ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning; LiDAR; Mobile Laser Scanning; SLAM; Forest inventory; Garden documentation; Garden digital surveying
Online: 16 November 2022 (10:33:52 CET)
Gardens play a key role in the definition of the cultural landscape since they reflect the culture, identity and history of a people. They also contribute to the ecological balance of the city. Despite gardens have an historic and social value, they are not protected as much as the rest of the existing heritage, like architecture and archaeological sites. While methods of built-heritage mapping and monitoring are increasing and constantly improving to reduce built-heritage loss and the severe impact of natural disasters, the documentation and survey techniques for gardens are often antiquated, inventories are typically made by non-updated/updatable reports, and rarely they are on digital format and in 3D. This paper presents the preliminary results of a study on latest technology for gardens laser scanning. We compared static Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Mobile Laser Scanning point clouds, to evaluate their quality for documentation and the estimation of the tree attributes. The evaluation is based on visual observation and graphic comparison of the two point clouds acquired in different instances. Both methods produced useful outcomes for the research scope within their limitations. Terrestrial Laser Scanning is still the method that offers more accurate point clouds with a higher point density and less noise level. However, the more recent Mobile Laser Scanning is able to survey in less time, significantly reducing the costs for site activities, data post-production and registration. Both methods have their own restrictions that are amplified by site features, mainly the lack of plans for the geometric alignment of scans and for the Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) process. We also offer the results of a comparison of the functional range of the two machines, as well as for a comparison of their terrain information extraction capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0304.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Urban garden; protease; lipase; DNAse; lipase; Spatial statistics.
Online: 17 February 2023 (07:44:32 CET)
The enzymatic activities of bacterial isolates have been widely studied, but a spatial distribution of this activity is rarely focused. New antibiotic-producing microorganisms can be discovered in a more efficient manner if spatial statistical techniques are applied to the distribution of the activity of bacterial isolates in different terrains. This study is focused to generate a series of maps illustrating the spatial distribution of different soil parameters and the inhibition against relative-safe pathogens (like Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, Pseudomonas fluorencens and Enterobacter cloacae) in an urban park in València (Spain). This spatial data has demonstrated a higher proportion of isolates was specifically allocated. This routine of data presentation is valuable for understanding bacterial population dynamics at a local level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0180.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: American grapevine rootstocks; vertical garden; offshoot growth; footprint
Online: 16 July 2018 (05:23:00 CEST)
In this study, grapevine was used as the research material. This plant which epitomizes the opinion that vertical gardens can have a positive influence on human psychology with their beautiful view, e.g., the hanging gardens of Babylon about 2500 years ago. The study in question was conducted in 2016 at Bingol University, Faculty of Agriculture, the Department of Garden Plants research and application area. The offshoot growth was measured in a fertilizer experiment that formed the control, first application (200 g/100 L water, leaf) and second application (100 g/100 L water + 20% leaf + root). Moreover, the plant’s footprint in the vertical area was determined. The average offshoot growth of 1103 P American grapevine rootstock in the first and second applications was measured as 61.5 cm and 39.5 cm respectively, and it was 43.0 cm and 51.0 for C American grapevine rootstock. The average growth of 1103 P and 1616 C American grapevine in the control group was determined as 30.6 cm and 32.1 cm. The average growth of both American grapevine rootstocks used in the experiment was determined to be higher for the first and second applications than the controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: medieval gardening; horticulture; monastery garden; herb; relict plants; medicinal plants
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:47:51 CEST)
Gardening was an important part of the daily duties within several of the religious orders in Europe during the Middle Ages. The rule of Saint Benedict specified that the monastery should, if possible, contain a garden within itself, and before and above all things, special care should be taken of the sick, so that they may be served in very deed, as Christ himself. The cultivation of medicinal and utility plants was important to meet the material needs of the monastic institutions, but no physical garden has yet been found and excavated in either Scandinavia or Iceland. Especially the Cistercians were well known for being pioneer gardeners, but also other orders like the Benedictines and Augustinians practised gardening. The monasteries and nunneries operating in Iceland during medieval times are assumed to have belonged to either the Augustinian or the Benedictine orders. In Norway in addition other orders included the Dominicans, Fransiscans, Premonstratensians and Knights Hospitallers. Based on botanical investigations at all the Icelandic and Norwegian monastery sites, it is concluded that many of the plants found may have a medieval past as medicinal and utility plants, and with all the evidence combined, most probably were cultivated in monastery gardens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1736.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Urban Garden; Perceived Restorativeness; Resillience; Sense of Community; Stress; Salivary cortisol
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:10:25 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the influence of urban garden activities on participants' Perceived restorativeness, resilience, sense of community, and stress reduction. Ninety individuals who agreed to participate to the experiment were divided into experimental and control groups. To collect data 16 sessions of urban garden activities were conducted every two weeks from May to November of 2022. Perceived Restorativeness Scale, Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, Sense of Community Index, and Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument were employed to measure participants’ psychological effects. To evaluate physiological effect salivary cortisol tests were performed. The results of the study revealed that urban gardening activities influenced on participants' physiological and psychological reactions in positive ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:09:03 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar and turnip/grelo) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Alaria marginata; common garden; mariculture; ribbon kelp; sugar kelp; Saccharina latissima
Online: 10 March 2022 (10:35:01 CET)
An increasing body of evidence shows that seaweeds, including kelp, can be used as a tool to neutralize or remove excess nutrients and metals from the water column. Here we report on a preliminary field assessment showing potential nutrient and carbon removal differences by sugar kelp and ribbon kelp grown in common gardens. Seawater and tissue samples were collected systematically from two farms in Alaska. Results show differences between % N and % C content between ribbon kelp (Alaria marginata) and sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima). Results also show that tissue nitrogen in ribbon kelp varies sharply due to nitrogen availability in the water column. In contrast, the percentage of tissue N in sugar kelp remains comparatively stable. Our outcomes provide insight into potential differences in nutrient removal and harvest timing for different kelp species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Urban agriculture; Wheat; Controlled environment agriculture, Vertical garden
Online: 11 October 2021 (10:14:56 CEST)
Main purposes and research question: Wheat is the second largest grain crop by tonnage in the world and the largest in Denmark. Given the observed, adverse impacts on wheat yields of climate change and the importance of wheat in the human diet, the purpose of this study was to use life cycle assessment to compare conventional wheat farming with indoor vertical farming using hydroponics. Methods: Life Cycle Assessment was used to assess the base case systems up to the “farm gate” for 1 tonne of wheat grain. The processes contributing most of the impacts were identified, and scenarios were assessed to determine how much the impacts could be reduced. Results: The conventional system outperformed the base case vertical system in every impact category, due to the electricity consumption in the lighting system. The scenarios included increasing the efficiency of the LED lighting and using 100% wind energy, but the conventional system still outperformed the vertical system by significant margins in all impact categories. This was due to the low photosynthetic conversion efficiency and the high energy density of wheat. Conclusions: Until significant improvements are made to lighting efficiency, the photosynthesis conversion efficiency of wheat, new wheat variants designed for vertical gardens and the sustainability of electricity supply, conventional wheat production will be environmentally preferable and vertical gardens would be advised to focus on food products with low energy densities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0349.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: garden of Eden; attempts at location; history of biblical exegesis; narrative strategies.
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:50:18 CEST)
A close analysis of the text of Gen. 2:8-15, pertaining to the garden of Eden, shows the structural differences between said text and others from ancient mythologies that mention or describe a paradise. Likewise, that analysis suggests that the data provided by the Bible to locate paradise is merely a narrative device meant to dissipate all doubts as to the existence of the garden where God put human beings. Similarly to other spaces that appear in the Bible, the garden of Eden is but an impossible place. Throughout the centuries, however, recurring proposals have been made that aim to find paradise. As time went by, those proposals were progressively modified by the intellectual ideas dominant at any given era, thus leading the representations of the location of Paradise further and further away from the information provided by the biblical text.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0059.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: landuse change; climate change; garden city model; green vegetation; Landsat; urban heat island
Online: 4 September 2018 (06:28:33 CEST)
The key anthropogenic effects on climate include the changes in land use and emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Depletion of vegetation poses serious threat that speeds the process of climate change and reduces carbon sequestration by the environment. Thus, the preservation of natural environment in urban areas is an essential component of the garden city model, proposed by Sir Ebenezer Howard in 1898, to ensure ecological balance. Recent Landsat images showed that Kumasi does not have the required percentage of green vegetation as was stipulated in the garden city model on which the city was built. It was observed that most parts of Kumasi's green vegetation have been lost to built environments. This study was conducted to assess the impact of urbanization on the garden city status and its effect on the micro-climate of the city. Significant changes in the vegetation cover of the city was evaluated from Landsat-TM imagery and analysis of a long term climatic data of Kumasi carried out over a 55-year period (1960 to 2015). It was observed that, climatic conditions have slightly changed, as mean surface temperature of has increased by 1.2 °C/ 55 years, due to the significant landuse changes from development of non-transpiring, reduced evaporative urban surfaces. However, the impact is not greatly felt due to the geographical location of the city on the globe despite the evidence of a considerable temperature change. Green vegetation conservation for the city is recommended as a top priority in future for city authorities and planners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: antecedent rainfall; lag time; rainfall event; extreme rainfall; garden land expansion; red hilly area in China
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:16:37 CEST)
Abstract: rainfall is the main driver of soil erosion. With the daily rainfall, riverine flow discharge and sediment load in the upper Lianjiang River watershed from 1990 to 2020, extreme rainfall events were defined by the 95th percentile method and minimum event interval time (MIT), change trends and mutations of yearly rainfall, riverine flow discharge and sediment load were identified using the Mann-Kendall test, then the optimum lag response time and antecedent rainfall were investigated with the multiple linear regression. The results showed that (1) the sediment changed significantly and abruptly in 1995 due to the expansion of the garden land. (2) Compared with ordinary rainfall, extreme rainfall events explained more variations of riverine flow and sediment with a higher degree, and had a more significant effect on the lag time of runoff and sediment. (3) Garden land expansion in extreme rainfall scenarios resulted in longer lag times for runoff and sediment and decreased demand for antecedent rainfall with more pre-event time. Therefore, taking the rainfall event as a breakthrough, analyzing the antecedent rainfall and the lag response of riverine flow discharge and sediment load is conducive to revealing the response mechanism of riverine flow discharge and sediment load and improving the simulation accuracy of riverine flow and sediment under extreme rainfall condition, thus help for the soil erosion control under extreme rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0266.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Asian architecture; Asian heritage; China; Japan; Urban Design; Garden and Landscape Design; Reformation of the Arts.
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:50:54 CEST)
With this article we would like to clarify the often-disregarded fact by virtue of which the European Missionaries in Asia acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent they became harbingers of Culture and Science more than Faith itself to the dismay of many, including the Roman Church. Such cultural and scientific transference was actually two-pronged, for simultaneously they presented in Europe unique findings related to Language, e.g. the Chinese Characters (considered to be the sole natural language), Geography, Cosmology and even Governance. We would try to prove that such procedure contributed positively to the modern scientific notions of sustainability and to provide the kind of accoutrements that model the modern world as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: common garden; climate change; silver fir; grand fir; Balkan firs; drought stress; provenance test; resilience; climate transfer distance; adaptation
Online: 12 May 2021 (09:52:25 CEST)
Research Highlights: Data of advanced-age provenance tests were reanalyzed applying a new approach, to directly estimate the growth of populations at their original sites under individually generated future climates. The results reveal surprisingly high resilience potential of fir species. Background and Objectives: The growth and survival of silver fir under future climatic scenarios is insufficiently investigated at the xeric limits. The selective signature of past climate determining the current and projected growth was investigated to analyze the prospects of adaptive silviculture and assisted transfer of silver fir populations, and of the introduction of non-autochthonous species. Materials and Methods: Hargreaves’ climatic moisture deficit was selected to model height responses of adult populations. Climatic transfer distance was used to assess the relative drought stress of populations at the test site, relating these to the past conditions to which the populations had adapted. ClimateEU and ClimateWNA pathway RCP8.5 data served to determine individually past, current, and future moisture deficit conditions. Beside silver fir, other fir species from South Europe and the American Northwest were also tested. Results: Drought tolerance profiles explained the responses of transferred provenances and predicted their future performance and survival. Silver fir displayed significant within-species differentiation regarding drought stress response. Applying the assumed drought tolerance limit of 100mm relative moisture deficit, most of the tested silver fir populations seem to survive their projected climate at their origin until the end of the century. Survival is likely also for transferred Balkan fir species and for grand fir populations, but not for the Mediterranean species. Conclusions: The projections are less dramatic than provided by usual field assessments. Some results contradict generally accepted concepts. The method fills the existing gap between experimentally determined adaptive response and the predictions needed for management decisions. It also underscores the unique potential of provenance tests.