ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: refugee mental health; gender and mental health; Afghan; resettlement stressors; dissonant acculturation; gender ideology
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:04:54 CET)
Recent studies have emphasized the influence of resettlement factors on the mental health of refugees resettling in developed countries. However, little research has addressed gender differences in the nature and influence of resettlement stressors and sources of resilience. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating how gender moderates and mediates the influence of several sources of distress and resilience among 259 Afghan refugees residing in northern California. Gender moderated the effects of four factors on levels of distress. Intimate and extended family ties have little correlation with men’s distress levels, but are strongly associated with lower distress for women. English ability is positively associated with lower distress for women, but not men. In terms of gender ideology, traditionally oriented women and egalitarian men have lower levels of distress. And experiencing greater dissonant acculturation increases distress for men, but not women. The influence of gender interaction terms is substantial and patterns may reflect difficulty adapting to a different gender order. Future studies of similar populations should investigate gender differences in sources of distress and resilience, and efforts to assist new arrivals might inform them of changes in gender roles they may experience, and facilitate opportunities to renegotiate gender roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0473.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: mental health; perceived stress; university students; gender differences; COVID-19; post-lockdown; Romania
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:38:11 CEST)
The rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide was accompanied by intense fears, confusion, worries, anger and stress threatening people’s mental health. Unprecedented measures to slow down and prevent the transmission of COVID-19 have had various impacts on the population’s health behaviour and mental health. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the lockdown’s effects on university students’ mental health in Romania. Based on a cross-sectional design, the survey data were collected from a sample of 722 participants (247 males; M = 21.1 years; SD ± 1.73). A path analysis was performed to verify the hypothesised direct and indirect effects included in the multiple mediation model. The findings showed a positive association between stress and boredom proneness, missing daily social interactions, spending more time on phone conversations and the increasing interest in following news about the pandemic. The path analysis revealed an excellent fit between the proposed multiple mediation model and the sample data. Boredom proneness and missing daily social interactions both affected stress, directly and indirectly, through more time spent on phone conversations. In addition, it was found that the increased interest in following news about the pan-demic mediated the relationship between boredom proneness and perceived stress. In terms of gender differences, our findings revealed that female students experienced significantly higher stress levels than male students, perceived to a greater extent the lack of daily social interactions and spent more time on phone conversations. Overall, the findings further extend the empirical evidence on university students’ mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, universities need to organise support programmes focused on developing university students’ coping strategies to maintain their mental health even in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Transgender, non-binary gender identity, adolescence, health, well-being, gender nonconforming
Online: 6 September 2018 (15:31:10 CEST)
Purpose: Young transgender and non-binary are exposed to situations of discrimination and have a greater risk of violence. The purpose of this study is to analyze which protective, violence and health and well-being factors have more influence on transgender and non-binary people compared to cisgender people. Method: The sample comprised 856 people between 14 and 25 years old. A survey including questions about sociodemographic information and protective, violence and health and well-being factors was designed ad hoc for this study. Results: The results show non-binary group received the least support from family and friends, higher risk of suffering cyberbullying and a higher feel isolated and unhappy. Non-binary and transgender have suffered more verbal attacks both inside and outside their school and physical attacks at school than cisgender young. Conclusions: These results are important and may contribute to promote public policies and clinical interventions to favor the integration of non-binary and transgender people in our society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1747.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare; maternal health; gender disparities
Online: 26 July 2023 (05:53:51 CEST)
This article focuses on the economic dimensions of maternal health, highlighting the benefits of investing in maternal healthcare and the policy implications for sustainable development. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, the article explores the economic impact of maternal health, including its effects on human capital, productivity, and healthcare costs. It emphasizes the importance of addressing social determinants such as access to healthcare services, education, employment, income, and geographical disparities. By prioritizing maternal health, societies can unlock the economic potential of women, promote inclusive growth, and reduce gender disparities. The article discusses policy interventions, including the importance of healthcare infrastructure, financial support for maternal healthcare, and promoting gender equality. It also emphasizes the need for future research to quantify the economic benefits and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different interventions. Overall, the article underscores the economic imperative of investing in maternal health and provides valuable insights for policymakers and researchers seeking to enhance maternal health outcomes and promote sustainable economic development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: fertility; transgender; fertility preservation; gender transition; gender reassignment
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:23:30 CEST)
Fertility preservation technologies have existed for decades, and the field is rapidly advancing; limited data exist regarding the use of these technologies by transgender patients. Many options are available for transgender patients who wish to preserve fertility before transitioning. These options include the cryopreservation of gametes, ovarian tissue, or embryos. Currently, ejaculated, or testicular sperm, immature oocytes, and ovarian tissue can be preserved for later use, but no such use option exists for immature testicular tissue. Many financial, sociological, and legal barriers and a lack of awareness among physicians and patients also hindered the utilization of these fertility preservation services. While options are abundant, usage rates are relatively low. The initial data regarding the successful use of preserved tissues appears promising, with birth rates not dissimilar to non-transgender patients. Further investigations into this area are needed. In addition, counseling regarding fertility preservation options should become a significant part of the provider-patient conversation before transitioning therapies.; fertility; transgender; reproductive technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1365.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: electronic thesis; gender perspective; health sciences; Spain
Online: 19 June 2023 (13:32:12 CEST)
Objective: To quantitatively analyze the production of Doctoral Theses on health issues related to gender in Spain. Method: Quantitative synthesis of the productivity indicators of the Doctoral Theses de-fended in Spanish Universities between 1976 and 2022, obtained from the Spanish TESEO data-base. Descriptive analysis, materialized in tables and graphs, and time series model, based on the Holt-Winters model methodology. Results: 18.75% of the defended Doctoral Theses represents the scientific production of the Universities. Madrid is where the greatest number defend themselves with 37.5%. One in three authors are graduates in medicine. The theme of the Theses is gender violence in 25.0%, the authors are women in 87.5%, 44.0% of women direct theses. The scientific production of directors according to the H Index is very uneven, since one person has an index of 76 and another of 1. The temporal sequence of production is erratic, since in some years no Doctoral Theses are defended, but in 2017 were three. Conclusions: Spanish research in clinical Doctoral Theses on gender is scarce. It would be desirable to develop doctoral programs that promote the generation of theses in health that have gender differences in health care as their central point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0247.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: high school baseball; health; heatwave; heatstroke; sustainability; environment; gender difference; Japan
Online: 14 December 2021 (18:35:09 CET)
A summer high school baseball tournament is held every mid-summer in Koshien Stadium. “Koshien Baseball” is very popular in Japan; however, it faces the problem of extremely high temperatures during games. Thus, high school players are threatened by the harsh environment. For this reason, Internet surveys were conducted twice to purposefully engage the same individuals. Then, information on their views regarding the Koshien tournament before and after the provision of information regarding environmental change in Japan was gathered. Using data, this study examined how their views changed after having the information. Compared with the view before, it was found that (1) respondents were more likely to agree that the management rule of the Koshien tournaments should be altered to protect player’s health, and (2) the impact of providing information is larger for female respondents, young people, and highly educated respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0127.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: sustainability; Sustainable Development Goals; Africa/Ghana; women and gender; agriculture; food security; climate change; capital economics; patriarchal governance; care labor/logics/practices
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
Africa was the only continent not to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goal of 50% poverty reduction. This paper asks whether Africa will fare better in meeting Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) addressing poverty and hunger by 2030. To answer this question we examine literature, including our field research published over the last thirteen years. We find that ‘sustainable development’ is a failed concept immersed in the contemporary global economic system that favors growth over ecosystem stability and patriarchal systems of governance that undervalue women’s capacity for sustainability in their care-work as food providers. We examine barriers to women’s farming (climate change, gender bias, limited access to land, technology, finance) and provide examples of women’s innovative strategies for overcoming these barriers in their care practices toward family and community well-being and ecosystem health. We conclude that sustainability is only possible through transformation of thinking away from approaches that value profit over people and ecosystems and toward gender-based approaches for achieving the goals laid out in the SDGs through holistic, integrative systems of ecosystem fit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1627.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Health providers; female adolescents; slums; sexual and gender-based violence; barriers
Online: 25 July 2023 (08:56:28 CEST)
Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often hindered in their quest to access quality healthcare. This could complicate the achievement of the laudable SDG Target 3.7. The study used an ethnographic approach to solicit information from health providers, adolescents, and young women (AYW) in 10 communities from Lagos and Ibadan; two major cities in Nigeria. Findings indicated that the structural system of services provided in the health services at the primary healthcare level was limited, which posed a great challenge in AYW’s utilization of services for sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Some of the challenges identified by health providers included non-existing counseling services, rehabilitation centers, referral problems, and a lack of training for health providers in handling victims of SGBV. The study provided the context of the health providers’ inadequacy and structural problem of health services in providing comprehensive support services to victims of SGBV like adolescents and young women in the slum setting. This poses a barrier to the utilization of services by the survivors. Necessary inclusive services that will meet the need of the victims of SGBV should be in place at primary healthcare centers close to the people in the community for accessibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0587.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Intersectionality; Healthcare professions; Women of color; Pharmacy; Racial/Ethnic inequity; Gender inequity; Discrimination; Professional advancement; Underrepresentation
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:29:41 CET)
Women of color (WoC) in the health professions encounter challenges in advancement to higher positions, disparities in wages, discrimination, lack of expectation to achieve leadership positions, and absence of extensive support networks. Articles in the literature have addressed race and/or gender in the context of professional development. However, applying an intersectionality lens or framework to better understand the contextual issues of professional development for WoC remains to be addressed. Thus, this scoping review aimed to (i) identify health professions literature that addresses disparities affecting WoC, and (ii) describe strategies and approaches to support WoC in the health professions. Methods: Literature searches were conducted in multiple databases. Three independent reviewers reviewed and screened articles for inclusion. Results: 31 articles were included - medicine(17), nursing(1), pharmacy(7), other(4), and multiple health professions(2). Key findings included underrepresentation of women and minority groups, inequities in professional advancement and leadership positions for WoC, and greater dissatisfaction and attrition among minority and women professionals. Conclusion: WoC face unique and distinct challenges and barriers in their professional careers resulting from the intersectionality of not only race and gender, but also lived experiences and opportunities. Strategies to improve diversity and representation should include an intersectionality framework or lens and be critically evaluated.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hotel housekeepers; stress; occupational health; job demands-resources model; qualitative research; work- life balance; gender perspective.
Online: 19 November 2020 (15:11:33 CET)
Tourism is the main economic sector in the Balearic Islands (Spain) and hotel housekeepers (HHs) are a large occupational group, in which stress is becoming a major issue. This study aims at exploring in-depth factors perceived as stressors by HHs and key-informants, and their effects on work-life balance (WLB). A qualitative design with phenomenological approach was used, conducting six focus groups with 34 HHs and 10 individual interviews with key-informants. Results were analyzed adopting the job demands-resources model and a gender perspective. High demands –e.g work overload, time pressure, physical burden...-, lack of enough resources and little control –derived from role conflict, unexpected events...- were the most important factors explaining HHs’ stress. Additionally, this imbalance was perceived as leading to health problems –mainly musculoskeletal disorders-. Working schedule was mentioned as a facilitator to WLB, whereas an imbalance between job demands and resources led to work-home conflict –preventing them from enjoying leisure time-. Multiple roles at work and at home increased their stress. HHs experienced their job as invisible and unrecognised. Regarding practical implications, our recommendations for hotel organization include reducing workload and increasing resources, which would improve the job demands-resource balance, diminish negative mental and physical outcomes and improve WLB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0377.v1
Online: 27 May 2018 (11:21:52 CEST)
The aim of this study was to examine the post-injury psychological impact looking for to avoid sources of health issues. We have analyzed differences in the stress, anxiety and depression levels between male and female football players who have suffered at least one injury during the last season played respect to similar players who have not been injured. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The participants were 187 football players and data on the player’s injuries were collected. A Self-reported Questionnaire collected number, type and severity of injuries sustained during the previous sports season (twelve months), and also the player’s current situation being injured or not injured. To evaluate the psychological variables, the DASS-21 questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the male injured players presented anxiety levels higher than those who were non-injured. When we observe the female players’ data, the stress levels of the non-injured ones are higher than those of the injured players. Regarding the non-injured athletes, results showed that the female non-injured players presented values in anxiety higher than those corresponding to the non-injured male players. Thus, sport injury affects mental health issues such as anxiety and stress, and in a different way regarding gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: environment; Mexico; responsibility; footprint; gender
Online: 19 July 2018 (05:01:34 CEST)
This article analyses from a post-Marxist view, particularly, an ecological and gender-oriented perspective, the perception and attitudes of the Mexican people by gender, political affiliation and income level towards such current environmental issues as global warming, water shortage, water pollution and the influence of economic growth on the environment, among others. It highlights the influence of political ideology on the environment and of gender awareness on conservation and a more positive attitude towards ecological issues, despite women having usually been excluded from the administrative and decision-making arenas. A new theoretical model is proposed related to the Responsibility Footprints, a new concept more critical than the neoliberal Corporate Social Responsibility. The data for this study come from the 2012 International Social Survey Program. The results analysed brought to light some relevant questions for designing public policies that will greatly bolster initiatives to prompt better female professional involvement in the conservation of natural resources.
Online: 5 January 2021 (17:12:44 CET)
This study seeks to understand, from a gender perspective, the experiences of mining couples in Antofagasta, Chile, especially the negotiation between their intimate lives and the absences of their partners due to the shift work modality. We analyzed testimonies from men and women living in Antofagasta, considered one of the three largest mining regions in the world. Among the main findings, power relations based on the hegemonic gender model supported by the sexual division of labor are identified, which persist in this mining area, despite progress in equity issues in Chile. We propose that, although there are differences between the discourses of men and women and their subjective positioning, both actively collaborate with the reproduction of social gender relations marked by male domination. We observe that this way of living as a couple is associated with the organization of mining work, which is central to the reproduction of the gender order with a hetero-patriarchal tone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1657.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: obesity; gender; metabolism; cancer; gastrointestinal
Online: 23 May 2023 (12:43:10 CEST)
Background: The prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, has reached epidemic levels. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of various cancers, including gastrointestinal ones. Recent evidence has suggested that obesity disproportionately impacts males and females with cancer, resulting in varied transcriptional and metabolic dysregulation. Methods: This study aimed to elucidate the differences in the metabolic milieu of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal (GI) track both related and unrelated to sex in obesity. To demonstrate these obesity and sex-related effects, we utilized three primary data sources: serum metabolomics from obese and non-obese patients assessed via the Biocrates MxP Quant 500 mass spectrometry-based kit, the ORIEN tumor RNA-sequencing data for all adenocarcinoma cases to assess the impacts of obesity, and publicly available TCGA transcriptional analysis to assess GI cancers and sex-related differences in GI cancers specifically. We applied and integrated our unique transcriptional metabolic pipeline in combination with our metabolomics data to reveal how obesity and sex can dictate differential metabolism in patients. Results: Differentially expressed genes (DEG) analysis of ORIEN obese adenocarcinoma as compared to normal-weight adenocarcinoma patients resulted in large-scale transcriptional reprogramming (4029 DEGs, adj. p < 0.05 and |logFC|>0.58). Gene Set Enrichment and metabolic pipeline analysis showed genes enriched for pathways relating to immunity (inflammation, and CD40 signaling, among others) and metabolism. Specifically, we found alterations to steroid metabolism and tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism in obese patients, both of which are highly associated with disease severity and immune cell dysfunction. These findings were further confirmed using the TCGA colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (ESCA) data, which showed similar patterns of increased tryptophan catabolism for kynurenine production in obese patients. These patients further showed disparate alterations between males and females when comparing obese to non-obese patient populations. Alterations to immune and metabolic pathways were validated in 6 patients (2 obese and 4 normal weight) via CD8+/CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cell RNA-sequencing and paired serum metabolomics, which showed differential kynurenine and lipid metabolism, which corresponded with altered T-cell transcriptome in obese populations. Conclusions: Overall, obesity is associated with differential transcriptional and metabolic program in various disease sites. Further, these alterations, like kynurenine and tryptophan metabolism, which impact both metabolism and immune phenotype, vary with sex and obesity together. This study warrants further in-depth investigation into obesity and sex-related alterations in cancers that may better define biomarkers of response to immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1064.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: culture; gender; business; organization; religion; diversity
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:30:42 CEST)
ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the complex relationship between culture, gender, and business. It highlights the importance of understanding how these factors intersect and influence various aspects of the business world, including organizational practices, leadership styles, workplace dynamics, and economic outcomes. It also explores how cultural factors shape gender roles, expectations, and opportunities within the business context. Additionally, it discusses the implications of cultural influences on women's participation, advancement, and overall experiences in the business world. Understanding the interplay between culture, gender, and business is essential for fostering inclusive and diverse workplaces. Organizations that embrace cultural diversity and gender equality tend to exhibit greater creativity, innovation, and adaptability. They also benefit from increased employee satisfaction, improved decision-making processes, and enhanced financial performance. The work also examined how the values, beliefs, socialization, and team spirit of some distinct ethnic groups such as Japanese, Chinese, Jews, Igbo, and Indians have helped in the economic growth of not the groups alone but the countries where they reside. By examining these dynamics and cultures, scholars, practitioners, and policymakers can gain insights to develop effective strategies that promote gender equality, cultural sensitivity, and inclusive practices in the business world, ultimately leading to more equitable and prosperous societies.
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aims of the study to analyze the influence of knowledge, attitude, education and gender of the head of the family for household preparedness against flood from Bengawan Solo River in Kedungdowo Village, Balen District of Bojonegoro Regency. The method used in this study is survey method. This study is explanatory observational research. Population studied is 85 head of families from Kedungdowo Village, Balen District, Bojonegoro Regency. The sampling method for collecting the data from the families is stratified random sampling. Data analysis methods used in this study are descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis with a 95% confidence level to identify the level of preparedness and the relationship between factors that affect preparedness. The findings shows that knowledge, attitude, education and gender significantly influence household preparedness against Bengawan Solo flood. Attitude is the most dominant variable that influenced household preparedness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Rwanda; Unpaid care work; Critical realism; Cluster randomised control trial; Gender transformative change; Gender equality and women’s empowermenttransformative change, Gender equality and women’s empowerment
Online: 19 May 2023 (16:02:23 CEST)
Background: Globally, women’s responsibility for unpaid care work (UCW) remains a barrier to gender equality and women’s empowerment. Rwanda, a low-income country, has a legal and policy framework for promoting gender equality but remains a patriarchal society with women responsible for UCW. Reseaux des Femmes, a local NGO, has been delivering a programme targeted at reducing and redistributing the UCW of women with the objective of gender transformational change. However, there has been no impact evaluation of their intervention to date. Methods/Design: The impact evaluation will be a proof-of-concept critical realist cluster control trial (CRcCT) to evaluate for which women, how and under what circumstances the intervention reduces and redistributes women’s UCW, promote gender equality and women’s empowerment, and improves women’s quality of life. Four clusters of villages in each of five districts in Rwanda will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control arms, and all eligible households, those headed by a couple with at least one child under 12 years, will be recruited. This will yield a sample of around 550 intervention households and 550 control. Discussion: This protocol describes the design of mixed-methods research to evaluate an intervention in Rwanda aimed at reducing and redistributing the time women spend on UCW, thereby promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment. This paper will contribute to our understanding of interventions for transforming gender relations from a scholarly perspective. From a policy perspective, it will act as a proof of concept of Reseaux des Femmes’ Programme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: gender inequality; loneliness; couples; multilevel analysis
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:04:23 CET)
The present article analyzes the connection between, on the one hand, gender equality and, on the other hand, loneliness and social isolation. It hypothesizes that modern relational institutions, that support gender equality, such as no-fault divorce laws, reduce loneliness in close relationships. This hypothesis is put to the test through a multilevel analysis of the ISSP 2017. The analysis reveals that the data agrees, to a large extent, with the theoretical arguments. The prevalence of loneliness is higher in countries with higher levels of gender inequality (as measured by the Gender Inequality Index [GII]). This can be attributed to a moderation effect: at lower levels of gender inequality, partnerships provide better protection from loneliness. These results are robust to controls for demographic composition, level of health, educational attainment, income poverty, and interview mode. Last, the analyses show that the threat of emotional isolation is more widespread in countries with low gender inequality. This finding, however, is only significant before controlling for demographic composition, level of health, educational attainment, income poverty, and interview mode, and it requires further analysis. The concluding section relates these findings to the popular tendency to argue that modern society has created a “loneliness epidemic.”
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; advertising; nutrition
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:27:16 CEST)
In recent years, several brands have received much negative press coverage when trying to market their food and drink products specifically at women. This is, in part, because the taste preferences/sensitivities of men and women are actually quite similar. In fact, perhaps the one and only area where consumers are willing to accept (or should that be swallow) ingested products explicitly targeted at women or men is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements. Such products are not really sold on the basis of their taste/flavour anyway. Many consumers are also sensitive to the so-called pink tax, when near-identical products cost more when sold to women rather than to men (e.g., as in the case of female razors). As the four recent examples discussed in this review make clear, it can be difficult to roll-out a new food or beverage product, or else extend a pre-existing product line, that is especially for women without coming across as sexist/condescending. As such, marketers need to tread carefully, otherwise they may end-up generating unwanted negative publicity. Ultimately, therefore, adopting an implicit approach to gender-based marketing, should that be the direction that a brand wants to take, will likely have more chance of avoiding negative publicity than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0545.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gender; academic; STEM; leadership; barriers; assistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:06:20 CEST)
Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are under-represented, and women are also less likely than men to be in leadership positions generally. Little is known about the intersection of these areas: women in leadership in STEM. To determine what sort of barriers and assistance female STEM leaders have encountered, a survey was developed asking women who are in academic leadership positions in STEM about their experiences. The main barriers were similar in the STEM area and in leadership: balancing work/home life, devaluing of achievements, and imposter syndrome. The main two types of assistance in both STEM and leadership were support from spouse/partner, and encouragement from peers. The main barriers women encounter are cultural and will take time to overcome. The main assistance women have had comes from people, not training or institutional structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0717.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: internalising; externalising; personal resources; gender; adolescence.
Online: 10 November 2023 (13:58:08 CET)
Adolescence is a stage of change and transition, which together with the COVID-19 situation, has been a huge source of vulnerability and facilitated the development of emotional disorders. This study aims to analyse internalising (anxiety and depression) and externalising (anger and aggression) symptoms in adolescence according to gender, as well as personal resources (self-esteem, social competence and integration, and awareness of problems) put in place as a mechanism of protection and coping after the situation of the pandemic. The study population encompassed 445 adolescents, of whom 230 were boys and 215 were girls, between the ages of 12 and 17. A self-reported Likert-type test was used. Findings indicate that girls show greater levels of internalising (anxiety and depression) and externalising problems (anger), finding no differences for the variable aggression between the two groups. Personal resources are closely linked to emotional symptomatology, providing a source of protection in both genders. The findings indicate a maladaptive pattern for adolescents that requires early intervention within the field of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; gender; age; correlation
Online: 28 February 2023 (10:39:45 CET)
Objectives: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels play an important role in the diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of treatment in diabetes. The aim of our study is to determine whether there is a relationship between HbA1c levels and age and gender in Turkish adults who have not been diagnosed with diabetes.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 6776 Turkish adults without diabetes. Cross-sectional analyzes of A1C levels were performed between different age and gender categories. In statistical analysis, t-test, linear regression analysis, one-way ANOVA analysis, and LSD post hoc were used.Results: HbA1c levels in the individuals examined by dividing into different age groups increased with age in all groups. In our study, HbA1c levels were significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.001) in all groups, especially between the ages of 30-49, and were positively associated with age for males and females. There was a positive correlation between HbA1c and age in both men and women aged 30-49 years (P < 0.05). In the HbA1c ≥ 6.5 group, HbA1c levels gradually decreased with age in both genders, and no significant effect of age on Hb1Ac level was detected (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that it is important to evaluate the effects of age and gender when using HbA1c levels in the diagnosis, screening, and treatment of diabetes, especially in the young and middle-aged population. Applying this situation to daily practice may reduce the misdiagnosis of diabetes in elderly patients, overtreatment of diabetes, and its associated risks.K
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0029.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:58:08 CET)
Background: The passage through university, as a complex experience, can heighten personal susceptibility to eating disorders. The objective of this research is to determine how gender, age, year of course, and center or faculty can influence the risk of an eating disorder among university students. Method: A transversal and descriptive study with a probabilistic sample of 516 Spanish students from 26 university degrees is performed, by administering the Inventory Eating Disorder-Reference criterion (EDI-3-RF) to the students. Results: It was found that the female students enrolled in second-year grades presented a greater obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction, that the male students did more physical exercise to control their weight, and that those under 20 years and the students from both the Health and Law Faculties presented greater bulimic behavior. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement preventive measures adapted to the university students.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0654.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: PPP Loans, Economic Disparity, Gender Disparity
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:39:16 CEST)
It is well known that the size of initial loans approved by private lending agencies (banks, credit unions etc.) corresponds with the median income of the location of the individual, it also corresponds with gender. We wanted to show if it was the case with the PPP. We use standard machine learning techniques such as Lasso and found statistically significant association between gender of business owner and size of initial loan approvals for the State of Arkansas, and Least Squares Regression and Decision Tree regression to find a somewhat tenuous relationship between median income and initial loan approval amount and finally a strong association with the size of business. This has important applications for the equity of access to credit for marginalized peoples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parenting; gender; children’s behavioral changes; pandemic
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:40:29 CEST)
In a previous Argentine study, we found that, in the critical con-text of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were changes in maternal practices that influenced the relationship with their children. We also found that the impact of mandatory isolation was moderated positively by protective factors such as positive parenting and maternal school support, or negatively by risk factors such as maternal stress. Although this study only analyzed maternal behavior, we were interested in studying the behavior of both parents, comparing the parenting (positive parenting, parental stress, and school support) of the father and mother and the perceived behavioral changes in their children. The sample consisted of 120 Argentinean parents (70 mothers and 50 fathers) aged be-tween 27 and 56 years (M = 38.84; SD = 5.03). Questionnaires were administered on sociodemo-graphic and behavioral data of the children, as well as a brief scale to assess parenting. Mann Whitney U and MANOVA were used to analyze the influence of gender on perceived changes in children's behavior and perceived parenting, respectively. Mothers perceived more significant changes than fathers in their children's behavior. In addition, women reported more parental stress, greater child school sup-port, and greater perceived positive parenting, compared to men. These findings support the hypothesis that parenting developed differently in fathers and mothers which is likely influenced by culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: implict bias; gender disparity; diversity; racial dispariry
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:51:36 CET)
The editors of several major journals have recently asserted the importance of combating racism and sexism in science. This is especially relevant now, as the COVID-19 pandemic may have led to a widening of the gender and racial/ethnicity gaps. Implicit bias is a crucial component in this fight. Negative stereotypes that are socially constructed in a given culture are frequently associated with implicit bias (which is unconscious or not perceived). In the present article, we point to scientific evidence that shows the presence of implicit bias in the academic community, which contributes to strongly damaging unconscious evaluations and judgments of individuals or groups. Additionally, we suggest several actions aimed at (1) editors and reviewers of scientific journals, (2) people in positions of power within funding agencies and research institutions and (3) members of selection committees to mitigate this effect. These recommendations are based on the experience of a group of Latin American scientists comprising Black and Latin women, teachers and undergraduate students who participate in a women in science working group at universities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. With this article, we hope to contribute to reflections, actions and the development of institutional policies that enable and consolidate diversity in science and reduce disparities based on gender and race/ethnicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: transgender; nonbinary; transsexual; queer; gender diversity; gender identity disorder; bibliometrics; science mapping
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:48:02 CEST)
Gender and identity issues permeate society as a whole. Therefore, the matters involving transgender individuals should be analised in order to understand the difficulties experienced by this population and the social practices implemented. In this sense, the objective of this study was to investigate the strategic themes and their evolution in relation to the theme. For this, a bibliometric performance and network analysis (BPNA) was carried out with the existing data in the Web of Science database between 1954 and march 2021. Twenty-three thousand and four hundred and seventy-one (23,471) articles were identified, which were included in the SciMAT software to perform a bibliometric analysis, resulting in the graph of the thematic evolution structure and the strategic diagram, in which 8 motor themes and a cross-cutting theme of great magnitude are highlighted, which are discussed in depth. The results show the relation between the transgender theme and gender, identity, sexual orientation, hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgery. It is concluded that, despite the large number of associated researches, some areas of study are still incipient, such as the inclusion of transgender people in the formal labor market and in the prison context, thus opening field for further studies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; gender; host entry machinery; polymorphism
Online: 7 April 2020 (02:27:40 CEST)
Combating viral disease outbreaks has doubtlessly been one of the major public health challenges for the 21st century. Here, the host entry machinery required for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was examined for the gene expression profiles and polymorphism. The four human population groups of Europeans, Africans, Asians, and Americans had specific and also a shared pool of variants for the X-linked locus of ACE2 receptor. Several specific and common ACE2 variants were of the utmost importance to the viral entry and infection. In the absence of gender bias for the gene expression profiles, the hemizygous rare variants of ACE2 describe the observed higher mortality rate in males. Finally, a personalized medicine strategy is conceived for isolating high-risk individuals in epidemic circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: gender-based violence, coping, abuse, survival, resilient
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:00:57 CEST)
Gender-based violence is considered a serious social and public health problem. Overcoming this situation implies a process that results in the favorable biopsychosocial rehabilitation, the resilient of women. The objective of this study was to analyze the tools, resources and personal and psychosocial mechanisms used by women survivors of gender-based violence. The design was an interpretative phenomenology. It carried out with 22 women who have overcome gender-based violence. Data was collected through personal interviews and narration. The results were grouped into four themes: "Process of violence", "Social resources for coping and overcoming GBV", "Personal tools for coping and overcoming GBV", and "Feelings identified, from the abuse stage to the survival stage". Several studies concluded that overcoming abuse is influenced by the women social network, and it can be the action of these people determining their survival to gender violence. Despite the recognized usefulness of these available resources, it would be desirable to strengthen them in order to be able to drive more women toward survival, assuming a strengthening of coping and overcoming, without forgetting the importance of other support mechanisms such as their family and group therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Sustainable gender equality; self-efficacy; gender mainstreaming; STEM higher education; STEM student teachers’ perceptions; scale validation, Spain, Creece
Online: 21 November 2022 (03:38:01 CET)
In the context of the Education-2030 Framework for Action, an important goal for initial STEM teacher education is to provide professional development on equality and gender awareness. This study explored whether STEM prospective secondary teachers are prepared to implement a sustainable gender-sensitive practice upon graduation. To this end, we cross-culturally validated the TEGEP (Teacher Self-Efficacy for Gender Equality practice) scale and compared STEM student teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy by country and sex. Participants were 205 STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) secondary school student teachers (136 Greek and 69 Spanish) drawn from seven public universities (six Greek, one Spanish). Statistical analysis confirmed the structure and factor invariance of the TEGEP across country and between sexes showing evidence that gender equality self-efficacy level is only moderate and that perceived competence in gender knowledge was significantly higher in Greek than in Spanish STEM student teachers, while the latter felt more competent than the Greek in developing values and attitudes in regards to gender. The study provides a cross-validated instrument to measure gender equality self-efficacy in STEM teacher education and evaluate sustainable changes after planned interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0739.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: knowledge; attitude; preparedness; COVID-19; gender; Bangladesh
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:12:02 CET)
Effective pandemic management requires understanding the level of community knowledge, attitude of people and preparedness towards COVID-19. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and preparedness toward COVID-2019 among Bangladeshi general people. A cross sectional survey was conducted from 20th March 2020 to 20th April 2020 among 1007 Bangladeshi adult people. A convenience sampling strategy was utilized and the data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to identify the gender differences regarding knowledge, attitude and preparedness towards COVID-19. Respondents predominately used social media to inform themselves about COVID-19 (68.10%) and female used social media more than male (p<0.001). Female had more correct knowledge about staying home with sickness and/or symptoms to contain the COVID-19 transmission (p=.02). While male had more negative attitude about staying out during the pandemic than female (<0.001) and men were less likely to take preventative measures than female counterparts. A number of people were still believing the myths like “COVID-19 can transmit via mosquito” (9.14%) and male had more incorrect knowledge regarding this (p<0.001). Moreover, 17.81% of the respondents thought that COVID-19 can spread in warm weather. Some findings are directing us to a knowledge gap among general population in Bangladesh which calls for uncovering those aspects. Adequate and effective communication are necessary so that general people can stay alert with positive attitude and hygienic practices to fight against this ongoing crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0797.v1
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:07:47 CET)
Early marriage is a phenomenon that has an impact on various aspects of life which then affects human development. This study aims to conduct a literature review on the implications of early marriage on human development. The method used in this study is the SLR (Systematic Literature Review) method. Data collection was carried out by documenting all literature that met the research inclusion requirements. The literature obtained as many as 25 articles from the Google Scholer database with the help of Harzing's Publish or Perish application. From this literature study, it was found that the phenomenon of early marriage has implications for the human development index based on health indicators and life expectancy, education, and welfare. Another finding is that women are the most disadvantaged from the impact of early marriage. Things that can be done to deal with the phenomenon and impact of early marriage include formal and non-formal education, strengthening access to health and education services, creating empowerment programs, and strengthening regulations and legal protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: DEA; COVID; labor; bootstrap; gender
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:09:11 CEST)
The main point in the present article was the comparison of the Technical Efficiency (TE) in four years for milk production in Ecuador by the period 2018 – 2021, before and after the pandemic, and the determination of the factors related to the TE for the last year. The information from the official public database in the country were analyzed by the nonparametric technique called DEA including a bootstrap simulation. Once different variables were selected including aspects as livestock and labor, the TE with Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) with “output” orientation was calculated by each year and province. Among the provinces, statistically significant differences were found (P<0.1) for the TE means, and most of the efficient units were found throughout the Andean zone, in each year. Between the most important findings, it was important that the TE average after the beginning of the pandemic was statistically lower than the last 3 consecutive years under study (P<0.1) with 3% approximately of decrease, and the main factors related to this were multiple including labor characteristics, the field composition, and the supplies access during the pandemic. Finally, some implications for public policy were found around the gender in agriculture activities, the social security, and the difficulties in supplies access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0599.v1
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:19:15 CEST)
Background: Women in rural districts of Pakistan face numerous barriers to healthcare, rendering gender-responsive health programming important, including for Tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted to assess the general understanding of TB and of access to healthcare for women, as a first step towards implementation of a gender responsive TB programme in TandoAllayar, a rural district of Pakistan. Methods: A total of 36 participants were interviewed. The focus group discussion guide comprised of questions on: (1) family/household dynamics (2) community norms (3) healthcare system (4) women’s access to healthcare (5) TB Awareness;, and (6) women’s access to TB Care. Results: Limited autonomy in household financial decision-making, disapproval of unassisted travel, long travel time, lack of prioritization of spending on women’s health and inadequate presence of female health providers, were identified as barriers to access of healthcare for women, higher in younger women. Facilitators to access of TB care included a reported lack of TB-related stigma, moderate knowledge about TB disease, and broad understanding of tuberculosis as a curable disease. Other suggested facilitators include health facilities closer to the villages and the availability of higher quality services. Conclusion: Significant barriers are faced by women in access to TB care in rural districts of Pakistan. Programme implementers in high burden countries, should shift towards improved gender-responsive TB programming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Code-switching; Gender difference; Bilingualism
Online: 17 September 2020 (10:35:52 CEST)
As a behavior of bilingual individuals and an indispensable part of bilingual speech, code-switching has been investigated by many researchers. However, there are many variables influencing code-switching, and each variable has the potential to be a confounding variable. Among these variables is the gender; however, whether there are significant gender differences and what are the gender differences in code-switching remains unknown for Mandarin Mandarin-English child bilinguals, as previous literature diverse on the existence of gender differences. Therefore, this paper seeks potential code-switching and distribution of code-switching by quantitative analysis of speech data in Singapore Bilingual Corpus. The results indicate that gender differences are significant in the amount of intra code-switching. However, neither considerable gender difference is observed in the amount of inter nor the code-switching related environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: fashion trendsetting; creativity; pro-environmental behaviors; gender; Korea; U.S.
Online: 1 October 2017 (06:00:21 CEST)
According to Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions, cultures differ in cultural values and norms; values and norms that may influence differences in trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Further, because men and women have been socialized within particular cultures, gender differences may exist in trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Trendsetters have characteristics that are interrelated with creative traits and behaviors, perhaps inclining them to endorse pro-environmental behaviors. However, the interrelationships among these variables remain unexplored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine these three variables among college students in South Korea and the United States, specifically looking at cultural and gender differences. Participants were 225 Korean college students and 221 U.S. college students. Questionnaires included demographic items and scales measuring trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha reliability, MANOVA, ANOVA and SNK posthoc test. Results show that U.S. (vs Korean) students indicated greater trendsetting and creative traits and behaviors but not greater pro-environmental behaviors. Fashion trendsetting groups in both Korea and the U.S. differed in creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors. Among Korean trendsetting groups, reluctant adopters scored lowest on creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors. Among U.S. trendsetting groups, trendsetters scored highest on creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors; reluctant adopters scored lowest on pro-environmental behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are provided for researchers and marketers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Aging; neurodegeneration; metabolomics; NFL; muscle function; gender dimorphism
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:18:55 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between age-related changes in Neuro-filament Light Chain (NFL), a marker of neuronal function, and various factors including muscle function, body composition, and metabolomic markers. Methods: The study included 40 partici-pants, aged 20 to 85 years. NFL levels were measured, and muscle function, body composition, and metabolomic markers were assessed. Results: NFL levels increased significantly with age, particularly in men. Negative correlations were found between NFL levels and measures of mus-cle function, such as grip strength, walking speed, and chair test performance, indicating a decline in muscle performance with increasing NFL. These associations were more pronounced in men. NFL levels also negatively correlated with muscle quality in men, as measured by 50 kHz phase angle. In terms of body composition, NFL was positively correlated with markers of fat mass and negatively correlated with markers of muscle mass, predominantly in men. Metabolomic analy-sis revealed significant associations between NFL levels and specific metabolites, with gen-der-dependent relationships observed. Conclusions: This study provides insights into the rela-tionship between circulating serum NFL, muscle function, and aging. The findings highlight gen-der differences and contribute to our understanding of age-related changes in neuronal function and their impact on muscle health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0149.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Leadership, Women, Women Clergy, Black, Religion and Gender.
Online: 8 October 2018 (13:57:05 CEST)
Despite the increase of seminary training, Black clergywomen continuously undergo subjugation, degradation, and humiliation in ministry leadership due to gender and race bias (Leslie, 2013) by clergymen. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that examined the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership and how these clergywomen ascribed meaning to their experiences. The two primary research questions were, “What are the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” and “How do Black clergywomen attribute meaning to their experiences regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” The results of the study indicated that bias of gender and inequality exists among clergymen; however, the Black clergywomen learned to embrace the experiences and learned from them. The conclusion of this article includes a discussion regarding practical implications of the education of clergy; and the re-evaluation of the perception of Black clergywomen and their experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Black clergywomen pertaining to challenges in clergy leadership and to explore how Black clergywomen attributed meaning to their experiences regarding challenges in ministry leadership.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Transsexualism, Gender Identity Dysphoria, Puberty Withdrawal, Estrogens, Antiandrogens, Testosterone.
Online: 4 March 2021 (17:14:28 CET)
Gender Identity Dysphoria (GID) is a condition characterized by a strong and persistent identification with the opposite sex. These people consider themselves victims of a sort of biological accident: "a soul in a wrong body". There are numerous theories on the origin of transsexualism: genetic, hormonal and psychological causes have been hypothesized, but those currently most accredited are the neuroanatomical ones. The cornerstones of hormone conversion therapy (Gender Affirming Hormone Therapy, GAHT) are feminizing hormones for transgender women (MtFs) and virilizing for transgender males (FtMs). GID can be present among adolescents and older people. For adolescents is now accepted reversible treatment of puberty withdrawal with hormones that stops the progression of pubertal development in the biological direction not accepted; for elderly people is suggested GAHT in reduced doses. Physicians should consider and discuss with people with GID about fertility preservation, general and cancer risks. We present also data of 127 transsexual patients enrolled at the Garibaldi-Nesima Andrology Clinic in Catania (Italy) from 2003 to 2020. To optimize the conversion treatment with sex hormones, transsexuals require long-term follow-up. GAHT must be performed by a doctor who is familiar with these problems. Therefore, the “do-it-yourself” trend and the lack of medical and laboratory checks over time should be absolutely discouraged. Before proceeding with the surgical sex reassignment, it is recommended to refer to an endocrinologist and psychologist or psychiatrist for a period of 2-3 years. The transition surgical conclusion process must be practiced by a quality surgical team.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atrial fibrillation; gender; electrical cardioversion; heart failure; mortality
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:15:22 CEST)
Background: There is limited data on gender-based differences in atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment and prognosis. Our aim was to examine gender-related differences in medical attention in emergency department (ED) and follow-up (FU) among patients diagnosed with an AF episode and to determine whether there are gender-related differences in clinical characteristics, therapeutic strategies and long-term adverse events in this population. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study of patients who presented to a tertiary hospital ER for AF from 2010-2015, with a minimum FU of one year. Data on medical attention received, mortality and other adverse outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results: Among the 2 013 patients selected, 1232 (60%) was female. Women were less likely than men to be evaluated by a cardiologist during the ED visit (11.5% vs. 16.6%, p=0.001) and were less likely to be admitted (5.9% vs. 9.5%, p<0.05). Electrical cardioversion was performed more frequently in men, both during the first episode (3.4% vs. 1.2%, p=0.001) and during FU (15.9% vs. 10.6%, p<0.001), in spite of a lower AF recurrence rate in women (9.9% vs 18.1%). During FU, women had more hospitalizations for heart failure (26.2% vs. 16.1%, p<0.001). Conclusions: In patients with AF, although no gender differences in mortality, there were significant differences in clinical outcomes, medical attention received, and therapeutic strategies. Women underwent fewer attempts at cardioversion, had a lower probability of being evaluated by cardiologists and showed a higher probability of hospitalization for heart failure. Being alert to these iniquities should facilitate to adopt measures to correct them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0047.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychopathy; Machiavellianism; parental style; gender differences; socialization theories
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:23:37 CEST)
Recent findings support an association between childhood maltreatment and the presence of elevated psychopathic traits in adulthood. Using a community sample recruited online (N = 210), we sought to (1) confirm the relationship between childhood traumas and psychopathic traits, and (2) investigate the role of parenting styles in psychopathic traits. Consistent with our predictions, we found an association between all types of childhood traumas and disinhibition. Age and gender moderated the relations between psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatments. Parental rejection and overprotection were positively correlated with the presence of psychopathic traits, while parental emotional warmth was negative correlated. Although our results converge with previous findings, the strength of the correlations observed was not as compelling as in research on undergraduate students. We discuss the numerous interpretations for our findings, and highlight the limitations of research in the field of psychopathy and childhood trauma in the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0020.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Gender Roles; Household Production; Telecommuting; Teleworking; Well-Being
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:43:32 CET)
This study examines the relationship between teleworking, gender roles and happiness of couples using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the Understanding Society Survey (USS) during the period 1991-2012. Various approaches are followed, including Probit-adapted fixed effects, multinomial Logit and Instrumental variables (IV). The results support that both men and women who are teleworkers spend more time on housework, while teleworking increases the probability that the household chores examined in this study, such as cooking, cleaning ironing and childcare, will be shared relatively to those who are non-teleworkers. In addition, women are happier when they or their spouse is teleworker, as well as, both men and women are happier when they state that the specific household chores are shared. Thus, women teleworkers may be happier because they can face the family demands and share the household chores with their spouse, increasing their fairness belief about the household division allocation and improving their well-being, expressed by happiness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0274.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual harassment; mobbing; football referee; gender inequality; sport
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:27:35 CET)
Inequalities between men and women in the workplace are reflected in professional sports, specifically in football refereeing. This phenomenon sometimes becomes sexual harassment, since it is a stereotypically considered male profession, in which women are a minority. In order to measure that behaviour, it is necessary to count on valid and reliable tools. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the factorial structure and the discriminant and convergent validity of the ‘sexual experiences questionnaire’, version of the Department of Defence (SEQ-DoD). Eighty-nine male football referees and ninety-four female football referees, with a mean age of 23.30 ± 4.85 years, participated in this studio conducted in Andalusia, Spain. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using the robust maximum-likelihood estimation method. Goodness of fit was assessed and the factorial invariance was calculated to determine the stability of the model. Subsequently, the validity was confirmed. The results corroborated the validity and reliability of the questionnaire adapted to the population studied. Therefore it can be used as a research instrument.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Workplace mental health; Workplace bullying; Depression; Gender difference
Online: 15 September 2023 (08:28:38 CEST)
Workplace bullying is a prevalent issue with a significant impact on employees’ mental health. This study aimed to explore the relationship between workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression with a particular focus on the role of gender. A total of 12,344 Korean employees aged 19–65 years were included in the study. They completed questionnaires including the Korean version of the Occupational Stress Scale, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A score of 16 or higher in CES-D indicated depression. The association between workplace bullying and depression was analyzed using logistic regression analyses. The average CES-D scores were higher for both male and female employees who experienced bullying than for those who did not (p < 0.001). The association between the experience of workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression was statistically significant for both genders, with a stronger correlation observed among male employees (p for interaction <0.001). Organizations are urged to address workplace bullying, particularly for male employees, through the implementation of anti-bullying strategies and policies, as well as the provision of mental health resources and support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer science; tertiary education; course selection; performance; gender gap
Online: 26 December 2017 (02:30:21 CET)
The aim of the present study is to investigate both the performance and preferences of males and females Computer Science (CS) graduates. In order to attain the above goal, a quantitative case study was conducted regarding 89 degrees, acquired from 2006 to 2012, from the Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Greece. The analysis of the data revealed that in terms of performance, no significant differences between the mean grades of males and females exist, in almost most of the courses included in the curriculum of the aforementioned CS department. Any statistically significant differences in performances were present in almost equal number of courses in favor of males and females. It seems also, that females performed better in the courses they selected more than males. Regarding preferences, in CS courses, it seems that gender differences are existent. Males preferred more than females did core programming courses and advanced topics of Software Systems, computer networks, computer engineering, robotics and mathematics, whereas females preferred more the study of algorithms and security issues, computer fractals, data management, computer architecture, and mobile communication. In addition, females preferred courses in reference with humanities and social sciences, CS terminology, and career opportunities. Yet, females did not select any of programming lab-based courses, computer engineering, computer network issues and robotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Self-Determination Theory; Motivation; Tablet; Gender
Online: 7 May 2021 (08:12:53 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 4, 5 and 9 are related to the quality of education, gender equality and the use of new technologies. It is important to bear in mind that a major part of the success of education has to do with students' motivation, which is closely connected to the use of technologies in the classroom. For this reason, a study was carried out with 131 students aged 12 and 13, 58 girls and 73 boys, who use a tablet in their Science classes. The purpose of the study was to determine, based on the Self Determination Theory, the level of intrinsic motivation of those adolescents towards the use of tablets in the classroom. The study measured the interest they have in the tasks and the value they assign to said tasks, as well as their perception of their competence in using tablets. The results reveal that students' motivation is high without significant differences between girls and boys when technological resources are included in teaching-learning processes. This is reflected by the improvement of their academic performance. It is thus possible to state that SDGs 4, 5 and 9 can be achieved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0330.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Brain; Neuroimaging; Transgender; Transsexual; Gender Identity; Homosexual; Heterosexual
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:14:11 CEST)
This review systematically explored structural, functional, and metabolic features of the cisgender brain compared with the transgender brain before hormonal treatment and the heterosexual brain compared to the homosexual brain from the analysis of the neuroimaging literature up to 2018, and identified and discussed subsequent studies published up to March 2021. Our main aim was to help identifying neuroradiological brain features that have been related to human sexuality to contribute to the understanding of the biological elements involved in gender identity and sexual orientation. We analyze 39 studies on gender identity and 24 on sexual orientation. Our results suggest that some neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neurometabolic features in transgender individuals resemble those of their experienced gender despite the majority resembling those from their natal sex. In homosexual individuals the majority resemble those of their same sex heterosexual population rather than their opposite sex heterosexual population. However, it is always difficult to interpret findings with non-invasive neuroimaging. Given the gross nature of these measures, it is possible that more differences too subtle to measure with available tools yet contributing to gender identity and sexual orientation could be found. Conflicting results contributed to the difficulty of identifying specific brain features which consistently differ between cisgender and transgender or between heterosexual and homosexual groups. The small number of studies, the small-to-moderate sample size of each study, and the heterogeneity of the investigations made it impossible to meta-analyze all the data extracted. Further studies are necessary to increase the understanding of the neurological substrates of human sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0056.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Emergency Medical Services; paramedics; gender; diversity
Online: 15 February 2023 (04:34:52 CET)
Introduction: Like other public safety professions, paramedicine has historically been a male-dominated occupation, both in the demography of its workforce and in its organizational culture. Although women are increasingly choosing paramedicine as a career, participation in leadership roles remains limited. Drawing on data from a recent comprehensive mental health survey, we describe the proportion of women in leadership in a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We distributed an in-person, paper-based survey during the fall 2019 - winter 2020 Continuing Medical Education (CME) sessions. Participating paramedics completed a demographic questionnaire alongside a battery of mental health screening tools. We assessed the demography of the workforce and explored differences in employment classification, provider level (e.g., primary vs. advanced care), and participation in formal leadership roles along self-reported gender lines. Results: Out of 607 paramedics attending CME, we received 600 completed surveys, with 11 excluded for missing data, leaving 589 for analysis and a 97% response rate. Women comprised 40% of the active-duty paramedic workforce, with an average of 8 years of experience. Compared to men, women were more than twice as likely to have a university degree (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.02), but almost half as likely to practice at the Advanced Care Paramedic level (OR 0.61), and somewhat less likely to be employed full-time (OR 0.77). Women were nearly 70% less likely to hold a leadership role in the service compared to men (OR 0.36), occupying just 20% of leadership positions. Conclusion: Although paramedicine is witnessing an encouraging shift in the demography of its workforce with greater participation from women, there is still work to be done, particularly in leadership. Future research should focus on identifying and ameliorating barriers to career advancement among women and other historically underrepresented people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0571.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Business intelligence; gender gap; information technology.
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:31:05 CEST)
In the early 1990s, cyberfeminism emerged as an area of knowledge to discuss the connection between gender and technology. According to UNESCO, women are underrepresented in the field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and less than a third of women worldwide work in scientific research and development. However, this number has grown and this reality is constantly changing. In this context, using business intelligence techniques, this study analyzes data from the computer and information and communication technology market to characterize the impact of the performance of women in these areas. It is expected to show that this performance in the highlighted fields is still a challenge in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0120.v1
Online: 11 November 2019 (04:53:34 CET)
A considerable body of research exists on women in leadership and likewise on women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. However, the intersection of the two is terra incognita: women in leadership in STEM. At the most fundamental level, we don’t even have a solid idea of how many women hold leadership positions in STEM. This study determined the proportion of women in leadership positions in several academic STEM areas via a sampling of institutions across the United States and other countries. In every area studied, women held fewer leadership positions than the proportion of female PhDs in those fields. The proportion of women in non-STEM specific top academic leadership roles was also examined to see what proportion of those individuals leading academic institutions might have background in a STEM discipline and how that compares to men in the same positions. This study opens the door to exploring the experiences of women who lead in STEM, which is likely to promote women’s participation in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: academic-procrastination; anxiety; gender; perfectionism; statistics
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:44:19 CEST)
This study contended that learning statistics and its rudiments were perceived as complicated compared to some other courses offered at the university level. Further, this investigation contested the existence of statistics anxiety among postgraduate students in an in-site university setting. Relationships and differences were determined in this study utilizing the constructs of antecedents of statistics anxiety namely academic procrastination, perfectionism, and gender. The objectives were (1) to establish the relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; (2) to find out the relationship between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; and (3) to investigate the differences between gender and statistics anxiety. The data from randomly selected 136 postgrad students (Kampala International University, Uganda) referring to dispositional (procrastination and perfectionism) and environmental antecedents (gender) and statistics anxiety were scientifically elicited, processed and analyzed utilizing the quantitative- post positivist’s research paradigm model. The findings revealed a positive but insignificant relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; a significant adverse correlation between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; an insignificant positive correlation existed between gender and statistics anxiety, and differences in statistics anxiety between the female and male students existed. Notably from the results then, academic procrastination did not significantly affect the students’ statistics anxiety; the students with higher levels of perfectionism tended to have lower levels of statistics anxiety while the levels of statistics anxiety among the female students were slightly greater than that of the male students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: communication skills; standardized patients; gender; checklist; competence assessment; OSCE
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:22:49 CEST)
Background: The present study analyzes the evaluation of communication skills by standardized patients (SPs) and medical evaluators (Es) in an OSCE setting. Methods: The OSCE involved 189 sixth-year medical students, as well as 34 SPs and 63 Es. Communications skills were evaluated in 8 stations, simultaneously by SPs and Es. The SPs were actors who had been trained in the clinical case and who acted in accordance with a standardized script in a simulated clinical situation. The evaluators, also standardized, were Resident Doctors or staff Doctors from the Hospital Services involved. Results: The global scores awarded to students for communication skills were very similar in both groups, although the score awarded by Es was significantly higher, and a direct relationship was also observed between the mean scores awarded by both groups. Evaluators awarded significantly higher scores than SPs in 7 out of the 10 items on the checklist. Female medical students also scored significantly higher than their male counterparts in many items, including external appearance, listening, cordiality, optimism, interest, expression and empathy. Conclusions: Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: academic institution; career progression; gender imbalance; glass ceiling; professionals
Online: 17 February 2021 (13:30:25 CET)
Compared to their men counterparts, women do not rapidly climb up the leadership ladder due to a glass ceiling obstacle. This study aims to explore the inhibiting factors demotivating Africa women's leadership pursuit in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). A qualitative approach was adopted using online open-ended questions to seek narratives from African women leaders on their roles and experiences of a STEM career. Data were collected using a non-probability, purposive sample of African women leaders in STEM in African research institutes and universities. Forty-two women in leadership positions in 12 African countries participated in the study, which was content analyzed, seeking patterns and themes to explore the narratives. A common thread exists in the tone and life experiences of the African women leaders in STEM. Scholarship, supportive organizational structure, commitment, hard work, and tenacity were all experienced as enablers of the career path process and their attained positions. The education level contributed to a strong leadership position. Women experience less acceptance than males in STEM leadership as the organizational culture still devalues women in leadership positions in several African countries. The study's contribution, the limitations, recommendations, and managerial implications are discussed, with suggestions for further research are made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0074.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: VR; aging effect; gender difference; control device; wayfinding strategy
Online: 5 May 2020 (11:32:12 CEST)
The application of Virtual Reality in a driving simulation is not novel, yet little is known about the use of this technology by senior populations. The effects of age, sex, control device (joystick or handlebar), and task type on wayfinding proficiency using a virtual reality (VR) driving simulation were explored. The driving experimental model involved 96 randomly recruited participants, including 48 young people and 48 seniors (split evenly by gender in each group). The experimental results and statistical analyses indicate that in a VR driving scenario task type significantly affected VR driving performance. Navigational scores were significantly higher for the straight (easy) task than for the curved (difficult) task. The aging effect was the main reason for significant and interacting effects of sex and control device. It was found that interactions between age and sex difference indicated that the young group exhibited better wayfinding performance than the senior group, and in the young group males had better performance than females. Similarly, interactions between age and control device indicated that the handlebar control device type resulted in better performance than the joystick device in the young group, but no difference was found in the senior group due to age or learning effects. Findings provide an understanding of the evaluation of the interface designs of navigational support systems, taking into consideration any effects of age, sex, control device, and task type within three-dimensional VR games and driving systems. With a VR driving simulator, seniors can test drive inaccessible products, such as electric bicycles or cars, using a computer at home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1715.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: trauma; asylum; gender-based persecution; U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:07:09 CET)
This article focuses on the variation of how the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals uses the language of trauma in gender-based asylum claims. Gender-based asylum claims include female genital mu-tilation (FGM), domestic violence, forced marriage, coercive population control (CPC) in the form of forced abortions and forced sterilizations, and rape. The Circuit Courts have reviewed appeals from petitioners with asylum claims since 1946, yet the language of trauma did not appear in the Court’s decisions until 1983. From 1983-2023 only 385, 3.85% or less, of the over 10,000 asylum cases before the Circuit Courts used the language of trauma in its legal interpretation of persecution. I have identified 101 gender-based asylum cases that were reviewed by one of the eleven U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals that apply the language of trauma in its legal interpretation of persecution for this analysis. This study found that U.S. Circuit Courts use the language of trauma in four ways: precedent cases, psychological trauma, physical trauma, and policies and reports when reviewing gender-based asylum claims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0709.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: invasion sport; gender; primary school; sport experience; structural equation
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:03:41 CEST)
The satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads students to engage in a sport modality on their own initiative. In the Spanish public educational system, mixed and heterogeneous, the gender and sport experience of students influence the teaching and motivation of invasion sports. This study investigated whether students' gender and sport experience, and method influence the psychological variables (basic psychological needs and sport adherence) when teaching school soccer and basketball. Furthermore, correlations were calculated between these psychological variables. The study involved 165 fifth and sixth grade students (age, 11.27 ± 0.68 years old) from several Spanish state schools in the same autonomous community. A non-random convenience sample was used. The needs for autonomy, perceived competence and social relationships were measured using the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Exercise Scale. Sport adherence was measured using the Measure of Intentionality to be Physically Active. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to analyze the psychometric properties of the scales. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. There were significant differences in the needs for autonomy and perceived competence according to the students’ gender (boys > girls). Attending to sport adherence, there were also significant differences according to the students’ gender (boys > girls) and sport experience (experienced students > inexperienced students). Likewise, a regression analysis (structural equation model) revealed that the autonomy need showed low association with sport adherence. Higher perceived competence (β = 0.52) and social relationships (β = 0.36) were associated with greater adherence to sport (R2 = 0.65). Increased sport adherence will have health benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0141.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tourist perception; tourist motivation; tourist satisfaction; gender; segmentation; Cordoba
Online: 6 August 2020 (09:33:47 CEST)
The cultural and historical heritage of a city is a major resource to attract tourists. Therefore, reaching out to perceive and identify the characteristics of persons visiting a locality attracted by their property is relevant for the purpose of better meeting their expectations and needs. This research focuses on knowing the perceptions, motivations and satisfaction of women visiting Cordoba (Spain). Thus, on the basis of the questionnaire carried out on women visiting Cordoba during the months of June and November 2019, a statistical analysis has been made. Using various multivalent case-grouping techniques, tourist segments with similar perceptions of cultural heritage have been detected. Moreover, non-parametric statistical techniques have showed up significant differences between the valuations obtained in the various segments. This analysis has exposed a segment of women who, known as absorbent tourists, are characterized by the high cultural motivation to visit the city of Cordoba linked to the heritage they have visited. The conclusions obtained should be useful in adjusting the city's tourist supply to the specific demand of a population sector such as women visiting the city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; depression; inflammation; ecological analysis; climate; gender
Online: 29 November 2022 (10:12:54 CET)
Several studies have identified a relationship between air pollution and depression, particularly in relation to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. However, the strength of this association appears to be moderated by variables such as age, gender, genetic vulnerability, physical activity and climatic conditions, and has not been assessed at a cross-national level to date. The current study examines the association between the prevalence of depression in each country, based on the most recent Global Burden of Disease Study data, and the average national level of PM2.5 based on the World Health Organization’s database. The observed associations were adjusted for age, gender, level of physical activity, income, education, population density, climate, and type of depression. It was observed that there was a modest but significant positive correlation between PM2.5 level and the prevalence of depression even after adjusting for the above confounders. This association was more marked above a certain threshold and applied chiefly to major depressive episodes. These findings are of significant public health importance in terms of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the population-level burden of depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: higher education; students; domestic abuse; stalking; gender-based violence; survey
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:27:55 CEST)
Domestic abuse and stalking in higher education (HE) have been overlooked in research in comparison to sexual harassment and sexual violence. This article reports on survey data from 725 students at a UK university using measures of ‘dating violence’ – physical and psychological violence from an intimate partner – and stalking from a US survey instrument (the Administrator Researcher Campus Climate Collaborative (ARC3) survey). According to this measure, 26% of respondents had been subjected to ‘dating violence’ and 16% to stalking behaviours. However, these findings need to be contextualised within a critical discussion of the use of the ARC3 survey tool in the UK context. The ARC3 questions on ‘dating violence’ focus on physical and ‘psychological violence’; the questions therefore omit further types of domestic abuse under UK definitions. In relation to stalking, US definitions – as captured in the ARC3 survey instrument – define specific behaviours. By contrast, in the UK stalking involves behaviours that engender fear or distress in a pattern of behaviour over time. These differences mean that the ARC3 modules on stalking and ‘dating violence’ would need to be significantly adapted to be suitable for use in the UK context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Firewood; Forest dependence; Gender; Household income; Livelihoods; Wealth status
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:56:38 CEST)
Rural households across developing countries rely on diversified sources of income and forest resource play important role in this regard. This study is designed with the objectives of assessing the contribution of forests to annual income of rural households and identifying its determinants with the case of Essera woreda forest in western Ethiopia. It also examined the gender dimensions of forest income and how this income varies with the wealth status of households key informants interview focus group discussion and household based questionnaire survey were used to collect data. On average income from crop production accounted for (40.7%) of the total annual household income. Forest income is second in importance contributing (32.6%), income from livestock off and non-farm activities and woodlots accounted for (13.6%), (11.4%) and (1.7%) of the total household income respectively. Firewood is the most used forest product and constituted the largest proportion (79%) of the total forest income. Forest income is more important for poor households (47.3%) than for medium (30.5%) or rich (20.2%) households. It is also more important for female headed households (58.2%) than for male headed households (29%). The gender dimension of forest income is also important within the household. Female members generated about four times more forest income (77% of the household forest income) than male members (23%). Policy to promote new forest management arrangement such as participatory forest management (PFM) needs to take in to account the major forest users and the types of products they depend on and be accompanied with other poverty reduction measures so that improved forest conservation outcome will not have negative consequences on local livelihoods particularly on poor and women who depend most on the forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0675.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Inflammatory Response Syndrome; VUE; chronic deciduitis; CD8; CD68; Placenta; gender
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:29:45 CET)
Long-term health consequences are influenced by circumstances that occur during pregnancy. The confluence of the maternal and fetal circulations occurs at the placenta, which is the first or-gan to develop. Placental pathology can provide an accurate diagnosis of inflammation inside the amniotic sac. The pathological alterations of preterm placentas provide evidence for the causes of numerous perinatal pathologies, including spontaneous preterm births. This retrospec-tive study aimed to re-examine placentas regarded as normal by the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in our institution so that grading and staging of any evident inflammatory response could be evaluated and associated with baby gender. Eighty-four full-term placentas were col-lected after delivery. Placentas that were considered normal and were not sent to the histo-pathology department were taken. Morphological examination of fresh placenta was conducted. Full thicknesses of placenta samples were taken from central and marginal regions of placental disc. Fetal and maternal inflammatory responses syndrome were assessed. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic deciduitis also were evaluated in the placenta. Immunohistochemis-try (IHC) was also performed to evaluate patterns of inflammation in the placenta using an-ti-CD8 and anti-CD68 antibodies. The correlation between the silent pathologies and clinical complications or involvement of developing fetal inflammatory response syndrome was meas-ured. In this study, seventeen (20%) maternal inflammatory samples and ten (12%) fetal inflam-matory samples showed inflammatory responses. The frequency of chronic deciduitis and villi-tis of unknown etiology was more remarkable among Saudi pregnant women than the previ-ously reported findings in the literature of placental pathology. The prevalence of fetal and ma-ternal inflammatory response was greater in the placentas of mothers of males than in placentas of female mothers. Grading placental inflammation usually predict the degree of maternal an-ti-fetal cellular rejection. Fetal inflammatory response syndrome usually goes unnoticed in Sau-di Arabia. There are differences in the inflammatory response in the placenta based on the sex of the newborn. Increasing the number of placental samples that must be sent for microscopic in-spection may be preferable due to their significance in identifying the causes of chronic disor-ders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: child prostitution, global inequality, gender inequality, participatory research, capability approach.
Online: 25 July 2018 (13:08:18 CEST)
This article draws on empirical research seeking to develop more nuanced understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, one of the economically poorest countries in the world, the study goes to the heart of questions of inequality and child protection. With careful attention to ethical considerations, a participatory approach was used to enable 19 girls and young women, whose involvement in prostitution began in childhood, to convey their own experiences and understandings of involvement. Data were collected using a range of methods, chosen by participants to match their abilities and interests. Data analysis and interpretation were aided by reference to the capability approach focussing on questions of human rights and social justice for women and girls. Generating rare insights into participants’ worlds, the research demonstrates how the persistence of deeply embedded cultural values in contexts of extreme poverty serves to sustain gender inequalities, constraining choices for girls and denying them opportunities to lead valued lives. The article ends by considering the theoretical and methodological implications of the study, policy and practice recommendations and opportunities for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: banana; cassava; potato; sweet potato; gender division-of-labour; decision-making
Online: 3 June 2019 (10:14:15 CEST)
This paper evaluates the determinants of decision making in relation to the production of four crops (banana, cassava, potato and sweet potato). Understanding the division of labour and decision-making in crop management may lead to designing better interventions targeted at improving efficiency in smallholder agriculture. A household quantitative survey with heads of households involving 261 women and 144 men in Burundi and 184 women and 222 men in Rwanda was conducted in 2014. Most of the decisions and labour provision during production of both cash crops (potato and banana) and food crops (sweet potato and cassava) were done jointly by men and women in male-headed households. Higher values for ‘credit access’, ‘land size’ and ‘farming as the main occupation of the household head’ increased the frequency of joint decision-making in male-headed households. A decline in the amount of farm income reduced the participation of men as decision makers. A reduction in total household income and proximity to the market was correlated with joint decision making. Gender norms also contributed to the lower participation of women in both decision-making and labour provision in banana and potato cultivation. Although a large proportion of decisions were made jointly, women perceived that men participate more in decision-making processes within the household during the production of cash crops. Increased participation by women in decision-making will require an active and practical strategy which can encourage adjustments to existing traditional gender norms that recognise men as the main decision-makers at both the household and community levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1426.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: personality types; coping strategies; perceived coping efficacy; academic stress; gender
Online: 20 July 2023 (13:02:49 CEST)
Some evidence suggests that personality types are a useful construct to understand stress and coping. However, further research is needed, especially on academic stress. Our aim was to explore how personality types and gender relate to coping strategies for academic stress and perceived coping efficacy. A total of 810 university psychology students completed the NEO-FFI Inventory and the Coping Strategies Inventory. Post-hoc tests for MANOVA and ANOVA were performed, where personality types and gender were treated as predictors and use of coping strategies and perceived coping efficacy as criteria. Finally, a one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc comparisons was performed to analyse the associations between personality types and perceived coping efficacy. Those with personality types combining low neuroticism with high conscientiousness chose the most adaptive coping strategies and showed the highest levels of perceived coping efficacy, while those whose personality types combined high neuroticism with low conscientiousness opted for maladaptive coping strategies and presented the lowest level of perceived coping efficacy. As for gender, women chose emotional expression more frequently. The personality type classification provided useful information on individual differences in coping with academic stress, which can help guide specific strategies to manage it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0861.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Myocardial infarction; risk factors; smoking; diabetes; arterial hypertension; age; gender
Online: 14 September 2023 (02:34:12 CEST)
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Its presentation as ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) is influence by atherosclerosis risk factors. Aim: To assess the patterns of presentation and predicting risk factors of acute MI in Kosovo. Methods: This is a cross sectional study from the Clinic of Cardiology of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, which included all patients hospitalized with acute MI over a period of 7 years (January 1st, 2014 to December 31st, 2020). Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and epidemiological patterns and risk factors were analyzed. Results: Among 7353 patients admitted with acute MI (age 63 ± 12 years, 29% female), 4366 (59.4%) patients had STEMI, and 2987 (40.6%) NSTEMI. Patients age was not different between the two groups (p=0.077). NSTEMI patients smoked less (48.3% vs. 54%, p<0.001), but were more diabetics (37.8% vs. 33.6%, p<0.001), more hypertensives (69.6% vs. 63%, p<0.001), frequently had family history for coronary artery disease (CAD) (40% vs 38%, p=0.009), and included more females compared to STEMI patients (32% vs 27%, p<0.001). The two groups of patients, did not differ in the prevalence of significant CAD on angiography (66.8% vs. 67.8%, p = 0.396), but NSTEMI patients underwent less primary percutaneous interventions compared with STEMI patients (43.6% vs. 55.2%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: In Kosovo, STEMI is commoner than NSTEMI, who were mostly males, more likely to have diabetes, hypertension and family history for CAD compared to those with NSTEMI. Smoking and arterial hypertension proved the strongest predictors of acute MI, in Kosovo, thus highlighting the urgent need for better atherosclerosis risk control and education strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; gender; sex; susceptibility; treatment effect
Online: 16 November 2023 (03:06:31 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs more frequently in women than in men, and the studies that have addressed clinical and prognostic differences between sexes are scarce and have contradictory results and methodological problems. The present work aims to evaluate sex and gender-related differences in the clinical expression and prognosis of RA as well as the impact on psychosocial variables, coping behavior, and healthcare use and access. By identifying between-sex differences and gender-related outcomes in RA, it may be possible to design tailored therapeutic strategies that consider the differences and unmet needs. Being sex, together with age, the most relevant biomarker and health determinant, a so-called personalized medicine approach to RA must include clear guidance on what to do in case of differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Scale validation; empowerment; Higher Education; Gender Equality
Online: 4 October 2023 (12:13:34 CEST)
Women's empowerment represents a process in which they are recognized as subjects of rights. Despite advances in women's rights, inequalities persist in various areas. This study aims to validate a psychometric scale of 31 items in seven factors: Participatory Empowerment, Temerity, External Influences, Independence, Social Satisfaction and Equality. The objective is to measure the empowerment of women in the university context. The research was carried out in a transversal and non-experimental manner, with the participants' voluntary collaboration, including the participation of 1,478 university students from four Higher Education Institutions in Zone 4 of Ecuador. The data was analyzed through inferential statistics, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicated that the instrument for measuring empowerment can be made up of 24 items grouped into six factors, and this model showed a good fit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: patient’s preferences; quality of life; lifespan; gender
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:22:49 CEST)
In view of the increasing age of cardiac surgery patients, questions arise about the expected postoperative quality of life and the hoped-for prolonged life expectancy. Little is known so far about this weighting by the patients concerned. This study aims to obtain information on the patient’s preferences. Between 2015 and 2017, data from 1349 consecutive patients from seven heart centers in Germany undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed. Baseline data regarding the patient’s situation as well as a questionnaire regrading quality of life versus lifespan were taken preoperatively. Patients were divided by age into 4 groups: below 60, 60-70, 70-80, and above 80 years. As a result, if one had to decide between quality of life and length of life, about 60% of the male patients decided for quality of life, independent of their age. On the other hand, female patient’s decision for quality of life increased significantly with age, from 51% in the group below sixty to 76% in the group above eighty years. This finding suggests that the female patients adapt their preferences with age whereas male patients do not. This should impact further treatment decisions of elderly patients in cardiac surgery within a shared decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0853.v1
Online: 11 May 2023 (12:40:52 CEST)
Just 2 years ago, 35% of Americans were involved with gig work. According to Statista, over half of Americans will be freelancing through online gig work by 2027. Research on how consumers select gig workers, or taskers, is still mostly underexplored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of a tasker's gender and self-presentation in their profile picture on consumer perceptions and choices. We proposed that taskers who have a professional headshot as the profile picture will receive higher ratings on competence, warmth, and trustworthiness than taskers whose profile picture is a selfie. We also proposed that taskers who smile in their profile picture will receive higher ratings on competency, warmth, and trustworthiness than taskers who do not smile. Furthermore, we predicted that professionalism has a stronger positive impact on perceptions of male taskers than on female taskers for our third hypothesis. Lastly, we hypothesized that gender bias exists on gig platforms, such that smiling will have a stronger positive effect on female taskers’ competence, warmth, and trustworthiness than on male taskers. Our study had 292 Kennesaw State University students who were tested online through Qualtrics. Our first and second hypotheses are not supported but our last two have partial support. There is a significant main effect of gender, and we find that male taskers are rated significantly higher on competence, warmth, and trustworthiness, compared to female taskers. Professional photos give male taskers an advantage over professional female taskers and female taskers are punished more for not smiling than male taskers. Future directions include looking into factors such as Race, Age, or background setting could be investigated. Conducting similar tests in a larger and more externally valid setting could yield more concrete results. Continuation into this new area of gig work could lead the way into revolutionizing how freelancers conduct their public appearance or how gig work platforms could handle this new market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0638.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: BMI, Child Obesity; Convergence; Clubs; Gender differences
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:52:34 CET)
Infant obesity has become one of the most serious global health challenges of our time. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity has rapidly increased worldwide during the last two decades, especially in some developing countries where obesity is reaching levels on a par with some industrialized countries, or even higher. This fast growth has occurred especially in countries in the midst of rapid social-economic transitions. Most international comparisons focus on the adult population while analyses focusing on the child population are more limited. Using the methodology developed by Phillips and Sul , this paper studies the worldwide evolution of infant body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity prevalence for a large sample of countries during the period 1975-2016. Our results indicate that the figures for BMI or the prevalence of obesity in different countries do not converge, while the opposite is the case for overweight prevalence in children. Furthermore, there is a non-linear relationship between obesity and income or human capital, indicating that low and middle-income countries require a strong initiative for health policies targeting obesity prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0450.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable education; gender effect; physics education; sustainability
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:58:59 CEST)
Determination of the parameters of the movement of surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. The study of development of basic concepts of motion has been done for years with different methods and in different contexts. We have analyzed the effect of the physical/scientific image of the world introduced to children by school education and its long- and short-term cognitive consequences. Our studies showed that children differentiate the concept of speed into two more specific concepts: average speed and instantaneous velocity. In the present work we present how the gender context is superimposed on this general picture. We found that initial, genuine pre-school concept of speed of girls and boys is, on average, different. Our analysis shows also that this gender effect vanishes quickly together with the appearance of physical definitions of kinematical quantities in physics/science curricula. We discuss also methodological aspect of the statistical ‘gender gap’ measure and we calculated the gender effect chance probability, p-value, to be slightly less than 0.001. The importance of observed effect for the sustainable science teaching processes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0626.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sexism; social networks; adolescence; digital gender gap, emotional well-being
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:01:04 CEST)
Despite gender equality being present in the social and political sphere, we still encounter aspects that are characteristic of sexism. Such aspects impact upon gender inequality and different types of violence towards women. The present article aims to examine the behaviour of adolescents from Huelva with regards to ambivalent sexism towards women on social networks and their influence on health. Further, we seek to uncover adolescent’s perceptions with regards to gender differences in the use of social networks, the relationship between sexism and women's emotional well-being was observed. The study sample was formed by young people aged between 14 and 16 years who were residing in rural and urban zones in the south of Spain. A mixed methods approach was taken. At a quantitative level, a sample of 400 young people was recruited. These were administered a questionnaire about sexism which was composed of two scales and has been validated at a national and international level. At a qualitative level, the study counted on 33 young people who participated in in-depth discussions via interviews and discussion groups. The results showed that sexism emerges in adolescence in the analysed sample from the south of Spain. This favoured a digital gender gap and was reinforced through social networks such as Instagram and Snapchat. Rising awareness and a critical view of the aforementioned sexism was shown on the behalf of females, particularly those from urban backgrounds.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Purplewashing; gender equality; quality of life for women; International Women's Day
Online: 10 March 2022 (02:14:45 CET)
Gender parity, is an important standard to be achieved by a society in which men and women are treated equally. The distinctions in the treatment may arise from psychology, biology, or cultural norms constructed by society. Studies show the different experiences of genders across many areas including health, education, personality, life expectancy, sports, interests, political empowerment, and careers. However, we are still far from reaching the objective, because there are conducts such as gender discrimination and expressions such as the purplewashing. In relation to feminism, purplewashing is used to define a diversity of marketing and political strategies intended at promoting people, companies, associations, and other organizations through an appeal to gender equality: they use only some of the feminist values at their convenience and in its actions, they are not really supportive of gender equality. In this opinion we aimed to address some of the reasons for inequality of opportunities based on gender; purplewashing is described as an expression that takes away the visibility of women's struggle. Additionally, we touch on some actions that promote gender equality in the family, educational, and work environments. Global leaders have an unprecedented opportunity to build gender-sensitive societies and economies. The challenges facing women today are essentially the same as they were a long time ago. It is time to break the bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intersectionality; gender equity; Intersectionality Walk; organisational change; inclusion; strategy; STEMM; diversity
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:48:59 CET)
. 1) Background: Intersectionality contests that individuals have multiple characteristics in their identity that cannot be siloed or deemed exclusive to each other. Understanding and utilising an intersectional lens in organisations can increase inclusion of individuals and organisational performance. An educational package known as the Intersectionality Walk (IW) was developed by the authors, piloted, and evaluated in order to break down the commonly held descriptors of diversity silos that fragments inclusion, and to understand how various identity characteristics compound disadvantage. The paper outlines the need to transition from siloed views of diversity to a more intrinsic view of identity to achieve inclusivity. 2) Methods: The IW was developed and trialled with a series of work-based scenarios and realistic multifaceted personas. Data collection occurred pre- and post- IW utilising a mixed methods approach. Responses to Likert scale surveys and open-ended questions were captured and analysed via inductive and ground theory perspectives. 3) Results: An improved awareness and understanding of individual knowledge, reflectivity and positionality relating to intersectionality and intersectional approaches was reported on completion of the IW. Further, responses reported how and why organisations can approach and improve inclusivity via using intersectional approaches. 4) Conclusions: The IW as an educational package has a positive impact and is a key linkage for all employers to build an inclusive culture and to harness the talent of all employees. Further research will occur to measure the implemented change in organisations following the IW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0813.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: gender-based harassment; cyberspace; cyber harassment; domestic abuse; law enforcement
Online: 12 June 2023 (09:49:49 CEST)
This study critically analyses the realities and experiences of gender-based harassment in cyberspace, and aims to unveil the shadows that shroud this phenomenon. It discloses the online spaces that disseminate detrimental attitudes towards women, despite their physical absence. Cyber violence has become a global issue and it causes significant economic and societal consequences. Recognizing and dealing with the adverse effects caused by demeaning cyber gender harassment is essential. The study raises questions to explore the kind of cyberbullying offences that are brought on by misogynistic inclinations in online environments and the experiences of the women who have gone through cyberbullying. This study uses semi-structured interviews and the IPA technique of the analysis of data to thoroughly examine the unique experiences of cyber harassment victims by applying a qualitative research approach. The study looks into various misogynistic cyber harassment offences and analyses women's accounts. Due to obstacles to justice, cyber violence and harassment replicate physical problems like spousal abuse and sexual harassment. A constant assault of intimidation and harassment results from the traditionally male-dominated character of cyberspace, which affects women's social, economic, and psychological well-being. Participants related horrifying tales of families' indifference and law enforcement officials' trivialization. Mental health problems increase isolation and prevent involvement in academic and professional activities. Women's well-being is exacerbated by societal blaming and secondary victimization. This brief analysis clarifies the intricacies of gender-based harassment in cyberspace and emphasizes the urgent need for efficient solutions to address this widespread issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: PageRank; gender inequality; citation impact; scientific research; research productivity; scientometrics
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:02:12 CEST)
The article's purpose is a citation analysis of the impact of scientific publications by authors of different gender compositions. The PageRank method was chosen to calculate the citation impact of scientific publications, and the citation has also estimated the impact of scientific publications based on the number of citations. The normalized citation impact of scientific publications is calculated according to nine subsets of scientific publications that correspond to patterns of different gender compositions of authors. Also, these estimates were calculated for each country with which the authors of the publications are affiliated. The Citation database was chosen for the scientometric analysis Network Dataset ( ver . 13). The dataset includes more than 5 million scientific publications and 48 million citations. The main subject areas of scientific publications in this database are computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, engineering, etc. The results indicate that articles with a predominantly male composition are cited more than articles with a mixed or female composition of authors in this direction. Analysis of advantages in dynamics indicates that in the last decade for developed countries, there has been a decrease in the connection between the citation impact of scientific publications and the gender composition of their authors. However, the obtained results still confirm the presence of gender inequality in science, which may be related to socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, natural homophily, and other factors that contribute to the appearance of gender gaps. An essential consequence of overcoming these gaps, including in science, is ensuring the rights of people in all their diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Computed tomography, Thymus Gland, Dog, Age, Gender, Breed, Body Fat
Online: 4 May 2023 (02:59:54 CEST)
: Background: The thymus gland is the first lymphoid organ formed to regulate a newborn's immunity. It reaches its maximum size during puberty, after which it undergoes an atrophic procedure called involution, but its ability to grow again in response to some stresses, such as infections, neoplasia, surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is maintained. There is not any comprehensive study on computed tomographic features of thymus gland in dogs. So, the goal of the present study is to achieve some information about thymus gland using computed tomography as a non-invasive method. Methods: One hundred and fifty dogs classified in 5 age groups and 2 breed groups were entered to this study and the thymus gland was evaluated using 2-slice computed tomography machine. The inclusion criteria for the present study were having normal complete blood count, plain and post-contrast CT scan examination of thoracic region and no history of neoplasia, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The visibility, density, enhancement, grade, size, volume, shape, borders and lateralization of the thymus were evaluated and statistical analysis were performed. The effect of obesity on thymic grade and volume were also investigated. Results: The visibility, density, dorsal length, volume and grade decreased with increasing age. The thymic shape and lateralization were mostly wedge-shaped and left sided respectively. The borders became concave with aging and increasing body fat content caused to increase fatty degeneration of thymus. Conclusions: Declining of thymic density, grade, size and volume with aging was related to thymic involution and fatty degeneration was accelerated by increasing body fat content. Females and Males were different only in thymic shape and small and large breeds were different only in thymic volume. The thymus was visible in some geriatric dogs with no underlying disease. We hope that the present work can be used by radiologists in reading thoracic computed tomography but investigation of thymic characteristics in dogs with neoplasia and history of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and thoracic surgeries can complete this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: exercise; marriage; sedentary behavior; gender; age groups; behavioral risk factors surveillance system
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:44:23 CET)
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the age and sex-related associations between marital status with PA and TV time. We used data from Vigitel, an annual telephone survey started in 2006 in Brazil. We applied a complex sample logistic regression model to estimate the odds for PA and TV time comparing marital statuses according to age and sex subgroups, independent of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, self-assessed poor health, and smoking. Our sample included 561,837 individuals with a TV time > 3 h/day (prevalence = 25.2%) and PA > 150 min/week (prevalence = 35%). Compared to single individuals, married men and women were less likely to watch TV more than 3 h/day in participants > 30 years old. When compared to single, married participants were less likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups. Married women older than 40 years were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week than the single ones, while there were no differences among married men by age group. In conclusion, married individuals are less likely to spend more than 3 hours a day watching TV than single individuals. Single men and women were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups and married women older than 40 years were more likely to do 150 min of PA/week than single women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sensory-processing sensitivity; depression; agression; emotional intelligence; decision-making style; gender differences
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:07:37 CET)
While the link between Sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) and internalizing symptoms has been well-established, a link to externalizing problems is still to be explored. This study aimed to further examine the relation between SPS and behavioral problems by testing the potential mediating roles of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and decision-making styles. Pathway analyses were conducted on data from 268 community sample participants (Mage= 25.81, SD=2.41, 61.2% females). Results indicated gender differences in the pathway level outcomes of SPS, as well as potential partial mediators in men and women. SPS both directly and via the mediating effects of well-being factor (TEI) and avoidant decision-making influenced depression, regardless of gender. Direct effects on aggression were, however, obtained only in the male sample. Indirect effects of SPS on aggression were found in spontaneous decision-making for men, and in self-control and sociability factors of TEI for women. Directions for future research were discussed. sensory-processing sensitivity, depression, aggression, emotional intelligence, decision-making style, gender differences
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal Depression; Attachment Style; Coping Strategies; Gender Medicine; Women Health
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:42:26 CEST)
Abstract Peripartum depression (PPD) is a major complication of pregnancy and many risk factors have been associated with its development, including dysfunctional coping strategies and insecure attachment styles, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between women’s attachment style and PPD in pregnancy, and one week after childbirth, in a large cohort of women. We hypothesized that the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and PPD would be mediated by use of maladaptive coping strategies. The assessment instruments were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE), Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR). The results indicated that the effect of insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant attachment) on antepartum depressive symptomatology was partially mediated by dysfunctional coping styles. Anxious attachment has also an indirect significant effect on postpartum depression through emotional coping; however, avoidant attachment does not seem to be significantly related to postpartum depression. Our findings revealed that not only it is important to consider attachment in understanding PPD but also that coping plays an important role in these relationships. These findings would help a preventive coping-based intervention strategy to enhance the capacity of women with insecure attachment styles to use more adaptive coping during and after pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Down's Syndrome; perception; quality of life; sport; age; gender; scale
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:17:41 CET)
The hypothesis posed was whether participation in LaLiga Genuine Santander (competitive football) influenced the quality of life (QL) of the people who participated in it, since their perception of themselves is enhanced by all the aformentioned factors (self-determination, social inclusion, emotional well-being, physical well-being, material well-being, rights, personal development, interpersonal relationships). The objective was to evaluate the QL of people with Down's Syndrome (DS) using their self-perception (n=39) and the perception of the informants (family members, teachers) (n=39). The KidsLife-Down Scale, with a few modifications was used. In general, differences of opinion between the subgroups of participants with DS and informants showed that results were higher in terms of perception for participants in the DS subgroup. Scores for all variables were higher for those participants with DS who said they did engage in practicing competitive football. Despite the perception of informants provides a great deal of information regarding the QL of participants with DS, the latter should be involved in the evaluation process and their self perceptions taken into account. Our research shows that participation in the league modifies the perceptions of the participants with Down's Syndrome regarding their quality of life. However, these perceptions are not shared by the informants.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: social intervention; COVID-19; health policy; public health; age; gender
Online: 2 May 2020 (12:04:58 CEST)
Many governments particularly in Europe are designing social interventions for the first post COVID-19 emergency phase. Definition of a ‘best practice’ for restriction release is urgent. Although data uncertainty generate difficulties, we believe near term analysis must shift from attempting to understand the numerous ‘unknowns’ to the clarification and interpretation of the few ‘knowns’, to create stepping stones towards rapid evidence-based decision making.Here, open access data on COVID-19 severity in three European countries were analyzed. Spain’s data were more comprehensive than those from Italy and Germany. Overall, COVID-19 severity shows a remarkable nonlinear growth with age that is significantly higher in adult males. Hence, age-adaptive and gender-balanced social interventions might represent efficient repopulation options for public health policymakers. Furthermore, we urge wider governmental effort for open access to relevant data. Their analysis will allow consolidation of existing trends, validation of key observations and thus facilitation of timely decisions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0542.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Epidemiology; Prevention Strategies; Vaccination; Screening; Cervical Cancer; Gender Gap
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:32:32 CEST)
Background and aim: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted, one of the three most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in both males and females, and the most common viral STI. A crucial public health strategy to protect people against HPV is through vaccination, which has shown its effectiveness in preventing HPV related diseases. Presently three types of vaccines are available (bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent) and they all target at least the two most oncogenic virus genotypes (HPV 16, 18). In the past few years, the need to implement vaccination programmes that include all genders has been discussed in order to achieve herd immunity against HPV. To date, only a few countries have included young males in their vaccination programmes, so we aim through this review to provide an overview of the epidemiology of HPV and prevention strategies to prevent it, reporting the latest findings from the scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Gender Differences; Tic disorder; Selective Mutism; Trichotillomania; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Aggression
Online: 13 October 2020 (10:45:13 CEST)
Gender differences have been documented in the prevalence of psychological symptoms. Tic disorders and ASD are more common in male clinical samples, while selective mutism and trichotillomania are more common in female clinical samples. In a review of 84 published case studies of Japanese children, this study explores gender differences in the prevalence of four categories of symptoms and expressions made in therapy for tics, selective mutism, trichotillomania, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Case studies were evaluated using both qualitative coding and statistical analysis. The findings were mostly consistent with epidemiological surveys and empirical research on adults. The gender differences in symptom prevalence and their expression can be summarized as differences in more direct aggression for boys versus indirect aggression for girls. The objective and progress in the therapy are to control impulsive energy for boys and to express energy for girls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0233.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Food security; agriculture; health; Sustainable Development Goals; 2030 agenda; gender studies
Online: 10 August 2021 (12:35:15 CEST)
Since its adoption in September 2015, the 2030 Agenda has laid the foundations for a model of shared prosperity for a sustainable world. We are going through a complicated pandemic that shows profound inequalities affecting our economies, health, and quality of life. For this reason, our aim in this work is to make known the state of the art of scientific research related to inequality, poverty, and climate change and to propose lines of improvement that can contribute to achieving 3 of the 17 SDGs (End poverty-SDG 1-, Reduce inequality-SDG 10-, and Climate action -SDG 13-), proposed in the 2030 Agenda. To do so, we have used a systematic literature review methodology. The results show that poverty, inequality and climate change is a subject that has been little studied and articulated by researchers, with significant differences between the different areas studied. Topics related to sustainability and economics are those with the highest number of publications (51.7%). The rest are distributed among the 12 existing departments. Another relevant finding is that the effects of climate change are more pressing for more vulnerable populations, including impoverished women from rural areas and children from underdeveloped countries. This is a gender and social inequality that has been little addressed in climate change studies. Food security and energy poverty is another under-exploited aspect in this area. According to the results obtained in this work, we consider that the circular economy could improve these indicators, constituting a line of future research. Thus, one of its main objectives is to eliminate negative externalities, specifically existing social inequalities within the current linear economy model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1618.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body image; body schema; gender; interoception; motor imagery
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:45:38 CET)
Body image disturbance (BID) involves negative attitudes towards shape and weight and is associated with lower levels of interoception (awareness of and attention toward internal physiological states). This association is considered a risk factor for developing eating disorders (EDs) and is linked to altered sensorimotor representations of the body (i.e., body schema). BIDs manifest across genders and are currently understudied in men. This study investigated gender-related differences in BID and its relationship to the body schema and interoception. Data were collected from 86 men and women. BID was assessed using questionnaires measuring self-objectification, state, and trait body dissatisfaction. Interoceptive sensibility was measured via the MAIA-2. The body schema was indexed via an embodied mental rotation task. Results showed that women reported higher BID than men across all scales. Gender differences in sub-components of interoceptive sensibility were found. Overall, both gender and interoceptive sensibility predicted BID. However, interoceptive sensibility exhibited its own unique association with BID beyond the influence of gender. BID, IS and gender were not significant predictors of performance in the body schema task. Therefore, while gender predicts differences in BID and interoceptive sensibility, there was no evidence of gender-related differences in body schema.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0631.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Rural territory; Spain; people; repopulation model; gender; immigration
Online: 10 July 2023 (12:08:43 CEST)
For the first time in human history the majority of people no longer live in a rural environment. According to the United Nations, over 50% of the global population now lives in cities. The abandonment of the rural environment has grave consequences for society in general, as these areas are healthier places to live, produce the food we all depend on, and are an important factor for preserving biodiversity and environmental sustainability. In this paper we will provide a historical overview of rural repopulation models and analyse a number of models currently being applied in several countries in Europe and Latin America. We will also offer observations on a pilot repopulation project called “Habita Tierra” currently being developed. The common characteristics of different repopulation models prompted us to develop a model based on active listening and accompaniment of people and local agents as well as other important factors. Rural depopulation in Spain involves a number of interrelated problems, one of the most salient being the aging rural population. The average farmer in Spain is 61 years of age. There is also the problem of gender imbalance in rural areas, where women enjoy few opportunities or alternatives. In turn, low fertility rates, increasing stress on limited public healthcare, education and transpor-tation resources, a lack of cultural activities and poor connectivity are also factors driving rural depopulation. The only group which is increasing the rural areas in Spain are immigrants, who now account for 10% of the rural population, often performing the agricultural, fishing and livestock farming ac-tivities abandoned by native residents. This group, along with young people, and women of all ages and the programs which support them may offer a solution to the challenge of depopulation. The paper concludes with a list of the key features of successful repopulation programs, drawn from a comparison of historic and contemporary models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Disaster; Vulnerability; Women; Gender; Disaster Risk Reduction; Bangladesh
Online: 5 July 2021 (09:39:48 CEST)
This paper aims to delve into how gender dimensions observed before, during and after a disaster, have been addressed in two internationally recognised frameworks developed for reducing risks of disasters: Hyogo Framework Action (2005-2015) and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). Building on a systematic review, we evaluate 33 scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, including book chapters and websites in areas of gender, disaster risk reduction and vulnerability. This study documents a comparative picture of these two frameworks and shows the practical implications of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) by addressing women’s empowerment in the light of their active participation in disaster risk reduction process. The findings of the study suggest that the frameworks have discussed the reduction of women’s socioeconomic vulnerabilities, as well as encouraged their empowerment. Comparing the two frameworks, it appears in the current study that there has been a significant gap in the existing literature that does not explicitly document comparing and contrasting features of a gender lens in the policy documents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Confirmed cases, case fatality rate, province, age, gender.
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:24:55 CEST)
The initial outbreak of COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan (China) during the latter part of December 2019. Indonesia has the fourth-largest population globally and reported the country’s first case of the virus on 2nd March 2020. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in addition to several neighbouring provinces and educational institutions within the region began questioning the Indonesian government upon the initial case reported. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia during March 2020. The data were collected from Indonesian government databases and non-government organisations (NGOs). The data were analysed using Microsoft Office 2019 (Excel) and Adobe Illustrator 2017 software, was used in drawing the map depicting the distribution of COVID-19 in Indonesia. As at 31st March 2020, a total of 1,528 people in Indonesia have been infected by COVID-19, in addition to 136 mortalities (CFR of 8.9%). Jakarta, as the principal capital of Indonesia, quickly has become the epicentre of the virus since this period. Most patient cases were attributed to those aged between 31 and 70 years (72.64%), with male patients (64.93%) representing the highest incidence of cases compared to female patients (35.07%). The number of ventilating machines was 3,326, with hospital numbers at 859. The distribution of cases depicting COVID-19 was mainly seen in urban areas compared to rural areas. Males compared to females, are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, including those aged below 30, between 30 and 60 or above. Indonesia also has the highest case fatality rate (CFR) with respect to mortalities in Southeast Asia and has the second-highest CFR globally. Similarly, while the number of ventilator machines as at 31st March 2020 were sufficient in meeting the growing number of COVID-19 cases in the country, it is possible that the government may need to increase the number of ventilators if the cases continue to escalate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0139.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: organizational commitment; academic staff; gender; level of education
Online: 11 April 2019 (10:27:55 CEST)
Academic staffs’ organizational commitment has been a critical issue to determine work performance for successes of University, as well as, to keep its Academic staffs motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been investigated so as to draw attention for enhancement of effective work performance and success. The main objective of this study was to assess academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in Haramaya University. The study also investigated whether significant differences exist in academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in reference to their gender and level of education. Researchers used cross-sectional research design. Primary and secondary data sources were used to study the problem. A commitment scale questionnaire was used to collect data from 275 participants who were selected from 877 target population of the study using stratified sampling technique; furthermore, focus group discussion and document review were also used to triangulate the data. The quantitative data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics; the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. The study revealed that academic staffs of the university have moderate level organizational commitment. This implies relatively no more expected effective work performance for success of the institution; In addition, there were relative implications of turnover, turnover intention, absenteeism, and demotivation among staffs. The study further revealed that although there is no significance difference in employees’ level of commitment with reference to gender, their level of organizational commitment was significantly different in reference to level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0277.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: gender; leadership; women in top management; career management, Chile
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:48:06 CEST)
The issue of women’s participation in top management and boardroom positions has received increasing attention in the academic literature and the press. However, the pace of advancement for women managers and directors continues to be slow and uneven. The novel framework of this study organizes the factors at the individual, organizational and public policy level that affect both career persistence and the advancement of women in top management positions; namely, factors affecting 1) career persistence (staying at the organization) and 2) career advancement or mobility (getting promoted within the organization). In the study location, Chile, only 32 percent of women “persist”, or have a career without interruptions, mainly due to issues with work–family integration and organizational environments with opaque and challenging working conditions. Women who “advanced” in their professional careers represent 30 percent of high management positions in the public sector and 18 percent in the private sector. Only 3 percent of general managers in Chile are women. Women in Chile have limited access and are still not integrated into business power networks. Our findings will enlighten business leaders and public policy-makers interested in designing organizations that retain and promote talented women in top positions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0622.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: aging; aged; sexual and gender minorities; quality of life; stereotyping; social discrimination
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:49:10 CEST)
There is a general lack of research involving older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people. This systematic review aimed to synthesize Japanese and Swedish qualitative research on LGBTQ people aged 60 years or older. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Japanese and Swedish articles, published in English-language journals, were searched across PsychINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases. Additional searches were carried out to include studies written in Japanese or Swedish. There were no papers from Japan, and five from Sweden were reviewed. Four articles were included, including 48 participants aged 60–94 years. We summarized the findings using a deductive thematic synthesis. Two major themes emerged: (a) quality of life, minority joy, and resilience (positive aspects), and (b) experiences of discrimination, stigmatization, and minority stress (negative aspects). The participants described a wish to be acknowledged for their own assets and unique life histories, and to be treated as everyone else. They emphasized the importance of knowledge of LGBTQ issues among nursing staff, so that older LGBTQ people are treated in a competent and affirmative way. The study revealed several important topics for understanding older LGBTQ people’s life circumstances and the severe lack of qualitative studies in Japan and Sweden.