REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0257.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene expression; transcriptome diversity; isoform diversity; transcriptional diversity; transcrip-tional variation; transcript diversity
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:12:34 CET)
Following the central dogma of molecular biology, gene expression variability can aid in predicting and explaining the wide variety of protein products, functions, and, ultimately, variability in phenotypes. There is currently overlapping terminology used to describe the types of variability in gene expression profiles, and overlooking these nuances can misrepresent important biological information. Here, we describe transcriptional diversity as quantifying transcriptional changes as a measure of the variability in 1) the total expression of all genes or a gene across samples (transcriptome diversity) or 2) the isoform-specific expression of a given gene (isoform diversity). We first overview modulators and quantification of gene expression variability. Then, we discuss the role alternative splicing plays in driving transcript isoform expression variability and how isoform diversity can be quantified. Additionally, we overview computational resources for calculating transcriptome and isoform diversity for short- and long-read sequencing data. Finally, we discuss future applications of transcriptional diversity. This review provides a comprehensive overview of how gene expression variability arises, and how measuring it determines a more complete picture of heterogeneity across proteins, cells, tissues, organisms, and species
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0200.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: objective clustering; biclustering; gene regulatory networks; reconstruction; validation; gene expression profiles; noise component; systems stability
Online: 11 September 2018 (13:48:12 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0104.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Capsicum annuum L.; capsaicinoid synthesis; gene expression; fruit development; MeJA
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:11:50 CEST)
Background: Capsaicinoid are a group of compounds and widely used in the food, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. Capsaicinoid are unique synthesized and accumulated in the pepper fruits. MeJA can enhance the capsaicinoid production. Temporal and spatial expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes are helpful to understand the molecular mechnism of capsaicinoid biosynthesis in the fruits of pepper. Although some of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pepper have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of fruit has not been systemically investigated, and little is known about the molecular basis of MeJA inducing capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Results: HPLC study revealed that the capsaicinoid accumulation in the developing fruit of pepper initially appeared at 24 DAP (day after pollination), was actively development at 36 DAP and peaked at 48 DAP. 11 genes that encoded enzymes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis were isolated and characterized. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the CaCS was unique expressed in placenta and the other 10 genes were expressed in all selected tissues and 9 of 11 genes (except CaCa4H and CaCa3H) were strongly expressed in placenta tissue. Spatial expression analysis demostrated that the 11 gene could be collectively grouped into four categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during fruit development. Category I has 2 and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 24 DAP, Category II contains 5 genes and expression of the 5 genes was constantly increased from 0 to 36 DAP and peaked at 36 DAP. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes reached the peak at 48 DAP. Category IV consists of 2 genes and they showed a high expression at 36 and 48 DAF, but unexpressed from 0 to 12 DAP. The gene expressions of the 11 genes were up-regulated by MeJA. 3 genes showed a high expression at 24 h; 4 genes reached the peak at 12 h; the top expression were observed at 18 h; The last one, CaACYase, achieved the highest level at 8 h. Conclusion: The biosynthesis of capsaicinoid in pepper fruit is developmentally regulated. The expression of the majority of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes is highly consistent with the development accumulation of capsaicinoid in pepper fruit. These results not only provide the initial information on spatial and temporal expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pepper developing fruit, but are also valuable to identify the MeJA-induced genes for capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation during pepper fruit development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0241.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: gene expression profiles; lung cancer; clustering; classification; binary classifiers; SOTA clustering algorithm; clustering quality criteria; ROC analysis; fuzzy inference system
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:01:10 CEST)
In this paper, we present the results of the research concerning extraction of informative gene expression profiles from high-dimensional array of gene expressions considering the state of patients' health using clustering method, ensemble of binary classifiers and fuzzy inference system. Applying of the proposed stepwise procedure can allow us to extract the most informative genes taking into account both the subtypes of disease or state of the patient's health for further reconstruction of gene regulatory networks based on the allocated genes and following simulation of the reconstructed models. We used the publicly available gene expressions data as the experimental ones which were obtained using DNA microarray experiments and contained two types of patients' gene expression profiles: the patients with lung cancer tumor and healthy patients. The stepwise procedure of the data processing assumes the following steps: in beginning, we reduce the number of genes by removing non-informative genes in terms of statistical criteria and Shannon entropy; then, we perform the stepwise hierarchical clustering of gene expression profiles at hierarchical levels from 1 to 10 using SOTA clustering algorithm with correlation distance metric. The quality of the obtained clustering was evaluated using complex clustering quality criterion which is considered both the gene expression profiles distribution relative to center of the clusters were these gene expression profiles are allocated and the centers of the clusters distribution. The result of this stage execution was selection of the optimal cluster at each of the hierarchical levels which corresponded to minimum value of the quality criterion. At the next step, we have implemented classification procedure of the examined objects using four well known binary classifiers: logistic regression, support-vector machine, decision trees and random forest classifier. The effectiveness of the appropriate technique was evaluated based on the use of ROC analysis using criteria included as the components the errors of both the first and the second kinds. The final decision concerning extraction of the most informative subset of gene expression profiles was taken based on the use of fuzzy inference system, the inputs of which are the results of the appropriate single classifiers operation and output is the final solution concerning state of the patient's health. To our mind, the implementation of the proposed stepwise procedure of the informative gene expression profiles extraction create the conditions for increasing effectiveness of the further procedure of gene regulatory networks reconstruction and the following simulation of the reconstructed models considering the subtypes of the disease and/or state of the patient’s health.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: rumen-protected l-tryptophan; growth performance; metabolites; glucose; gene expression
Online: 29 September 2019 (09:02:27 CEST)
We assessed the growth performance, physiological traits, and gene expressions in steers fed with dietary rumen-protected L-tryptophan (RPT) under cold environment. Eight Korean native steers were assigned to two dietary groups, no RPT (Control) and RPT (0.1% RPT supplementation on a dry matter basis), 6 wks. Maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the experiment were 6.7°C and -7.0°C, respectively. Supplementation of 0.1% RPT to a total mixed ration did not increase body weight but had positive effects of elevating average daily gain (ADG) and reducing the feed conversion ratio (FCR) at day 27 and 48. Metabolic parameter showed higher glucose level (at day 27) in the 0.1% RPT group compared to the control group. Real-time PCR analysis showed no significant differences in the expression of muscle (MYF6, MyoD, and Desmin) metabolism genes between the two groups, whereas the expression of fat (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FABP4) metabolism genes was lower in the 0.1% RPT group than in the control group. Thus, we demonstrate that long-term (6 wks) dietary supplementation of 0.1% RPT was beneficial owing to enhanced growth performance by increasing ADG and glucose level, decreasing FCR, and maintaining homeostasis in immune responses in beef steers during cold environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: abiotic stress; HSFs; genomics; gene ontology; maize breeding; protein 3D structures
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:57:37 CEST)
Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) participate in regulating many environmental stress responses and biological processes in plants. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major cash crop that is grown worldwide. However, the growth and yield of maize are affected by several adverse environmental inputs. Therefore, investigating the factors that regulate maize growth and development and resistance to abiotic stress is an essential task for developing stress-resilient maize varieties. Thus, a comprehensive genome-wide identification analysis was performed to identify HSFs in the maize genome. The current study identified 25 ZmHSFs, randomly distributed throughout the maize genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmHSFs are divided into three classes and 13 sub-classes. Gene structure and protein motif analysis supported the results obtained through the phylogenetic analysis. Domain analysis showed the DNA-binding domain to be the most conserved region of ZmHSFs. Segmental duplication is shown to be responsible for the expansion of ZmHSFs. Most of the ZmHSFs are localized inside the nucleus, and the ZmHSFs which belong to the same group show similar physio-chemical properties. The 3D structures revealed comparable conserved ZmHSFs protein structures. RNA-seq analysis revealed a major role of class A HSFs including, ZmHSFA-1a and ZmHSFA-2a in all the maize growth stages, i.e., seed, vegetative, and reproductive development. Furthermore, ZmHSFs displayed an obvious spatiotemporal expression. Under abiotic stress conditions (heat, drought, cold, UV, and salinity), members of class A and B ZmHSFs are induced. Gene ontology (GO) annotation analysis indicated a major role of ZmHSFs in resistance to environmental stress and regulation of primary metabolism. Further, the protein-protein interaction analysis showed that ZmHSFs interact with several molecular chaperons and major stress-responsive proteins. To summarize, this study provides novel insights for functional studies on the ZmHSFs in maize breeding programs.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: BrassicaEDB; Brassica napus; gene expression profile; coexpression
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:25:37 CEST)
The Brassica family contains several economically important crops, including rapeseed (Brassica napus, 2n = 38, AACC), the second largest source of seed oil and protein meal worldwide. However, research in rapeseed is hampered because it is complicated and time-consuming for researchers to access different types of expression data. We therefore developed the Brassica Expression Database (BrassicaEDB, https://biodb.swu.edu.cn/brassica/) for the research community. We conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of 103 tissues from rapeseed cultivar ZhongShuang11 (ZS11) at seven developmental stages (seed germination, seedling, bolting, initial flowering, full-bloom, podding, and maturation). We determined the expression patterns of 101,040 genes via FPKM analysis and displayed the results using the eFP browser. We also analyzed transcriptome data for rapeseed from 70 BioProjects in the SRA database and obtained three types of expression level data (FPKM, TPM, and read counts). We used this information to develop the BrassicaEDB, including eFP, Treatment, Coexpression, and SRA Project modules based on gene expression profiles and Gene Feature, qPCR Primer, and BLAST modules based on gene sequences. The BrassicaEDB provides comprehensive gene expression profile information and a user-friendly visualization interface for Brassica crop researchers. Using this database, researchers can quickly retrieve the expression level data for target genes in different tissues and in response to different treatments to elucidate gene functions and explore the biology of rapeseed at the transcriptome level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: DPP9; SNPs; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Survival; TCGA; DPP4 gene family
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:37 CET)
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 9, DPP8, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) are the four enzymatically active members of the S9b protease family. Associations of DPP9 with human liver cancer, exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPP9 and loss of function (LoF) variants have not been explored. Human genomic databases including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were interrogated to identify DPP9 LoF variants and associated cancers. Survival and gene signature analyses were performed on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) data. We found that DPP9 and DPP8 are intolerant to LoF variants. DPP9 LoF variants were most often associated with uterine carcinoma. Two DPP9 intronic SNPs that have been associated with lung fibrosis and COVID-19 were not associated with liver fibrosis or cancer. All four DPP4-like genes were overexpressed in liver tumours and their joint high expression was associated with poor survival in HCC. Increased DPP9 expression was associated with obesity in HCC patients.. High expression of genes that positively correlated with overexpression of DPP4, DPP8, and DPP9 were associated with very poor survival in HCC. Enriched pathways analysis of these positively correlated genes featured Toll-like receptor and SUMOylation pathways. This comprehensive data mining suggests that DPP9 is essential for human survival and the DPP4 protease family is important in cancer pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0451.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: CTCF; tumour suppressor gene; haploinsufficiency; zinc finger; CRISPR/Cas9; cancer; endometrial cancer; gene editing
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:29:01 CEST)
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a conserved transcription factor that performs diverse roles in transcriptional regulation and chromatin architecture. Cancer genome sequencing reveals diverse acquired mutations in CTCF, which we have shown, functions as a tumour suppressor gene. While CTCF is essential for embryonic development, little is known of its absolute requirement in somatic cells and the consequences of CTCF haploinsufficiency. We examined the consequences of CTCF depletion in immortalised human and mouse cells using shRNA knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and examined the growth and development of heterozygous Ctcf (Ctcf+/-) mice. We also analysed the impact of CTCF haploinsufficiency by examining gene expression changes in CTCF-altered endometrial carcinoma. Knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of CTCF reduced the cellular growth and colony-forming ability of K562 cells. CTCF knockdown also induced cell cycle arrest and a pro-survival response to apoptotic insult. However, in p53 shRNA-immortalised Ctcf+/- MEFs we observed the opposite: increased cellular proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression and decreased survival after apoptotic insult compared to wild type MEFs. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting in Ctcf+/- MEFs revealed a predominance of in-frame microdeletions in Ctcf in surviving clones, however protein expression could not be ablated. Examination of CTCF mutations in endometrial cancers showed locus-specific alterations in gene expression due to CTCF haploinsufficiency, in concert with downregulation of tumour suppressor genes and upregulation of estrogen-responsive genes. Depletion of CTCF expression imparts a dramatic negative effect on normal cell function. However, CTCF haploinsufficiency can have growth-promoting effects consistent with known cancer hallmarks in the presence of additional genetic hits. Our results confirm the absolute requirement for CTCF expression in somatic cells and provide definitive evidence of CTCF’s role as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene. CTCF genetic alterations in endometrial cancer indicate that gene dysregulation is a likely consequence of CTCF loss, contributing to, but not solely driving cancer growth.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: sleeping Beauty transposon; bidirectional promoters; gene expression; gene therapy; synthetic biology; RPBSA; EF-1; LMP2/TAP1
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:35:53 CEST)
Promoter choice is an essential consideration for transgene expression in gene therapy. The expression of multiple genes requires ribosomal entry or skip sites, or the use of multiple promoters. Promoters systems comprised of two separate, divergent promoters may significantly increase the size of genetic cassettes intended for use in gene therapy. However, an alternative approach is to use a single, compact bidirectional promoter. We identified strong and stable bidirectional activity of the RPBSA synthetic promoter comprised of a fragment of the human Rpl13a promoter, together with additional intron / exon structures. The Rpl13a-based promoter drove long-term bidirectional activity of fluorescent proteins. Similar results were obtained for the EF1-α and LMP2/TAP1 promoters. However, in a lentiviral vector, the divergent bidirectional systems failed to produce sufficient titres to translate into an expression system for dual chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) expression. Although bidirectional promoters show excellent applicability to drive short RNA in Sleeping Beauty transposon systems, their possible use in the lentiviral applications requiring longer and more complex RNA, such as dual CAR cassettes, is limited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: PCOS; Gene expression; Insulin resistance; Diabetes; HOMA-IR
Online: 20 October 2022 (08:25:43 CEST)
Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder worldwide among women of reproductive age. It is characterized by endocrine, reproductive, and metabolic abnormalities. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of its most important clinical features, associated with metabolic disorders and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to explore the whole blood gene expression profiling related to IR in PCOS patients compared to controls. Methods Blood RNA was extracted from 5 PCOS and 5 non-PCOS women with matched age and BMI. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate the IR. The expression of IR genes was analyzed by Profiler PCR array. Results Both groups have similar levels of HOMA-IR (p>0.05). However, differential expression levels were observed between them. Fourteen genes were upregulated and 26 genes were downregulated in PCOS samples. Among the upregulated genes (>2 fold-change, p-value<0.05) are ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, OLR, IGF-1, and APOE. Downregulated genes (>-2 fold-change, p-value<0.05) include HK-2, IRS1, and SERPINE1. These genes are involved in insulin and adipokines signaling, commonly dysregulated in T2D. They are also involved in innate immunity and inflammatory processes and are essential for lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusion Our finding suggests that despite both groups having no difference in IR level, there are differentially expressed genes involved in the IR pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0670.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: MTHFR; bovine; bioinformatics; gene expression; testes
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:00:47 CEST)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme expressed in mammalian testes exerts direct effect on spermatogenesis; however, its protein characteristics in bovine testes remain unknown. Here, we analysed bovine testicular structure, MTHFR bioinformatics profile, mRNA, and protein expression characteristics in yellow-cattle (y-c) and yak testis using histological procedures, bioinformatics analysis, qRT-PCR, and western blot. Testes from 13 bovines, ≤ 2 years juvenile (y-c, n = 3; yak, n=3) and ≥ 3 years adult (y-c, n = 3; yak, n = 4) were collected and analysed. Anatomical characteristics of testis in y-c and yak were similar except the weight or size for which that of y-c was significantly higher or greater than yak. In y-c, an open reading frame (ORF) for 2600 nucleotides sequence, encoding 655 amino acids showed high homology with zebu cattle (99.51%) and wild yak (98.68%). Secondary and 3D protein structures were similar to that of humans with differences in number of nucleotides, amino acids, and some physico-chemical characteristics. MTHFR mRNA expression in y-c and yak were significantly higher in adult testes compared with juvenile ones. However, its protein expression was higher but not statistically significant in adult y-c and yak compared to the juvenile ones. The highlights and inferences of these and other findings are discussed.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pig; NREP; gene expression; polymorphism; SNP; meat performance
Online: 1 December 2020 (08:48:46 CET)
The expression microarray technique was performed to investigate the differences in gene expression between Czech Large White pigs and wild boars in the longissimus lumborum et thoracis and biceps femoris muscle tissues. The NREP gene (neuronal regeneration related protein homolog) was selected for detailed study as an expressional and functional candidate gene. NREP plays a role in the transformation of neural, muscle and fibroblast cells and in smooth muscle myogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR results confirmed that the porcine NREP gene was expressed in both skeletal muscles and significantly overexpressed in Czech Large White pigs compared to wild boars (P < 0.05). We identified 9 polymorphic sites in genomic DNA of NREP gene. Six of these polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium and therefore only 4 polymorphisms were informative. Associations of these 4 polymorphisms (HF571253:g.103G>A, HF571253:g.134G>A, HF571253:g.179T>C and HF571253:g.402_409delT) with meat performance traits were assessed in Czech Large White pigs. New polymorphisms in NREP gene were significantly associated with parameters of daily weight gain, lean meat and backfat thickness in Czech Large White pigs. Our primary study suggested that porcine NREP may play an important role in skeletal muscle growth, fat metabolism and meat performance traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0193.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Flowering; Gene expression; Pod elongation; Soybean; Water deficit
Online: 10 November 2022 (08:34:45 CET)
Drought stress on soybean is a research-demanding matter for negative influence that agricultural drought brings about. This study was designated to evaluate the effect of drought stress on some gene expression in flowering and pod elongation stages in soybean. This experiment was carried out in split-plot format with RCBD design with four replicates. Drought stress as the main factor included three levels (irrigation after 50, 100, and 150 millimeters evaporation from the A-class evaporation pot) of which 50 millimeters evaporation is considered as control. The sub-factor included a factorial combination of 3 varieties (DPX, Sari and WE6) and two sampling stages (flowering and pod elongation). The gene expression analysis was carried out by using the QRT-PCR technique. According to our results, all genes have shown overexpression in drought stress despite this result was not the same for all genotypes and stress levels. Some genes have up-regulated in mediate stress (treatment 100) level (like as Gmdreb 2, Gmdreb 5, GmRD20A, GmaxACD2) and other genes up-regulated in serve stress (treatment 150) level. Between genotypes, DPX cultivar and WE6 line were better than of the sari cultivar for all genes up-regulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: colorectal cancer; gene expression; molecular classification; molecular subtyping
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:55:26 CEST)
Molecular classifications of colorectal cancer (CRC) are benefitting cancer research by providing insights into subtype-specific disease prognosis and better therapeutic intervention. So far different conventional DNA markers such as microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), chromosomal instability (CIN), and BRAF and KRAS mutations have been used to classify CRC patients but have not shown promising prognostic values. Here, for the first time, we show classification of CRC tumors from Saudi Arabian patients based on gene expression profile (GEP). An existing method of CRC subtyping has been applied to the GEP of tumors from Saudi CRC patients. Survival analysis was carried out on predicted CRC subtypes. In-silico functional analyses were conducted on the gene signature used for subtype prediction. The predicted subtypes showed distinct but statistically insignificant overall survival distribution (log-rank test, p = 0.069). Comparison of predicted subtypes in Saudi CRC patients with that of the French one showed significant dissimilarity in the two populations (Chi-square test, p = 0.0091). Functional analyses of the gene signature used for subtyping suggest their association with “cancer” and “gastrointestinal diseases”. Most of the signature genes were found differentially expressed in CRC tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. Such a classification framework might help improve the treatment of colorectal cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0199.v1
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:15:47 CEST)
The aim of present study was to link the gene expression profile of selected candidate genes with blood profile, growth performance and carcass traits of Barki lambs. Thirty-eight Barki lambs were divided into 3 groups (fast, intermediate and slow growing) according to growth perfor-mance. Body tissues (muscle, liver and fat) were taken from for RNA isolation and Real-time PCR. The results indicated that, the final body weight hot carcass weight were heavier (P ≤ 0.05) in fast (49.9 Kg and 24.57) than intermediate (40.7 and 19.07 Kg) and slow (30.8 and 15.10 Kg) growing animals. The blood profile of total protein, total lipids, calcium, T3 and T4 hormones did not differ among sheep groups. Genes involved in protein biosynthesis (RPL7), fatty acid oxidation (CPT1) and lipolysis (FABP4) were up regulated in fast and intermediate growing lambs in all studied tissues. While, gene-regulating lipogenesis (ADIPOQ) was expressed simi-larly in fat and liver tissues, but increased its expression in muscle of fast and intermediate growing lambs. Expression of CAPN3 was increased in fast and intermediate growing compared to slow growing lambs. In conclusion, the current study providing an evidence for the im-portance of co-expression of these genes in main body tissues linked with growth performance of Barki lambs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0497.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: matrix metalloproteinases; skin fibrosis; gene expression; laser therapy
Online: 27 January 2023 (07:17:38 CET)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are often considered biomarkers of skin fibrosis. At the early stages of the pathological process, an elevation of their enzymatic activity causes significant changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. MMPs secreted by immune cells facilitate their migration to the site of damage. Then, the immune cells eliminate the affected cells and biomolecules. Moreover, bidirectional changes in the activity of proteolytic enzymes, including MMPs, accompany wound healing. This study aimed to assess changes in the expression of Mmp2, Mmp3, and Mmp9 after treating the mice with laser therapy using the experimental model of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. Using immunohistochemistry, we characterized the histological features of scarred skin. We also analyzed changes in the expression of MMPs using real-time polymerase chain reaction before and after the irradiation with laser. We showed that treatment of the mice with CO2 laser partially normalized the histological features of scarred skin. We also noticed a decrease in the expression of Mmp2, Mmp3 (both p < 0.05), and Mmp9 (p = 0.065) during scar healing. The obtained results suggest that normalization of skin homeostasis requires a control of MMPs activities via induction of their genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0237.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene oxide; human keratinocytes; proliferation; gene expression; cytotoxicity
Online: 8 March 2021 (16:20:37 CET)
Few-layer graphene oxide (GO) has shown none or very weak cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects in a wide range of cell lines such as glyoma cells and human skin HaCaT cells, in concentrations up to 100 µg/mL However, multi-layer GO has been hardly explored in the biomedical field. Thus, multi-layer GO was examined here in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells treated with different concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 150 µg/mL during different periods of times (3, 12 and 24 hours). The results of this study showed a time-concentration dependence with two non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.01 and 0.05 µg/mL) and a median effective concentration value of 4.087 µg/mL at 24 hours of GO exposure. Contrary to what has been reported for few-layer GO, cell proliferation of the HaCaT cells in contact with the multi-layer GO at 0.01 μg/mL showed identical proliferative activity compared to an epidermal growth factor (1.6-fold greater than the control group) after 96 hours. The effects of the multi-layer GO on the expression of 13 genes (SOD1, CAT, MMP1, TGFB1, GPX1, FN1, HAS2, LAMB1, LUM, CDH1, COL4A1, FBN and VCAN) at the non-cytotoxic concentrations of GO in the HaCaT cells were analyzed after 24 hours. Thus, the lowest non-cytotoxic GO concentration was able to up-regulate the CAT, TGFB1, FN1 and CDH1 genes, which confirms the great potential of multi-layer GO in the biomedical field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0330.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: gene expression; gene regulation; evolution; allele specific expression; eQTL; RNAseq; ChIPseq; chromatin; ATACseq; genotype-phenotype map
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:29:26 CEST)
Research in various fields of evolutionary biology has shown that divergence in gene expression is a key driver for phenotypic variation. An exceptional contribution of cis-regulatory evolution has for instance been found to contribute to morphological diversification. In the light of these findings, the analysis of genome-wide expression data has become one of the central tools to link genotype and phenotype information on a more mechanistic level. However, in many studies, especially if general conclusions are drawn from such data, a key feature of gene regulation is often neglected. With our article, we want to raise awareness that gene regulation and thus gene expression is highly context dependent. Genes show tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression. We argue that the regulatory context must be considered when studying evolution of gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0161.v1
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:25:45 CEST)
For developmental processes we know most of the gene networks controlling specific cell responses. We still have to determine how these networks cooperate and how signals become integrated. The JNK pathway is one of the key elements modulating cellular responses during development. Yet, we still know little on how the core components of the pathway interact with additional regulators or how this network modulates cellular responses in the whole organism in homeostasis or during tissue morphogenesis. We have performed a promoter analysis searching for potential regulatory sequences of puc and identified different specific enhancers directing gene expression in different tissues and at different developmental times. Remarkably, some of these domains respond to the JNK activity, but not all. Altogether, these analyses show that puc expression regulation is very complex and that JNK activities participate in non-previously known processes during the development of Drosophila.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: fasting; refeeding; skeletal muscle; zebrafish; mRNA-sequencing; gene length
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:31:07 CEST)
Recently, fasting has been spotlighted from a healthcare perspective. However, the de-tailed biological mechanisms and significance by which the effects of fasting confer health benefits are not yet clear. Due to certain advantages of zebrafish, as a vertebrate model widely utilized in biological studies, we used mRNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to examine comprehensive gene expression changes in skeletal muscle tissues during fasting-refeeding. Our results produced a novel set of nutrition-related genes under a fasting-refeeding protocol. We found five dramatically upregulated genes in each fasting (for 24 hours) and refeeding (after 3 hours), exhibiting a rapid response to the provided conditional changes. The assessment of the gene length revealed, the gene set whose expression was elevated only after 3 hours of refeeding had a shorter length, suggesting that nutrition-related gene function is associated with gene length. Taken together, our results from bioinformatics analyses provide new insights into biological mechanisms induced by fasting-refeeding conditions within zebrafish skeletal muscle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0077.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: rule based models; gene expression data; bayesian networks; parsimony
Online: 15 December 2016 (08:21:24 CET)
The comprehensibility of good predictive models learned from high-dimensional gene expression data is attractive because it can lead to biomarker discovery. Several good classifiers provide comparable predictive performance but differ in their abilities to summarize the observed data. We extend a Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL-GSS) algorithm, previously shown to be a significantly better predictor than other classical approaches in this domain. It searches a space of Bayesian networks using a decision tree representation of its parameters with global constraints, and infers a set of IF-THEN rules. The number of parameters and therefore the number of rules are combinatorial to the number of predictor variables in the model. We relax these global constraints to a more generalizable local structure (BRL-LSS). BRL-LSS entails more parsimonious set of rules because it does not have to generate all combinatorial rules. The search space of local structures is much richer than the space of global structures. We design the BRL-LSS with the same worst-case time-complexity as BRL-GSS while exploring a richer and more complex model space. We measure predictive performance using Area Under the ROC curve (AUC) and Accuracy. We measure model parsimony performance by noting the average number of rules and variables needed to describe the observed data. We evaluate the predictive and parsimony performance of BRL-GSS, BRL-LSS and the state-of-the-art C4.5 decision tree algorithm, across 10-fold cross-validation using ten microarray gene-expression diagnostic datasets. In these experiments, we observe that BRL-LSS is similar to BRL-GSS in terms of predictive performance, while generating a much more parsimonious set of rules to explain the same observed data. BRL-LSS also needs fewer variables than C4.5 to explain the data with similar predictive performance. We also conduct a feasibility study to demonstrate the general applicability of our BRL methods on the newer RNA sequencing gene-expression data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0699.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: SVM; MRMR; Bootstrap; Genes; Gene Expression; Biological Relevance; Subject Classification
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:09:52 CEST)
Selection of biologically relevant genes from high dimensional expression data is a key research problem in gene expression genomics. Most of the available gene selection methods are either based on relevancy or redundancy measure, which are usually adjudged through post selection classification accuracy. Through these methods the ranking of genes was done on a single high-dimensional expression data, which leads to the selection of spuriously associated and redundant genes. Hence, we developed a statistical approach through combining Support Vector Machine with Maximum Relevance and Minimum Redundancy under a sound statistical setup for the selection of biologically relevant genes. Here, the genes are selected through statistical significance values computed using a non-parametric test statistic under a bootstrap based subject sampling model. Further, a systematic and rigorous evaluation of the proposed approach with nine existing competitive methods was carried on six different real crop gene expression datasets. This performance analysis was carried out under three comparison settings, i.e. subject classification, biological relevant criteria based on quantitative trait loci, and gene ontology. Our analytical results showed that the proposed approach selects genes that are more biologically relevant as compared to the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed approach was also found to be better with respect to the competitive existing methods. The proposed statistical approach provides a framework for combining filter, and wrapper methods of gene selection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0076.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: phase separation; nuclear bodies; self-assembly; genome organization; gene expression
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:17:34 CET)
The importance of genome organization at the supranucleosomal scale in the control of gene expression is increasingly recognized today. In mammals, Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) and the active / inactive chromosomal compartments are two of the main nuclear structures that contribute to this organization level. However, recent works reviewed here indicate that, at specific loci, chromatin interactions with nuclear bodies could also be crucial to regulate genome functions, in particular transcription. They moreover suggest that these nuclear bodies are membrane-less organelles dynamically self-assembled and disassembled through mechanisms of phase separation. We have recently developed a novel genome-wide experimental method, High-salt Recovered Sequences sequencing (HRS-seq), which allows the identification of chromatin regions associated with large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and nuclear bodies. We argue that the physical nature of such RNP complexes and nuclear bodies appears to be central in their ability to promote efficient interactions between distant genomic regions. The development of novel experimental approaches, including our HRS-seq method, is opening new avenues to understand how self-assembly of phase separated nuclear bodies possibly contributes to mammalian genome organization and gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0497.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: oxygen; physioxia; hyperoxia; cell culture; transcriptomics; differential gene expression
Online: 29 August 2022 (14:46:44 CEST)
Standard cell culture is routinely performed at supraphysiological oxygen concentrations (~18% O2). Conversely, oxygen levels in most tissues range from 1%–6% (physioxia). Such hyperoxic conditions can alter reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, energy metabolism, mitochondrial network dynamics, and response to drugs and hormones. The aim of this project was to investigate the transcriptional response to different oxygen levels and whether it is similar across cell lines, or cell-line specific. Using RNA-seq, we performed differential gene expression and functional enrichment analyses in four human cancer cell lines, LNCaP, Huh-7, PC-3, and SH-SY5Y cultured at either 5% or 18% oxygen for 14 days. We found that oxygen levels affected transcript abundance of hundreds of genes, with the affected genes having little overlap between cell lines. Functional enrichment analysis also revealed different processes and pathways being affected in each cell line. Interestingly, we found that the top differentially expressed genes are involved in cancer biology. Further, we observed several hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets upregulated at 5% oxygen, suggesting a role of HIF at physiological oxygen conditions. Finally, oxygen strongly induced transcription of mitochondrial genes in most cell lines, in a cell-type specific manner too. We conclude that cellular response to oxygen is widely cell-type specific, emphasizing the importance of maintaining physioxia in cell culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: simulated microgravity; radiation; combined effects; gene expression; cell cycle
Online: 3 June 2019 (12:24:59 CEST)
Multiple unique environmental factors such as space radiation and microgravity (µG) pose a serious threat to human gene stability during space travel. Recently, we reported that simultaneous exposure of human fibroblasts to simulated µG and radiation results in more chromosomal aberrations than in cells exposed to radiation alone. However, the mechanisms behind this remain unknown. The purpose of this study was thus to obtain comprehensive data on gene expression using a 3D clinostat synchronized to a carbon (C)-ion or X-ray irradiation system. Human fibroblasts (1BR-hTERT) were maintained under standing or rotating conditions for 3 or 24 h after synchronized C-ion or X-ray irradiation at 1 Gy as part of a total culture time of 2 days. Among 57,773 genes analyzed with RNA sequencing, we focused particularly on the expression of 82 cell cycle-related genes after exposure to the radiation and simulated µG. The expression of cell cycle-suppressing genes (ABL1 and CDKN1A) decreased and that of cell cycle-promoting genes (MKI67, KPNA2, CCNB1, STMN1, and MCM4) increased after C-ion irradiation under µG. The cell cycle may pass through the G1/S and G2 checkpoints with DNA damage due to the combined effects of C-ions and µG, suggesting that increased genomic instability might occur in space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0086.v1
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:21:33 CET)
Background: Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), is a bacterial disease of whiteleg shrimp, which has a high mortality rate (100%) and incurs economic losses. Our objective was to identify the genes which lead to cell and organ damage and investigate bioproducts to prevent and treat. Methods: Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam were collected from an infected pond and analysed at the Institute of Biotechnology, Hue University. The PirA gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain K5 was isolated and analyzed for nucleotide sequence and paired with the expression vector pQE30. The expression vector was transformed into E. coli strain M15, the PirA recombinant protein was expressed in the form of 6xHis-PirA fusion protein of about 15 kDa. PirA recombinant protein was purified and determined the PirAvp binding ratio, cloning and sequencing of PirA gene from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain K5 causing AHPND by PCR method with specific primers and molecular weights of PirAvp and the PirAvp complex. Results: PirA gene from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain K5 was cloned into pGEM-T easy vector (Promega, USA) and screened E. coli TOP10 colonies containing pGEM T easy/PirA recombinant plasmid on LB agar/ampicillin/IPTG/X-Gal medium. PCR showing a band of about 347 bp, matching the size of PirA gene and two nucleotide sequences (BamHI and HindIII). The results showed that PirA gene has a length of 336 bp and similar to PirA gene on GenBank (Code: KU556825.1). The results of protein extracted from E. coli M15 recombinant cells and 6xHis-PirA target protein was collected in elution fractions from EF2 to EF6, showed that the concentration of 6xHis-PirA protein and EF3 elution fraction collected a highest protein concentration (1,586.54 µg/ml). Conclusions: The purified PirA recombinant protein will provide materials for development research to create biological products to prevent and treat AHPND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0232.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: obesity; plant secondary compound; Clinacanthus nutans; gene expression
Online: 24 April 2018 (10:04:11 CEST)
Obesity is a universal health concern that can lead to serious diseases. The side effects of synthetic anti-obesity drugs necessitate the finding of suitable natural/herbal alternatives. Mother nature offers a wide range of plants with medicinal properties that include crude extracts and isolated compounds which are effective for controlling and reducing weight gain. Obesity was induced in 60, 3-week-old male ICR mice, using high-fat diet (60% dietary energy from fat) for 16-week. The mice were divided at random into six groups with 10 mice: mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) only, mice fed normal diet only (NC), and orlistat at 15.9 mg/kg (HFD+Orlistat), and mice in three other high-fat diet groups treated with methanolic leaf extract of Clinacanthus nutans (MECN) at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg. After 21-day of the treatment, MECN significantly reduced (P<0.05) the body weight, visceral fat and muscle saturated fatty acid compositions. There was also significant downregulation of HSL, PPAR α and PPAR γ and SCD genes expressions in the obese mice treated with 1500 mg/kg MECN compared to the HFD group. Therefore, MECN is a potentially useful natural supplement for alleviating obesity and obesity-mediated metabolic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fibrillin; cucumber; genome-wide; gene expression; high light stress
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:24:00 CEST)
Fibrillin (FBN) is a plastid lipid-associated protein found in photosynthetic organisms from cyanobacteria to plants. In this study, 10 CsaFBN genes were identified in genomic DNA sequences of cucumber (Chinese long and Gy14) through database searches using the conserved domain of FBN and the 14 FBN genes of Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis of CsaFBN protein sequences showed that there was no counterpart of Arabidopsis and rice FBN5 in the cucumber genome. FBN5 is essential for growth in Arabidopsis and rice; its absence in cucumber may be because of incomplete genome sequences or that another FBN carries out its functions. Among the 10 CsaFBN genes, CsaFBN1 and CsaFBN9 were the most divergent in terms of nucleotide sequences. Most of the CsaFBN genes were expressed in the leaf, stem, and fruit. CsaFBN4 showed the highest mRNA expression levels in various tissues, followed by CsaFBN6, CsaFBN1, and CsaFBN9. High-light stress combined with low temperature decreased photosynthetic efficiency and highly induced transcript levels of CsaFBN1, CsaFBN6, and CsaFBN11, which decreased after 24 h treatment. Transcript levels of the other seven genes were changed only slightly. This result suggests that CsaFBN1, CsaFBN6, and CsaFBN11 may be involved in photoprotection under high-light conditions at low temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0105.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: magnetic hyperthermia; gene therapies; heat shock protein promoter; in vivo optical imaging; magnetic polymer-coated nanoparticles
Online: 24 January 2017 (04:14:19 CET)
The present work aims to demonstrate that colloidal dispersions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran macromolecules placed in an alternating magnetic field can not only produce heat, but also that these particles could be used in vivo for local and non-invasive deposition of a thermal dose sufficient to trigger thermo-induced gene expression. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first characterized in vitro on a bio-inspired setup, and then they were assayed in vivo using a transgenic mouse strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter. Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersions were applied topically on the mouse skin or injected sub-cutaneously with Matrigel™ to generate so called pseudo tumors. Temperature was monitored continuously with a feedback loop to control the power of the magnetic field generator and to avoid overheating. Thermo-induced luciferase expression was followed by bioluminescence imaging 6 hours after heating. We showed that dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles dispersions were able to induce in vivo mild hyperthermia compatible with thermo-induced gene expression in surrounding tissues and without impairing cell viability. These data open new therapeutic perspectives for using mild magnetic hyperthermia as non-invasive modulation of tumor microenvironment by local thermo-induced gene expression or drug release.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0437.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Colorectal cancer; flippase; ion transporter; tumor suppressor gene; chromosome 18q; lipid transport
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:09:08 CET)
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through distinct molecular events. Loss of 18q chromosome is a conspicuous event in the progression of adenoma to carcinoma. There is limited information regarding the molecular effectors of this event. Earlier, we had reported ATP8B1 as a novel gene associated with CRC. ATP8B1 belongs to the family of P-type ATPases (P4 ATPase) that primarily function to facilitate the translocation of phospholipids. In this study, we attempt to implicate ATP8B1 gene located on chromosome 18q as a tumor suppressor gene. We studied indigenous patient data and confirmed the reduced expression of ATP8B1 in tumor samples. CRC cell lines were engineered with reduced and enhanced levels of ATP8B1 which provided a tool to study its role on cancer progression. Forced reduction of ATP8B1 expression either by CRISPR/Cas9 or shRNA was associated with increased growth and proliferation of CRC cell line - HT29. In contrast, overexpression of ATP8B1 resulted in reduced growth and proliferation of SW480 cell line. We generated a network of genes that are downstream of ATP8B1. Further, we provide predicted effect of modulation of ATP8B1 levels on this network and possible effect on fatty acid metabolism related genes. These results provide evidence in support of ATP8B1 being a tumor suppressor that may affect fatty acid metabolism in CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: hyacinthus; Caulerpa taxifolia; thermal stress; physiological processes; gene expression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:05:02 CET)
An increasing ecological phase-shift from coral dominated reefs to macroalgae dominated reefs as a result of anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, sedimentation, and overfishing, has been observed in many reef systems around the world. Ocean warming is a universal threat to both corals and macroalgae, which may alter the outcome of competition between them. Therefore, in order to explore the effects of indirect and direct exposure to macroalgae on the physiological, biochemical, and genetic expression of corals at elevated temperature, the coral Acroproa hyacinthus and highly invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia have been chosen. Physiologically, the results exhibited that distinguish from control and direct contact treatments, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella decreased by 53.1% and 71.2% respectively, when coral indirect contacted with algae at ambient temperature (27°C). Besides, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in coral tissue were enhanced by interacting with algae. After an increase of 3°C, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella reduced by 84.4% and 93.8% respectively, whereas the enzmy activities of SOD and CAT increased by 2.3 and 3.1-fold. However, only the zooxanthellae density and pigment content decreased when C.taxifolia co-culture with A.hyacinthus at 30°C. Molecularly, different from the control group, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) such as Rab family, ATG family and Casp7 were significantly enriched in endocytosis, autophagy and apoptosis pathways , regardless whether A.hyacinthus was indirect or indirect exposure to C.taxifolia at 27°C. Under thermal stress without algae interaction, the DEGs were significantly enriched in microbial immune signal transduction pathways, such as Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway, while multiple cellular immunity (IFI47, TRAF family) and oxidative stress (CAT, SODC, HSP70) genes were up-regulated. Inversely, compared with corals without interaction with algae at 30°C, the DEGs of corals interacted with C.taxifolia at 30°C, were remarkably enriched in apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, including the transcription factors such as Casp family, TRAF family. In conclusion, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella remained a fading tendency induced by macroalgae at ambient temperature. The oxidative stress and immune response levels of coral has been elevated at 30°C, but macroalgae alleviated the negative effects triggered by thermal stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0187.v1
Subject: Keywords: Transcriptome analysis; Capra hircus; Differential gene expression; Pashmina goat; Barbari goat; RNA-seq
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:50:26 CET)
The Pashmina and Barbari are two famous goat breeds found in the wide areas of the Indo-Pak region. Pashmina is famous for its long hair-fiber (Cashmere) production while Barbari is not-selected for this trait. So, the mRNA expression profiling in the skin samples of both breeds would be an attractive and judicious approach for detecting putative genes involved in this valued trait. Here, we performed differential gene expression analysis on publicly available RNA-Seq data from both breeds. Out of 44,617,994 filtered reads of Pashmina and 55,995,999 of Barbari which are 76.48% and 73.69% mapped to the ARS1 reference transcriptome assembly respectively. A pairwise comparison of both breeds resulted in 47,159 normalized expressed transcripts while 8,414 transcripts are differentially expressed above the significant threshold. Among these, 4,788 are upregulated in Pashmina while 3,626 transcripts are upregulated in Barbari. Fifty-nine transcripts harbor 57 genes including 32 LOC genes and 24 are annotated genes which were selected on the basis of TMM counts > 500. Genes with ectopic expressions other than uncharacterized and LOC symbol genes are Keratins (KRT) and Keratin Associated Proteins (KRTAPs), CystatinA&6, TCHH, SPRR4, PPIA, SLC25A4, S100A11, DMKN, LOR, ANXA2, PRR9 and SFN. All of these genes are likely to be involved in keratinocyte differentiation, sulfur matrix proteins, dermal papilla cells, hair follicles proliferation, hair curvature, wool fiber diameter, hair transition, hair shaft differentiation and its keratinization. These differentially expressed reported genes are critically valuable for enhancing the quality and quantity of the pashmina fiber and overall breed improvement. This study will also provide important information on hair follicle differentiation for further enrichment analyses and introducing this valued trait to other goat breeds as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0281.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Water channel; Abiotic stresses; Wheat genes; Post-translation modification; Gene expression
Online: 15 December 2022 (10:07:52 CET)
During the response of plants to adverse stresses, aquaporin (AQP) plays a prominent role in membrane water transport based on received upstream signals. In addition, they have various physical parts for dealing with environmental stresses. Due to the importance of the AQP gene family, studies have been conducted investigating the function and regulatory system of these genes. However, many of their molecular aspects are still unknown. This study aims to carry out a genomic-wide investigation of the AQP gene family in durum wheat using bioinformatics tools and to investigate the expression patterns of some members in response to salt stress. Our results showed that there are 80 TtAQP genes in durum wheat, which are classified into four main groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Many duplications were observed between the members of the TtAQP gene family, and high diversity in response to post-translational modifications was observed between TtAQP family members. The expression pattern of TtAQP genes disclosed that these genes are primarily upregulated in response to salt stress. Besides, qPCR data revealed that TtAQPs are more induced in delayed responses to salinity stress. Overall, our findings illustrate that TtAQP members are diverse in terms of their structure, regulatory systems and expression levels.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: RNA-Seq; bioinformatics; web application; gene expression; alternative splicing; visualization; molecular epidemiology
Online: 20 September 2021 (16:56:32 CEST)
Gene expression data is key for the functional annotation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Expression and splicing quantitative trait loci (e/sQTLs) in normal colon tissue, such as those from the University of Barcelona and University of Virginia RNA sequencing project (BarcUVa-Seq) and the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GTEx), are required to gain biological insight of colon-related diseases risk loci. Moreover, transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) rely on reference gene expression imputation panels in the tissue of interest to nominate susceptibility genes. Also, it is of high interest to study the relationships between genes in a network framework. For facilitating these analyses, we have updated and expanded the scope of the Colon Transcriptome Explorer (CoTrEx) to the version 2.0. This web-based resource provides exhaustive visualization and analysis of transcriptome-wide gene expression profiles of normal colon tissue from BarcUVa-Seq and GTEx. In addition to the integration of new datasets, CoTrEx 2.0 provides additional e/sQTLs sets, as well as gene expression prediction models and regulatory and co-expression networks. It is freely available at https://barcuvaseq.org/cotrex/. Overall, it is of high interest for researchers aiming to investigate the genetic susceptibility to colon-related complex traits and diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0452.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RAD51; E-box; USF1; USF2; MITF; Cancer cell lines; Gene regulation
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:43:42 CEST)
RAD51 is a recombinase that plays a pivotal role in homologous recombination. Although the role of RAD51 in homologous recombination has been extensively studied, it is unclear whether RAD51 can be involved in gene regulation as a co-factor. In this study, we found in silico evidence that RAD51 may contribute to the regulation of genes involved in the autophagy pathway through interaction with E-box proteins such as USF1, USF2, and/or MITF in GM12878, HepG2, K562, and MCF-7 cell lines. The canonical USF binding motif (CACGTG) was significantly identified at RAD51 binding sites in all four cell lines. In addition, genome-wide USF1, USF2, and/or MITF-binding regions significantly coincided with the RAD51-binding sites in the same cell line. Interestingly, the promoters of genes associated with the autophagy pathway were significantly occupied by RAD51 in all four cell lines. Taken together, these results predicted a novel role of RAD51 that had not been addressed previously, and provided evidence that RAD51 could possibly be involved in regulating genes associated with the autophagy pathway, through interaction with E-box binding proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0263.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Tenebrio molitor; suppressor of cytokine signaling; insect immunity; gene expression
Online: 26 January 2019 (02:51:45 CET)
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) influence cytokine and growth factor signaling by negatively regulating the JAK-STAT pathway. This maintains homeostasis during host immune response. However, functional characterization of SOCS family members in invertebrates is limited. In this study, we discovered the Type-I subfamily of the SOCS genes in the mealworm beetle, T. molitor. The full-length ORFs of TmSOCS5, TmSOCS6, and TmSOCS7 consisted of 1,389, 897 and 1,458 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 462, 297 and 485 amino acids, respectively, The C-terminal region of TmSOCS was highly conserved in the SH2 and SOCS box domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three SOCS genes clustered within the same sub-family and the highest amino acid identity was with the Tribolium castaneum SOCS genes (TcSOCS). While the expression of TmSOCS5 and TmSOCS6 was low in larval, pupal, and adult stages of the insect, TmSOCS7 showed higher expression. The expression of TmSOCS5 and TmSOCS6 was higher in larval hemocytes and adult ovary. The microbes expressed the three TmSOCS genes to varying degrees. C. albicans elicited the strongest response in the host with highest 15-fold expression in TmSOCS7 3 h post-inoculation. Collectively, these data suggest that the Type I TmSOCS could play a role in eliciting host immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0687.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus; macrophage; microarray analysis; differential gene expression; molecular pathogenesis; immune evasion
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Molecular mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in livestock remain poorly understood. Several studies have highlighted the relevant role of macrophages in controlling the systemic dissemination of VSV during infection in different animal models, including mice, cattle and pigs. To gain more insight on the molecular mechanisms used by VSV to impair the immune response in macrophages, we used microarrays to determine the transcriptomic changes produced by VSV infection in primary cultures of porcine macrophages. The results indicated that VSV infection induced the massive expression of multiple anorexic, pyrogenic, proinflammatory and immunosuppressive genes. Overall, the interferon (IFN) response appeared suppressed, leading to the absence of stimulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG). Interestingly, VSV infection promoted the expression of several genes known to downregulate the expression of IFNb. This represents an alternate mechanism for VSV control of the IFN response, beyond the recognized mechanisms mediated by the matrix protein. Although there was no significant differential gene expression in macrophages infected with a highly virulent epidemic strain compared to a less virulent endemic strain, the endemic strain consistently induced higher expression of all upregulated cytokines and chemokines. Collectively, this study provides novel insights into VSV molecular pathogenesis and immune evasion that warrants further investigation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0360.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Random Forest; Iterative Random Forest; gene expression networks; high performance computing; X-AI-based eQTL
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:33:17 CET)
As time progresses and technology improves, biological data sets are continuously increasing in size. New methods and new implementations of existing methods are needed to keep pace with this increase. In this paper, we present a high performance computing(HPC)-capable implementation of Iterative Random Forest (iRF). This new implementation enables the explainable-AI eQTL analysis of SNP sets with over a million SNPs. Using this implementation we also present a new method, iRF Leave One Out Prediction (iRF-LOOP), for the creation of Predictive Expression Networks on the order of 40,000 genes or more. We compare the new implementation of iRF with the previous R version and analyze its time to completion on two of the world's fastest supercomputers Summit and Titan. We also show iRF-LOOP's ability to capture biologically significant results when creating Predictive Expression Networks. This new implementation of iRF will enable the analysis of biological data sets at scales that were previously not possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: DeltaRex-G; human cyclin G1; cell cycle control; cancer gene therapy; oncogenic drivers
Online: 8 March 2021 (11:55:01 CET)
Background: Metastatic cancer is associated with an invariably fatal outcome. However, DeltaRex-G, a tumor- targeted retrovector encoding a CCNG1 inhibitor gene, has induced long term (>10 years) survival of patients with chemo-resistant metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, MPNST, osteosarcoma, B-cell lymphoma, and breast carcinoma. Objective: To evaluate the level of CCNG1 expression in tumors as a potential biomarker for CCNG1 inhibitor therapy. Methods: CCNG1 RNA expression levels were measured in tumors (TCGA, N=9161), adjacent “tissues” (TCGA, N=678) and GTEx normal tissues (N=7187) across 22 organ sites. Differential expression of CCNG1 and Ki-67 in primary (N= 9161) vs metastatic (N= 393) tumors were also compared and particularly in primary (N=103) vs. metastatic (N=367) skin cancer (i.e., melanoma). Results: Enhanced CCNG1 RNA and protein expression were noted in tumors compared to normal analogous counterparts, and CCNG1 expression correlated significantly with that of Ki-67. Further, CCNG1 expression tended to be higher than that of Ki-67 in metastatic vs primary tumors, particularly in skin cancer (melanoma). Conclusions: Taken together, these data indicate that (1) CCNG1 expression is frequently enhanced in tumors when compared to their normal analogous counterparts, (2) CCNG1 and Ki-67 expressions are higher in metastatic vs primary tumors, (3) CCNG1 expression is significantly correlated with that of Ki-67, and (4) CCNG1 may be a stronger marker of metastasis than Ki-67. Phase 2 studies are planned to identify patients who are likely to respond favorably to CCNG1 inhibitor therapy by correlating treatment outcome parameters with CCNG1 expression levels in various cancer types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0100.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Antarctic fish; antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress; gene expression; PFAS
Online: 5 January 2023 (04:50:42 CET)
Antarctica is the continent with the lowest local human impact, yet it is still vulnerable to contaminants coming from external sources. Emerging pollutants, like PFAS, pose an increasing threat to this environment and therefore require more in-depth investigations to understand their environmental fate and biological impacts. The present study, part of the AntaGPS project, focuses on expression analysis at the transcriptional level of genes coding for 4 antioxidant enzymes (sod1, sod2, gpx1, gpx4) in different organs of an Antarctic fish species, Trematomus newnesi. The kidney showed a higher level of expression than the liver of wildlife specimens. The mRNA levels were also assessed in fish exposed to 1.5 μg/L of PFOA for 10 days. In the liver, the treatment induced an increase in gene expression for all the considered enzymes, while in the kidney it induced a general decrease. The obtained results constitute a starting point for using the expression of antioxidant enzymes as biomarkers, both of oxidative stress and exposure to PFAS, in future biomonitoring campaigns in the Antarctic marine environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0455.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Shock waves; Acoustic cavitation; Gene expression; Aspergillus niger; Cell permeabilization; Fungal germination
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:34:23 CEST)
Shock waves, as used in medicine, can induce cell permeabilization, genetically transforming filamentous fungi; however, little is known on the interaction of shock waves with the cell wall. Because of this, the selection of parameters has been empirical. We studied the influence of shock waves on the germination of Aspergillus niger, to understand their effect on the modulation of four genes related to the growth of conidia. Parameters were varied in the range reported in protocols for genetic transformation. Vials containing conidia in suspension were exposed to either 50, 100 or 200 single-pulse or tandem shock waves, with different peak pressures (approximately 42, 66 and 83 MPa). In the tandem mode, three delays were tested. To equalize the total energy, the number of tandem “events” was halved compared to the number of single-pulse shock waves. Our results demonstrate that shock waves do not generate severe cellular effects on the viability and germination of A. niger conidia. Nevertheless, increase in the aggressiveness of the treatment induced a modification in the four genes tested. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant changes to the cell wall of the conidia. Under optimized conditions, shock waves could be used for several biotechnological applications, surpassing conventional techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0351.v3
Subject: Keywords: organogenesis, adult liver, translational, regeneration, homeobox, hox, Wnts, growth factors, theme, gene expression, cancer, hepatectomy, three-dimensional, organoid
Online: 16 January 2019 (09:14:06 CET)
Researchers in different disciplines studied liver’s genetic expression of organogenesis in embryogenesis; however, organogenesis has not been studied as an independent and a complementary process during adult liver regeneration. This paper reviewed studies and extracted information related to organogenesis in adult liver regeneration because of organogenesis’ important role in cancer and tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; RNAseq; Humans; Weight loss; Prognosis; Rectus Abdominis; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal; Adipose Tissue; Pancreatic Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neoplasms; Subcutaneous Fat; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Body Composition; Muscles; Cachexia; Muscular Atrophy; Gene Expression
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:24:10 CET)
The vast majority of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) suffer cachexia. Although cachexia results from concurrent loss of adipose and muscle tissue, most studies focus on muscle alone. Emerging data demonstrate the prognostic value of fat loss in cachexia. Here we sought to identify the muscle and adipose gene profiles and pathways regulated in cachexia. Matched rectus abdominis muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained at surgery from patients with benign conditions (n=11) and patients with PDAC (n=24). Self-reported weight loss and body composition measurements defined cachexia status. Gene profiling was done using Ion proton sequencing. Results were queried against external datasets for validation. 961 DE genes were identified from muscle and 2000 from adipose tissue, demonstrating greater response of adipose than muscle. In addition to known cachexia genes such as FOXO1, novel genes from muscle, including PPP1R8 and AEN correlated with cancer weight loss. All the adipose correlated genes including SCGN and EDR17 are novel for PDAC cachexia. Pathway analysis demonstrated shared pathways but largely non-overlapping genes in both tissues. Age related muscle loss predominantly had a distinct gene profiles compared to cachexia. This analysis of matched, externally validate gene expression points to novel targets in cachexia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0611.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: LRR-RLK family; Gossypium; expansion; phylogenetic analysis; gene expression profile; stress defense
Online: 30 September 2018 (16:18:37 CEST)
Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been reported to play important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, no comprehensive analysis of this family has been performed in Gossypium, which are important economic crop and suffer various stresses in growth and development. Here we conducted a comprehensive analysis of LRR-RLK family in four Gossypium species (G. arboreum, G. barbadense, G. hirsutum and G. raimondii). A total of 1641 LRR-RLK genes were identified in the four Gossypium species involved in our study. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree revealed that all the LRR-RLK genes were divided into 21 subgroups. Exon-intron organization structure of LRR-RLK genes kept relative conserved in subfamilies and between Arabidopsis and Gossypium. Subfamilies XI and XII were found dramatically expanded in Gossypium. Tandem duplication acted as an important mechanism in expansion of Gossypium LRR-RLK gene family. Function analysis suggested that plant hormone signaling and plant-pathogen interaction pathway were enriched in Gossypium LRR-RLK genes. Promoters analysis and expression profiles analysis revealed that Gossypium LRR-RLK genes were extensively regulated by TFs, phytohormone and various environmental stimuli, and play key roles in stress defense and diverse development processes. Our study provided valuable information for further function study of Gossypium LRR-RLK genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0632.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Blockchain; P2P Networks; Nucleobase DNA/RNA sequence; Gene Expression; Cell Population; Epigenetics; Methylation; Consensus; Hash Algorithm; Triple Codons; Protein Synthesis; Cryptocurrency
Online: 28 August 2020 (10:33:42 CEST)
The study presents a mathematical modeling for supporting the premise that our body is composed of blockchain systems. A cell population is considered a space with peer-to-peer communication networks for applying blockchain protocol. Transaction is defined as gene expression that constantly occurs for protein synthesis in each cell. The transaction process proceeds according to the blockchain protocol with sharing and recording the data on the blockchain ledger. The premise comes from the clues of the previous research such that the cell population is a complex structured network system having cell-to-cell connections. Although individual cells exhibit stochastic nonlinear dynamic behavior, cell population shows consensus behavior that reaches to ensemble through interaction among cells. It is inferred that gene expression is not regulated by the corresponding cell only nor determined by external intelligence such as the brain. This is achieved through a consensus through stochastic interactions between cells over the whole cell population. These findings imply that mathematical blockchain modeling is a suitable for gene expression process. The original contribution of the study is a methodology for applying mathematically the blockchain protocol to the real biological gene expression process. In other words, the DNA sequence is converted into a numeral bit sequence that makes it possible to implement the blockchain protocol. A new DNA sequence scheme is proposed with adding methylated cytosine and adenine as the 5th and 6th bases for including epigenetic information which has profound effect on gene expression and regulation. The methodology was applied to the real biological synthesis process of protein samples. The protein is composed of amino acids that are encoded by triplet codons of 216 kinds with 6 base RNA sequence. The gene expression information is traced backward from a synthesized protein sample, amino acids of codons, RNA transcript up to DNA sequence. One of the results is a numeric value in the form of a bit sequence with which mathematical blockchain modeling is applicable. The cryptographic authentication and the consensus process are mathematically proven to work properly by the blockchain protocol. It implies that the same protein is synthesized, but with different epigenetic data, then protein's latent material properties will certainly be different. Although the result has not been justified by the biologic experiment yet, it is sure that the biological hidden algorithm inside DNA sequence will be revealed by the binary bit-logic with physical on/off states which is mathematically proven. The research will greatly contribute to disease treatment and medicine development as well as epigenetics in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: RKIP expression regulation; Stochastic binary regulation of gene expression; Treatment targeting RKIP levels increase; Reduction of heterogeneity of treatment response
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:43:54 CEST)
In this manuscript we use an exactly solvable stochastic binary model for regulation of gene expression to analyse the dynamics of response to a treatment aiming to modulate the number of transcripts of RKIP gene. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method simulating three treatment scenarios aiming to reestablish RKIP gene expression dynamics towards pre-cancerous state: i. to increase the promoter’s ON state duration; ii. to increase the mRNAs’ synthesis rate; iii. to increase both rates. We show that the pre-treatment kinetic rates of ON and OFF promoter switching speeds and mRNA synthesis and degradation will affect the heterogeneity and time for treatment response. Hence, we present a strategy for reducing drug dosage by simultaneously targeting multiple kinetic rates. That enables a reduction of treatment response time and heterogeneity which in principle diminishes the chances of emergence of resistance to treatment. This approach may be useful for inferring kinetic constants related to expression of antimetastatic genes or oncogenes and on the design of multi-drug therapeutic strategies targeting master regulatory genes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0279.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal model; dietary components; feeding strategy; gene expression; lipid profile; nutrients; nutrigenomic; physiological processes; signaling pathways; transcription.
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:07:22 CET)
Studies on the influence of dietary components and their effects are fundamental for nutrigenomics, or the study of how nutrients can be cellular sensors, how they affect biological processes and gene expression in different tissues. Lipids are an important source of fatty acids (FA) and energy and are fundamental to biological processes and influence the regulation of transcription. Pigs are excellent model to study nutrigenomics, particularly lipid metabolism because the deposition and composition of FA in their tissues reflect the composition of FA in their diet. Recent studies show that FA supplementation is important in production systems, such as growing and finishing pigs, as it can improve the energy value of the feed, help reduce costs, improve animal welfare, and influence the nutritional value of the meat. Studies show that oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids are associated with the regulation of transcription in tissues such as muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and brain. Other studies indicate that EPA and DHA are associated with changes in specific signaling pathways, altering gene expression and biophysical properties of membranes. This review, therefore, focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of dietary FA on production traits and gene expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: PGC-1α; exercise; metabolism; epigenetics; histone modification; DNA methylation; micro RNA; gene regulation; thermogenesis; metabolic diseases
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:23:31 CEST)
Epigenetic changes are a hallmark of short- and long-term transcriptional regulation, and hence instrumental in the control of cellular identity and plasticity. Epigenetic mechanisms leading to changes in chromatin structure, accessibility for recruitment of transcriptional complexes, and interaction of enhancers and promoters all contribute to acute and chronic adaptations of cells, tissues and organs to internal and external perturbations. Similarly, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is activated by stimuli that alter the cellular energetic demand, and subsequently controls complex transcriptional networks responsible for cellular plasticity. It thus is of no surprise that PGC-1α is under the control of epigenetic mechanisms, and constitutes a mediator of epigenetic changes in various tissues and contexts. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the link between epigenetics and PGC-1α in health and disease.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; in silico drug discovery; gene expression profile; tensor decomposition; feature extraction
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:17:05 CET)
To better understand the genes with altered expression caused by infection with the novel coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 infectious disease, a tensor decomposition (TD)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE) approach was applied to a gene expression profile dataset of the mouse liver and spleen with experimental infection of mouse hepatitis virus, which is regarded as a suitable model of human coronavirus infection. TD-based unsupervised FE selected 134 altered genes, which were enriched in protein-protein interactions with orf1ab, polyprotein, and 3C-like protease that are well known to play critical roles in coronavirus infection, suggesting that these 134 genes can represent the coronavirus infectious process. We then selected compounds targeting the expression of the 134 selected genes based on a public domain database. The identified drug compounds were mainly related to known antiviral drugs, several of which were also included in those previously screened with an in silico method to identify candidate drugs for treating COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0287.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ABCB1; bortezomib; CXCR4; gene expression; MAF; MARCKS; multiple myeloma; mRNA; POMP; PSMB5; refractory; RPL5; TXN; XBP1; sensitive
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Proteasome inhibitors, like bortezomib, play a key role in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM); however, most patients eventually relapse and eventually show multiple drug resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of this resistance remain unclear. The present study examines the expression of previously-described genes that may influence resistance to bortezomib treatment at the mRNA level (ABCB1, CXCR4, MAF, MARCKS, POMP, PSMB5, RPL5, TXN and XBP1). mRNA expression was determined in 73 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens (30 bortzomib-sensitive and 43 bortezomib-refractory patients) and 11 healthy controls. RPL5 was significantly down-regulated in multiple myeloma patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, POMP was significantly up-regulated in MM patients refractory to bortezomib-based treatment. In multivariate analysis, high expression of PSMB5 and CXCR and autologous stem cell transplantation were independent predictors of progression-free survival, and high expression of POMP and RPL5 was associated with shorter overall survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0444.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: cystic fibrosis; gene therapy; gene targeting; gene integration
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:14:02 CET)
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited monogenic disorder, amenable to gene based therapies. Because CF lung disease is currently the major cause of mortality and morbidity, and lung airway is readily accessible to gene delivery, the major CF gene therapy effort at present is directed to the lung. Although airway epithelial cells are renewed slowly, permanent gene correction through gene editing or targeting in airway stem cells is needed to perpetuate the therapeutic effect. Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) has been utilized widely for a variety of gene editing applications. The stringent requirement for nuclease binding target sites allows for gene editing with precision. In this study, we engineered helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors to deliver a pair of TALENs together with donor DNA targeting the human AAVS1 locus. With homology arms of 4 kb in length, we demonstrated precise insertion of either a LacZ reporter gene or a human CFTR minigene into the target site. Using the LacZ reporter, we determined the efficiency of gene integration to be about 5%. In the CFTR vector transduced cells, we have detected both CFTR mRNA and protein expression by qPCR and Wetern analysis, respectively. We have also confirmed CFTR function correction by flurometric Image Plate Reader (FLIPR) and iodide efflux assays. Taking together, these findings suggest a new direction for future in vitro and in vivo studies in CF gene editing.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS; HCoV-229E; MERS; influenza; virus; epithelium; asthma; allergy; inflammation; sexual dimorphism; gene expression
Online: 14 January 2021 (12:37:08 CET)
Epithelial characteristics underlying the differential susceptibility of chronic asthma to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and other viral infections are currently unclear. By revisiting transcriptomic data from patients with Th2 low versus Th2 high asthma, as well as mild, moderate and severe asthmatics, we characterized the changes in expression of human coronavirus and influenza viral entry genes relative to sex, airway location and disease endotype. We found sexual dimorphism in expression of COVID-19 genes ACE2, TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, and SLC6A19. ACE2 receptor downregulation occurred specifically in females in Th2 high asthma, while proteases broadly assisting coronavirus and influenza viral entry, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, were highly upregulated in both sexes. Overall, changes in COVID-19 gene expression were specific to Th2 high molecular endotype of asthma, and different by asthma severity and airway location. The downregulation of ACE2 (COVID-19, SARS) and ANPEP (HCoV-229E) viral receptors correlated with loss of club and ciliated cells in Th2 high asthma, while the increase in DPP4 (MERS-CoV), ST3GAL4, and ST6GAL1 (influenza) associated with an increase in goblet and basal activated cells. Overall, this study elucidates sex, airway location, disease endotype and changes in epithelial heterogeneity as factors underlying asthmatic susceptibility, or lack thereof, to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast neoplasms, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), gene expression profiling, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), paraffin embedding, sequence alignment, transcriptome
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:23:25 CET)
The rapid expansion of transcriptomics from increased affordability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies generates rocketing amounts of gene expression data across biology and medicine, and notably in cancer research. Concomitantly, many bioinformatics tools were developed to streamline gene expression analysis and quantification. We tested the concordance of NGS RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis outcomes between the two predominant programs for reads alignment, HISAT2 and STAR, and the two most popular programs for quantifying gene expression in NGS experiments, edgeR and DESeq2, using RNA-seq data from a series of breast cancer progression specimens, which include histologically confirmed normal, early neoplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ and infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples microdissected from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) breast tissue blocks. We identified significant differences in aligners’ performance: HISAT2 was prone to misalign reads to retrogene genomic loci, STAR generated more precise alignments, especially for early neoplasia samples. edgeR and DESeq2 produced similar lists of differentially expressed genes in stage comparisons, with edgeR producing more conservative, though shorter, lists of genes. Albeit, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed no skewness in significant GO categories identified among differentially expressed genes by edgeR vs DESeq2. As transcriptome analysis of archived FFPE samples becomes a vanguard of precision medicine, identification and fine-tuning of bioinformatics tools becomes critical for clinical research. Our results indicate that STAR and edgeR are well-suited tools for differential gene expression analysis from FFPE samples.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:25:18 CET)
Appropriate estimation of soil settlement is of significant importance since it directly influences the performance of building and infrastructures that are built on soil. In particular, the settlement of fine-grained soils is critical because of low permeability and continuous settlement with time. Coefficient of consolidation (Cc) is a key parameter to estimate settlement of fine-grained soil layers. However, estimation of this parameter is time consuming, needs skilled technicians, and specific equipment. In this study, Cc was estimated using several soil parameters such as liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), and initial void ratio (e0). Estimating such parameters in laboratory is straight forward and needs substantially less time and cost compared to conventional tests to estimate Cc such as Oedometer test. This study presents a novel prediction model for Cc of fine-grained soils using gene-expression programming (GEP). GEP is a biologically inspired technique capable of offering closed-form solution for the optimal solution. A database consisted of 108 different data points was used to develop the model. A closed-form equation solution was derived to estimate Cc based on LL, PL, and e0. The performance of developed GEP-based model was evaluated through coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), and mean average error (MAE). High R2 and low error values indicated the descent performance of the model. Furthermore, the model was evaluated using the additional performance measures and met all the suggested criteria. Furthermore, the model had a better performance in terms of R2, RMSE, and MAE compared to most of existing models. It is expected that the developed model will decrease the time and cost associate with determining Cc of fine-grained soils.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:21:45 CET)
Appropriate estimation of soil settlement is of significant importance since it directly influences the performance of building and infrastructures that are built on soil. In particular, the settlement of fine-grained soils is critical because of low permeability and continuous settlement with time. Coefficient of consolidation (Cc) is a key parameter to estimate settlement of fine-grained soil layers. However, estimation of this parameter is time consuming, needs skilled technicians, and specific equipment. In this study, Cc was estimated using several soil parameters such as liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), and initial void ratio (e0). Estimating such parameters in laboratory is straight forward and needs substantially less time and cost compared to conventional tests to estimate Cc such as oedometer test. This study presents a novel prediction model for Cc of fine-grained soils using gene-expression programming (GEP). GEP is a biologically inspired technique capable of offering closed-form solution for the optimal solution. A database consisted of 108 different data points was used to develop the model. A closed-form equation solution was derived to estimate Cc based on LL, PL, and e0. The performance of developed GEP-based model was evaluated through coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), and mean average error (MAE). High R2 and low error values indicated the descent performance of the model. Furthermore, the model was evaluated using the additional performance measures and met all the suggested criteria. Furthermore, the model had a better performance in terms of R2, RMSE, and MAE compared to most of existing models. It is expected that the developed model will decrease the time and cost associate with determining Cc of fine-grained soils.Keywords: evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Gene expression; Gene Ontology; Enrichment analysis; Transcriptomics
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:51:32 CEST)
Gene expression profiling data contains more information than is routinely extracted with standard approaches. Here we present Fold-change-Specific Enrichment Analysis (FSEA), a new method for functional annotation of differentially expressed genes from transcriptome data with respect to their fold changes. FSEA identifies GO terms, which are shared by the group of genes with a similar magnitude of response, and assesses these changes. GO terms found by FSEA are fold-change-specifically (e.g. weakly, moderately or strongly) affected by a stimulus under investigation. We demonstrate that many responses to abiotic factors, mutations, treatments and diseases occur in a fold-change-specific manner. FSEA analyses suggest that there are two prevailing responses of functionally-related gene groups, either weak or strong. Notably, some of the fold-change-specific GO terms are invisible by classical algorithms for functional gene enrichment, SEA and GSEA. These are GO terms not enriched compared to the genome background but strictly regulated by a factor within specific fold-change intervals. FSEA analysis of a cancer-related transcriptome suggested that the gene groups with a tightly coordinated response can be the valuable source to search for possible regulators, markers and therapeutic targets in oncogenic processes. Availability and Implementation: FSEA is implemented as the FoldGO Bioconductor R package and a web-server https://webfsgor.sysbio.cytogen.ru/ .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0068.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: modulation of nuclear gene expression; mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO); TSPO ligand; PK 11195; 2-Cl-MGV-1; retrograde mitochondrial-nuclear signaling pathway; microscopy; mitochondria; cell nucleus
Online: 17 March 2017 (17:28:28 CET)
It is known that knockdown of the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) as well as TSPO ligands modulate various functions, including functions related to cancer. To study the ability of TSPO to regulate gene expression regarding such functions, we applied microarray analysis of gene expression to U118MG glioblastoma cells. Within 15 minutes, the classical TSPO ligand PK 11195 induced changes in expression of immediate early genes and transcription factors. These changes also included gene products that are part of the canonical pathway serving to modulate general gene expression. These changes are in accord with reverse transcriptase (RT) real-time -PCR. At the time points of 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, as well as 3 and 24 hours of PK 11195 exposure, the functions associated with the changes in gene expression in these glioblastoma cells covered well known TSPO functions. These functions included cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. This was corroborated microscopically for cell migration, cell accumulation, adhesion, and neuronal differentiation. Changes in gene expression at 24 hours of PK 11195 exposure were related to downregulation of tumorigenesis and upregulation of programmed cell death. In the vehicle treated as well as PK 11195 exposed cell cultures, our triple labeling showed intense TSPO labeling in the mitochondria but no TSPO signal in the cell nuclei. Thus, mitochondrial TSPO appears to be part of the mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling pathway for modulation of nuclear gene expression. The novel TSPO ligand 2-Cl-MGV-1 appeared to be very specific regarding modulation of gene expression of immediate early genes and transcription factors.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0107.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: horizontal gene transfer; alien index; lateral gene transfer
Online: 31 August 2017 (15:03:30 CEST)
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the transmission of genes between organisms by other means than parental to offspring inheritance. While it is prevalent in prokaryotes, HGT is less frequent in eukaryotes and particularly in metazoan. Here, we propose Alienness, a taxonomy-aware web application that parses BLAST results against public libraries to rapidly identify candidate HGT in any genome of interest. Alienness takes as input the result of a BLAST of a whole proteome of interest against any NCBI protein library. The user defines recipient (e.g. metazoan) and donor (e.g. bacteria, fungi) branches of interest in the NCBI taxonomy. Based on the best BLAST E-values of candidate donor and recipient taxa, Alienness calculates an Alien Index (AI) for each query protein. An AI >0 indicates a better hit to candidate donor than recipient taxa and a possible HGT. Higher AI represent higher gap of E-values between candidate donor and recipient and a more likely HGT. We confirmed the accuracy of Alienness on phylogenetically confirmed HGT of non-metazoan origin in plant-parasitic nematodes. Alienness scans whole proteomes to rapidly identify possible HGT in any species of interest and thus fosters exploration of HGT more easily and largely across the tree of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0046.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: cancer; microRNA; gene therapy; oncogene; tumor suppressor gene
Online: 9 January 2017 (10:24:03 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of conserved small non-coding RNAs that participate in regulating gene expression by targeting multiple molecules. Early studies have shown that the expression of miRNAs changes significantly in different tumor tissues and cancer cell lines. It is well acknowledged that such variation is involved in almost all biological processes, including cell proliferation, mobility, survival and differentiation. Increasing experimental data indicate that miRNA dysregulation is a biomarker of several pathological conditions including cancer, and that miRNA can exert a causal role, as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, in different steps of the tumorigenic process. Anticancer therapies based on miRNAs are currently being developed with a goal to improve outcomes of cancer treatment. In our present study, we review the function of miRNAs in tumorigenesis and development, and discuss the latest clinical applications and strategies of therapy targeting miRNAs in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0004.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR); temperature effect on oil/water relative; group method of data handling (GMDH) and gene expression programming (GEP), machine learning, deep learning
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:12:44 CEST)
In the implementation of thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) techniques, the temperature impact on relative permeability in oil - water systems is of special concern. Hence, developing a fast and reliable tool to model the temperature effect on two-phase oil - water relative permeability is still a major challenge for precise studying and evaluation of TEOR processes. To reach the goal of this work, two promising soft-computing algorithms, namely Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP) were employed to develop reliable, accurate, simple and quick to use paradigms to predict the temperature dependency of relative permeability in oil - water systems (Krw and Kro). To do so, a large database encompassing wide-ranging temperatures and fluids/rock parameters, including oil and water viscosities, absolute permeability and water saturation, was considered to establish these correlations. Statistical results and graphical analyses disclosed the high degree of accuracy for the proposed correlations in emulating the experimental results. In addition, GEP based correlations were found to be the most consistent with root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.0284 and 0.0636 for Krw and Kro, respectively. Lastly, the comparison of the performances of our correlations against those of the preexisting ones indicated the large superiority of the introduced correlations compared to previously published methods. The findings of this study can help for better understanding and studying the temperature dependency of oil - water relative permeability in thermal enhanced oil recovery processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Gene Editing; Gene Therapy; Oncology; Comparative Medicine; One Health
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:45:43 CEST)
With rapid advances in gene editing and gene therapy technologies, the development of genetic, cell, or protein-based cures to disease are no longer the realm of science fiction but that of today’s practice. The impact of these technologies are rapidly bringing them to the veterinary market as both enhanced therapeutics and towards modeling their outcomes for translational application. Simply put, gene editing enables scientists to modify an organism’s DNA a priori through the use of site-specific DNA targeting tools like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). Gene therapy is a broader definition that encompasses the addition of exogenous genetic materials into specific cells to correct a genetic defect. More precisely, the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines gene therapy as “a technique that modifies a person’s genes to treat or cure disease” by either (i) replacing a disease-causing gene with a healthy copy of the gene; (ii) inactivating a disease-causing gene that was not functioning properly; or (iii) introducing a new or modified gene into the body to help treat a disease. In some instances, this can be accomplished through direct transfer of DNA or RNA into target cells of interest or more broadly through gene editing. While gene therapy is possible through the simple addition of genetic information into cells of interest, gene editing allows the genome to be reprogrammed intentionally through the deletion of diseased alleles, reconstitution of wild type sequence, or targeted integration of exogenous DNA to impart new function. Cells can be removed from the body, altered, and reinfused, or edited in vivo. Indeed, manufacturing and production efficiencies in gene editing and gene therapy in the 21st century has brought the therapeutic potential of in vitro and in vivo reprogrammed cells, to the front lines of therapeutic intervention (Brooks et al., 2016). For example, CAR-T cell therapy is revolutionizing hematologic cancer care in humans and is being translated to canines by us and others, and gene therapy trials are ongoing for mitral valve disease in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0285.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: gene doping; gene therapy; droplet digital PCR; adenoviral vector
Online: 25 April 2019 (12:45:49 CEST)
With the rapid progress of genetic engineering and gene therapy, World Anti-Doping Agency has alerted to gene doping and prohibited its use in sports. However, there is no standard method available yet for detection of transgenes delivered by recombinant adenoviral (rAdV) vectors. Here we aimed to develop a detection method for transgenes delivered by rAdV vectors in a mouse model that mimics gene doping. rAdV vectors containing mCherry gene was delivered in mice through intravenous injection or local muscular injection. After five days, stool and whole blood samples were collected, and total DNA was extracted. As additional experiments, whole blood was also collected from mouse tail tip until 15 days from injection of the rAdv vector. Transgene fragments from different DNA samples were analyzed using semi-quantitative PCR (sqPCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). In the results, transgene fragments could directly be detected from blood cell fraction-DNA, plasma-cell free DNA and stool-DNA by qPCR and ddPCR, depending on specimen type and injection methods. We observed that a combination of blood cell fraction-DNA and ddPCR was more sensitive than other combinations used in this model. These results could accelerate the development of detection methods for gene doping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0278.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Magnesium; Evolution analysis; Plant gene families; Gene sequence analysis; Stresses
Online: 21 June 2022 (03:47:50 CEST)
Magnesium transporters (MGTs) play a prominent role in the absorption, transport and storage of magnesium in plant cells. In the present study, MGT gene family members were identified and characterized in two species of cucurbitaceae, including C. sativus and C. lanatus. 20, 19, and 20 MGT genes were recognized in C. lanatus, C. sativus, and C. melo, respectively. According to physicochemical properties, the members of each sub-class of MGTs in the species of cucurbitaceae showed the close relationship. Proteins from NIPA were identified as hydrophilic proteins with high stability. Based on phylogenetic analysis, MGT family members were classified into three groups, and NIPAs showed more diversity. Besides, duplication events were not identified between the MGT members in C. lanatus, and C. sativus. According to pocket analysis, residues such as L, V, S, I, and A were frequently observed in the binding sites of MGT proteins in both species. The prediction of post-translation modifications revealed that MSR2 proteins have high phosphorylation potential than other sub-classes in both studied plants. The expression profile of MGTs showed that MGTs are more expressed in root tissues. In addition, MGTs showed differential expression in response to abiotic/biotic stresses as well as hormone application and NIPAs were more induced in response to stimuli in watermelon. The results of this study, as the primary work of MGT gene family, can be used in programs related to cucurbitaceae breeding.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0368.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Raccoon dog parvovirus; Epidemiology; VP2 gene; NS1 gene; Evolutionary analysis.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:52:50 CET)
To understand the epidemiological status of parvovirus (RDPV) in raccoon dogs, intestinal tissues of raccoon dogs in Liaoning Province of China were collected and evaluated. Three strains of raccoon dog parvovirus were successfully isolated from 12 intestinal tissues. Nine samples were positive for RDPV, with a positive rate of 75%. The VP2 and NS1 genes of the viruses were cloned and subjected to sequencing for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of the VP2 gene showed 99.94% similarity to the CPV-2a/Racoon dog/QHD/2/19(MT183665) strain, and the nucleotide sequences of the NS1 gene showed 99.75% similarity to RDPV-DP1 NS1(MF996335) strain. The three isolates belonging to the CPV-2a cluster were further confirmed by amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Our study enriched the epidemiological data of parvovirus in raccoon dogs in the investigating region, and the results will be helpful for future investigation of the variations and transmission of raccoon dog parvoviruses.
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: gene doping; gene therapy; in vivo transfection; in vivo imaging
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:46:32 CEST)
The World Anti-Doping Agency has prohibited gene doping in the context of progress in gene therapy. There is a risk that the artificial regulation of genes using plasmids could be applied for gene doping. However, no gold standard method to detect this has been established. Here, we aimed to develop a method to detect multiple transgene fragments as proof of gene doping. First, gene delivery model mice as a mimic of gene doping were created by injecting firefly luciferase plasmid with polyethylenimine (PEI) into the abdominal cavity. The results confirmed successful establishment of the model, with sufficient luminescence upon in vivo imaging. Next, multiple transgene fragments in the model were detected in plasma cell-free (cf)DNA, blood-cell-fraction DNA, and stool DNA using the TaqMan-qPCR assay, with the highest levels in plasma cfDNA. Using just a single drop of whole blood from the model, we also attempted long-term detection. The results showed that multiple transgene fragments were detected until 11 days. These findings indicate that the combination of plasma cfDNA or just one drop of whole blood with TaqMan-qPCR assay is feasible to detect plasmid-PEI-based gene doping. Our findings could accelerate the development of methods for detecting gene doping in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0214.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Adra1b; cardiac ischemia; hypoxia; Crem; gene expression control; gene expression coordination; gene hierarchy; heart failure; transcriptomic stoichiometry
Online: 15 June 2022 (07:37:53 CEST)
Decades of research identified numerous gene biomarkers of cardiac diseases whose restored sequence or/and expression level was hoped to recover the normal cardiac function. However, each human has unique and dynamic pathophysiological characteristics resulting from the unrepeatable combination of favoring factors such are: race, sex, age, medical history, diet, stress, exposure to toxins, habits etc. As such, no treatment fits everybody and finding personalized solutions is a top priority for medicine of 21st century. The Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP) provides the most theoretically possible comprehensive characterization of the transcriptome, its alterations in disease and recovery following a treatment. By attaching to each gene the independent average expression level, expression variation and expression coordination with each other gene, GFP delivers thousands times more information than the traditional analysis. This report presents the theoretical bases of the GFP and some applications to our microarray data from mouse models of post ischemic, and constant and intermittent hypoxia-induced heart failure. The GFP analyses revealed novel transcriptomic aspects of the gene expression control and networking under ischemic conditions. Through all-inclusive characterization of the transcriptome and the unrepeatable gene hierarchy in each condition, GFP is an essential avenue towards development of a truly personalized cardiogenomic therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0034.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gene doping; Gene therapy; Erythropoietin; Adenoviral vector; Sports; Athlete; RNA sequencing
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:30:04 CEST)
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has prohibited gene doping in the context of progress in gene therapy. In addition, there is a risk of the EPO gene being applied in gene doping among athletes. Along with this, development of a gene-doping test has been underway in worldwide. Here, we had two purposes: to develop a robust gene doping mouse model using the human EPO gene (hEPO) transferred using recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) as a vector and to develop a detection method to prove gene doping using this model. The rAdV including the hEPO gene were injected intravenously to transfer the gene to the liver. After injection, the mice developed significantly increased red blood cell counts in whole blood and increased gene expressions of hematopoietic markers in the spleen, indicating successful development of the gene doping model. Next, we detected direct and indirect proof of gene doping in whole blood DNA and RNA using qPCR assay and RNA sequencing. Proof was detected in one drop of whole blood DNA and RNA over a long period; furthermore, the overall RNA expression profiles significantly changed. Therefore, we have advanced detection of hEPO gene doping in humans.
Subject: Keywords: hybridization; gene flow; different sunflower forms; imazamox; tribenuron-methyl; ALS gene
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:41:09 CEST)
Weedy sunflower is an invasive plant on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, which causes high yield losses in many crops. During the harvesting of the sunflower crops the dispersal of the seeds occurs, and as a result- the volunteer plants appear next year. Weedy sunflowers originate from volunteer plants that live through a longer period in one place. Spontaneous hybridization of weedy sunflower with other sunflower forms makes them more aggressive. If the volunteer plants originate from the hybrids tolerant to ALS inhibiting herbicides, they can be the carriers of herbicide tolerance genes and thus will not be sensitive to these herbicides. The exchange of the genetic material also enables the transfer of the ALS (AHAS) gene (responsible for the tolerance to the ALS inhibiting herbicides) to the progeny. In this study we have examined the spontaneous hybridization between different sunflower forms (volunteer sunflowers, weedy sunflowers, susceptible and tolerant sunflower hybrids to ALS inhibiting herbicides) in field conditions during three years. The progeny (F1 generation), which was assumed to possess the ALS gene, was tested with the application of the recommended doses of the Express (a.i. tribenuron-methyl) and Pulsar 40 herbicides (a.i. imazamox). The significant percent of the progeny of different forms of sunflowers, survived the herbicide treatment (6-31%). Molecular analysis of the ALS gene sequence in weedy sunflower progeny confirmed gene transfer in two cases at a distance of 30 and 120 m from the gene donor, i.e. tolerant hybrid Sumo 1 PR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0330.v1
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:39:04 CEST)
Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are the most common type of genetic polymorphism. SNP can significantly affect the expression activity of genes and the level of protein production. Researching the role of SNP in the occurrence of diseases is an important and urgent task, as it allows to predict the risk of pathology, its severity and outcome. Purpose of the study: study of the frequency of I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene in residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), associated with a high risk of steatosis and liver fibrosis. Methods A total of 3132 peripheral venous blood samples were used for population studies, studies patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, studies patients with NAFLD. Genotyping of DNA samples was carried out by real time-PCR. Reagent kits were used for genotyping I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene. Results In the present study, it was found that in the Yakut population the carriage of the GG genotype (49%) of the PNPLA3 gene I148M polymorphism predominates. When conducting a comparative frequency analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the control group and the group with NAFLD patients(p=0,82). A comparative frequency analysis of the distribution of genotypes and alleles of I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene in the control group and the group of patients with chronic hepatitis B and C showed that we did not reveal significantly significant differences (p = 0.45). Conclusions The frequency of homozygotes for the mutant G allele of the I148M polymorphism of the PNPLA3 gene in the Yakut population significantly exceeds the frequency indicator of the G allele in other world populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0785.v1
Online: 31 March 2021 (17:28:37 CEST)
: In this study we evaluated, if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding PTH, VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 are associated with Mandibular Retrognathism (MR). Samples from biologically-unrelated patients receiving orthodontic treatment were included in this study. Pre-orthodontic lateral cephalograms were used to determine the phenotype. Patients having a retrognathic mandible (SNB<78º) were selected as cases and those with an orthognathic mandible (SNB=78º–82º) were selected as controls. Genomic DNA was used for genotyping analysis of SNPs in PTH (rs694, rs6256 and rs307247), VDR (rs7975232), CYP24A1 (rs464653) and CYP27B1 (rs927650). Chi-squared or Fisher’s tests were used to compare genotype and allele distribution among groups. Haplotype analysis was performed for the SNPs in PTH. The established alpha was p<0.05. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify SNP-SNP interactions. A total of 48 MR and 43 controls were included. In the genotype and allele distribution analysis, the SNPs rs694, rs307247 and rs464653 in were associated with MR (p<0.05). MDR analyses predicted the best interaction model for MR was rs694-rs927650, followed by rs307247-rs464653-rs927650. Some haplotypes in the PTH gene presented statistical significance. Our results suggest that SNPs in PTH, VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 genes are associated with the presence of mandibular retrognathism.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0454.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: gene evolution; gene formation; long non-coding RNA genes; pseudogenes; USP18; GGT5
Online: 20 July 2020 (04:39:41 CEST)
A small phylogenetically conserved sequence of 11,231 bp termed FAM247 is repeated in human chromosome 22 by segmental duplications. This sequence forms part of diverse genes that span evolutionary time, the protein genes being the earliest as they are present in zebrafish and/or mice genomes, the long non-coding RNA genes and pseudogenes the most recent as they appear to be present only in the human genome. We propose that the conserved sequence provides a nucleation site for new gene development at evolutionary conserved chromosomal loci where the FAM247 sequences reside. The FAM247 sequence also carries information in its open reading frames that provides protein exon amino acid sequences; one exon plays an integral role in immune system regulation, specifically, the function of ubiquitin specific protease (USP18) in the regulation of interferon. An analysis of this multifaceted sequence and the genesis of genes that contain it are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0289.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: chickens; IGF-1 gene; TGFβ2 gene; DNA extraction; purification; sequencing and bioinformatics
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:17:40 CEST)
Molecular analysis is an easier means to identify and isolate a specific gene which has imperative function for growth, body composition , fat deposition, metabolic and skeletal traits as well as the molecular genetics selection on individual genes is a very efficient method to genetically improve economically important traits in chickens. Insulin- like growth factor 1 ( IGF-1)is a member of a heterogeneous group of peptides with important growth.Transforming growth factorβ ( TGF-β) belongs to a large family of growth and differentiation factors that play a pivotal role in a great variety of biological activities including morphogenesis, development and differentiation. DNA was extracted from 48 chickens sampled from three strains Lohman (17) , Sinai (24) and Gimmizah (7) IGF-1 gene and TGFβ2 gene were amplified using PCR protocol. Electrophoresis was carried out on the products of PCR , bands viewed on transilluminator. The size of IGF-1 gene was 675 bp while the size of TGFβ2 gene was 188bp. Sharp bands were purified and sequenced and used the dendrogram to show the relationships between other vertebrate species
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0753.v2
Subject: Keywords: HOX genes; Hox gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; vertebrates; elongated gene cluster
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:30:15 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important during embryogenesis. It relates events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order H1, H2, H3 … along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the DNA sequence. The corresponding embryonic tissues (E1, E2, E3, …) are activated along the Anterior – Posterior axis in the same order. Besides this collinearity a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is H1 expressed in E1, later is H2 in E2, followed by H3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated and tested in the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. In the present work two equivalent realizations of BM are presented which explain the recent findings on TC as observed in the vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0199.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Gene Regulatory Networks; Non-Linear Variable Order Fractional System; Gene Expression; Epigenetic Memory
Online: 4 November 2020 (15:35:24 CET)
Complex diseases such as cancer are caused by changes in the Gene Regulatory Networks. Systems that model the complex dynamics of these networks along with adapting to real gene expression data are closer to reality and can help understand the creation and treatment of cancer. In this paper, for the first time, modelling of gene regulatory networks is performed using delayed nonlinear variable order fractional systems in the state space by a new tool called GENAVOS. This tool uses gene expression time series data to identify and optimize system parameters. This software has several tools for analyzing system dynamics. The results show that the nonlinear variable order fractional systems have very good flexibility in adapting to real data. We found that regulatory networks in cancer cells actually have a larger delay parameter than in normal cells. It is also possible to create chaos, periodic and quasi-periodic oscillations by changing the delay, degradation and synthesis rates. Our findings indicate a profound effect of time-varying order on these networks, which may be related to a type of cellular memory due to epigenetic and environmental factors. We showed that by changing the delay parameter and the variable order function for a normal cell system, its behavior changes and becomes quite similar to the behavior of a cancer cell. This work also confirms the effective role of the miR-17-92 cluster in the cancer cell cycle. GENAVOS is available at https://github.com/hanif-y/GENAVOS with its user guide and MATLAB codes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0293.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Candida spp; cryptic species; Honduras; PCR-RFLP; hwp1 gene; gpi gene; C. auris
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:05:45 CET)
Candida spp. are the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. The taxonomy of Candida is controversial and has undergone recent changes due to novel genetically related species. Therefore, some complexes of cryptic species have been proposed. In clinical settings, the correct identification of Candida species is relevant since some species are associated with high resistance to antifungal drugs and increased virulence. This study aimed to identify the species of four Candida complexes (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. haemulonii) by molecular methods. This is the first report of six cryptic Candida species in Honduras: C. dubliniensis, C. africana, C. duobushaemulonii, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, and it is also the first report of the allele hwp1-2 of C. albicans sensu stricto. It was not possible to demonstrate the existence of C. auris among the isolates of the C. haemulonii complex. We also propose a simple method based on PCR-RFLP for the discrimination of the multi-resistant pathogen C. auris within the C. haemulonii complex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0520.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: c-di-GMP; Cupriavidus metallidurans; cadmium; phosphodiesterase; biofilm; urf2 gene; mer gene; PleD
Online: 26 July 2018 (15:51:36 CEST)
Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal for biological systems. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is a model strain for heavy metal resistance and bioremediation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the c-di-GMP pathway in the C. metallidurans CH34 response to cadmium in both planktonic and biofilm cells. Increasing cadmium concentrations correlates with an inhibition of biofilm formation and EPS production in C. metallidurans cells. Planktonic and biofilm cells showed similar tolerance to cadmium. During exposure to cadmium an acute decrease of c-di-GMP levels in planktonic and biofilm cells was observed. Transcription analysis by RT-qPCR showed that cadmium induced in planktonic cells and strongly induced in biofilm cells the expression of the urf2 gene and the mercuric reductase encoding merA gene, which belong to the Tn501/Tn21 mer operon. After exposure to cadmium the cadA gene involved in cadmium resistance was equally upregulated in both lifestyles. Bioinformatic analysis and null mutant complementation assays indicated that the protein encoded by the urf2 gene is a functional phosphodiesterase involved in the c-di-GMP metabolism. We propose to rename the urf2 gene as mrp gene for metal regulated phosphodiesterase. An increase of the second messenger c-di-GMP content by the heterologous expression of the constitutively active diguanylate cyclase PleD* correlated with an increase in biofilm formation and cadmium susceptibility. These results indicate that the response to cadmium in C. metallidurans CH34 involves a decrease in c-di-GMP content that inhibits the biofilm lifestyle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0245.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: corneal; pediatric; adult; corneal endothelial dystrophies; total RNA; gene expression; gene sets; transcriptome
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:42:13 CEST)
The eyes are the sense organs through we view the world around us, and the cornea is the transparent layer which covers the outer, visible part of the eye. It is known that the gene expression of corneal endothelium depends on age. And the expressed genes of the endothelium of cornea for pediatric samples is different than that of the adult samples. The purpose or objective of this study was to characterize human corneal endothelial cell (HCEnC) gene expression and differential gene expression and to detect the expressed genes mapped to chromosomal loci associated with some corneal endothelial dystrophies. Both upregulated and downregulated genes were analyzed. For this purpose, total RNA was isolated from ex vivo corneal endothelium taken from six pediatric and five adult corneas. The complementary DNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST array. The data analysis was performed using the Enrichr software for both upregulated and downregulated genes. These are described in more detail in the results and discussion section. This study uses bioinformatics tools to identify and analyse gene sets present in the transcriptome of the corneal endothelium, and tries to find out and observe the relation of the aging effect on the corneal endothelium gene expression. The human subjects had participated voluntarily and informed consent was obtained from all before carrying out any testing procedure. Proper guidelines from the hospital ethical committee were also followed and no harmful chemicals were used on the participants. This study simply aims to raise some awareness of the given topic among the local people so that they are better able to take informed choices about their health in the near future, and also so that they seek medical help when necessary and have no inhibitions in doing so.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0234.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Metazoans; gene family; evolution; development
Online: 17 October 2022 (10:38:56 CEST)
Hox genes represent an important gene family that is involved in the segmentation pattern and identity of the segments during the formation of the body plan in metazoans. For many years, several studies have sought to establish a correlation between the evolution of these genes and the evolution of large groups of metazoans. Here, we use publicly available sequences of Hox gene clusters to reconstruct the evolutionary history of anterior Hox genes. We show that information harbored by these genes, in part, reflects the evolution and diversification of most animal archetypes, but in many cases, there were conflicts between the evolutionary history of some genes and the history of large groups, these cases may have occurred due to specific and similar selective pressures in relatively distant groups, which may have led to evolutionary convergences. Our findings also reveal that the evolution of Hox genes (and clusters) as a multigene family is consistent to a birth-and-death model constrained by development, where there is a trade-off between a relatively fast gene turnover and their central developmental roles
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0521.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gene expression; Helianthus; microsatellites; transcriptomics
Online: 20 April 2021 (08:21:06 CEST)
Mutations that provide environment dependent selective advantages drive adaptive divergence among species. Many phenotypic differences among related species are more likely to result from gene expression divergence rather than from non-synonymous mutations. In this regard, cis-regulatory mutations play an important part in generating functionally significant variation. Some proposed mechanisms that explore the role of cis-regulatory mutations in gene expression divergence involve microsatellites. Microsatellites exhibit high mutation rates and are abundant in both coding and non-coding regions and could influence gene function and products. Here we tested the hypothesis that microsatellites contribute to gene expression divergence among species with 50 individuals from nine closely related Helianthus species using an RNA-seq approach. Differential expression analyses of the transcriptomes revealed that genes containing microsatellites in non-coding regions (UTRs and introns) are more likely to be differentially expressed among species when compared to genes with microsatellites in the coding regions and transcripts lacking microsatellites. We detected a greater proportion of shared microsatellites in 5’UTRs and coding regions compared to 3’UTRs and non-coding transcripts among Helianthus spp. Further, allele frequency differences measured by pairwise FST at single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indicate greater genetic divergence in transcripts containing microsatellites compared to those lacking microsatellites. A gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that microsatellite-containing differentially expressed genes are significantly enriched for GO terms associated with regulation of transcription and transcription factor activity. Collectively, our study provides compelling evidence to support the role of microsatellites in gene expression divergence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0261.v1
Online: 8 November 2020 (16:16:29 CET)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that has been shown to be an essential regulator of a broad spectrum of biological activities required for maintaining the body's vital functions. AhR also plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Its role in cancer is complex, encompassing both pro- and anti-tumorigenic activities. Its level of expression and activity are specific to each tumor and patient, increasing the difficulty of understanding the activating or inhibiting roles of AhR ligands. We explored the role of AhR in tumor cell lines and patients using genomic data sets and discuss the extent to which AhR can be considered as a therapeutic target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0001.v1
Online: 2 December 2018 (10:13:38 CET)
This review summarizes the use of CRISPR system in yeasts, identifying advantages and disadvantages of its applications. 39 articles were evaluated including 12 articles that discussed the advantages of new CRISPR systems that improved the initial system, and another 27 were evaluated, among these: three were applications in Cryptococcus neoformans, four in candida sp., three in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, nine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, four in Yarrowia lipolytica, and four in industrially important yeasts such as Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces pastorianus. It was concluded that the CRISPR system is one of the most versatile genetic editing systems available nowadays. It can be applied in different organisms for several effects including gene knock-outs, performing point mutations, gene expression, or even applying multiple edition operations in several genes. However, we recognize that numerous studies lack a control group of the mutated strains, which leaves many questions unanswered. For instance, the extent and precision of this techniques, it also represents a risk to biosecurity standards. Therefore, this review shows the compilation of CRISPR system information, which could be used to generate different alternatives in the industry and clinical fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: biomarker gene; doses of drugs; fold change gene expression; error rate; toxicity; hierarchical clustering
Online: 3 July 2019 (07:44:28 CEST)
Assessment of drugs toxicity and associated biomarker genes is one of the most important tasks in the pre-clinical phase of drug development pipeline as well as in the toxicogenomic studies. There are few statistical methods for the assessment of doses of drugs (DDs) toxicity and their associated biomarker genes. However, these methods consume more time for computation of the model parameters using the EM (Expectation-Maximization) based iterative approaches. To overcome this problem, in this paper, an attempt is made to propose an alternative approach based on hierarchical clustering (HC) for the same purpose. There are several types of HC approaches whose performance depends on different similarity/distance measures. Therefore, we explored suitable combinations of distance measures and HC methods based on Japanese Toxicogenomics Project (TGP) datasets for better clustering/co-clustering between DDs and genes as well as to detect toxic DDs and their associated biomarker genes. We observed that Word’s HC method with each of Euclidean, Manhattan and Minkowski distance measures produces better clustering/co-clustering results. For an example, in case of glutathione metabolism pathway (GMP) dataset LOC100359539/Rrm2, Gpx6, RGD1562107, Gstm4, Gstm3, G6pd, Gsta5, Gclc, Mgst2, Gsr, Gpx2, Gclm, Gstp1, LOC100912604/Srm, Gstm4, Odc1, Gsr, Gss are the biomarker genes and Acetaminophen_Middle, Acetaminophen_High, Methapyrilene_High, Nitrofurazone_High, Nitrofurazone_Middle, Isoniazid_Middle, Isoniazid_High are their regulatory (associated) DDs explored by our proposed co-clustering algorithm based on the distance and HC method combination Euclidean: Word. Similarly, for the PPAR signaling pathway (PPAR-SP) dataset Cpt1a, Cyp8b1, Cyp4a3, Ehhadh, Plin5, Plin2, Fabp3, Me1, Fabp5, LOC100910385, Cpt2, Acaa1a, Cyp4a1, LOC100365047, Cpt1a, LOC100365047, Angptl4, Aqp7, Cpt1c, Cpt1b, Me1 are the biomarker genes and Aspirin_Low, Aspirin_Middle, Aspirin_High, Benzbromarone_Middle, Benzbromarone_High, Clofibrate_Middle, Clofibrate_High, WY14643_Low, WY14643_High, WY14643_Middle, Gemfibrozil_Middle, Gemfibrozil_High are their regulatory DDs. These results are validated by the available literature and functional annotation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0386.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; bacteria; gene; developing countries
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:54:28 CET)
Antibiotic resistance is a major public health issue that requires a multifaceted approach. One potential source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is wastewater in developing countries, which often lacks proper treatment infrastructure and can release high levels of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the environment. This review article summarizes current knowledge on strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in wastewater in developing countries. Our review highlights the importance of improving wastewater treatment infrastructure to effectively remove antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, implementing measures to reduce the release of antibiotics into the environment, and monitoring and surveillance to track the presence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater. We also discuss the potential challenges and barriers to implementing these strategies and the need for further research to determine their effectiveness in real-world settings. Overall, this review highlights the need for a comprehensive approach to address antibiotic resistance in wastewater in developing countries and underscores the importance of addressing this issue to protect public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; gene therapy; retrovirus vector
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:28:59 CEST)
Therapeutic efficacy of retroviral replicating vector (RRV)-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy has been demonstrated in a variety of tumor models, but clinical investigation of this approach has so far been restricted to glioma and gastrointestinal malignancies. In the present study, we evaluated replication kinetics, transduction efficiency, and therapeutic efficacy of RRV in experimental models of lung cancer. RRV delivering GFP as a reporter gene showed rapid viral replication in a panel of lung cancer cells in vitro, as well as robust intratumoral replication and high levels of tumor transduction in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in vivo. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec), a clinical-stage RRV encoding optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the active drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), showed potent cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells upon exposure to 5-FC prodrug. In vivo, Toca 511 achieved significant tumor growth inhibition following 5-FC treatment in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent hosts, resulting in significantly increased overall survival. This study demonstrates that RRV can serve as highly efficient vehicles for gene delivery to lung cancer, and indicates the translational potential of RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy with Toca 511/5-FC as a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: ROR2; cancer; oncogene; tumor-suppressor gene.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:39:15 CET)
The Wnt pathway plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of various types of cancer. ROR1 and ROR2 are Wnt receptors that are critical for β-catenin-independent (non-canonical) pathways and have been linked to processes driving tumor development and progression, such as cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and therapy resistance. Both receptors have garnered interest as potential therapeutic targets since they are largely absent in adult tissue, are overexpressed in several cancers, and, as members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, are easier to target than all other components of the pathway. Unlike ROR1 which always promotes tumorigenesis, ROR2 has a very complex role in cancer acting either to promote or inhibit tumor progression in different tumor types. In the present article, we summarize the findings on ROR2 expression in cancer patients and its impact on clinical outcome. Further, we review the biological processes and signaling pathways regulated by ROR2 that explain its dual role in cancer. Finally, we describe the ongoing strategies to target ROR2 in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0153.v2
Online: 22 July 2021 (09:45:08 CEST)
The human adenovirus phylogenetic tree is split across seven species (A-G). Species D adenoviruses offer potential advantages for gene therapy applications, with low rates of preexisting immunity detected across screened populations. However, many aspects of the basic virology of species D, such as their cellular tropism, receptor usage and in vivo biodistribution profile, remain unknown. Here, we have characterized human adenovirus type 49 (HAdV-D49), a relatively understudied species D member. We report that HAdV-D49 does not appear to use a single pathway to gain cell entry but appears able to interact with various surface molecules for entry. As such, HAdV-D49 can transduce a broad range of cell types in vitro, with variable engagement of blood coagulation FX. Interestingly, when comparing in vivo biodistribution to adenovirus type 5, HAdV-D49 vectors show reduced liver targeting whilst maintaining transduction of lung and spleen. Overall, this presents HAdV-D49 as a robust viral vector platform for ex vivo manipulation of human cells and for in vivo applications where the therapeutic goal is to target the lung or gain access to immune cells in the spleen whilst avoiding liver interactions, such as intravascular vaccine applications.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Gene expression; Regulation; Signalling; Stress
Online: 23 October 2020 (12:26:14 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are highly diverse, widely distributed photosynthetic bacteria inhabiting various environments ranging from deserts to the cryosphere. Throughout this range of niches, they have to cope with various stresses and kinds of deprivation which threaten their growth and viability. In order to adapt to these stresses and survive, they have developed several global adaptive responses which modulate the patterns of gene expression and the cellular functions at work. Sigma factors, two-component systems, transcriptional regulators and small regulatory RNAs acting either separately or collectively, for example, induce appropriate cyanobacterial stress responses. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge about the diversity of the sensors and regulators involved in the perception and transduction of light, oxidative and thermal stresses and nutrient starvation responses. The studies discussed here point to the fact that various stresses affecting the photosynthetic capacity are transduced by common mechanisms.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0259.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: alternative splicing; microRNA; gene expression; Arabidopsis
Online: 16 April 2020 (07:37:32 CEST)
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a typical class of small RNAs that could modulate gene expression in trans at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs bind to the miRNA binding sites (MBSs) in target mRNAs by sequence complementarity. Alternative splicing (AS) is another commonly occurred process in pre-mRNAs that changes the isoforms of a gene. It is hypothesized that there should be an interaction for gene regulation that involves both AS and miRNA targeting. Studies have verified this hypothesis in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. High-throughput sequencing data suggested that in Arabidopsis a considerably large fraction of MBSs are affected by AS events. The overlapping between MBS and AS exceeds the randomly simulated number. Functional experiments have indicated that the AS events are required for the gene expression changes of miRNA targets. Therefore, AS and MBS are mutually favored. The observed expression changes caused by miRNAs could also be contributed by AS events. In the present perspective article, we propose that the AS analysis should be incorporated in the differential-expression analysis of miRNA studies. When defining a differentially-expressed gene, it should be clarified whether the change in gene expression is caused by AS events or solely by miRNA targeting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Crohn’s disease; NOD2 gene; variation; WES.
Online: 20 November 2018 (08:44:01 CET)
The NOD2 gene, involved in innate immune responses to bacterial peptidoglycan, has been found to be strongly associated with Crohn’s Disease, with an Odd Ratio ranging from 3 to 36. Families with 3 or more CD affected patients were related to high frequency of NOD2 gene variations as R702W, G908R, 1007fs and were reported in EPIMAD Registry. However, some rare CD multiplex families were described without identification of common NOD2 linked-to-disease variations. In order to identify new genetic variation(s) with a major effect on Crohn’s disease (CD), whole exome sequencing was performed in available subjects comprising 4 patients on 2 generations affected with Crohn’s disease without R702W and G908R variation, and 3 unaffected related subjects. A new rare and not yet reported missense variation of the NOD2 gene, the N1010K, was detected and co-segregated across affected patients. In silico evaluation and modeling highlighted evidences for a deleterious effect of the N1010K variation regarding CD. Moreover cumulative characterization of N1010K and 1007fs as compound heterozygous state in two more severely CD family members strongly suggesting that the N1010K should be a new risk factor involved in Crohn’s disease genetic susceptibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0030.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Sigmoid functions; dynamical systems; gene networks
Online: 5 February 2018 (10:54:21 CET)
Predicting how a genetic change affects a given character is a major challenge in biology, and being able to tackle this problem relies on our ability to develop realistic models of gene networks. However, such models are rarely tractable mathematically. In this paper, we propose a mathematical analysis of the sigmoid variant of the Wagner gene-network model. By considering the simplest case, that is, one unique self-regulating gene, we show that numerical simulations are not the only tool available to study such models: theoretical studies can be done too, by mathematical analysis of discrete dynamical systems. It is first shown that the particular sigmoid function can be theoretically investigated. Secondly, we provide an illustration on how to apply such investigations in the case of the dynamical system representing the one self-regulating gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: P21; CDKN1A; glioblastoma; senescence; cancer senescence; gene overexpression; gene knock-in; CRISPR/Cas9; dCas; dCas-VPR
Online: 23 December 2022 (04:10:22 CET)
High-grade gliomas are the most common and aggressive adult primary brain tumors with a median survival of only 12-15 months. Current standard therapy consists of maximal safe surgical resection followed by DNA-damaging agents, such as irradiation and chemotherapy that can delay but not prevent inevitable recurrence. Some have interpreted glioma recurrence as evidence of glioma stem cells which persist in a relatively quiescent state after irradiation and chemotherapy, before the ultimate cell cycle re-entry and glioma recurrence. Conversely, latent cancer cells with a therapy-induced senescent phenotype have been shown to escape senescence, giving rise to more aggressive stem-like tumor cells than those present in the original tumor. Therefore, approaches are needed to either eliminate or keep these glioma-initiating cells in a senescent state for a longer time to prolong survival. In our current study, we demonstrate that the radiation-induced cell cycle inhibitor P21 can provide a powerful route to induce cell death in short-term explants of PDXs derived from three molecularly diverse human gliomas. Additionally, cells not killed by P21 overexpression were maintained in a stable senescent state for longer than control cells. Collectively, these data suggest that P21 activation may provide an attractive therapeutic target to improve therapeutic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0352.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: gene network; network analysis; transcription regulation network; Cytoscape; gene family evolution; divergence; A. thaliana; abiotic stress
Online: 15 November 2018 (09:02:34 CET)
Phylostratigraphic analysis is a way to look anew on phylogenetic data in the evolutionary aspect. It allows counting the evolutionary age based on the analysis of genes, their orthologs and finding the last common ancestor. We performed phylostratigraphic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana genes associated with several types of abiotic stresses (heat, cold, water-related, light, osmotic, salt, and oxidative) determined by the Gene Ontology annotation. Comparison of the distributions of ages of genes associated with stresses of different type has shown the heat stress to involve older genes while the light stress – younger genes. At the same time, all types of stress are characterized by a significantly higher proportion of old genes (common to all eukaryotes) compared to the whole set of A.thaliana genes. This can be explained by the involvement of basic molecular processes in plant cells into the stress response. Reconstruction and graphical analysis of the gene network of the heat stress educed several clusters associated with different response functions. Some of these clusters contain only ancient genes. The results obtained show that the phylostratigraphic analysis reveals the fundamental features of the organization of gene networks and their evolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0372.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: gene therapy; non-viral vectors; gene delivery; cancer; nucleic acid delivery; nanoparticles; lipids; lipid nanoparticles; mRNA; siRNA
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:01:41 CET)
The research and development of non-viral gene therapy has been extensive over the past decade and has received a big push thanks to the successful approval of non-viral gene therapy products in recent times. Despite these developments, gene therapy applications in cancer have been limited. One of the main causes of this has been the imbalance in development of delivery vectors as compared to nucleic acid payloads. This paper reviews non-viral vectors that can be used to deliver nucleic acids for cancer treatment. It discusses various types of vectors and highlights their current applications. Additionally, it also discusses perspective on regulatory landscape to facilitate commercial translation of gene therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Gene therapy, gene editing, CRISPR/Cas9, Cas12a, dual AAV, triple AAV, clinical trials, retina, hereditary retinal dystrophies
Online: 1 October 2018 (13:52:23 CEST)
Recently, there have been revolutions in the development of both gene therapy and genome surgical treatments for inherited diseases. Much of this progress has been centered around hereditary retinal dystrophies, because the eye is an immune-privileged and anatomically ideal target. Gene therapy treatments, already demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in numerous clinical trials, are benefitting from the development of new viral vectors, such as dual and triple AAVs. CRISPR/Ca9, which revolutionized the field of gene editing, is being adapted into more precise “high fidelity” and catalytically dead variants. New CRISPR endonucleases, such as CjCas9 and Cas12a, are generating excitement in the field as well. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative, allowing human embryo derived stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to be edited precisely in vitro and then reintroduced into the body. This article highlights recent progress made in gene therapy and genome surgery for retinal disorders, and it provides an update on precision medicine FDA treatment trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: ancestry of orthogs, ancestry of gene families; gene genealogy; FUCA; LUCA; origins of life; gradualism; evolutionary biology
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:24:09 CEST)
Genes and gene trees have been extensively used to study the evolutionary relationships among populations, species, families and higher systematic clades of organisms. This brought modern Biology into a sophisticated level of understanding about the evolutionary relationships and diversification patterns that happened along the entire history of organismal evolution in Earth. Genes however have not been placed in the center of questions when one aims to unravel the evolutionary history of genes themselves. Thus, we still ignore whether Insulin share a more recent common ancestor to Hexokinase or DNA polymerase. This brought modern Genetics into a very poor level of understanding about sister group relationships that happened along the entire evolutionary history of genes. Many conceptual challenges must be overcome to allow this broader comprehension about gene evolution. Here we aim to clear the intellectual path in order to provide a fertile research program that will help geneticists to understand the deep ancestry and sister group relationships among different gene families (or orthologs). We aim to propose methods to study gene formation starting from the establishment of the genetic code in pre-cellular organisms like the FUCA (First Universal Common Ancestor) until the formation of the highly complex genome of LUCA (Last UCA), that harbors hundreds of genes families working coordinated into a cellular organism. The deep understanding of ancestral relationships among orthologs will certainly inspire biotechnological and biomedical approaches and allow a deep understanding about how Darwinian molecular evolution operates inside cells and before the appearance of cellular organisms.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0485.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: gene nomenclature; vertebrate genomics; oxytocin; arginine vasopressin
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:09:45 CEST)
Standardized gene nomenclature supports unambiguous communication and identification of the scientific literature associated with genes. To support the increasing number of annotated genomes that are now available for comparative studies, gene nomenclature authorities coordinate the assignment of approved gene names that can be readily propagated across species. Theofanopoulou et al. (Theofanopoulou et al. 2021) propose a new nomenclature for the genes encoding oxytocin and arginine vasopressin and their receptors. Rather than changing to a different nomenclature system, we propose minor updates to the current approved nomenclature of these vertebrate genes to better reflect their evolutionary history. We call on authors, journal editors and reviewers to help support communication and indexing of gene-related publications by working with existing gene nomenclature committees and ensuring that standardized gene nomenclature is routinely used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; gene therapy; mitochondria; genome editing
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:17:16 CET)
Background. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as a pathophysiological hallmark of disease onset and progression in patients with Parkinsonian disorders. Besides the overall emergence of gene therapies in treating these patients, this highly relevant molecular concept has not yet been defined as a target for gene therapeutic approaches. Methods. This narrative review will discuss the experimental evidence suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction as a viable treatment target in patients with monogenic and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. In addition, we will focus on general treatment strategies and crucial challenges which need to be overcome. Results. Our current understanding of mitochondrial biology in parkinsonian disorders opens up the avenue for viable treatment strategies in Parkinsonian disorders. Insights can be obtained from primary mitochondrial diseases. However, substantial knowledge gaps and unique challenges of mitochondria-targeted gene therapies need to be addressed to provide innovative treatments in the future. Conclusions. Mitochondria-targeted gene therapies are a potential strategy to improve an important primary disease mechanism in Parkinsonian disorders. However, further studies are needed to address the unique design challenges for mitochondria-targeted gene therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0303.v1
Online: 21 October 2021 (09:47:37 CEST)
Cognitive networks have evolved to cope with uncertain environments in order to make reliable decisions. Such decision making circuits need to respond to the external world in efficient and flexible ways, and one potentially general mechanism of achieving this is grounded in critical states. Mounting evidence has shown that brains operate close to such critical boundaries consistent with self-organized criticality (SOC). Is this also taking place in small-scale living systems, such as cells? Here we explore a recent model of engineered gene networks that have been shown to exploit the feedback between order and control parameters (as defined by expression levels of two coupled genes) to achieve a SOC state. We suggest that such SOC motif could be exploited to generate adaptive behavioral patterns and might help design fast responses in synthetic cellular and multicellular organisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: NUTM1 gene; NUT protein; Neoplasms; Pathogenesis; Therapy
Online: 29 September 2021 (12:17:31 CEST)
Nuclear protein of testis (NUT), a protein product of the NUTM1 gene (located on the long arm of chromosome 15) with highly restricted physiologic expression in post-meiotic spermatids, is the oncogenic driver of a group of emerging neoplasms when fused with genes involved in transcription regulation. Although initially identified in a group of lethal midline carcinomas in which NUT forms fusion proteins with bromodomain proteins, NUTM1-rearrangement has since been identified in tumors at non-midline locations, with non-bromodomain partners and with varied morphology. The histologic features of these tumors have also expanded to include sarcoma, skin adnexal tumors, and hematologic malignancies that harbor various fusion partners and are associated with markedly different clinical courses varying from benign to malignant. Most of these tumors have nondescript primitive morphology and therefore should be routinely considered in any undifferentiated neoplasm. The diagnosis is facilitated by the immunohistochemical use of the monoclonal C52 antibody, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and, recently, RNA-Sequencing. The pathogenesis is believed to be altered expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes by NUT-mediated genome-wide histone modification. NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms respond poorly to classical chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Targeted therapies such as bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitor (BETi) therapy are being developed. This current review provides an update of NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms, focusing on the correlation between basic sciences and clinical aspects.