ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Transgender, non-binary gender identity, adolescence, health, well-being, gender nonconforming
Online: 6 September 2018 (15:31:10 CEST)
Purpose: Young transgender and non-binary are exposed to situations of discrimination and have a greater risk of violence. The purpose of this study is to analyze which protective, violence and health and well-being factors have more influence on transgender and non-binary people compared to cisgender people. Method: The sample comprised 856 people between 14 and 25 years old. A survey including questions about sociodemographic information and protective, violence and health and well-being factors was designed ad hoc for this study. Results: The results show non-binary group received the least support from family and friends, higher risk of suffering cyberbullying and a higher feel isolated and unhappy. Non-binary and transgender have suffered more verbal attacks both inside and outside their school and physical attacks at school than cisgender young. Conclusions: These results are important and may contribute to promote public policies and clinical interventions to favor the integration of non-binary and transgender people in our society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: transgender; nonbinary; transsexual; queer; gender diversity; gender identity disorder; bibliometrics; science mapping
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:48:02 CEST)
Gender and identity issues permeate society as a whole. Therefore, the matters involving transgender individuals should be analised in order to understand the difficulties experienced by this population and the social practices implemented. In this sense, the objective of this study was to investigate the strategic themes and their evolution in relation to the theme. For this, a bibliometric performance and network analysis (BPNA) was carried out with the existing data in the Web of Science database between 1954 and march 2021. Twenty-three thousand and four hundred and seventy-one (23,471) articles were identified, which were included in the SciMAT software to perform a bibliometric analysis, resulting in the graph of the thematic evolution structure and the strategic diagram, in which 8 motor themes and a cross-cutting theme of great magnitude are highlighted, which are discussed in depth. The results show the relation between the transgender theme and gender, identity, sexual orientation, hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgery. It is concluded that, despite the large number of associated researches, some areas of study are still incipient, such as the inclusion of transgender people in the formal labor market and in the prison context, thus opening field for further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1657.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: obesity; gender; metabolism; cancer; gastrointestinal
Online: 23 May 2023 (12:43:10 CEST)
Background: The prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, has reached epidemic levels. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of various cancers, including gastrointestinal ones. Recent evidence has suggested that obesity disproportionately impacts males and females with cancer, resulting in varied transcriptional and metabolic dysregulation. Methods: This study aimed to elucidate the differences in the metabolic milieu of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal (GI) track both related and unrelated to sex in obesity. To demonstrate these obesity and sex-related effects, we utilized three primary data sources: serum metabolomics from obese and non-obese patients assessed via the Biocrates MxP Quant 500 mass spectrometry-based kit, the ORIEN tumor RNA-sequencing data for all adenocarcinoma cases to assess the impacts of obesity, and publicly available TCGA transcriptional analysis to assess GI cancers and sex-related differences in GI cancers specifically. We applied and integrated our unique transcriptional metabolic pipeline in combination with our metabolomics data to reveal how obesity and sex can dictate differential metabolism in patients. Results: Differentially expressed genes (DEG) analysis of ORIEN obese adenocarcinoma as compared to normal-weight adenocarcinoma patients resulted in large-scale transcriptional reprogramming (4029 DEGs, adj. p < 0.05 and |logFC|>0.58). Gene Set Enrichment and metabolic pipeline analysis showed genes enriched for pathways relating to immunity (inflammation, and CD40 signaling, among others) and metabolism. Specifically, we found alterations to steroid metabolism and tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism in obese patients, both of which are highly associated with disease severity and immune cell dysfunction. These findings were further confirmed using the TCGA colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (ESCA) data, which showed similar patterns of increased tryptophan catabolism for kynurenine production in obese patients. These patients further showed disparate alterations between males and females when comparing obese to non-obese patient populations. Alterations to immune and metabolic pathways were validated in 6 patients (2 obese and 4 normal weight) via CD8+/CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cell RNA-sequencing and paired serum metabolomics, which showed differential kynurenine and lipid metabolism, which corresponded with altered T-cell transcriptome in obese populations. Conclusions: Overall, obesity is associated with differential transcriptional and metabolic program in various disease sites. Further, these alterations, like kynurenine and tryptophan metabolism, which impact both metabolism and immune phenotype, vary with sex and obesity together. This study warrants further in-depth investigation into obesity and sex-related alterations in cancers that may better define biomarkers of response to immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: tuberculosis; patriarchy; gender barriers; women
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:19:15 CEST)
Background: Women in rural districts of Pakistan face numerous barriers to healthcare, rendering gender-responsive health programming important, including for Tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted to assess the general understanding of TB and of access to healthcare for women, as a first step towards implementation of a gender responsive TB programme in TandoAllayar, a rural district of Pakistan. Methods: A total of 36 participants were interviewed. The focus group discussion guide comprised of questions on: (1) family/household dynamics (2) community norms (3) healthcare system (4) women’s access to healthcare (5) TB Awareness;, and (6) women’s access to TB Care. Results: Limited autonomy in household financial decision-making, disapproval of unassisted travel, long travel time, lack of prioritization of spending on women’s health and inadequate presence of female health providers, were identified as barriers to access of healthcare for women, higher in younger women. Facilitators to access of TB care included a reported lack of TB-related stigma, moderate knowledge about TB disease, and broad understanding of tuberculosis as a curable disease. Other suggested facilitators include health facilities closer to the villages and the availability of higher quality services. Conclusion: Significant barriers are faced by women in access to TB care in rural districts of Pakistan. Programme implementers in high burden countries, should shift towards improved gender-responsive TB programming.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: couple; shift work; gender; Chile
Online: 5 January 2021 (17:12:44 CET)
This study seeks to understand, from a gender perspective, the experiences of mining couples in Antofagasta, Chile, especially the negotiation between their intimate lives and the absences of their partners due to the shift work modality. We analyzed testimonies from men and women living in Antofagasta, considered one of the three largest mining regions in the world. Among the main findings, power relations based on the hegemonic gender model supported by the sexual division of labor are identified, which persist in this mining area, despite progress in equity issues in Chile. We propose that, although there are differences between the discourses of men and women and their subjective positioning, both actively collaborate with the reproduction of social gender relations marked by male domination. We observe that this way of living as a couple is associated with the organization of mining work, which is central to the reproduction of the gender order with a hetero-patriarchal tone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Code-switching; Gender difference; Bilingualism
Online: 17 September 2020 (10:35:52 CEST)
As a behavior of bilingual individuals and an indispensable part of bilingual speech, code-switching has been investigated by many researchers. However, there are many variables influencing code-switching, and each variable has the potential to be a confounding variable. Among these variables is the gender; however, whether there are significant gender differences and what are the gender differences in code-switching remains unknown for Mandarin Mandarin-English child bilinguals, as previous literature diverse on the existence of gender differences. Therefore, this paper seeks potential code-switching and distribution of code-switching by quantitative analysis of speech data in Singapore Bilingual Corpus. The results indicate that gender differences are significant in the amount of intra code-switching. However, neither considerable gender difference is observed in the amount of inter nor the code-switching related environment.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: knowledge; attitude; education; gender; preparedness
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aims of the study to analyze the influence of knowledge, attitude, education and gender of the head of the family for household preparedness against flood from Bengawan Solo River in Kedungdowo Village, Balen District of Bojonegoro Regency. The method used in this study is survey method. This study is explanatory observational research. Population studied is 85 head of families from Kedungdowo Village, Balen District, Bojonegoro Regency. The sampling method for collecting the data from the families is stratified random sampling. Data analysis methods used in this study are descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis with a 95% confidence level to identify the level of preparedness and the relationship between factors that affect preparedness. The findings shows that knowledge, attitude, education and gender significantly influence household preparedness against Bengawan Solo flood. Attitude is the most dominant variable that influenced household preparedness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: environment; Mexico; responsibility; footprint; gender
Online: 19 July 2018 (05:01:34 CEST)
This article analyses from a post-Marxist view, particularly, an ecological and gender-oriented perspective, the perception and attitudes of the Mexican people by gender, political affiliation and income level towards such current environmental issues as global warming, water shortage, water pollution and the influence of economic growth on the environment, among others. It highlights the influence of political ideology on the environment and of gender awareness on conservation and a more positive attitude towards ecological issues, despite women having usually been excluded from the administrative and decision-making arenas. A new theoretical model is proposed related to the Responsibility Footprints, a new concept more critical than the neoliberal Corporate Social Responsibility. The data for this study come from the 2012 International Social Survey Program. The results analysed brought to light some relevant questions for designing public policies that will greatly bolster initiatives to prompt better female professional involvement in the conservation of natural resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0377.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological impact; sport injuries; gender
Online: 27 May 2018 (11:21:52 CEST)
The aim of this study was to examine the post-injury psychological impact looking for to avoid sources of health issues. We have analyzed differences in the stress, anxiety and depression levels between male and female football players who have suffered at least one injury during the last season played respect to similar players who have not been injured. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The participants were 187 football players and data on the player’s injuries were collected. A Self-reported Questionnaire collected number, type and severity of injuries sustained during the previous sports season (twelve months), and also the player’s current situation being injured or not injured. To evaluate the psychological variables, the DASS-21 questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the male injured players presented anxiety levels higher than those who were non-injured. When we observe the female players’ data, the stress levels of the non-injured ones are higher than those of the injured players. Regarding the non-injured athletes, results showed that the female non-injured players presented values in anxiety higher than those corresponding to the non-injured male players. Thus, sport injury affects mental health issues such as anxiety and stress, and in a different way regarding gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: refugee mental health; gender and mental health; Afghan; resettlement stressors; dissonant acculturation; gender ideology
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:04:54 CET)
Recent studies have emphasized the influence of resettlement factors on the mental health of refugees resettling in developed countries. However, little research has addressed gender differences in the nature and influence of resettlement stressors and sources of resilience. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating how gender moderates and mediates the influence of several sources of distress and resilience among 259 Afghan refugees residing in northern California. Gender moderated the effects of four factors on levels of distress. Intimate and extended family ties have little correlation with men’s distress levels, but are strongly associated with lower distress for women. English ability is positively associated with lower distress for women, but not men. In terms of gender ideology, traditionally oriented women and egalitarian men have lower levels of distress. And experiencing greater dissonant acculturation increases distress for men, but not women. The influence of gender interaction terms is substantial and patterns may reflect difficulty adapting to a different gender order. Future studies of similar populations should investigate gender differences in sources of distress and resilience, and efforts to assist new arrivals might inform them of changes in gender roles they may experience, and facilitate opportunities to renegotiate gender roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Rwanda; Unpaid care work; Critical realism; Cluster randomised control trial; Gender transformative change; Gender equality and women’s empowermenttransformative change, Gender equality and women’s empowerment
Online: 19 May 2023 (16:02:23 CEST)
Background: Globally, women’s responsibility for unpaid care work (UCW) remains a barrier to gender equality and women’s empowerment. Rwanda, a low-income country, has a legal and policy framework for promoting gender equality but remains a patriarchal society with women responsible for UCW. Reseaux des Femmes, a local NGO, has been delivering a programme targeted at reducing and redistributing the UCW of women with the objective of gender transformational change. However, there has been no impact evaluation of their intervention to date. Methods/Design: The impact evaluation will be a proof-of-concept critical realist cluster control trial (CRcCT) to evaluate for which women, how and under what circumstances the intervention reduces and redistributes women’s UCW, promote gender equality and women’s empowerment, and improves women’s quality of life. Four clusters of villages in each of five districts in Rwanda will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control arms, and all eligible households, those headed by a couple with at least one child under 12 years, will be recruited. This will yield a sample of around 550 intervention households and 550 control. Discussion: This protocol describes the design of mixed-methods research to evaluate an intervention in Rwanda aimed at reducing and redistributing the time women spend on UCW, thereby promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment. This paper will contribute to our understanding of interventions for transforming gender relations from a scholarly perspective. From a policy perspective, it will act as a proof of concept of Reseaux des Femmes’ Programme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parenting; gender; children’s behavioral changes; pandemic
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:40:29 CEST)
In a previous Argentine study, we found that, in the critical con-text of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were changes in maternal practices that influenced the relationship with their children. We also found that the impact of mandatory isolation was moderated positively by protective factors such as positive parenting and maternal school support, or negatively by risk factors such as maternal stress. Although this study only analyzed maternal behavior, we were interested in studying the behavior of both parents, comparing the parenting (positive parenting, parental stress, and school support) of the father and mother and the perceived behavioral changes in their children. The sample consisted of 120 Argentinean parents (70 mothers and 50 fathers) aged be-tween 27 and 56 years (M = 38.84; SD = 5.03). Questionnaires were administered on sociodemo-graphic and behavioral data of the children, as well as a brief scale to assess parenting. Mann Whitney U and MANOVA were used to analyze the influence of gender on perceived changes in children's behavior and perceived parenting, respectively. Mothers perceived more significant changes than fathers in their children's behavior. In addition, women reported more parental stress, greater child school sup-port, and greater perceived positive parenting, compared to men. These findings support the hypothesis that parenting developed differently in fathers and mothers which is likely influenced by culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; gender; age; correlation
Online: 28 February 2023 (10:39:45 CET)
Objectives: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels play an important role in the diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of treatment in diabetes. The aim of our study is to determine whether there is a relationship between HbA1c levels and age and gender in Turkish adults who have not been diagnosed with diabetes.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 6776 Turkish adults without diabetes. Cross-sectional analyzes of A1C levels were performed between different age and gender categories. In statistical analysis, t-test, linear regression analysis, one-way ANOVA analysis, and LSD post hoc were used.Results: HbA1c levels in the individuals examined by dividing into different age groups increased with age in all groups. In our study, HbA1c levels were significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.001) in all groups, especially between the ages of 30-49, and were positively associated with age for males and females. There was a positive correlation between HbA1c and age in both men and women aged 30-49 years (P < 0.05). In the HbA1c ≥ 6.5 group, HbA1c levels gradually decreased with age in both genders, and no significant effect of age on Hb1Ac level was detected (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that it is important to evaluate the effects of age and gender when using HbA1c levels in the diagnosis, screening, and treatment of diabetes, especially in the young and middle-aged population. Applying this situation to daily practice may reduce the misdiagnosis of diabetes in elderly patients, overtreatment of diabetes, and its associated risks.K
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0056.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Emergency Medical Services; paramedics; gender; diversity
Online: 15 February 2023 (04:34:52 CET)
Introduction: Like other public safety professions, paramedicine has historically been a male-dominated occupation, both in the demography of its workforce and in its organizational culture. Although women are increasingly choosing paramedicine as a career, participation in leadership roles remains limited. Drawing on data from a recent comprehensive mental health survey, we describe the proportion of women in leadership in a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We distributed an in-person, paper-based survey during the fall 2019 - winter 2020 Continuing Medical Education (CME) sessions. Participating paramedics completed a demographic questionnaire alongside a battery of mental health screening tools. We assessed the demography of the workforce and explored differences in employment classification, provider level (e.g., primary vs. advanced care), and participation in formal leadership roles along self-reported gender lines. Results: Out of 607 paramedics attending CME, we received 600 completed surveys, with 11 excluded for missing data, leaving 589 for analysis and a 97% response rate. Women comprised 40% of the active-duty paramedic workforce, with an average of 8 years of experience. Compared to men, women were more than twice as likely to have a university degree (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.02), but almost half as likely to practice at the Advanced Care Paramedic level (OR 0.61), and somewhat less likely to be employed full-time (OR 0.77). Women were nearly 70% less likely to hold a leadership role in the service compared to men (OR 0.36), occupying just 20% of leadership positions. Conclusion: Although paramedicine is witnessing an encouraging shift in the demography of its workforce with greater participation from women, there is still work to be done, particularly in leadership. Future research should focus on identifying and ameliorating barriers to career advancement among women and other historically underrepresented people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: gender inequality; loneliness; couples; multilevel analysis
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:04:23 CET)
The present article analyzes the connection between, on the one hand, gender equality and, on the other hand, loneliness and social isolation. It hypothesizes that modern relational institutions, that support gender equality, such as no-fault divorce laws, reduce loneliness in close relationships. This hypothesis is put to the test through a multilevel analysis of the ISSP 2017. The analysis reveals that the data agrees, to a large extent, with the theoretical arguments. The prevalence of loneliness is higher in countries with higher levels of gender inequality (as measured by the Gender Inequality Index [GII]). This can be attributed to a moderation effect: at lower levels of gender inequality, partnerships provide better protection from loneliness. These results are robust to controls for demographic composition, level of health, educational attainment, income poverty, and interview mode. Last, the analyses show that the threat of emotional isolation is more widespread in countries with low gender inequality. This finding, however, is only significant before controlling for demographic composition, level of health, educational attainment, income poverty, and interview mode, and it requires further analysis. The concluding section relates these findings to the popular tendency to argue that modern society has created a “loneliness epidemic.”
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: SDG; Gender Equality; project-based methodology
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0571.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Business intelligence; gender gap; information technology.
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:31:05 CEST)
In the early 1990s, cyberfeminism emerged as an area of knowledge to discuss the connection between gender and technology. According to UNESCO, women are underrepresented in the field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and less than a third of women worldwide work in scientific research and development. However, this number has grown and this reality is constantly changing. In this context, using business intelligence techniques, this study analyzes data from the computer and information and communication technology market to characterize the impact of the performance of women in these areas. It is expected to show that this performance in the highlighted fields is still a challenge in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: eating disorder; gender; age; university degree
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:58:08 CET)
Background: The passage through university, as a complex experience, can heighten personal susceptibility to eating disorders. The objective of this research is to determine how gender, age, year of course, and center or faculty can influence the risk of an eating disorder among university students. Method: A transversal and descriptive study with a probabilistic sample of 516 Spanish students from 26 university degrees is performed, by administering the Inventory Eating Disorder-Reference criterion (EDI-3-RF) to the students. Results: It was found that the female students enrolled in second-year grades presented a greater obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction, that the male students did more physical exercise to control their weight, and that those under 20 years and the students from both the Health and Law Faculties presented greater bulimic behavior. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement preventive measures adapted to the university students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0545.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gender; academic; STEM; leadership; barriers; assistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:06:20 CEST)
Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are under-represented, and women are also less likely than men to be in leadership positions generally. Little is known about the intersection of these areas: women in leadership in STEM. To determine what sort of barriers and assistance female STEM leaders have encountered, a survey was developed asking women who are in academic leadership positions in STEM about their experiences. The main barriers were similar in the STEM area and in leadership: balancing work/home life, devaluing of achievements, and imposter syndrome. The main two types of assistance in both STEM and leadership were support from spouse/partner, and encouragement from peers. The main barriers women encounter are cultural and will take time to overcome. The main assistance women have had comes from people, not training or institutional structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gender; leadership; science; STEM; department chair
Online: 11 November 2019 (04:53:34 CET)
A considerable body of research exists on women in leadership and likewise on women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. However, the intersection of the two is terra incognita: women in leadership in STEM. At the most fundamental level, we don’t even have a solid idea of how many women hold leadership positions in STEM. This study determined the proportion of women in leadership positions in several academic STEM areas via a sampling of institutions across the United States and other countries. In every area studied, women held fewer leadership positions than the proportion of female PhDs in those fields. The proportion of women in non-STEM specific top academic leadership roles was also examined to see what proportion of those individuals leading academic institutions might have background in a STEM discipline and how that compares to men in the same positions. This study opens the door to exploring the experiences of women who lead in STEM, which is likely to promote women’s participation in these fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; advertising; nutrition
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:27:16 CEST)
In recent years, several brands have received much negative press coverage when trying to market their food and drink products specifically at women. This is, in part, because the taste preferences/sensitivities of men and women are actually quite similar. In fact, perhaps the one and only area where consumers are willing to accept (or should that be swallow) ingested products explicitly targeted at women or men is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements. Such products are not really sold on the basis of their taste/flavour anyway. Many consumers are also sensitive to the so-called pink tax, when near-identical products cost more when sold to women rather than to men (e.g., as in the case of female razors). As the four recent examples discussed in this review make clear, it can be difficult to roll-out a new food or beverage product, or else extend a pre-existing product line, that is especially for women without coming across as sexist/condescending. As such, marketers need to tread carefully, otherwise they may end-up generating unwanted negative publicity. Ultimately, therefore, adopting an implicit approach to gender-based marketing, should that be the direction that a brand wants to take, will likely have more chance of avoiding negative publicity than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: academic-procrastination; anxiety; gender; perfectionism; statistics
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:44:19 CEST)
This study contended that learning statistics and its rudiments were perceived as complicated compared to some other courses offered at the university level. Further, this investigation contested the existence of statistics anxiety among postgraduate students in an in-site university setting. Relationships and differences were determined in this study utilizing the constructs of antecedents of statistics anxiety namely academic procrastination, perfectionism, and gender. The objectives were (1) to establish the relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; (2) to find out the relationship between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; and (3) to investigate the differences between gender and statistics anxiety. The data from randomly selected 136 postgrad students (Kampala International University, Uganda) referring to dispositional (procrastination and perfectionism) and environmental antecedents (gender) and statistics anxiety were scientifically elicited, processed and analyzed utilizing the quantitative- post positivist’s research paradigm model. The findings revealed a positive but insignificant relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; a significant adverse correlation between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; an insignificant positive correlation existed between gender and statistics anxiety, and differences in statistics anxiety between the female and male students existed. Notably from the results then, academic procrastination did not significantly affect the students’ statistics anxiety; the students with higher levels of perfectionism tended to have lower levels of statistics anxiety while the levels of statistics anxiety among the female students were slightly greater than that of the male students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0853.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gig work; Gender Bias; Online; Freelance; Stigma
Online: 11 May 2023 (12:40:52 CEST)
Just 2 years ago, 35% of Americans were involved with gig work. According to Statista, over half of Americans will be freelancing through online gig work by 2027. Research on how consumers select gig workers, or taskers, is still mostly underexplored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of a tasker's gender and self-presentation in their profile picture on consumer perceptions and choices. We proposed that taskers who have a professional headshot as the profile picture will receive higher ratings on competence, warmth, and trustworthiness than taskers whose profile picture is a selfie. We also proposed that taskers who smile in their profile picture will receive higher ratings on competency, warmth, and trustworthiness than taskers who do not smile. Furthermore, we predicted that professionalism has a stronger positive impact on perceptions of male taskers than on female taskers for our third hypothesis. Lastly, we hypothesized that gender bias exists on gig platforms, such that smiling will have a stronger positive effect on female taskers’ competence, warmth, and trustworthiness than on male taskers. Our study had 292 Kennesaw State University students who were tested online through Qualtrics. Our first and second hypotheses are not supported but our last two have partial support. There is a significant main effect of gender, and we find that male taskers are rated significantly higher on competence, warmth, and trustworthiness, compared to female taskers. Professional photos give male taskers an advantage over professional female taskers and female taskers are punished more for not smiling than male taskers. Future directions include looking into factors such as Race, Age, or background setting could be investigated. Conducting similar tests in a larger and more externally valid setting could yield more concrete results. Continuation into this new area of gig work could lead the way into revolutionizing how freelancers conduct their public appearance or how gig work platforms could handle this new market.
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: gender-based violence, coping, abuse, survival, resilient
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:00:57 CEST)
Gender-based violence is considered a serious social and public health problem. Overcoming this situation implies a process that results in the favorable biopsychosocial rehabilitation, the resilient of women. The objective of this study was to analyze the tools, resources and personal and psychosocial mechanisms used by women survivors of gender-based violence. The design was an interpretative phenomenology. It carried out with 22 women who have overcome gender-based violence. Data was collected through personal interviews and narration. The results were grouped into four themes: "Process of violence", "Social resources for coping and overcoming GBV", "Personal tools for coping and overcoming GBV", and "Feelings identified, from the abuse stage to the survival stage". Several studies concluded that overcoming abuse is influenced by the women social network, and it can be the action of these people determining their survival to gender violence. Despite the recognized usefulness of these available resources, it would be desirable to strengthen them in order to be able to drive more women toward survival, assuming a strengthening of coping and overcoming, without forgetting the importance of other support mechanisms such as their family and group therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: implict bias; gender disparity; diversity; racial dispariry
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:51:36 CET)
The editors of several major journals have recently asserted the importance of combating racism and sexism in science. This is especially relevant now, as the COVID-19 pandemic may have led to a widening of the gender and racial/ethnicity gaps. Implicit bias is a crucial component in this fight. Negative stereotypes that are socially constructed in a given culture are frequently associated with implicit bias (which is unconscious or not perceived). In the present article, we point to scientific evidence that shows the presence of implicit bias in the academic community, which contributes to strongly damaging unconscious evaluations and judgments of individuals or groups. Additionally, we suggest several actions aimed at (1) editors and reviewers of scientific journals, (2) people in positions of power within funding agencies and research institutions and (3) members of selection committees to mitigate this effect. These recommendations are based on the experience of a group of Latin American scientists comprising Black and Latin women, teachers and undergraduate students who participate in a women in science working group at universities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. With this article, we hope to contribute to reflections, actions and the development of institutional policies that enable and consolidate diversity in science and reduce disparities based on gender and race/ethnicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0739.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: knowledge; attitude; preparedness; COVID-19; gender; Bangladesh
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:12:02 CET)
Effective pandemic management requires understanding the level of community knowledge, attitude of people and preparedness towards COVID-19. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and preparedness toward COVID-2019 among Bangladeshi general people. A cross sectional survey was conducted from 20th March 2020 to 20th April 2020 among 1007 Bangladeshi adult people. A convenience sampling strategy was utilized and the data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to identify the gender differences regarding knowledge, attitude and preparedness towards COVID-19. Respondents predominately used social media to inform themselves about COVID-19 (68.10%) and female used social media more than male (p<0.001). Female had more correct knowledge about staying home with sickness and/or symptoms to contain the COVID-19 transmission (p=.02). While male had more negative attitude about staying out during the pandemic than female (<0.001) and men were less likely to take preventative measures than female counterparts. A number of people were still believing the myths like “COVID-19 can transmit via mosquito” (9.14%) and male had more incorrect knowledge regarding this (p<0.001). Moreover, 17.81% of the respondents thought that COVID-19 can spread in warm weather. Some findings are directing us to a knowledge gap among general population in Bangladesh which calls for uncovering those aspects. Adequate and effective communication are necessary so that general people can stay alert with positive attitude and hygienic practices to fight against this ongoing crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0638.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: BMI, Child Obesity; Convergence; Clubs; Gender differences
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:52:34 CET)
Infant obesity has become one of the most serious global health challenges of our time. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity has rapidly increased worldwide during the last two decades, especially in some developing countries where obesity is reaching levels on a par with some industrialized countries, or even higher. This fast growth has occurred especially in countries in the midst of rapid social-economic transitions. Most international comparisons focus on the adult population while analyses focusing on the child population are more limited. Using the methodology developed by Phillips and Sul , this paper studies the worldwide evolution of infant body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity prevalence for a large sample of countries during the period 1975-2016. Our results indicate that the figures for BMI or the prevalence of obesity in different countries do not converge, while the opposite is the case for overweight prevalence in children. Furthermore, there is a non-linear relationship between obesity and income or human capital, indicating that low and middle-income countries require a strong initiative for health policies targeting obesity prevention.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; gender; host entry machinery; polymorphism
Online: 7 April 2020 (02:27:40 CEST)
Combating viral disease outbreaks has doubtlessly been one of the major public health challenges for the 21st century. Here, the host entry machinery required for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was examined for the gene expression profiles and polymorphism. The four human population groups of Europeans, Africans, Asians, and Americans had specific and also a shared pool of variants for the X-linked locus of ACE2 receptor. Several specific and common ACE2 variants were of the utmost importance to the viral entry and infection. In the absence of gender bias for the gene expression profiles, the hemizygous rare variants of ACE2 describe the observed higher mortality rate in males. Finally, a personalized medicine strategy is conceived for isolating high-risk individuals in epidemic circumstances.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0450.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable education; gender effect; physics education; sustainability
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:58:59 CEST)
Determination of the parameters of the movement of surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. The study of development of basic concepts of motion has been done for years with different methods and in different contexts. We have analyzed the effect of the physical/scientific image of the world introduced to children by school education and its long- and short-term cognitive consequences. Our studies showed that children differentiate the concept of speed into two more specific concepts: average speed and instantaneous velocity. In the present work we present how the gender context is superimposed on this general picture. We found that initial, genuine pre-school concept of speed of girls and boys is, on average, different. Our analysis shows also that this gender effect vanishes quickly together with the appearance of physical definitions of kinematical quantities in physics/science curricula. We discuss also methodological aspect of the statistical ‘gender gap’ measure and we calculated the gender effect chance probability, p-value, to be slightly less than 0.001. The importance of observed effect for the sustainable science teaching processes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Sustainable gender equality; self-efficacy; gender mainstreaming; STEM higher education; STEM student teachers’ perceptions; scale validation, Spain, Creece
Online: 21 November 2022 (03:38:01 CET)
In the context of the Education-2030 Framework for Action, an important goal for initial STEM teacher education is to provide professional development on equality and gender awareness. This study explored whether STEM prospective secondary teachers are prepared to implement a sustainable gender-sensitive practice upon graduation. To this end, we cross-culturally validated the TEGEP (Teacher Self-Efficacy for Gender Equality practice) scale and compared STEM student teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy by country and sex. Participants were 205 STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) secondary school student teachers (136 Greek and 69 Spanish) drawn from seven public universities (six Greek, one Spanish). Statistical analysis confirmed the structure and factor invariance of the TEGEP across country and between sexes showing evidence that gender equality self-efficacy level is only moderate and that perceived competence in gender knowledge was significantly higher in Greek than in Spanish STEM student teachers, while the latter felt more competent than the Greek in developing values and attitudes in regards to gender. The study provides a cross-validated instrument to measure gender equality self-efficacy in STEM teacher education and evaluate sustainable changes after planned interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Disaster; Vulnerability; Women; Gender; Disaster Risk Reduction; Bangladesh
Online: 5 July 2021 (09:39:48 CEST)
This paper aims to delve into how gender dimensions observed before, during and after a disaster, have been addressed in two internationally recognised frameworks developed for reducing risks of disasters: Hyogo Framework Action (2005-2015) and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). Building on a systematic review, we evaluate 33 scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, including book chapters and websites in areas of gender, disaster risk reduction and vulnerability. This study documents a comparative picture of these two frameworks and shows the practical implications of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) by addressing women’s empowerment in the light of their active participation in disaster risk reduction process. The findings of the study suggest that the frameworks have discussed the reduction of women’s socioeconomic vulnerabilities, as well as encouraged their empowerment. Comparing the two frameworks, it appears in the current study that there has been a significant gap in the existing literature that does not explicitly document comparing and contrasting features of a gender lens in the policy documents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0330.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Brain; Neuroimaging; Transgender; Transsexual; Gender Identity; Homosexual; Heterosexual
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:14:11 CEST)
This review systematically explored structural, functional, and metabolic features of the cisgender brain compared with the transgender brain before hormonal treatment and the heterosexual brain compared to the homosexual brain from the analysis of the neuroimaging literature up to 2018, and identified and discussed subsequent studies published up to March 2021. Our main aim was to help identifying neuroradiological brain features that have been related to human sexuality to contribute to the understanding of the biological elements involved in gender identity and sexual orientation. We analyze 39 studies on gender identity and 24 on sexual orientation. Our results suggest that some neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neurometabolic features in transgender individuals resemble those of their experienced gender despite the majority resembling those from their natal sex. In homosexual individuals the majority resemble those of their same sex heterosexual population rather than their opposite sex heterosexual population. However, it is always difficult to interpret findings with non-invasive neuroimaging. Given the gross nature of these measures, it is possible that more differences too subtle to measure with available tools yet contributing to gender identity and sexual orientation could be found. Conflicting results contributed to the difficulty of identifying specific brain features which consistently differ between cisgender and transgender or between heterosexual and homosexual groups. The small number of studies, the small-to-moderate sample size of each study, and the heterogeneity of the investigations made it impossible to meta-analyze all the data extracted. Further studies are necessary to increase the understanding of the neurological substrates of human sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0274.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual harassment; mobbing; football referee; gender inequality; sport
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:27:35 CET)
Inequalities between men and women in the workplace are reflected in professional sports, specifically in football refereeing. This phenomenon sometimes becomes sexual harassment, since it is a stereotypically considered male profession, in which women are a minority. In order to measure that behaviour, it is necessary to count on valid and reliable tools. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the factorial structure and the discriminant and convergent validity of the ‘sexual experiences questionnaire’, version of the Department of Defence (SEQ-DoD). Eighty-nine male football referees and ninety-four female football referees, with a mean age of 23.30 ± 4.85 years, participated in this studio conducted in Andalusia, Spain. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using the robust maximum-likelihood estimation method. Goodness of fit was assessed and the factorial invariance was calculated to determine the stability of the model. Subsequently, the validity was confirmed. The results corroborated the validity and reliability of the questionnaire adapted to the population studied. Therefore it can be used as a research instrument.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Confirmed cases, case fatality rate, province, age, gender.
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:24:55 CEST)
The initial outbreak of COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan (China) during the latter part of December 2019. Indonesia has the fourth-largest population globally and reported the country’s first case of the virus on 2nd March 2020. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in addition to several neighbouring provinces and educational institutions within the region began questioning the Indonesian government upon the initial case reported. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia during March 2020. The data were collected from Indonesian government databases and non-government organisations (NGOs). The data were analysed using Microsoft Office 2019 (Excel) and Adobe Illustrator 2017 software, was used in drawing the map depicting the distribution of COVID-19 in Indonesia. As at 31st March 2020, a total of 1,528 people in Indonesia have been infected by COVID-19, in addition to 136 mortalities (CFR of 8.9%). Jakarta, as the principal capital of Indonesia, quickly has become the epicentre of the virus since this period. Most patient cases were attributed to those aged between 31 and 70 years (72.64%), with male patients (64.93%) representing the highest incidence of cases compared to female patients (35.07%). The number of ventilating machines was 3,326, with hospital numbers at 859. The distribution of cases depicting COVID-19 was mainly seen in urban areas compared to rural areas. Males compared to females, are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, including those aged below 30, between 30 and 60 or above. Indonesia also has the highest case fatality rate (CFR) with respect to mortalities in Southeast Asia and has the second-highest CFR globally. Similarly, while the number of ventilator machines as at 31st March 2020 were sufficient in meeting the growing number of COVID-19 cases in the country, it is possible that the government may need to increase the number of ventilators if the cases continue to escalate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0139.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: organizational commitment; academic staff; gender; level of education
Online: 11 April 2019 (10:27:55 CEST)
Academic staffs’ organizational commitment has been a critical issue to determine work performance for successes of University, as well as, to keep its Academic staffs motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been investigated so as to draw attention for enhancement of effective work performance and success. The main objective of this study was to assess academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in Haramaya University. The study also investigated whether significant differences exist in academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in reference to their gender and level of education. Researchers used cross-sectional research design. Primary and secondary data sources were used to study the problem. A commitment scale questionnaire was used to collect data from 275 participants who were selected from 877 target population of the study using stratified sampling technique; furthermore, focus group discussion and document review were also used to triangulate the data. The quantitative data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics; the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. The study revealed that academic staffs of the university have moderate level organizational commitment. This implies relatively no more expected effective work performance for success of the institution; In addition, there were relative implications of turnover, turnover intention, absenteeism, and demotivation among staffs. The study further revealed that although there is no significance difference in employees’ level of commitment with reference to gender, their level of organizational commitment was significantly different in reference to level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0149.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Leadership, Women, Women Clergy, Black, Religion and Gender.
Online: 8 October 2018 (13:57:05 CEST)
Despite the increase of seminary training, Black clergywomen continuously undergo subjugation, degradation, and humiliation in ministry leadership due to gender and race bias (Leslie, 2013) by clergymen. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that examined the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership and how these clergywomen ascribed meaning to their experiences. The two primary research questions were, “What are the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” and “How do Black clergywomen attribute meaning to their experiences regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” The results of the study indicated that bias of gender and inequality exists among clergymen; however, the Black clergywomen learned to embrace the experiences and learned from them. The conclusion of this article includes a discussion regarding practical implications of the education of clergy; and the re-evaluation of the perception of Black clergywomen and their experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Black clergywomen pertaining to challenges in clergy leadership and to explore how Black clergywomen attributed meaning to their experiences regarding challenges in ministry leadership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0277.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: gender; leadership; women in top management; career management, Chile
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:48:06 CEST)
The issue of women’s participation in top management and boardroom positions has received increasing attention in the academic literature and the press. However, the pace of advancement for women managers and directors continues to be slow and uneven. The novel framework of this study organizes the factors at the individual, organizational and public policy level that affect both career persistence and the advancement of women in top management positions; namely, factors affecting 1) career persistence (staying at the organization) and 2) career advancement or mobility (getting promoted within the organization). In the study location, Chile, only 32 percent of women “persist”, or have a career without interruptions, mainly due to issues with work–family integration and organizational environments with opaque and challenging working conditions. Women who “advanced” in their professional careers represent 30 percent of high management positions in the public sector and 18 percent in the private sector. Only 3 percent of general managers in Chile are women. Women in Chile have limited access and are still not integrated into business power networks. Our findings will enlighten business leaders and public policy-makers interested in designing organizations that retain and promote talented women in top positions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0047.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychopathy; Machiavellianism; parental style; gender differences; socialization theories
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:23:37 CEST)
Recent findings support an association between childhood maltreatment and the presence of elevated psychopathic traits in adulthood. Using a community sample recruited online (N = 210), we sought to (1) confirm the relationship between childhood traumas and psychopathic traits, and (2) investigate the role of parenting styles in psychopathic traits. Consistent with our predictions, we found an association between all types of childhood traumas and disinhibition. Age and gender moderated the relations between psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatments. Parental rejection and overprotection were positively correlated with the presence of psychopathic traits, while parental emotional warmth was negative correlated. Although our results converge with previous findings, the strength of the correlations observed was not as compelling as in research on undergraduate students. We discuss the numerous interpretations for our findings, and highlight the limitations of research in the field of psychopathy and childhood trauma in the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0020.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Gender Roles; Household Production; Telecommuting; Teleworking; Well-Being
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:43:32 CET)
This study examines the relationship between teleworking, gender roles and happiness of couples using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the Understanding Society Survey (USS) during the period 1991-2012. Various approaches are followed, including Probit-adapted fixed effects, multinomial Logit and Instrumental variables (IV). The results support that both men and women who are teleworkers spend more time on housework, while teleworking increases the probability that the household chores examined in this study, such as cooking, cleaning ironing and childcare, will be shared relatively to those who are non-teleworkers. In addition, women are happier when they or their spouse is teleworker, as well as, both men and women are happier when they state that the specific household chores are shared. Thus, women teleworkers may be happier because they can face the family demands and share the household chores with their spouse, increasing their fairness belief about the household division allocation and improving their well-being, expressed by happiness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0709.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: invasion sport; gender; primary school; sport experience; structural equation
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:03:41 CEST)
The satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads students to engage in a sport modality on their own initiative. In the Spanish public educational system, mixed and heterogeneous, the gender and sport experience of students influence the teaching and motivation of invasion sports. This study investigated whether students' gender and sport experience, and method influence the psychological variables (basic psychological needs and sport adherence) when teaching school soccer and basketball. Furthermore, correlations were calculated between these psychological variables. The study involved 165 fifth and sixth grade students (age, 11.27 ± 0.68 years old) from several Spanish state schools in the same autonomous community. A non-random convenience sample was used. The needs for autonomy, perceived competence and social relationships were measured using the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Exercise Scale. Sport adherence was measured using the Measure of Intentionality to be Physically Active. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to analyze the psychometric properties of the scales. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. There were significant differences in the needs for autonomy and perceived competence according to the students’ gender (boys > girls). Attending to sport adherence, there were also significant differences according to the students’ gender (boys > girls) and sport experience (experienced students > inexperienced students). Likewise, a regression analysis (structural equation model) revealed that the autonomy need showed low association with sport adherence. Higher perceived competence (β = 0.52) and social relationships (β = 0.36) were associated with greater adherence to sport (R2 = 0.65). Increased sport adherence will have health benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; depression; inflammation; ecological analysis; climate; gender
Online: 29 November 2022 (10:12:54 CET)
Several studies have identified a relationship between air pollution and depression, particularly in relation to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. However, the strength of this association appears to be moderated by variables such as age, gender, genetic vulnerability, physical activity and climatic conditions, and has not been assessed at a cross-national level to date. The current study examines the association between the prevalence of depression in each country, based on the most recent Global Burden of Disease Study data, and the average national level of PM2.5 based on the World Health Organization’s database. The observed associations were adjusted for age, gender, level of physical activity, income, education, population density, climate, and type of depression. It was observed that there was a modest but significant positive correlation between PM2.5 level and the prevalence of depression even after adjusting for the above confounders. This association was more marked above a certain threshold and applied chiefly to major depressive episodes. These findings are of significant public health importance in terms of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the population-level burden of depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; gender role; sex differences
Online: 4 August 2021 (15:30:46 CEST)
Background: from December 2019 and the spreading of syndemics, a lot of medical centers reg-istered data about their patients. In Italy, the most relevant quantity of patients was hospitalized in internal medicine wards. Methods: In this observational, retrospective cross-sectional study, all data of the COVID-19 patients, admitted Latio hospitals, from March 01 to December 31, 2020, were collected and their Epidemiological data, demographics, signs and symptoms on admission, comorbidities, laboratory findings, chest radiography and CT findings, treatment received and mortality rate were analyzed by gender to find any differences of gravity of disease. Clinician details were registered on database (one for every hospital). Cost analysis was performed by length of stay and antiviral drugs use, using point of view of Italian Healthcare System. Results: 2256 patients with mean age of 71.01 ± 28.02 years were included. For men, frequency of hyper-tension, COPD, use of oxygen therapy, Tocilizumab were significantly higher and epidemiolog-ical link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. The gender difference about hospi-talization was one day more for man. No strong significant difference by gender in the death rate was observed. Considering antiviral drugs and hospitalization, a man costs €1000 more than woman. Conclusions: In male patients, hypertension and COPD were observed more frequently and the epidemiological link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. In female sub-jects, the epidemiological link was related to Hospital and we observed significantly higher atypical chest-X ray. Tocilizumab, oxygen therapy and antiviral drugs were prescribed more in male subjects. No differences by gender we report in other treatments and outcomes. Future studies should be analyzed to get a more comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 by gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Self-Determination Theory; Motivation; Tablet; Gender
Online: 7 May 2021 (08:12:53 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 4, 5 and 9 are related to the quality of education, gender equality and the use of new technologies. It is important to bear in mind that a major part of the success of education has to do with students' motivation, which is closely connected to the use of technologies in the classroom. For this reason, a study was carried out with 131 students aged 12 and 13, 58 girls and 73 boys, who use a tablet in their Science classes. The purpose of the study was to determine, based on the Self Determination Theory, the level of intrinsic motivation of those adolescents towards the use of tablets in the classroom. The study measured the interest they have in the tasks and the value they assign to said tasks, as well as their perception of their competence in using tablets. The results reveal that students' motivation is high without significant differences between girls and boys when technological resources are included in teaching-learning processes. This is reflected by the improvement of their academic performance. It is thus possible to state that SDGs 4, 5 and 9 can be achieved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Transsexualism, Gender Identity Dysphoria, Puberty Withdrawal, Estrogens, Antiandrogens, Testosterone.
Online: 4 March 2021 (17:14:28 CET)
Gender Identity Dysphoria (GID) is a condition characterized by a strong and persistent identification with the opposite sex. These people consider themselves victims of a sort of biological accident: "a soul in a wrong body". There are numerous theories on the origin of transsexualism: genetic, hormonal and psychological causes have been hypothesized, but those currently most accredited are the neuroanatomical ones. The cornerstones of hormone conversion therapy (Gender Affirming Hormone Therapy, GAHT) are feminizing hormones for transgender women (MtFs) and virilizing for transgender males (FtMs). GID can be present among adolescents and older people. For adolescents is now accepted reversible treatment of puberty withdrawal with hormones that stops the progression of pubertal development in the biological direction not accepted; for elderly people is suggested GAHT in reduced doses. Physicians should consider and discuss with people with GID about fertility preservation, general and cancer risks. We present also data of 127 transsexual patients enrolled at the Garibaldi-Nesima Andrology Clinic in Catania (Italy) from 2003 to 2020. To optimize the conversion treatment with sex hormones, transsexuals require long-term follow-up. GAHT must be performed by a doctor who is familiar with these problems. Therefore, the “do-it-yourself” trend and the lack of medical and laboratory checks over time should be absolutely discouraged. Before proceeding with the surgical sex reassignment, it is recommended to refer to an endocrinologist and psychologist or psychiatrist for a period of 2-3 years. The transition surgical conclusion process must be practiced by a quality surgical team.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Negative life events; Suicidal ideation; Suicidalogy; Adolescents; Gender difference
Online: 4 March 2021 (15:56:04 CET)
Background: We attempted to find if there were gender differences in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents, then analyze the relationship between different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among these young students. Methods: Based on the data from 6 middle-schools and 3 universities in 3 cities of Western China, the gender difference in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation and their related factors were investigated and analyzed in the study. Results: Gender differences were found during different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation; Negative life events could predict the intensity of Suicidal ideation by gender, to some specific types. Conclusions: Negative life events were proved to be risk factors of adolescents’ Suicidal ideation regardless of different gender stereotypes, but the specific classification of negative life events which had significant impact on adolescents’ Suicidal ideation also indicated significant gender divisions. For males, negative life events of punishment and adaptation had a significant and boosting impact on their Suicidal ideation, the higher the scores of punishment and adaptation negative life events had, the greater intensity of male adolescents were to have Suicidal ideation. Thus, the above two types of negative life events may be the main stressors predicting male adolescents' Suicidal ideation; For females, in addition to punishment, other types of negative life events all had significant impacts on their Suicidal ideation, which can be treated as the main stressors to trigger female adolescents' Suicidal ideation; Additionally, parents’ marital status of remarriage and divorce were proved to be significant indicators to adolescents’ Suicidal ideation, the age variable was proved to be strongly correlated with Suicidal ideation among female adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: academic institution; career progression; gender imbalance; glass ceiling; professionals
Online: 17 February 2021 (13:30:25 CET)
Compared to their men counterparts, women do not rapidly climb up the leadership ladder due to a glass ceiling obstacle. This study aims to explore the inhibiting factors demotivating Africa women's leadership pursuit in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). A qualitative approach was adopted using online open-ended questions to seek narratives from African women leaders on their roles and experiences of a STEM career. Data were collected using a non-probability, purposive sample of African women leaders in STEM in African research institutes and universities. Forty-two women in leadership positions in 12 African countries participated in the study, which was content analyzed, seeking patterns and themes to explore the narratives. A common thread exists in the tone and life experiences of the African women leaders in STEM. Scholarship, supportive organizational structure, commitment, hard work, and tenacity were all experienced as enablers of the career path process and their attained positions. The education level contributed to a strong leadership position. Women experience less acceptance than males in STEM leadership as the organizational culture still devalues women in leadership positions in several African countries. The study's contribution, the limitations, recommendations, and managerial implications are discussed, with suggestions for further research are made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0141.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tourist perception; tourist motivation; tourist satisfaction; gender; segmentation; Cordoba
Online: 6 August 2020 (09:33:47 CEST)
The cultural and historical heritage of a city is a major resource to attract tourists. Therefore, reaching out to perceive and identify the characteristics of persons visiting a locality attracted by their property is relevant for the purpose of better meeting their expectations and needs. This research focuses on knowing the perceptions, motivations and satisfaction of women visiting Cordoba (Spain). Thus, on the basis of the questionnaire carried out on women visiting Cordoba during the months of June and November 2019, a statistical analysis has been made. Using various multivalent case-grouping techniques, tourist segments with similar perceptions of cultural heritage have been detected. Moreover, non-parametric statistical techniques have showed up significant differences between the valuations obtained in the various segments. This analysis has exposed a segment of women who, known as absorbent tourists, are characterized by the high cultural motivation to visit the city of Cordoba linked to the heritage they have visited. The conclusions obtained should be useful in adjusting the city's tourist supply to the specific demand of a population sector such as women visiting the city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Firewood; Forest dependence; Gender; Household income; Livelihoods; Wealth status
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:56:38 CEST)
Rural households across developing countries rely on diversified sources of income and forest resource play important role in this regard. This study is designed with the objectives of assessing the contribution of forests to annual income of rural households and identifying its determinants with the case of Essera woreda forest in western Ethiopia. It also examined the gender dimensions of forest income and how this income varies with the wealth status of households key informants interview focus group discussion and household based questionnaire survey were used to collect data. On average income from crop production accounted for (40.7%) of the total annual household income. Forest income is second in importance contributing (32.6%), income from livestock off and non-farm activities and woodlots accounted for (13.6%), (11.4%) and (1.7%) of the total household income respectively. Firewood is the most used forest product and constituted the largest proportion (79%) of the total forest income. Forest income is more important for poor households (47.3%) than for medium (30.5%) or rich (20.2%) households. It is also more important for female headed households (58.2%) than for male headed households (29%). The gender dimension of forest income is also important within the household. Female members generated about four times more forest income (77% of the household forest income) than male members (23%). Policy to promote new forest management arrangement such as participatory forest management (PFM) needs to take in to account the major forest users and the types of products they depend on and be accompanied with other poverty reduction measures so that improved forest conservation outcome will not have negative consequences on local livelihoods particularly on poor and women who depend most on the forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0074.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: VR; aging effect; gender difference; control device; wayfinding strategy
Online: 5 May 2020 (11:32:12 CEST)
The application of Virtual Reality in a driving simulation is not novel, yet little is known about the use of this technology by senior populations. The effects of age, sex, control device (joystick or handlebar), and task type on wayfinding proficiency using a virtual reality (VR) driving simulation were explored. The driving experimental model involved 96 randomly recruited participants, including 48 young people and 48 seniors (split evenly by gender in each group). The experimental results and statistical analyses indicate that in a VR driving scenario task type significantly affected VR driving performance. Navigational scores were significantly higher for the straight (easy) task than for the curved (difficult) task. The aging effect was the main reason for significant and interacting effects of sex and control device. It was found that interactions between age and sex difference indicated that the young group exhibited better wayfinding performance than the senior group, and in the young group males had better performance than females. Similarly, interactions between age and control device indicated that the handlebar control device type resulted in better performance than the joystick device in the young group, but no difference was found in the senior group due to age or learning effects. Findings provide an understanding of the evaluation of the interface designs of navigational support systems, taking into consideration any effects of age, sex, control device, and task type within three-dimensional VR games and driving systems. With a VR driving simulator, seniors can test drive inaccessible products, such as electric bicycles or cars, using a computer at home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: communication skills; standardized patients; gender; checklist; competence assessment; OSCE
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:22:49 CEST)
Background: The present study analyzes the evaluation of communication skills by standardized patients (SPs) and medical evaluators (Es) in an OSCE setting. Methods: The OSCE involved 189 sixth-year medical students, as well as 34 SPs and 63 Es. Communications skills were evaluated in 8 stations, simultaneously by SPs and Es. The SPs were actors who had been trained in the clinical case and who acted in accordance with a standardized script in a simulated clinical situation. The evaluators, also standardized, were Resident Doctors or staff Doctors from the Hospital Services involved. Results: The global scores awarded to students for communication skills were very similar in both groups, although the score awarded by Es was significantly higher, and a direct relationship was also observed between the mean scores awarded by both groups. Evaluators awarded significantly higher scores than SPs in 7 out of the 10 items on the checklist. Female medical students also scored significantly higher than their male counterparts in many items, including external appearance, listening, cordiality, optimism, interest, expression and empathy. Conclusions: Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: gender; nonbinary; cystic fibrosis; embodiment; agender identities; identity negotiation
Online: 24 January 2019 (11:42:42 CET)
In this manuscript, I build and expand on prior work by myself (Author 2016) and others exploring the dynamics of embodiment among people with chronic health conditions. Specifically, I critically investigate the intersecting social and medical elements of responses to bodies perceived as too thin and otherwise lacking in physical ability, using my own experiences of living and aging with cystic fibrosis (CF) as a case example. In these explorations, I center gendered identity and its intersection with disabling physical illness. I do so by using my own lived experiences as autoethnographic anchor points to guide critical review of key concepts from the nexus of these two content areas. I focus throughout on exploring how others’ reactions to a frail-looking body often constitute a form of forced gendering via the narratives people attempt to construct for why a person’s body appears that way. The title of the manuscript supports this framework by referencing three cornerstones of patient experience in the CF community: the general trend of patients having salty skin due to the pathology of the disease, a prior embodiment project called Salty Girls (Pettigrew 2012) that engages this idea, and the more abstract concept of “saltiness” in describing the grit marginalized people display in responding to microaggressions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: attentional functions; primary school; KiTAP; healthy children; gender; delays
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:25:44 CET)
This research revealed the children with difficulties in attentional functions in healthy children attending primary school and aimed to identify the possible socio-demographic factors such as child’s age, gender and school’s grade that could influence attentive performance. The participants were 105 children aged 6-10 years (M age=8.6; SD=1.04), 57 females, attending primary schools. Family economic condition attested mostly at a medium level (63.5%) and parents had more frequently 13 years of schooling. The computerized test KiTAP was administered to children to assess attentional functions. Results showed higher frequency of omissions and false alarms and a reduced speed in Alertness, Go/No go and Sustained Attention tasks comparing to Italian norms. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were run with school grade, gender and current age as independent variables and mean reaction times (and standard deviation), number of omissions and of false alarms as dependent ones. Results showed male gender and attending a lower primary school grade impacting on lower attentional performance in several subtests. Females showed the best performances in distractibility and impulsive reaction tendencies tests, while higher school grade positively influenced the divided and sustained attention. These results could be useful to identify children with major attentional difficulties and some recommendations for futures studies and implement attention empowerment programmes were proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer science; tertiary education; course selection; performance; gender gap
Online: 26 December 2017 (02:30:21 CET)
The aim of the present study is to investigate both the performance and preferences of males and females Computer Science (CS) graduates. In order to attain the above goal, a quantitative case study was conducted regarding 89 degrees, acquired from 2006 to 2012, from the Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Greece. The analysis of the data revealed that in terms of performance, no significant differences between the mean grades of males and females exist, in almost most of the courses included in the curriculum of the aforementioned CS department. Any statistically significant differences in performances were present in almost equal number of courses in favor of males and females. It seems also, that females performed better in the courses they selected more than males. Regarding preferences, in CS courses, it seems that gender differences are existent. Males preferred more than females did core programming courses and advanced topics of Software Systems, computer networks, computer engineering, robotics and mathematics, whereas females preferred more the study of algorithms and security issues, computer fractals, data management, computer architecture, and mobile communication. In addition, females preferred courses in reference with humanities and social sciences, CS terminology, and career opportunities. Yet, females did not select any of programming lab-based courses, computer engineering, computer network issues and robotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: fashion trendsetting; creativity; pro-environmental behaviors; gender; Korea; U.S.
Online: 1 October 2017 (06:00:21 CEST)
According to Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions, cultures differ in cultural values and norms; values and norms that may influence differences in trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Further, because men and women have been socialized within particular cultures, gender differences may exist in trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Trendsetters have characteristics that are interrelated with creative traits and behaviors, perhaps inclining them to endorse pro-environmental behaviors. However, the interrelationships among these variables remain unexplored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine these three variables among college students in South Korea and the United States, specifically looking at cultural and gender differences. Participants were 225 Korean college students and 221 U.S. college students. Questionnaires included demographic items and scales measuring trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha reliability, MANOVA, ANOVA and SNK posthoc test. Results show that U.S. (vs Korean) students indicated greater trendsetting and creative traits and behaviors but not greater pro-environmental behaviors. Fashion trendsetting groups in both Korea and the U.S. differed in creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors. Among Korean trendsetting groups, reluctant adopters scored lowest on creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors. Among U.S. trendsetting groups, trendsetters scored highest on creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors; reluctant adopters scored lowest on pro-environmental behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are provided for researchers and marketers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal Depression; Attachment Style; Coping Strategies; Gender Medicine; Women Health
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:42:26 CEST)
Abstract Peripartum depression (PPD) is a major complication of pregnancy and many risk factors have been associated with its development, including dysfunctional coping strategies and insecure attachment styles, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between women’s attachment style and PPD in pregnancy, and one week after childbirth, in a large cohort of women. We hypothesized that the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and PPD would be mediated by use of maladaptive coping strategies. The assessment instruments were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE), Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR). The results indicated that the effect of insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant attachment) on antepartum depressive symptomatology was partially mediated by dysfunctional coping styles. Anxious attachment has also an indirect significant effect on postpartum depression through emotional coping; however, avoidant attachment does not seem to be significantly related to postpartum depression. Our findings revealed that not only it is important to consider attachment in understanding PPD but also that coping plays an important role in these relationships. These findings would help a preventive coping-based intervention strategy to enhance the capacity of women with insecure attachment styles to use more adaptive coping during and after pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: gender; modern thought; sex; capitalism; standardization; eugenics; postmodern thought; sexuality
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:42:07 CEST)
A presently ubiquitous idea, how gender is defined remains deeply indebted to modern thought, depending on the concept of sex as its reference point. Originating with practices arising with capitalism, modern thought’s concept of sex was enhanced with the search for the norm regarding standardization, then further refined through the research program of eugenics. Gender, in contrast to sex, has its roots in sexual practice changes from the second half of the twentieth century onward, developed in association with 1980s postmodern thought. The presuppositions of the two concepts differ radically. Understanding the difference between sex and gender matters because gender is now more than a critique of sex—it’s an idea accepted and understood in popular culture and affects how people interpret their sexuality. This review examines the foundations of modern and postmodern thought then focuses on sex and gender with respect to their history within these modes of thought. The conclusion, pointing to future research, is that a further reformulation of sexuality will be required for gender, as a postmodern idea, to truly separate itself from the presumptions of sex as a modern concept, permitting individuals to express their sexuality as they choose without negative social and psychological repercussions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: PageRank; gender inequality; citation impact; scientific research; research productivity; scientometrics
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:02:12 CEST)
The article's purpose is a citation analysis of the impact of scientific publications by authors of different gender compositions. The PageRank method was chosen to calculate the citation impact of scientific publications, and the citation has also estimated the impact of scientific publications based on the number of citations. The normalized citation impact of scientific publications is calculated according to nine subsets of scientific publications that correspond to patterns of different gender compositions of authors. Also, these estimates were calculated for each country with which the authors of the publications are affiliated. The Citation database was chosen for the scientometric analysis Network Dataset ( ver . 13). The dataset includes more than 5 million scientific publications and 48 million citations. The main subject areas of scientific publications in this database are computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, engineering, etc. The results indicate that articles with a predominantly male composition are cited more than articles with a mixed or female composition of authors in this direction. Analysis of advantages in dynamics indicates that in the last decade for developed countries, there has been a decrease in the connection between the citation impact of scientific publications and the gender composition of their authors. However, the obtained results still confirm the presence of gender inequality in science, which may be related to socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, natural homophily, and other factors that contribute to the appearance of gender gaps. An essential consequence of overcoming these gaps, including in science, is ensuring the rights of people in all their diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Computed tomography, Thymus Gland, Dog, Age, Gender, Breed, Body Fat
Online: 4 May 2023 (02:59:54 CEST)
: Background: The thymus gland is the first lymphoid organ formed to regulate a newborn's immunity. It reaches its maximum size during puberty, after which it undergoes an atrophic procedure called involution, but its ability to grow again in response to some stresses, such as infections, neoplasia, surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is maintained. There is not any comprehensive study on computed tomographic features of thymus gland in dogs. So, the goal of the present study is to achieve some information about thymus gland using computed tomography as a non-invasive method. Methods: One hundred and fifty dogs classified in 5 age groups and 2 breed groups were entered to this study and the thymus gland was evaluated using 2-slice computed tomography machine. The inclusion criteria for the present study were having normal complete blood count, plain and post-contrast CT scan examination of thoracic region and no history of neoplasia, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The visibility, density, enhancement, grade, size, volume, shape, borders and lateralization of the thymus were evaluated and statistical analysis were performed. The effect of obesity on thymic grade and volume were also investigated. Results: The visibility, density, dorsal length, volume and grade decreased with increasing age. The thymic shape and lateralization were mostly wedge-shaped and left sided respectively. The borders became concave with aging and increasing body fat content caused to increase fatty degeneration of thymus. Conclusions: Declining of thymic density, grade, size and volume with aging was related to thymic involution and fatty degeneration was accelerated by increasing body fat content. Females and Males were different only in thymic shape and small and large breeds were different only in thymic volume. The thymus was visible in some geriatric dogs with no underlying disease. We hope that the present work can be used by radiologists in reading thoracic computed tomography but investigation of thymic characteristics in dogs with neoplasia and history of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and thoracic surgeries can complete this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0626.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sexism; social networks; adolescence; digital gender gap, emotional well-being
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:01:04 CEST)
Despite gender equality being present in the social and political sphere, we still encounter aspects that are characteristic of sexism. Such aspects impact upon gender inequality and different types of violence towards women. The present article aims to examine the behaviour of adolescents from Huelva with regards to ambivalent sexism towards women on social networks and their influence on health. Further, we seek to uncover adolescent’s perceptions with regards to gender differences in the use of social networks, the relationship between sexism and women's emotional well-being was observed. The study sample was formed by young people aged between 14 and 16 years who were residing in rural and urban zones in the south of Spain. A mixed methods approach was taken. At a quantitative level, a sample of 400 young people was recruited. These were administered a questionnaire about sexism which was composed of two scales and has been validated at a national and international level. At a qualitative level, the study counted on 33 young people who participated in in-depth discussions via interviews and discussion groups. The results showed that sexism emerges in adolescence in the analysed sample from the south of Spain. This favoured a digital gender gap and was reinforced through social networks such as Instagram and Snapchat. Rising awareness and a critical view of the aforementioned sexism was shown on the behalf of females, particularly those from urban backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Down's Syndrome; perception; quality of life; sport; age; gender; scale
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:17:41 CET)
The hypothesis posed was whether participation in LaLiga Genuine Santander (competitive football) influenced the quality of life (QL) of the people who participated in it, since their perception of themselves is enhanced by all the aformentioned factors (self-determination, social inclusion, emotional well-being, physical well-being, material well-being, rights, personal development, interpersonal relationships). The objective was to evaluate the QL of people with Down's Syndrome (DS) using their self-perception (n=39) and the perception of the informants (family members, teachers) (n=39). The KidsLife-Down Scale, with a few modifications was used. In general, differences of opinion between the subgroups of participants with DS and informants showed that results were higher in terms of perception for participants in the DS subgroup. Scores for all variables were higher for those participants with DS who said they did engage in practicing competitive football. Despite the perception of informants provides a great deal of information regarding the QL of participants with DS, the latter should be involved in the evaluation process and their self perceptions taken into account. Our research shows that participation in the league modifies the perceptions of the participants with Down's Syndrome regarding their quality of life. However, these perceptions are not shared by the informants.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: social intervention; COVID-19; health policy; public health; age; gender
Online: 2 May 2020 (12:04:58 CEST)
Many governments particularly in Europe are designing social interventions for the first post COVID-19 emergency phase. Definition of a ‘best practice’ for restriction release is urgent. Although data uncertainty generate difficulties, we believe near term analysis must shift from attempting to understand the numerous ‘unknowns’ to the clarification and interpretation of the few ‘knowns’, to create stepping stones towards rapid evidence-based decision making.Here, open access data on COVID-19 severity in three European countries were analyzed. Spain’s data were more comprehensive than those from Italy and Germany. Overall, COVID-19 severity shows a remarkable nonlinear growth with age that is significantly higher in adult males. Hence, age-adaptive and gender-balanced social interventions might represent efficient repopulation options for public health policymakers. Furthermore, we urge wider governmental effort for open access to relevant data. Their analysis will allow consolidation of existing trends, validation of key observations and thus facilitation of timely decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0051.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Wuhan 2019-nCov; ACE2; expression; susceptibility; race; age; gender; smoking; single cell
Online: 2 March 2020 (01:38:52 CET)
In current severe global emergency situation of 2019-nCov outbreak, it is imperative to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for effective protection and care. Recently, studies found that 2019-nCov and SARS-nCov share the same receptor, ACE2. In this study, we analyzed five large-scale bulk transcriptomic datasets of normal lung tissue and two single-cell transcriptomic datasets to investigate the disparities related to race, age, gender and smoking status in ACE2 gene expression and its distribution among cell types. We didn’t find significant disparities in ACE2 gene expression between racial groups (Asian vs Caucasian), age groups (>60 vs <60) or gender groups (male vs female). However, we observed significantly higher ACE2 gene expression in former smoker’s lung compared to non-smoker’s lung. Also, we found higher ACE2 gene expression in Asian current smokers compared to non-smokers but not in Caucasian current smokers, which may indicate an existence of gene-smoking interaction. In addition, we found that ACE2 gene is expressed in specific cell types related to smoking history and location. In bronchial epithelium, ACE2 is actively expressed in goblet cells of current smokers and club cells of non-smokers. In alveoli, ACE2 is actively expressed in remodelled AT2 cells of former smokers. Together, this study indicates that smokers especially former smokers may be more susceptible to 2019-nCov and have infection paths different with non-smokers. Thus, smoking history may provide valuable information in identifying susceptible population and standardizing treatment regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: child prostitution, global inequality, gender inequality, participatory research, capability approach.
Online: 25 July 2018 (13:08:18 CEST)
This article draws on empirical research seeking to develop more nuanced understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, one of the economically poorest countries in the world, the study goes to the heart of questions of inequality and child protection. With careful attention to ethical considerations, a participatory approach was used to enable 19 girls and young women, whose involvement in prostitution began in childhood, to convey their own experiences and understandings of involvement. Data were collected using a range of methods, chosen by participants to match their abilities and interests. Data analysis and interpretation were aided by reference to the capability approach focussing on questions of human rights and social justice for women and girls. Generating rare insights into participants’ worlds, the research demonstrates how the persistence of deeply embedded cultural values in contexts of extreme poverty serves to sustain gender inequalities, constraining choices for girls and denying them opportunities to lead valued lives. The article ends by considering the theoretical and methodological implications of the study, policy and practice recommendations and opportunities for further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0542.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Epidemiology; Prevention Strategies; Vaccination; Screening; Cervical Cancer; Gender Gap
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:32:32 CEST)
Background and aim: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted, one of the three most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in both males and females, and the most common viral STI. A crucial public health strategy to protect people against HPV is through vaccination, which has shown its effectiveness in preventing HPV related diseases. Presently three types of vaccines are available (bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent) and they all target at least the two most oncogenic virus genotypes (HPV 16, 18). In the past few years, the need to implement vaccination programmes that include all genders has been discussed in order to achieve herd immunity against HPV. To date, only a few countries have included young males in their vaccination programmes, so we aim through this review to provide an overview of the epidemiology of HPV and prevention strategies to prevent it, reporting the latest findings from the scientific literature.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Purplewashing; gender equality; quality of life for women; International Women's Day
Online: 10 March 2022 (02:14:45 CET)
Gender parity, is an important standard to be achieved by a society in which men and women are treated equally. The distinctions in the treatment may arise from psychology, biology, or cultural norms constructed by society. Studies show the different experiences of genders across many areas including health, education, personality, life expectancy, sports, interests, political empowerment, and careers. However, we are still far from reaching the objective, because there are conducts such as gender discrimination and expressions such as the purplewashing. In relation to feminism, purplewashing is used to define a diversity of marketing and political strategies intended at promoting people, companies, associations, and other organizations through an appeal to gender equality: they use only some of the feminist values at their convenience and in its actions, they are not really supportive of gender equality. In this opinion we aimed to address some of the reasons for inequality of opportunities based on gender; purplewashing is described as an expression that takes away the visibility of women's struggle. Additionally, we touch on some actions that promote gender equality in the family, educational, and work environments. Global leaders have an unprecedented opportunity to build gender-sensitive societies and economies. The challenges facing women today are essentially the same as they were a long time ago. It is time to break the bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0247.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: high school baseball; health; heatwave; heatstroke; sustainability; environment; gender difference; Japan
Online: 14 December 2021 (18:35:09 CET)
A summer high school baseball tournament is held every mid-summer in Koshien Stadium. “Koshien Baseball” is very popular in Japan; however, it faces the problem of extremely high temperatures during games. Thus, high school players are threatened by the harsh environment. For this reason, Internet surveys were conducted twice to purposefully engage the same individuals. Then, information on their views regarding the Koshien tournament before and after the provision of information regarding environmental change in Japan was gathered. Using data, this study examined how their views changed after having the information. Compared with the view before, it was found that (1) respondents were more likely to agree that the management rule of the Koshien tournaments should be altered to protect player’s health, and (2) the impact of providing information is larger for female respondents, young people, and highly educated respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0233.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Food security; agriculture; health; Sustainable Development Goals; 2030 agenda; gender studies
Online: 10 August 2021 (12:35:15 CEST)
Since its adoption in September 2015, the 2030 Agenda has laid the foundations for a model of shared prosperity for a sustainable world. We are going through a complicated pandemic that shows profound inequalities affecting our economies, health, and quality of life. For this reason, our aim in this work is to make known the state of the art of scientific research related to inequality, poverty, and climate change and to propose lines of improvement that can contribute to achieving 3 of the 17 SDGs (End poverty-SDG 1-, Reduce inequality-SDG 10-, and Climate action -SDG 13-), proposed in the 2030 Agenda. To do so, we have used a systematic literature review methodology. The results show that poverty, inequality and climate change is a subject that has been little studied and articulated by researchers, with significant differences between the different areas studied. Topics related to sustainability and economics are those with the highest number of publications (51.7%). The rest are distributed among the 12 existing departments. Another relevant finding is that the effects of climate change are more pressing for more vulnerable populations, including impoverished women from rural areas and children from underdeveloped countries. This is a gender and social inequality that has been little addressed in climate change studies. Food security and energy poverty is another under-exploited aspect in this area. According to the results obtained in this work, we consider that the circular economy could improve these indicators, constituting a line of future research. Thus, one of its main objectives is to eliminate negative externalities, specifically existing social inequalities within the current linear economy model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intersectionality; gender equity; Intersectionality Walk; organisational change; inclusion; strategy; STEMM; diversity
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:48:59 CET)
. 1) Background: Intersectionality contests that individuals have multiple characteristics in their identity that cannot be siloed or deemed exclusive to each other. Understanding and utilising an intersectional lens in organisations can increase inclusion of individuals and organisational performance. An educational package known as the Intersectionality Walk (IW) was developed by the authors, piloted, and evaluated in order to break down the commonly held descriptors of diversity silos that fragments inclusion, and to understand how various identity characteristics compound disadvantage. The paper outlines the need to transition from siloed views of diversity to a more intrinsic view of identity to achieve inclusivity. 2) Methods: The IW was developed and trialled with a series of work-based scenarios and realistic multifaceted personas. Data collection occurred pre- and post- IW utilising a mixed methods approach. Responses to Likert scale surveys and open-ended questions were captured and analysed via inductive and ground theory perspectives. 3) Results: An improved awareness and understanding of individual knowledge, reflectivity and positionality relating to intersectionality and intersectional approaches was reported on completion of the IW. Further, responses reported how and why organisations can approach and improve inclusivity via using intersectional approaches. 4) Conclusions: The IW as an educational package has a positive impact and is a key linkage for all employers to build an inclusive culture and to harness the talent of all employees. Further research will occur to measure the implemented change in organisations following the IW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Gender Differences; Tic disorder; Selective Mutism; Trichotillomania; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Aggression
Online: 13 October 2020 (10:45:13 CEST)
Gender differences have been documented in the prevalence of psychological symptoms. Tic disorders and ASD are more common in male clinical samples, while selective mutism and trichotillomania are more common in female clinical samples. In a review of 84 published case studies of Japanese children, this study explores gender differences in the prevalence of four categories of symptoms and expressions made in therapy for tics, selective mutism, trichotillomania, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Case studies were evaluated using both qualitative coding and statistical analysis. The findings were mostly consistent with epidemiological surveys and empirical research on adults. The gender differences in symptom prevalence and their expression can be summarized as differences in more direct aggression for boys versus indirect aggression for girls. The objective and progress in the therapy are to control impulsive energy for boys and to express energy for girls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; gender; transcriptomics; RAS; hydrolase activity; sex-based immunological differences
Online: 23 May 2020 (06:03:25 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at the end of 2019, the clinical presentation of the disease showed a great heterogeneity with a diverse impact between different subpopulations. Emerging evidence from different parts of the world showed significantly poor outcome among males compared to female patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this difference might be a fundamental step for a more effective and targeted response to the outbreak. For that reason, here we try to investigate the molecular basis of the gender variations in mortality rates related to COVID-19 infection. To achieve this, we used our in-house pipeline to process publicly available lung transcriptomic data from 141 females compared to 286 males. After excluding Y specific genes, our results showed a shortlist of 73 genes that are differentially expressed between the two groups. Our results showed downregulation of a group of genes that are involved in the regulation of hydrolase activity including (AGTR1, CHM, DDX3X, FGFR3, SFRP2, and NLRP2), which is also believed to be essential for lung immune response and antimicrobial activity in the lung tissues in males compared to females. In contrast, our results showed an upregulation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays a role in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity modulation. Interestingly, recent reports and experimental animal models highlight an important role of this receptor in SARS-Coronavirus lung damage as well as pulmonary edema, suggesting a possible role of its blockers like losartan and olmesartan as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 infection. Finally, our results also showed a differential expression of different genes that are involved in the immune response including the NLRP2 and PTGDR2, further supporting the notion of the sex-based immunological differences. Taken together, our results provide an initial evidence of the molecular mechanisms that might be involved in the differential outcomes observed between both genders during the COVID-19 outbreak. This might be essential for the discovery of new targets and more precise therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients from different clinical and epidemiological characteristics with the aim of improving their outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education for sustainable leadership; gender equality; competencies; higher education; women managers
Online: 5 September 2019 (02:55:41 CEST)
Education is an imperative key to driving sustainability and gender equity. In addition to addressing well-known female deficiencies in leadership training, it is really important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women to acquire skills, competencies and tools on leadership and to increase their self-perceptions. The purpose of this study is to assess a Women’s Leadership Program for university students. The sample consisted of 50 students enrolled in the program. A mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative methods with a survey were conducted to evaluate the training and the achievement of leadership skills. In the data analysis, a descriptive statistics variance analysis, using a Welch statistic and T2 Dunnett test, was applied. Qualitative research methods were conducted through three focus groups to evaluate personal changes in their own-perceptions and self-confidence. Results suggest that the female students in the program reached a level of leadership knowledge with practical tools for their future. The program inspired them and confirmed changes in their personal capacities or self-confidence, including reflection about facing challenges in the work environment. The findings support the effectiveness of the specific education in breaking two barriers shown by the literature for women to getting a managerial position: lack of training and female self-confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: performance analysis; football; gender differences; LaLiga; technical-tactical behaviour; observational methodology
Online: 4 July 2019 (09:38:22 CEST)
The aim of this study was to identify gender differences in technical-tactical behaviour in football. To this end 68 matches of the first division of the Spanish men’s and women´s league, corresponding to 2016/17 season were analyzed. A comparison of medians was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U-test were conducted as post hoc test and a grouping of the variables through the clustering bootstrapping technique in both groups. We have detected statistically significant differences regarding all accurate passes, in favour of men, as well as a greater number of yellow cards. In female football, a greater number of picking up free balls, interceptions, lost balls, recoveries, challenges and attacks, both positional and counterattacks, are produced. The clustering analysis also allowed that in male football, the circumstance of receiving a red card is closely related to the number of goals conceded and most of the shots on goal are achieved by positional attacks. In women's football, ball possession on own half is closely related to the number of losses. These results could be useful for gender-specific training information for optimal preparation. However, more research is warranted to establish the main gender differences and characterize women's football.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: banana; cassava; potato; sweet potato; gender division-of-labour; decision-making
Online: 3 June 2019 (10:14:15 CEST)
This paper evaluates the determinants of decision making in relation to the production of four crops (banana, cassava, potato and sweet potato). Understanding the division of labour and decision-making in crop management may lead to designing better interventions targeted at improving efficiency in smallholder agriculture. A household quantitative survey with heads of households involving 261 women and 144 men in Burundi and 184 women and 222 men in Rwanda was conducted in 2014. Most of the decisions and labour provision during production of both cash crops (potato and banana) and food crops (sweet potato and cassava) were done jointly by men and women in male-headed households. Higher values for ‘credit access’, ‘land size’ and ‘farming as the main occupation of the household head’ increased the frequency of joint decision-making in male-headed households. A decline in the amount of farm income reduced the participation of men as decision makers. A reduction in total household income and proximity to the market was correlated with joint decision making. Gender norms also contributed to the lower participation of women in both decision-making and labour provision in banana and potato cultivation. Although a large proportion of decisions were made jointly, women perceived that men participate more in decision-making processes within the household during the production of cash crops. Increased participation by women in decision-making will require an active and practical strategy which can encourage adjustments to existing traditional gender norms that recognise men as the main decision-makers at both the household and community levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: behavioral factors; fuzzy analysis; gender; employees’ demographics; organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
Online: 29 May 2019 (15:44:20 CEST)
This paper aims to investigate impact of employees’ gender on OCB as per the employees’ perception in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A convenient sample of 126 employees working in the three main governmental hospitals in north of Jordan has been taken for the purpose of this study. The collected data includes linguistic terms that suffer from uncertainty which, in turn, cannot be dealt with traditional numerical values. The result prove that gender impact on OCB has shown statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) as far as altruism, courtesy, and civic virtue are concerned; and this variable stands in favor of males with the total score of 0.011%. Similarly, as far as the effect of age factor on OCB is concerned, there have been statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) in relation to courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue with the total score of 0.27%. Finally, the results provide a baseline data for further studies which may contribute more significant in the field of OCB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0052.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Burkina Faso, Economic Well-Being, Gender inequality, Literacy status, Sample Selection
Online: 7 March 2018 (09:27:26 CET)
This paper models the factors explaining households members economic well-being in Burkina Faso, with a focus on the relative influence of gender inequality in literacy status. It does so, using data from the 2014 survey on household living conditions and a semi-parametric bi-variate sample selection modeling approach. This approach compared to the classic Heckman two-step estimator is methodologically innovative because it deals simultaneously with non-random sample selection using conventional systems of two equations, non-linear covariates' effects using spline approach, and the non-normal bivariate distribution using copula functions. The graphical results from the Lorenz curves combined with the numerical Atkinson and Gini coefficients suggest that inequality in overall per-capita consumption spending among households headed by literates is higher than that of their illiterate counterparts in 2009 and 2014. However, independently of the head of household’s literacy status, the level of inequality in total economic well-being decreased from 2009 to 2014. Using the poverty indices of Watts, Sen, Foster ( alpha= 1)) we found that poverty among households headed by literates is lower than that of their illiterates counterparts for both years, although overall poverty decreased nationally between 2009 and 2014. The results also show that although the gender inequality in literacy status does not translate into inequalities in non-food wellness, it does however for food-wellness as female headed households have 38.9% less per-capita food consumption spending than their men counterparts. Combining both food and non-food consumption spending, total economic well-being also seems to exhibit gender inequality as female headed households now have relatively 26.7% less combined per-capita consumption spending.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0622.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: aging; aged; sexual and gender minorities; quality of life; stereotyping; social discrimination
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:49:10 CEST)
There is a general lack of research involving older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people. This systematic review aimed to synthesize Japanese and Swedish qualitative research on LGBTQ people aged 60 years or older. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Japanese and Swedish articles, published in English-language journals, were searched across PsychINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases. Additional searches were carried out to include studies written in Japanese or Swedish. There were no papers from Japan, and five from Sweden were reviewed. Four articles were included, including 48 participants aged 60–94 years. We summarized the findings using a deductive thematic synthesis. Two major themes emerged: (a) quality of life, minority joy, and resilience (positive aspects), and (b) experiences of discrimination, stigmatization, and minority stress (negative aspects). The participants described a wish to be acknowledged for their own assets and unique life histories, and to be treated as everyone else. They emphasized the importance of knowledge of LGBTQ issues among nursing staff, so that older LGBTQ people are treated in a competent and affirmative way. The study revealed several important topics for understanding older LGBTQ people’s life circumstances and the severe lack of qualitative studies in Japan and Sweden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sensory-processing sensitivity; depression; agression; emotional intelligence; decision-making style; gender differences
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:07:37 CET)
While the link between Sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) and internalizing symptoms has been well-established, a link to externalizing problems is still to be explored. This study aimed to further examine the relation between SPS and behavioral problems by testing the potential mediating roles of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and decision-making styles. Pathway analyses were conducted on data from 268 community sample participants (Mage= 25.81, SD=2.41, 61.2% females). Results indicated gender differences in the pathway level outcomes of SPS, as well as potential partial mediators in men and women. SPS both directly and via the mediating effects of well-being factor (TEI) and avoidant decision-making influenced depression, regardless of gender. Direct effects on aggression were, however, obtained only in the male sample. Indirect effects of SPS on aggression were found in spontaneous decision-making for men, and in self-control and sociability factors of TEI for women. Directions for future research were discussed. sensory-processing sensitivity, depression, aggression, emotional intelligence, decision-making style, gender differences
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Endocrine disruptors; gender; female; atherosclerosis; Cadmium; Bisphenol A; inflammatory cytokines; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 17 November 2021 (10:53:12 CET)
The number of aged individuals is increasing worldwide, rendering essential the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related alterations, that could facilitate the development of interventions contributing to “successful aging” and improvement of quality of life. Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) include pathologies affecting heart or blood vessels, such as hyperten-sion, peripheral artery disease and coronary heart disease. Indeed, age-associated modifications in body composition, hormonal, nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as a decline in physical activity are all involved in the increased risk of developing atherogenic alterations raising the risk of CVD development. Several factors have been claimed to play a role in the alterations observed in muscle and endothelial cells and leading to increased CVD, such as genetic pattern, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle. Moreover, a difference in the risk of these diseases in women and men has been reported. Interestingly, in the last decades attention has been focused on a potential role of several pollutants which disrupt human health by interfering with hormonal pathways, and more specifically in non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and CVD. This review will focus on the potential alteration induced by Endocrine Disruptors (Eds) in the attempt to characterize a potential role in the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the atheromatic process and CVD progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: exercise; marriage; sedentary behavior; gender; age groups; behavioral risk factors surveillance system
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:44:23 CET)
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the age and sex-related associations between marital status with PA and TV time. We used data from Vigitel, an annual telephone survey started in 2006 in Brazil. We applied a complex sample logistic regression model to estimate the odds for PA and TV time comparing marital statuses according to age and sex subgroups, independent of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, self-assessed poor health, and smoking. Our sample included 561,837 individuals with a TV time > 3 h/day (prevalence = 25.2%) and PA > 150 min/week (prevalence = 35%). Compared to single individuals, married men and women were less likely to watch TV more than 3 h/day in participants > 30 years old. When compared to single, married participants were less likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups. Married women older than 40 years were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week than the single ones, while there were no differences among married men by age group. In conclusion, married individuals are less likely to spend more than 3 hours a day watching TV than single individuals. Single men and women were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups and married women older than 40 years were more likely to do 150 min of PA/week than single women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: feminism; gender; public sphere; the existence of Indonesian women; Simone de Beauvoir
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:48:16 CEST)
The issue of being pro-gender is still a controversial topic to be debated in Indonesian society. However, in the 21st Century, many women have been able to break through barriers and participate in the public sphere. It is a form of self-existence as proposed by Simone de Beauvoir on existentialist feminism. Based on these problems, this study aims to find out and answer questions about how Indonesian women exist in the public sphere in the 21st Century and find out how Indonesian women exist in the public sphere through Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism paradigm. The research method used is descriptive-qualitative through a literature review of 23 journal articles, websites, and data reports with a range of 2019-2021. This study found that based on Simone de Beauvoir's feminist paradigm, Indonesian women in the 21st Century are no longer a figure other than complete. Furthermore, the data collected by the researcher shows that several gender indicators have shown that Indonesian women have been able to occupy public spaces in various aspects. Based on these results, it is hoped that it can provide information about Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism thought and its relevance to the existence of Indonesian women in the public sphere in the 21st Century. However, this research has limitations, those are only about women in Indonesia, and the paradigm of feminism is limited to Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0258.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: accounting profession; women; gender; inequality; glass ceiling; gendered organizations; diversity management strategies
Online: 22 November 2019 (07:54:39 CET)
Considering the increasing number of women entering the accounting profession; it is timely to explore inequalities that still exist; and consider what policy processes continue to forge inequalities between men and women. Through a SLR of accounting and management journals during the period 1994-2017 we assess the different dynamics that have shaped inequalities between men and women, presenting both employee and employer perspectives of professional enhancement. The study is framed around conceptualizations of gendered organizations and highlights how cultural and social practices impact men and women differently. Our study finds there are still arrays of organization practices that have profound gendered effects. Our study shows that there are commonalities in research which include HR practices of recruitment, selection, and advancement; perceptions of women's visibility and invisibility at work; motherhood and childcare responsibilities; and discourses of the glass ceiling that constitute barriers to women's progression. Most importantly we reveal that constraints nowadays are similar to those identified in the 90s. We explored these gendered constructions and suggest relevant HR strategies that can aid women's advancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0047.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Gender Recognition; Speech Signal; Deep Learning; Evolutionary Search; PSO search; Wolf Search
Online: 4 March 2019 (13:42:02 CET)
The speech entailed in human voice comprises essentially para-linguistic information used in many voice-recognition applications. Gender voice-recognition is considered one of the pivotal parts to be detected from a given voice, a task that involves certain complications. In order to distinguish gender from a voice signal, a set of techniques have been employed to determine relevant features to be utilized for building a model from a training set. This model is useful for determining the gender (i.e, male or female) from a voice signal. The contributions are involved in two folds: (i) providing analysis information about well-known voice signal features using a prominent dataset, (ii) studying various machine learning models of different theoretical families to classify the voice gender, and (iii) using three prominent feature selection algorithms to find promisingly optimal features for improving classification models. Experimental results show the importance of sub-features over others, which are vital for enhancing the efficiency of classification models performance. Experimentation reveals that the best recall value is equal to 99.97%; 99.7% of two models of Deep Learning (DL) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) and with feature selection the best recall value is 100% for SVM techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0083.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: urbanism; surrealism; literary devices; maps and plans; violence; harassment; cities; gender; painting; architecture
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:39:27 CET)
The purpose of this study is to analyse the ways of visualization of hidden violence through a map of the city of violence called La Manada City, in its transformation from defensive to artistic strategies. For this analysis, firstly we propose the contextualization of the artwork and its authorship, and later, the research about the artistic and visual resources of the 257 items that make up the map and its guide street, in a sort of rustic hypertext of the emotions linked to the violence in the territory. The main findings of this study demonstrate the strength of the strategy used as a survival method in cases of bullying. As a conclusion, in spite of the therapeutic effects, this work cannot be understood as Art Therapy, but as combat art: it provides an understanding of the emotional city, of the disadvantaged groups that inhabit it, from the most local (as a transcript of the city of Seville) to global and universal effects on community life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Social networking; adolescents; communication; motives of use; social desirability; gender differences; age differences
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:24:06 CET)
The evolution of digital media in adolescents has changed the patterns and motives of use and the impact on their communication choices in their social and family networks. The objectives of this study are to understand how peers communicate adopting a social network (SN) or by voice and their social desirability. After the informant consent signature, the adolescents completed a series of self-report questionnaires on the use of SN, on communication preferences, and on social desirability through online. Most of the adolescents belonged to the 17-19 age group (83.6%) and were female (68.9%). Adolescents spent more than 3 hours/day on Whatsapp and more than 2 hours/day on Instagram, while the use of Facebook was on average only 35 minutes/day. Females used digital media for longer than males. Adolescents aged 17-19 years choose more Facebook and voice modes compared to adolescents aged 14 and 16 years. The alternative modes of Whatsapp and voice were chosen more than the social networks in their communication strategies, especially for negative topics. Motives for use were, in addition to boredom, related to maintaining one's social sphere with peers. Some educative considerations were made based on these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0473.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: mental health; perceived stress; university students; gender differences; COVID-19; post-lockdown; Romania
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:38:11 CEST)
The rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide was accompanied by intense fears, confusion, worries, anger and stress threatening people’s mental health. Unprecedented measures to slow down and prevent the transmission of COVID-19 have had various impacts on the population’s health behaviour and mental health. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the lockdown’s effects on university students’ mental health in Romania. Based on a cross-sectional design, the survey data were collected from a sample of 722 participants (247 males; M = 21.1 years; SD ± 1.73). A path analysis was performed to verify the hypothesised direct and indirect effects included in the multiple mediation model. The findings showed a positive association between stress and boredom proneness, missing daily social interactions, spending more time on phone conversations and the increasing interest in following news about the pandemic. The path analysis revealed an excellent fit between the proposed multiple mediation model and the sample data. Boredom proneness and missing daily social interactions both affected stress, directly and indirectly, through more time spent on phone conversations. In addition, it was found that the increased interest in following news about the pan-demic mediated the relationship between boredom proneness and perceived stress. In terms of gender differences, our findings revealed that female students experienced significantly higher stress levels than male students, perceived to a greater extent the lack of daily social interactions and spent more time on phone conversations. Overall, the findings further extend the empirical evidence on university students’ mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, universities need to organise support programmes focused on developing university students’ coping strategies to maintain their mental health even in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; BNT162b2; antibody, serology; kinetic; age; gender; BMI; blood-group.
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:48:34 CEST)
Background: Little is known about potential confounding factors influencing the humoral response in individuals having received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Methods: Blood samples from 231 subjects were collected before and 14, 28 and 42 days following COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2. Anti-Spike Receptor-Binding-Domain protein (anti-Spike/RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured at each time-point. Impact of age, sex, childbearing age status, hormonal therapy, blood group, body mass index and past-history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed by multivariable analyses. Results and Conclusions: In naïve subjects, the level of anti-Spike/RBD antibodies gradually increased following administration of the first dose to reach the maximal response at day 28 and then plateauing at day 42. In vaccinated subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, the plateau was reached sooner (i.e. at day 14). In the naïve population, age had a significant negative impact on anti-Spike/RBD titers at day 14 and 28 while lower levels were observed for males at day 42, when corrected for other confounding factors. BMI as well as B and AB blood groups had a significant impact in various subgroups on the early response at day 14 but no longer after. No significant confounding factors were highlighted in the previously infected group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Online Safety; Online Risk; Online Behaviors; Gender Disparities; High School Students; Social Media
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:15:59 CET)
In the last decade, readily available electronic devices have created unprecedented opportunities for teens to access a wide variety of information and media – both positive and negative – on the internet. Despite the increasing number of initiatives taking place worldwide intended to assess and mitigate the online risks encountered by children and adolescents, there is still a need for a better understanding of how adolescents use the internet and what consequences they may face. We conducted a cross sectional online survey of a convenience sample of 733 8th and 9th grade students in Utah. The survey contained eight questions regarding students’ exposure to three types of online risk scenarios: content risk, contact risk, and commercial risk. Independent variables included students’ online behaviors, use of social media and private messaging apps, and adult supervision of online activities. Logistic and negative binomial regression models indicated that female gender, social media use, and chatting with strangers were associated with exposure to multiple unsafe online scenarios. Our results provide critical information to practitioners involved in the development of educational initiatives by building a profile of potentially risky online behaviors and allow them to tailor their initiatives to meet the needs of more vulnerable populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19 perception; general well-being; orthopaedic patients; gender; pandemic; socio-economic issues.
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:34:50 CET)
This observational study aims to depict the impact of gender and socio-economic issues on the health status of Italian Orthopaedic patients during the COVID-19 lockdown. An Ad Hoc ques-tionnaire was developed and online administered. The following data were extracted from the questionnaire: age, body mass index (BMI), education level, distance from hospital, orthopaedic disease, concomitant medical comorbidities, living status (with/without cohabitants) and physical activity level (according to Tegner Activity Scale). The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was studied analyzing differences related to the above-mentioned parameters. A significant increase of the call number to general practitioner and to the orthopaedic surgeon was observed during the COVID-lockdown, especially in patients with higher education level. Nonetheless, a reduced compliance in drugs assumption was observed in patients with higher education level during lockdown (p=0.007). Almost all the analyzed items were significantly in-fluenced by the distance between patient’s domicile and the nearest hospital. However, no sig-nificant differences were observed comparing pre-COVID to COVID lockdown. In the present study patients’ gender and education level revealed a significant impact on the social behavior during the COVID lockdown, compared with the pre-COVID period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: FMSTM; functional movement screen; pubescence; maturation; fundamental movement patterns; functional movement; gender difference
Online: 27 November 2020 (12:46:43 CET)
This study aimed to investigate sex differences in the functional movement in the adolescent period. Seven hundred and thirty adolescents (365 boys) aged 16–17 years participated in the study. The participants performed standardized Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) protocol and a t-test was used to examine sex differences in the total functional movement screen score while the chi-square test was used to determine sex differences in the proportion of dysfunctional movement and movement asymmetries within the individual FMS tests. Girls demonstrated a higher total FMS™ score compared to boys (12.7 ± 2.3 and 12.2 ± 2.4, respectively; F=8.26, p=0.0054). Also, sex differences were present in several individual functional movement patterns where boys demonstrated a higher prevalence of dysfunctional movement compared to girls in patterns that challenge mobility and flexibility of the body, while girls underperformed in tests that have higher demands for upper-body strength and abdominal stabilization. Findings of this study suggest that sex dimorphism exists in functional movement patterns in the period of mid-adolescence. The results of this research need to be considered while using FMS™ as a screening tool as well as the reference standard for exercise intervention among the secondary school-aged population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: MRSA, MSSA, Staphylococcus aureus, mortality, gender, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, infectious disease, prevention
Online: 15 October 2018 (09:35:59 CEST)
Average of 41,900 patients are diagnosed annually with staphylococcus bacterial infection in California, 24,089 patients have Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and 17,810 patients have Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus (MSSA). This paper demonstrates that there is a difference in mortality rate due to staphylococcus infection between males and females (P-value<0.05, CI 95%). Male patient diagnosed with S. aureus has 1.3 chance of mortality incidence than female patient. In addition, MRSA infection rate is 1.4 times MSSA infection (P-value<0.05, CI 95%), but the gap of infection is decreasing; however, mortality of both infections combined are more than threefold greater compared to three decades ago.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: gender differences; cancer; oxidative stress; oestrogens; testosterone; antioxidant; reactive oxygen species; sex hormones; mitochondria.
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:44:32 CEST)
Genetic, developmental, biochemical, and environmental variables interact intricately to produce sex differences. The significance of sex differences in cancer susceptibility is being clarified by numerous studies. Epidemiological research and cancer registries have revealed over the past few years that there are definite sex variations in cancer incidence, progression, and survival. However, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction also have a significant impact on the response to treatment of neoplastic diseases. Young women may be more protected from cancer than men because most of the proteins implicated in the regulation of redox state and mitochondrial function are under the control of sexual hormones. In this review, we describe how sexual hormones control the activity of antioxidant enzymes and mitochondria, as well as how they affect several neoplastic diseases. The molecular pathways that underlie the gender-related discrepancies in cancer that have been identified may be better understood, which may lead to more effective precision medicine and vital information on treatment options for both males and females with neoplastic illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0731.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: urbanism; surrealism; literary devices; maps and plans; cities; gender; painting; architecture; literary genre; poetry.
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:43:05 CEST)
The aim of this study is to analyse the names given to streets, monuments, spots of interest, et cetera in a street guide of an imaginary city called The Manada, whose map is constructed as a painting. For this analysis, we start from the 257 entries of the Street Guide, select their possible antecedents in literature and contextualize this street guide with respect to these antecedents. Our methodology is focused on two specific aspects of the Street guide: (1) to detect the semantic fields that emerge (with a methodology inverse to the creative one, that is, asking ourselves what key questions would result in the names of the streets) and (2) to detect the literary devices that are put into practice in the names of the places on the map, in order to determine how the relationship with the viewer-reader is established from a connotative level. The main findings of this study demonstrate that this is a unique piece, a new format both pictorial and literary, and that it has transcendence in the theme it deals with: the concealment of systemic violence. Comments about feminism, apotropaic devices and surrealism end our text.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0134.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Human Robot Interaction (HRI); social robot; Speech Emotion Recognition (SER); Gender Recognition, affective states
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:31:07 CET)
The real challenge in Human Robot Interaction (HRI) is to build machines capable of perceiving human emotions so that robots can interact with humans in a proper manner. It is well known from the literature that emotion varies accordingly to many factors. Among these, gender represents one of the most influencing one, and so an appropriate gender-dependent emotion recognition system is recommended. In this paper, a two-level hierarchical Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) system is proposed: the first level is represented by the Gender Recognition (GR) module for the speaker’s gender identification; the second is a gender-specific SER block. Specifically for this work, the attention was focused on the optimisation of the first level of the proposed architecture. The system was designed to be installed on social robots for hospitalised and living at home elderly patients monitoring. Hence, the importance of reducing the software computational effort of the architecture also minimizing the hardware bulkiness, in order for the system to be suitable for social robots. The algorithm was executed on the Raspberry Pi hardware. For the training, the Italian emotional database EMOVO was used. Results show a GR accuracy value of 97.8%, comparable with the ones found in literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0617.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: energy transition; hydrogen; hydrogen storage; metal hydride; complex hydride; hydrogen tank; social impact; gender
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:44:46 CEST)
This paper aims at addressing the exploitation of solid-state carriers for hydrogen storage, with attention paid both to the technical aspects, through a wide review of the available integrated systems, and to the social aspects, through a preliminary overview of the connected impacts from a gender perspective. As for the technical perspective, carriers to be used for solid-state hydrogen storage for various applications can be classified into two classes: metal and complex hydrides. Related crystal structures and corresponding hydrogen sorption properties are reviewed and discussed. Fundamentals of thermodynamics of hydrogen sorption evidences the key role of the enthalpy of reaction, which determines the operating conditions (i.e. temperatures and pressures). In addition, it rules the heat to be removed from the tank during hydrogen absorption and to be delivered to the tank during hydrogen desorption. Suitable values for the enthalpy of hydrogen sorption reaction for operating conditions close to ambient (i.e. room temperature and 1-10 bar of hydrogen) are close to 30 kJ·molH2 1. The kinetics of hydrogen sorption reaction is strongly related to the microstructure and to the morphology (i.e. loose powder or pellets) of the carriers. Usually, kinetics of hydrogen sorption reaction is rather fast, and the thermal management of the tank is the rate determining step of the processes. As for the social perspective, various scenarios for the applications in different socio-economic contexts of solid-state hydrogen storage technologies are described. As it occurs with the exploitation of other renewables innovative technologies, a wide consideration of the social factors connected to these processes is needed to assess the extent to which a specific innovation might produce positive or negative impacts in the recipient socio-economic system and to explore the potential role of the social components and dynamics in fostering the diffusion of the innovation itself. Attention has been addressed to the gender perspective, in view of the enhancement of hydrogen-related energy storage systems, intended both in terms of the role of women in triggering the exploitation of hydrogen-based storage as well as to the impact of this innovation in their current conditions, at work and in daily life.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: odontogenic infection; dental abscess; head and neck infection; dental epidemiology; racial discrepancy; gender discrepancy
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:33:47 CET)
Odontogenic infections are infections of the orofacial structures arising from dental disease. Despite its preventability, it exerts a significant burden on healthcare infrastructure worldwide. Our study explored the various different microbiological, social, and epidemiological characteristics of 103 cases of odontogenic infections at our regional center which demonstrated specific predilections for the young and middle-aged, those with diabetes mellitus, African American/Black and Hispanic ethnicities, posterior teeth, left-sided dentition, and male gender. However, nuances and exceptions to these trends were also seen with specific groups that may complicate treatment.