome.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0485.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gene nomenclature; vertebrate genomics; oxytocin; arginine vasopressin
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:09:45 CEST)
Standardized gene nomenclature supports unambiguous communication and identification of the scientific literature associated with genes. To support the increasing number of annotated genomes that are now available for comparative studies, gene nomenclature authorities coordinate the assignment of approved gene names that can be readily propagated across species. Theofanopoulou et al. (Theofanopoulou et al. 2021) propose a new nomenclature for the genes encoding oxytocin and arginine vasopressin and their receptors. Rather than changing to a different nomenclature system, we propose minor updates to the current approved nomenclature of these vertebrate genes to better reflect their evolutionary history. We call on authors, journal editors and reviewers to help support communication and indexing of gene-related publications by working with existing gene nomenclature committees and ensuring that standardized gene nomenclature is routinely used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; gene therapy; mitochondria; genome editing
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:17:16 CET)
Background. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as a pathophysiological hallmark of disease onset and progression in patients with Parkinsonian disorders. Besides the overall emergence of gene therapies in treating these patients, this highly relevant molecular concept has not yet been defined as a target for gene therapeutic approaches. Methods. This narrative review will discuss the experimental evidence suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction as a viable treatment target in patients with monogenic and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. In addition, we will focus on general treatment strategies and crucial challenges which need to be overcome. Results. Our current understanding of mitochondrial biology in parkinsonian disorders opens up the avenue for viable treatment strategies in Parkinsonian disorders. Insights can be obtained from primary mitochondrial diseases. However, substantial knowledge gaps and unique challenges of mitochondria-targeted gene therapies need to be addressed to provide innovative treatments in the future. Conclusions. Mitochondria-targeted gene therapies are a potential strategy to improve an important primary disease mechanism in Parkinsonian disorders. However, further studies are needed to address the unique design challenges for mitochondria-targeted gene therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0303.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: criticality; evolution; brains; behavior; cells; gene networks
Online: 21 October 2021 (09:47:37 CEST)
Cognitive networks have evolved to cope with uncertain environments in order to make reliable decisions. Such decision making circuits need to respond to the external world in efficient and flexible ways, and one potentially general mechanism of achieving this is grounded in critical states. Mounting evidence has shown that brains operate close to such critical boundaries consistent with self-organized criticality (SOC). Is this also taking place in small-scale living systems, such as cells? Here we explore a recent model of engineered gene networks that have been shown to exploit the feedback between order and control parameters (as defined by expression levels of two coupled genes) to achieve a SOC state. We suggest that such SOC motif could be exploited to generate adaptive behavioral patterns and might help design fast responses in synthetic cellular and multicellular organisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NUTM1 gene; NUT protein; Neoplasms; Pathogenesis; Therapy
Online: 29 September 2021 (12:17:31 CEST)
Nuclear protein of testis (NUT), a protein product of the NUTM1 gene (located on the long arm of chromosome 15) with highly restricted physiologic expression in post-meiotic spermatids, is the oncogenic driver of a group of emerging neoplasms when fused with genes involved in transcription regulation. Although initially identified in a group of lethal midline carcinomas in which NUT forms fusion proteins with bromodomain proteins, NUTM1-rearrangement has since been identified in tumors at non-midline locations, with non-bromodomain partners and with varied morphology. The histologic features of these tumors have also expanded to include sarcoma, skin adnexal tumors, and hematologic malignancies that harbor various fusion partners and are associated with markedly different clinical courses varying from benign to malignant. Most of these tumors have nondescript primitive morphology and therefore should be routinely considered in any undifferentiated neoplasm. The diagnosis is facilitated by the immunohistochemical use of the monoclonal C52 antibody, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and, recently, RNA-Sequencing. The pathogenesis is believed to be altered expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes by NUT-mediated genome-wide histone modification. NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms respond poorly to classical chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Targeted therapies such as bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitor (BETi) therapy are being developed. This current review provides an update of NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms, focusing on the correlation between basic sciences and clinical aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: JNK; Drosophila; dual specificity phosphatase; gene expression
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:25:45 CEST)
For developmental processes we know most of the gene networks controlling specific cell responses. We still have to determine how these networks cooperate and how signals become integrated. The JNK pathway is one of the key elements modulating cellular responses during development. Yet, we still know little on how the core components of the pathway interact with additional regulators or how this network modulates cellular responses in the whole organism in homeostasis or during tissue morphogenesis. We have performed a promoter analysis searching for potential regulatory sequences of puc and identified different specific enhancers directing gene expression in different tissues and at different developmental times. Remarkably, some of these domains respond to the JNK activity, but not all. Altogether, these analyses show that puc expression regulation is very complex and that JNK activities participate in non-previously known processes during the development of Drosophila.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Probiotics, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, alcohol, acetaldehyde, ALDH2 gene
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:04:39 CEST)
Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol is oxidized to toxic and carcinogenic acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and further oxidized to a non-toxic acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Emerging evidence shows that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species encode alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mediate alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, respectively. This study involves supplementation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotic mixture in humans and assessed their effects on alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Here, twenty-seven wild types (ALDH2*1/*1) and the same number ofheterozygotes (ALDH2*2/*1) were recruited for the study. The enrolled participants were randomly divided into either the probiotic (Duolac ProAP4) or the placebo group. Each group received a probiotic or placebo capsule for 15 days with subsequent crossover. Primary outcomes were measurement of alcohol and acetaldehyde in the blood after the alcohol intake. Blood levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in the ALDH2 heterozygote group were significantly downregulated in the probiotic-supplemented group with no changes in hangover score symptoms than the placebo group. No clinically significant changes were observed in safety parameters. These results suggest that probiotic has a potential to downregulate the alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations, and their effects depend on the presence or absence of polymorphism on the ALDH2 gene.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Genome; gene families; Transposable elements; Entamoeba histolytica
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:11:58 CET)
Entamoeba histolytica, like other Organismes, is characterized by diversity and heterogeneity in its genetic content, which is one of the most important reasons for survival, and the increase in susceptibility to infection.Non-condensation of chromosomes during the process of cell division and the ambiguity of the chromosomal ploidy makes predicting the exact chromosomal number difficult. Genes distributed across 14 chromosomes as well as many extra-chromosome elements. Most Genes composed of one axon only, with Introns in 25% of Genes. This genome is characterized by the presence of Polymorphic internal repeat regions, and several gene families, one of these large families encoding Transmembrane kinas, Cysteine protease (CP), SREHP protein, and others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0485.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nile tilapia; CuONPs; Histopathology; Gene transcription; Toxicity
Online: 25 January 2021 (11:31:48 CET)
In the present study, fish were exposed to sub-lethal doses of CuONPs (68.92 ± 3.49 nm) (10, 20, and 50 mg/L) for a long exposure period (25 days). Compared to the control group (0.0 mg/L CuONPs), a significant dose-dependent elevation in blood urea and creatinine values, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities were evident in CuONPs-exposed groups (P < 0.05). Fish exposure to 50 mg/L CuONPs significantly upregulated the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin 12, and interleukin 8), heat shock protein 70, apoptosis-related gene (caspase 3), and oxidative stress-related (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) genes in liver and gills of the exposed fish in comparison with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, varying histopathological injuries were noticed in the hepatopancreatic tissues, posterior kidneys, and gills of fish groups correlated to the examined exposure dose of CuONPs. In summary, our results provide new insights and helpful information for better understanding the mechanisms of CuONPs toxicity in Nile tilapia at hematological, molecular levels, and tissue levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0691.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: conservation; gene pool; geographical distribution; threatened; valorization
Online: 28 December 2020 (11:54:56 CET)
The study presents an updated overview of the 14 non-endemic threatened Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) in Italy: Aegilops biuncialis, Ae. uniaristata, Ae. ventricosa, Asparagus pastorianus, Beta macrocarpa, Brassica insularis, B. montana, Crambe hispanica subsp. hispanica, C. tataria subsp. tataria, Ipomoea sagittata, Lathyrus amphicarpos, L. palustris, Vicia cusnae and V. serinica. Geographical distribution, ecology (with plant communities and habitat 92/43/EEC aspects), genetics (focused on gene pools), property, and in situ and ex situ conservation were analyzed. In addition, with the aim of their protection and valorization, specific actions are recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0635.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Beta-lactamase gene; Nigeria; Review
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:28:20 CEST)
This review was carried out to identify different beta-lactamase resistance genes reported in published literature from Nigeria and to determine the proportion estimates of the important beta-lactamase resistance genes in Nigeria. Sixty-three (63) articles were included in this review based on the eligibility criteria. All the beta-lactamases reported were detected from the Gram-negative bacteria, most especially from Enterobacteriaceae (n=53). Thirty-six different beta-lactamase genes have been reported from Nigeria. These genes belong to the narrow-spectrum, AmpC, extended-spectrum, and carbapenemase beta-lactamase resistance genes. Eight (8) genes (blaDHA, blaCTXM-1, blaCTXM-14, blaGES-1, blaVEB-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2, and blaTEM-1) were shared between animals and humans, 5 genes (blaSHV-1, blaSHV-2, blaSHV-11, blaSHV-12, and blaNDM-1) were common to both humans and environment while none of the genes was unique to both animals and environment. Four genes including blaCMY, blaTEM-1, blaAmpC, and internationally pandemic blaCTXM-15 gene were unique to animals, humans, and the environment. No carbapenemase gene was reported from animals yet. The pooled proportion estimate of ESBL genes in Nigeria was 31% (95% CI: 26-36%, P<0.0001), while the estimate of blaCTXM-15 gene in Nigeria was 46% (95% CI: 36-57%, P<0.0001). The proportion estimate of AmpC genes was 32% (95% CI: 11-52%, P<0.001), while the estimate for carbapenemases was 8% (95% CI: 5-12%, P<0.001). This study has provided information on the beta-lactamases distribution in Nigeria. This is necessary for a better understanding of molecular epidemiology of clinically important beta-lactamases especially the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases in Nigeria.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: BrassicaEDB; Brassica napus; gene expression profile; coexpression
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:25:37 CEST)
The Brassica family contains several economically important crops, including rapeseed (Brassica napus, 2n = 38, AACC), the second largest source of seed oil and protein meal worldwide. However, research in rapeseed is hampered because it is complicated and time-consuming for researchers to access different types of expression data. We therefore developed the Brassica Expression Database (BrassicaEDB, https://biodb.swu.edu.cn/brassica/) for the research community. We conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of 103 tissues from rapeseed cultivar ZhongShuang11 (ZS11) at seven developmental stages (seed germination, seedling, bolting, initial flowering, full-bloom, podding, and maturation). We determined the expression patterns of 101,040 genes via FPKM analysis and displayed the results using the eFP browser. We also analyzed transcriptome data for rapeseed from 70 BioProjects in the SRA database and obtained three types of expression level data (FPKM, TPM, and read counts). We used this information to develop the BrassicaEDB, including eFP, Treatment, Coexpression, and SRA Project modules based on gene expression profiles and Gene Feature, qPCR Primer, and BLAST modules based on gene sequences. The BrassicaEDB provides comprehensive gene expression profile information and a user-friendly visualization interface for Brassica crop researchers. Using this database, researchers can quickly retrieve the expression level data for target genes in different tissues and in response to different treatments to elucidate gene functions and explore the biology of rapeseed at the transcriptome level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gut microbiota; ADHD; 16S rRNA gene; Inattention
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:25:29 CET)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. Given the growing evidence of gut microbiota being involved in psychiatric (including neurodevelopmental) disorders, we aimed to identify differences in gut microbiota composition between participants with ADHD and controls and to investigate the role of the microbiota in inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fecal samples were collected from 107 participants (NADHD=42; Ncontrols=50; NsubthreholdADHD=15; range age: 13-29 years). The relative quantification of bacterial taxa was done using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Beta-diversity revealed significant differences in bacterial composition between participants with ADHD and healthy controls, which was also significant for inattention, but showing a trend in case of hyperactivity/impulsivity only. Ten genera showed nominal differences (P < 0.05) between both groups, of which seven genera were tested for their association with ADHD symptom scores (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, time delay between feces collection and symptoms assessment, medication use and family relatedness). Our results show that variation of a genus from the Ruminococcaceae family (Ruminococcaceae_UCG_004) is associated (after multiple testing correction) with inattention symptoms, and suggest a role of gut microbiota in ADHD pathophysiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: SGCD; delta-sarcoglycan; candidate-gene approach; AMD
Online: 7 August 2018 (08:04:52 CEST)
1) Background: CFH and HTRA1 genes are traditional markers of increased risk of AMD across populations. Recent findings suggest that additional genes, for instance, in the dystrophin-associated protein complex might be promising markers for AMD. 2) Methods: Here, we performed a case-control study to assess the effect of SGCD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a member of this protein family, on AMD diagnosis and phenotype. We performed a case-control study of 134 cases with 134 unpaired controls. Cases were 60 years or older (CARMS grade 4-5, as assessed by experienced ophthalmologists following the AAO guidelines), without other retinal disease or history of vitreous-retinal surgery. Controls were outpatients aged 60 years or older, with no drusen or RPE changes on fundus exam and negative family history of AMD. We examined SNPs in the SGCD gene: rs931798, rs140617, rs140616, and rs970476 by sequencing and RT-PCR. Genotyping quality check and univariate analyses were performed with PLINK v.1.9. Furthermore, logistic regression models were done in SAS v.9.4 and haplotype configurations in R v.3.3.1. 3) Results: After adjusting for clinical covariates, the G/A genotype of the SGCD gene (rs931798) significantly increases the odds of being diagnosed with AMD in 81% (1.81, 95%CI 1.06-3.14, p=0.031), especially the geographic atrophy phenotype (1.82, 95%CI 1.03-3.21, p=0.038) compared to the G/G homozygous. Moreover, the GATT haplotype in this gene (rs931798, rs140617, rs140616, and rs970476) is associated with lower odds of AMD (Adjusted OR 0.13, 95%CI 0.02-0.91, p=0.041). 4) Conclusions: SGCD is a promising gene for AMD research. Further corroboration in other populations is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gene expression obesity triple negative breast cancer
Online: 20 March 2018 (07:56:33 CET)
Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer with poor outcomes. The molecular basis of TNBC remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between obesity and TNBC in premenopausal and postmenopausal Caucasian women using whole genome transcription profiling. Methods: We compared gene expression levels of tumor samples drawn from normal weight, overweight and obese in pre and postmenopausal women diagnosed with TNBC. We performed hierarchical clustering to assess similarity in patterns of gene expression profiles, and conducted network and pathway analysis to identify molecular networks and biological pathways. Results: We discovered gene signatures distinguishing normal weight from obese, normal weight from overweight and overweight from obese individuals in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways dysregulated in response to obesity. Among the discovered pathways included the unfolded protein response, endoplasmatic reticulum stress, B cell receptor and the autophagy signaling pathways in obese premenopausal women and the integrin, axonal guidance, ERK/MAPK and Glutathione biosynthesis signaling pathways obese postmenopausal women. Conclusions: The results suggest that both overweight and obesity are associated with TNBC, highlighting the need for conformation of these results in independent studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0211.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: pIgR; gene structure; cold environment; gene expression; teleost immunity; adaptive evolution; mucosal tissues; genome alteration; Notothenioidei; IgV domains.
Online: 27 June 2022 (08:41:00 CEST)
The IgM and IgT classes were previously identified and characterized in the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii, a species belonging to the Perciform suborder Notothenoidei. Herein we characterized the gene encoding the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the same species and compared it to pIgR of multiple teleost species belonging to five perciform sub-orders, including 11 Antarctic and one non-Antarctic (Cottoperca gobio) notothenioid species, the latter living in less cold periantarctic sea. Antarctic pIgR genes displayed particularly long in-trons marked by sites of transposable elements and transcription factors. Furthermore, analysis of T. bernacchii pIgR cDNA unveiled multiple amino acid substitutions unique to Antarctic species, all introducing adaptive features, including N-glycosylation sequons. Interestingly, C. gobio shared most features with the other perciforms rather than with the cold adapted relatives. T. bernacchii pIgR transcripts were predominantly expressed in mucosal tissues, as indicated by q-PCR and in situ hybridization analysis. These results suggest that in cold adapted species pIgR preserved its fundamental role in mucosal immune defense, although remarkable gene structure modifications occurred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0685.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gene-environment; serotonin transporter gene; 5HTTLPR; attachment; parent-infant interaction; parental bonding; maternal overprotection; close relationship; anxiety; avoidance
Online: 26 April 2021 (17:30:58 CEST)
Humans are evolutionary-driven to adult mating and conceive social expectations on the quality of their affiliations. The genetic susceptibility to adverse environments in critical periods can alter close relationships. The current research investigates how the promoter region of the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR) and perceived caregiving behavior in childhood could influence the social expectations on close adult relationships. For this purpose, 5-HTTLPR data was collected from the buccal mucosa of 65 Italian individuals (33 males). The participants filled a) the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) to provide the levels of care and overprotection from mother and father, and b) the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) to report the social expectations on the intimate relationship assessed in terms of anxiety and avoidance from the partner. An interaction effect between 5-HTTLPR and PBI dimensions on the ECR-R scores was hypothesized. Results confirmed that the interplay between the genetic groups and history of maternal overprotection predicted avoidance experienced in romantic relationships in adulthood. Moreover, both adult anxiety and avoidance felt in an intimate relationship were found to covary as a function of maternal overprotection. The present work proposes further evidence of the genetic and parental mechanisms regulating social expectations involved in close relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0449.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: comparative genomics; plant-parasitic nematodes; phylogenomics; parasite-specific genes; pest control; de novo gene birth; horizontal gene transfers
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:01:30 CEST)
Plant-parasitic nematodes cause expressive annual yield losses to worldwide agricultural production. Most cultivated plants have no known resistance against nematodes and the few bearing a resistance gene can be overcome by certain species. The chemical methods that have been deployed to control nematodes were largely banned from use due to their poor specificity and high toxicity. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of cleaner and more specific control methods. Recent advances in nematode genomics, including in phytoparasitic species, provide an unprecedented opportunity to identify genes and functions specific to these pests. Using phylogenomics, we compared 61 nematode genomes, including 16 for plant-parasitic species and identified more than 24,000 protein families specific to these parasites. In the genome of Meloidogyne incognita, one of the most devastating plant parasites, we found ca. 10,000 proteins with orthologs restricted only to phytoparasitic species and no further homology in protein databases. Among these phytoparasites-specific proteins, ca. 1,000 shared the same properties as known secreted effectors involved in essential parasitic functions. Of those, 68 were novel and showed strong expression during the endophytic phase of the nematode life cycle, based on both RNA-seq and RT-qPCR analyses. Besides effector candidates, transcription-related and neuro-perception functions were enriched in phytoparasites-specific proteins, revealing interesting targets for nematode control methods. This phylogenomics analysis, constitutes an unprecedented resource for the further understanding of the genetic basis of nematode adaptation to phytoparasitism and for the development of more efficient control methods.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: site-specific recombination; carbapenemase; ESKAPE; Acinetobacter; plasmid; Xer; dif; pdif; Re27; gene transfer; gene dissemination; horizontal transfer; horizontal dissemination
Online: 10 July 2020 (02:10:07 CEST)
Modules composed of a resistance gene flanked by Xer site-specific recombination sites, the vast majority of which were found in Acinetobacter baumannii, are thought to behave as elements that facilitate horizontal dissemination. The A. baumannii xerC and xerD genes were cloned, and the recombinant clones used to complement the cognate Escherichia coli mutants. The complemented strains supported resolution of plasmid dimers, and, as is the case with E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmids, the activity was enhanced when cells were growing in low osmolarity growth medium. Binding experiments showed that partially purified A. baumannii XerC and XerD proteins (XerCAb and XerDAb) bound synthetic Xer site-specific recombination sites, some of them with a nucleotide sequence deduced from existing A. baumannii plasmids. Incubation with suicide substrates resulted in covalent attachment of DNA to a recombinase, probably XerCAb, indicating that the first step in the recombination reaction took place. The results described show that XerCAb and XerDAb are functional proteins and support the hypothesis that they participate in horizontal dissemination of resistant genes among bacteria.