HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: twitch.tv; twitch; live streaming; online gambling; addiction; gambling disorder; internet use; slotstreams; online casino; online slots.
Online: 29 November 2022 (09:23:05 CET)
(1) Background: Twitch.tv is a live video content website. As of 2022, Twitch users are generally adolescents and young adults, with estimates of the percentage of users aged 16-24 between 22.3% and 41%, predominantly males with estimates ranging from 65% to 78.36%. In recent years, “slotstream” content has become increasingly popular, where streamers gamble online while users watch them. (2) Methods: from July 2022 to November 2022, we researched articles related to Twitch, live streaming, gambling, casino, slot, gambling online, modeling, social media influencers, conditioning, and celebrities, searching for relevant studies in the databases LexisNexis Academic, Business Source Complete, PubMed, Web of Science, Freedom Collection, Health & Medical Collection, Elsevier Journal, Springer, APA PsycARTICLES, Wiley, and other single journals. (3) Results: we took into consideration Gambling Disorder, Online Gambling Disorder, and Internet Gaming Disorder on the one hand, and consumer components such as persuasive communication and influencer-audience relationship on the other; we then hypothesized that the presence of these variables within the slotstream format is positively correlated with the development of pathological gambling, especially in an adolescent audience. (4) Conclusion: we assume that there is a positive correlation between watching slotstream content and the probability of developing both pathological and non-pathological gambling behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Escapism; addiction; excessive behaviors; internet use; gambling; gaming
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:16:59 CEST)
Excessive online behaviors refer to harmful or disproportionate use of digital network applications. Such behaviors are likely to be associated with escapist motives. Our aim was to analyze whether escapism predicts excessive gambling, excessive gaming, and excessive internet use over time. A longitudinal sample of Finnish residents aged 18–75 years (N = 1,022, 51.27% male) was surveyed at three time points in 6-month intervals: April 2021 (Time 1), October–November 2021 (Time 2), April–May 2022 (Time 3). Of the original Time 1 respondents, 66.80% took part in the surveys at both Time 2 and Time 3. All surveys included measures for excessive gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), excessive gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), and excessive internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale). Three escapism-specific questions were used to construct a dedicated escapism variable. Socio-demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and psychological distress were used as controls. The study was conducted with multilevel regression analyses using hybrid models. Our research showed that escapism had strong within-person effects on excessive gambling, B = 0.18, p = .003; excessive gaming, B = 0.50, p < .001; and excessive internet use, B = 0.77, p < .001 over time. The between-person effect of escapism was demonstrated on excessive gaming B = 0.91, p <.001; and excessive internet use B = 0.61, p = .036. Adverse societal events and uncertain times can manifest in excessive online behaviors motivated by escapism, highlighting a need to focus prevention efforts on healthy coping methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: pathological gambling; social ecological model; adolescents; emerging adults; internet; online communities
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:16:00 CET)
Problem gambling among young people is an emerging trend globally. The online environment in particular offers various possibilities for gambling engagement. This is the first cross-national survey study using the social ecological model to analyze problem gambling, especially in the online context. The aim was to analyze how different social ecological spheres explain problem gambling. Participants were young people aged 15–25 in the United States (n = 1,212), South Korea (n = 1,192), Spain (n = 1,212), and Finland (n = 1,200). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) instrument was used as a measure for problem gambling. Regression models predicted problem gambling with measures of intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and societal spheres. Spanish participants had the highest SOGS score for problem gambling. Out of the spheres, organizational-sphere measures best explained the variation in problem gambling in all countries (26%) when compared to the societal (3%), interpersonal (5%) and intrapersonal (11%) spheres. In the full model, organizational-sphere measures had strong associations with problem gambling. These included consumer debt, online gambling community participation, online casino participation, and exposure to online pop-up advertisements. Other robust predictors of problem gambling included conformity to group norms in the interpersonal sphere and male gender and impulsivity in the intrapersonal sphere. Cross-national results were similar in different countries. The online context plays a major role in problem gambling behavior. The social ecological model is a useful tool by which to tackle problem gambling and develop preventative measures.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: ex-ante chances; dispersion of chances; chronic diseases; gambling; statistical test; twin studies; principle of maximum entropy.
Online: 22 April 2021 (21:14:09 CEST)
Is it possible to measure the dispersion of ex-ante chances (i.e. chances “before the event”) among people, be it gambling, health, or social opportunities? We explore this question and provide some tools, including a statistical test, to evidence the actual dispersion of ex-ante chances in various areas with a focus on chronic diseases. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we derive the distribution of the risk to become ill in the global population as well as in the population of affected people. We find that affected people are either at very low risk like the overwhelming majority of the population but still were unlucky to become ill, or are at extremely high risk and were bound to become ill.