ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0180.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: American grapevine rootstocks; vertical garden; offshoot growth; footprint
Online: 16 July 2018 (05:23:00 CEST)
In this study, grapevine was used as the research material. This plant which epitomizes the opinion that vertical gardens can have a positive influence on human psychology with their beautiful view, e.g., the hanging gardens of Babylon about 2500 years ago. The study in question was conducted in 2016 at Bingol University, Faculty of Agriculture, the Department of Garden Plants research and application area. The offshoot growth was measured in a fertilizer experiment that formed the control, first application (200 g/100 L water, leaf) and second application (100 g/100 L water + 20% leaf + root). Moreover, the plant’s footprint in the vertical area was determined. The average offshoot growth of 1103 P American grapevine rootstock in the first and second applications was measured as 61.5 cm and 39.5 cm respectively, and it was 43.0 cm and 51.0 for C American grapevine rootstock. The average growth of 1103 P and 1616 C American grapevine in the control group was determined as 30.6 cm and 32.1 cm. The average growth of both American grapevine rootstocks used in the experiment was determined to be higher for the first and second applications than the controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: medieval gardening; horticulture; monastery garden; herb; relict plants; medicinal plants
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:47:51 CEST)
Gardening was an important part of the daily duties within several of the religious orders in Europe during the Middle Ages. The rule of Saint Benedict specified that the monastery should, if possible, contain a garden within itself, and before and above all things, special care should be taken of the sick, so that they may be served in very deed, as Christ himself. The cultivation of medicinal and utility plants was important to meet the material needs of the monastic institutions, but no physical garden has yet been found and excavated in either Scandinavia or Iceland. Especially the Cistercians were well known for being pioneer gardeners, but also other orders like the Benedictines and Augustinians practised gardening. The monasteries and nunneries operating in Iceland during medieval times are assumed to have belonged to either the Augustinian or the Benedictine orders. In Norway in addition other orders included the Dominicans, Fransiscans, Premonstratensians and Knights Hospitallers. Based on botanical investigations at all the Icelandic and Norwegian monastery sites, it is concluded that many of the plants found may have a medieval past as medicinal and utility plants, and with all the evidence combined, most probably were cultivated in monastery gardens.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0144.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Alaria marginata; common garden; mariculture; ribbon kelp; sugar kelp; Saccharina latissima
Online: 10 March 2022 (10:35:01 CET)
An increasing body of evidence shows that seaweeds, including kelp, can be used as a tool to neutralize or remove excess nutrients and metals from the water column. Here we report on a preliminary field assessment showing potential nutrient and carbon removal differences by sugar kelp and ribbon kelp grown in common gardens. Seawater and tissue samples were collected systematically from two farms in Alaska. Results show differences between % N and % C content between ribbon kelp (Alaria marginata) and sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima). Results also show that tissue nitrogen in ribbon kelp varies sharply due to nitrogen availability in the water column. In contrast, the percentage of tissue N in sugar kelp remains comparatively stable. Our outcomes provide insight into potential differences in nutrient removal and harvest timing for different kelp species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:57:08 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar, turnip/grelo, and spinach) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0153.v1
Subject: Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Urban agriculture; Wheat; Controlled environment agriculture, Vertical garden
Online: 11 October 2021 (10:14:56 CEST)
Main purposes and research question: Wheat is the second largest grain crop by tonnage in the world and the largest in Denmark. Given the observed, adverse impacts on wheat yields of climate change and the importance of wheat in the human diet, the purpose of this study was to use life cycle assessment to compare conventional wheat farming with indoor vertical farming using hydroponics. Methods: Life Cycle Assessment was used to assess the base case systems up to the “farm gate” for 1 tonne of wheat grain. The processes contributing most of the impacts were identified, and scenarios were assessed to determine how much the impacts could be reduced. Results: The conventional system outperformed the base case vertical system in every impact category, due to the electricity consumption in the lighting system. The scenarios included increasing the efficiency of the LED lighting and using 100% wind energy, but the conventional system still outperformed the vertical system by significant margins in all impact categories. This was due to the low photosynthetic conversion efficiency and the high energy density of wheat. Conclusions: Until significant improvements are made to lighting efficiency, the photosynthesis conversion efficiency of wheat, new wheat variants designed for vertical gardens and the sustainability of electricity supply, conventional wheat production will be environmentally preferable and vertical gardens would be advised to focus on food products with low energy densities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0349.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Comparative Literature Keywords: garden of Eden; attempts at location; history of biblical exegesis; narrative strategies.
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:50:18 CEST)
A close analysis of the text of Gen. 2:8-15, pertaining to the garden of Eden, shows the structural differences between said text and others from ancient mythologies that mention or describe a paradise. Likewise, that analysis suggests that the data provided by the Bible to locate paradise is merely a narrative device meant to dissipate all doubts as to the existence of the garden where God put human beings. Similarly to other spaces that appear in the Bible, the garden of Eden is but an impossible place. Throughout the centuries, however, recurring proposals have been made that aim to find paradise. As time went by, those proposals were progressively modified by the intellectual ideas dominant at any given era, thus leading the representations of the location of Paradise further and further away from the information provided by the biblical text.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0059.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: landuse change; climate change; garden city model; green vegetation; Landsat; urban heat island
Online: 4 September 2018 (06:28:33 CEST)
The key anthropogenic effects on climate include the changes in land use and emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Depletion of vegetation poses serious threat that speeds the process of climate change and reduces carbon sequestration by the environment. Thus, the preservation of natural environment in urban areas is an essential component of the garden city model, proposed by Sir Ebenezer Howard in 1898, to ensure ecological balance. Recent Landsat images showed that Kumasi does not have the required percentage of green vegetation as was stipulated in the garden city model on which the city was built. It was observed that most parts of Kumasi's green vegetation have been lost to built environments. This study was conducted to assess the impact of urbanization on the garden city status and its effect on the micro-climate of the city. Significant changes in the vegetation cover of the city was evaluated from Landsat-TM imagery and analysis of a long term climatic data of Kumasi carried out over a 55-year period (1960 to 2015). It was observed that, climatic conditions have slightly changed, as mean surface temperature of has increased by 1.2 °C/ 55 years, due to the significant landuse changes from development of non-transpiring, reduced evaporative urban surfaces. However, the impact is not greatly felt due to the geographical location of the city on the globe despite the evidence of a considerable temperature change. Green vegetation conservation for the city is recommended as a top priority in future for city authorities and planners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0266.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Asian architecture; Asian heritage; China; Japan; Urban Design; Garden and Landscape Design; Reformation of the Arts.
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:50:54 CEST)
With this article we would like to clarify the often-disregarded fact by virtue of which the European Missionaries in Asia acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent they became harbingers of Culture and Science more than Faith itself to the dismay of many, including the Roman Church. Such cultural and scientific transference was actually two-pronged, for simultaneously they presented in Europe unique findings related to Language, e.g. the Chinese Characters (considered to be the sole natural language), Geography, Cosmology and even Governance. We would try to prove that such procedure contributed positively to the modern scientific notions of sustainability and to provide the kind of accoutrements that model the modern world as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0262.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: common garden; climate change; silver fir; grand fir; Balkan firs; drought stress; provenance test; resilience; climate transfer distance; adaptation
Online: 12 May 2021 (09:52:25 CEST)
Research Highlights: Data of advanced-age provenance tests were reanalyzed applying a new approach, to directly estimate the growth of populations at their original sites under individually generated future climates. The results reveal surprisingly high resilience potential of fir species. Background and Objectives: The growth and survival of silver fir under future climatic scenarios is insufficiently investigated at the xeric limits. The selective signature of past climate determining the current and projected growth was investigated to analyze the prospects of adaptive silviculture and assisted transfer of silver fir populations, and of the introduction of non-autochthonous species. Materials and Methods: Hargreaves’ climatic moisture deficit was selected to model height responses of adult populations. Climatic transfer distance was used to assess the relative drought stress of populations at the test site, relating these to the past conditions to which the populations had adapted. ClimateEU and ClimateWNA pathway RCP8.5 data served to determine individually past, current, and future moisture deficit conditions. Beside silver fir, other fir species from South Europe and the American Northwest were also tested. Results: Drought tolerance profiles explained the responses of transferred provenances and predicted their future performance and survival. Silver fir displayed significant within-species differentiation regarding drought stress response. Applying the assumed drought tolerance limit of 100mm relative moisture deficit, most of the tested silver fir populations seem to survive their projected climate at their origin until the end of the century. Survival is likely also for transferred Balkan fir species and for grand fir populations, but not for the Mediterranean species. Conclusions: The projections are less dramatic than provided by usual field assessments. Some results contradict generally accepted concepts. The method fills the existing gap between experimentally determined adaptive response and the predictions needed for management decisions. It also underscores the unique potential of provenance tests.