ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; gait disorder; gait analysis; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:17:01 CEST)
Today, rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common heavy injury in athletes, but it can also occur in sedentary subjects. Its treatment, always adapted to the lifestyle, age and will of the patient, often remains surgical. However, despite its frequency and universality, there are still walking disorders following the operation. These disorders sometimes persist for several months, or even several years after surgery. The present study is therefore interested in determining the risk factors linked to walking disorders following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The objective of this study is to determine what risk factors associated with walking disorders are after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft. This study focused on factors that may exist at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Two populations participated in this study, a healthy population and a population having benefited from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The operated test group is divided into two subgroups, one with a postoperative period of 3 months and the second at 6 months. All subjects were subjected to the same protocol, their gait on the treadmill was analyzed and evaluated with an Optogait® analysis system. A univariate analysis was carried out first. Then, a multivariate analysis by adjustment method was carried out in order to eliminate the potential confounding factors. The comparison of the results between the populations in the univariate analysis shows an absence of significant results however there are trends. The statistical results of the multivariate analysis showed interactions in the two subgroups of the operated population.In fact, it turns out that at 3 months there is a tendency to worse gait disorders in subjects with a high BMI reflecting overweight, when an associated surgical procedure has taken place on the meniscus, in subjects over 35 years of age and males. On the other hand, at 6 months, the tendency to worsening is visible only in the strata represented by subjects with a BMI corresponding to overweight, as well as in subjects having benefited from a meniscal suture associated with ACL reconstruction. .The results of the present study show that there are certain factors which tend to increase the risk of these walking disorders after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft, these factors are different depending on the time postoperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: crouch gait; torsion springs; knee exoskeleton; stance phase; gait rehabilitation
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:41:03 CEST)
Crouch gait is a motor complication commonly associated with cerebral palsy, spastic diplegia, stroke, and motor-neurological pathologies, broadly defined as knee flexion in excess of 20° in the gait cycle. Uncorrected crouch gait results in fatigue, joint degradation, and loss of ambulation. Torsion springs have been used in cycling to store energy in knee flexion to reduce fatigue in the quadriceps during knee extension. SolidWorks was used to design a passive exoskeleton for the knee, incorporating torsion springs of stiffnesses 20,000 N/mm and 30,000 N/mm at the knee joint to correct four different crouch gaits. OpenSim was used to gather data from moments produced and knee angles from each crouch gait and the normal gait. Motion analysis of the exoskeleton was simulated using knee angles for each crouch gait and compared with moments produced with the normal gait moments in the stance phase of the gait cycle. All crouch gait moments were significantly reduced, and the correction of peak crouch moments was achieved corresponding to the normal gait cycle during the stance phase. These results offer significant potential for nonsurgical and less invasive options for wearable exoskeletons in crouch gait correction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: inertial measurement units; gait kinematics; lower limbs; tridimensional kinematics; clinical gait analysis
Online: 28 June 2022 (16:06:30 CEST)
The use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) to compute gait outputs such as the 3D lower limb kinematics is of huge potential, but no consensus on the procedures and algorithms exists. This study aimed at evaluating the validity of a 7-IMUs system against the optoelectronic system. Ten asymptomatic subjects were included. They wore IMUs on their feet, shanks, thighs and pelvis. The IMUs were embedded in clusters with reflective markers. Reference kinematics was computed from anatomical markers. Gait kinematics was obtained from accelerometer and gyroscope data after sensor orientation estimation and sensor-to-segment (S2S) calibration steps. The S2S calibration steps were also applied to the cluster data. IMU-based and cluster-based kinematics were compared to the reference through root mean square errors (RMSEs), centered RMSEs (after mean removal), correlation coefficients (CCs) and differences of amplitude. The mean RMSE and centered RMSE were respectively 7.5° and 4.0° for IMU-kinematics, and 7.9° and 3.8° for cluster-kinematics. Very good CCs were found in the sagittal plane for both IMUs and cluster-based kinematics at the hip, knee and ankle levels (CCs>0.85). The overall mean amplitude difference was about 7°. These results reflected good accordance of our system with the reference, especially in the sagittal plane, but the presence of offsets requires caution for clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: biomechanics; gait; angular momentum; locomotion
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:34:48 CEST)
The goal of this study was to analyze the instability during stepping of young and older adults at fast and spontaneous speed. To this aim, the anteroposterior and the mediolateral distances between the body center of mass (COM) and the minimum moment axis (MMA) were computed. A total of 15 young adults (25y.o. [19-29]) and 15 older adults 68.7y.o. [63-77] volunteered for this study. For the computation of the distances, a complete biomechanical protocol combining two force platforms and a 3D motion capture analysis system was setup. The subjects were equipped with 47 reflective markers and were modeled as a frictionless multibody with 19 segments, 18 joints and 42 degrees of freedom and were asked to perform a stepping at both speeds. The stepping was divided in 5 phases with successive swing and double stance phases. The greater instability was observed during the swing phases. The distances indicate a significant higher instability at fast speed for both groups (p < 0.001) for all the phases. The anteroposterior distance also increases significantly for older adults highlighting greater instability while no differences were observed for the mediolateral distance all along the 5 phases suggesting higher risks of backward of forward falls during stepping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010009
Online: 10 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
As there is lack of understanding about the effect of transitioning between different flooring materials on the gait of older adults, this study investigated the effect of transitioning between a carpeted floor and a vinyl floor on the gait characteristics of older adults. Fourteen older (65 years old and over) and 14 younger (18 to 35 years old) adults walked on different transitional floors by measuring various gait parameters. While the older participants had greater toe clearance than their younger counterparts, the older participants had smaller toe clearance on a carpeted floor than on a vinyl floor, which would increase the probability of a trip-induced fall. Further, the study found the slower transitional acceleration of the whole body COM and the increased friction demand, especially during the toe-off phase, rather than heel contact phase, which will lead to a slip-induced fall on a vinyl floor shortly after transitioning from a carpeted floor to a vinyl floor. Although the increased likelihood of a slip or trip accident was found throughout the changes in gait parameters, the older participants did not perceive of slipping and tripping much. Therefore, older adults are recommended to be made aware of the danger of slipping and tripping while transitioning between different flooring materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1076.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: minimum foot clearance (MFC); tripping prevention; falls prevention; machine learning; gait prediction; gait biomechanics
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:46:30 CEST)
Tripping is the largest cause of falls and low swing foot ground clearance during the mid-swing phase, particularly at the critical gait event known as Minimum Foot Clearance (MFC) is the major risk factor for tripping-related falls. Intervention strategies to increase MFC height can be effective if applied in real-time based on feed-forward prediction. The current study investigated the capability of machine learning models to classify the MFC into various categories using toe-off kinematics data. Specifically, three MFC sub-categories (less than 1.5cm, between 1.5-2.0cm and higher than 2.0cm) were predicted applying machine learning approaches. A total of 18,490 swing phase gait cycles’ data were extracted from six healthy young adults, each walking for 5-minutes at a constant speed of 4km/h on a motorised treadmill. Both K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Random-Forest were utilised for prediction based on the data from toe-off for five consecutive frames (0.025s duration). Foot kinematics data were obtained from inertial measurement unit attached to the mid-foot, recording tri-axial linear accelerations and angular velocities of the local coordinate. KNN and Random-Forest achieved 84% and 86% accuracy, respectively, in classifying MFC into the three sub-categories with run time of 0.39 seconds and 13.98 seconds respectively. The KNN-based model was found to be more effective if incorporated into an active exoskeleton as the intelligent system to control MFC based on the preceding gait event, toe-off due to its quicker computation time. The machine learning based prediction model shows promise for the prediction of critical MFC data indicating higher tripping risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0323.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Multiscale Sample Entropy; Refine Composite Multiscale Entropy; Cerebellar Ataxia; Parkinson’s disease; Trunk acceleration time series; Complexity index; Gait variability; Gait complexity; Gait pattern; Movement disorders
Online: 17 March 2023 (10:11:42 CET)
The aim of this study was to assess the ability of multiscale sample entropy (MSE), refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE), and complexity index (CI) to characterize gait complexity through trunk acceleration patterns in subjects with Parkinson's disease (swPD) and healthy subjects, regardless of age or gait speed. The trunk acceleration patterns of 51 swPD and 50 HS were acquired using a lumbar-mounted magneto-inertial measurement unit during their walking. MSE, RCMSE, and CI were calculated on 2000 data points, using scale factors (τ) 1-6. Differences between swPD and HS were calculated at each τ, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics, optimal cutoff points, post-test probabilities, and diagnostic odds ratios were calculated. MSE in the antero-posterior direction at τ 4 and τ 5, and MSE in the ML direction at τ 4 outperformed the other entropy measures in terms of discriminative ability and characterized the gait of swPD with 79%, 82%, and 78% probabilities, respectively, and correlated with the motor disability, pelvic kinematics, and stance phase. Using a time series of 2000 data points, a scale factor of 4 or 5 in the MSE procedure can be considered as a marker of gait variability and complexity in swPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Pediatrics; Gait; Rehabilitation; Anti-gravity; Treadmill
Online: 1 December 2021 (12:57:48 CET)
The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the literature on the use of anti-gravity treadmill and its effects on lower limb motor functions in children and adolescents with locomotor impairments. Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science) were searched for articles from inception to August 2021. Inclusion criteria were: (1) experimental or quasi-experimental studies using the anti-gravity training as the primary intervention; (2) studies conducted in paediatricpediatric participants; (3) articles reporting outcomes related to the lower limb functions; and (4) studies published in French or English. Fifteen articles were included in the review. Studies included children and adolescents aged 4–18 years with locomotor impairments. The intervention duration was ranged from 2 and to 12 weeks, with 2-5 sessions per week. Included studies showed reported that anti-gravity training induces improvements in muscle strength, balance, spatiotemporal gait parameters, and walking endurance in children with locomotor impairments. This review provides relevant information about the modalities, outcomes and limits associated with the anti-gravity training protocol reported in the literature. Overall, the anti-gravity treadmill training could be viewed as a valuable training modality for children with cerebral palsy. However, more precise, and comprehensive description of anti-gravity rehabilitation protocols would be useful.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurobrucellosis; gait disturbance; flaccid paraprasia; weakness
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:41:47 CEST)
Brucellosis is a multi-system infectious disease that exhibits with various manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is a rare but serious presentation of brucellosis that can be discovered in every stages of the disease. Laboratory tests and physical examination and patient history are generally the basis for diagnosing the disease. It has both insidious and prolonged clinical course of the disease and long-term therapies. Also the most common pattern of exhibition is subacute or chronic. We reported a case of young female who had history of painless weakness in the right lower limb (proximal and distal) that started gradually and had progressed over the time, and after a month she felt weakness in the left lower limb with the same pattern. Lumbosacral Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with and without contrast was shown evidence of enhancement thickening of caudal equina ventral roots. Brucella antigen titer was positive, the result was 1/160. And other clinical tests were normal. Patient treated with Intravenous injection (IV) Rifampicin and Intravenous Cotrimoxazole. patient was discharged with good health and continuinng all two medications for 5 months. The descision was taken to report this case as a result of entire respond in patient’s illness after a enduring disease. Neurobrucellosis is a treatable disease in which it would be better to consider a high indication of suspicion. Due to if ignored, it may cause significant morbidity and mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0883.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: moving tactile stimuli; gait initiation; tactile sensation
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:51:36 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of the laterally moving tactile stimuli to the sole on the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of the gait initiation. Thirteen healthy males participated in this study. A sound cue was provided at the beginning of each trial. The moving tactile stimuli were delivered to the sole after the start cue. The loci of the tactile stimuli moved from the left to right most side of the sole, and then moved from the right to left most side of that in a stimuli cycle. The duration of one stimuli cycle was 960 ms, and this cycle repeated 16 times in a trial. The participants made three steps forward from quiet stance at the participants' preferred time after the start cue. The APA did not onset at the specific direction or phase of the moving tactile stimuli, indicating that they did not use the stimuli as a trigger for initiating the gait. The moving tactile stimuli decreased the amplitude and increased the duration of the APA. The moving tactile stimuli increased the time between the APA onset and toe-off of the initial support leg, indicating that they moved slower when initiating gait during the moving tactile stimuli. Those findings are explained by the view that suppression of the APA induced by the moving tactile stimuli to the sole is caused by the decrease in the velocity of the gait initiation, and the slower velocity of the gait initiation is caused by masking tactile sensation of the sole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1685.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: human gait; criticality analysis; support vector machine
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:36:57 CEST)
The way in which a person walks, known as human gait, is a significant indicator of overall health and well-being. Abnormalities in gait can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes or obesity. However, detecting these disorders can be challenging using traditional methods, which often involve subjective assessments or invasive procedures. In this study, a novel methodology known as Criticality Analysis (CA) was proposed for the detection and monitoring of human gait in people with metabolic disorders taking part in an intervention to increase activity and reduce weight. The CA approach utilised inertial measurement unit gait data, alongside clinical health measures. This allows for the control of nonlinear growth in the system, resulting in lower dimensional, nonlinear, free-scale, stable, controlled, and organised trajectories. These trajectories were then analysed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm, which is well-suited for this task due to its ability to handle nonlinear and dynamic data. The combination of the CA approach and the SVM algorithm demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness in detecting metabolic disorders, yielding an average accuracy within the range of 78.2% to 90%. Additionally, the classification technique accuracy, at a group level was observed to reduce during period of the intervention (e.g., from week 2 to week 3) alongside changes in fitness and health, which indicates the potential of using the approach to measure and monitor biological systems. As such, this novel methodology has the potential to be a valuable tool for healthcare professionals in detecting and monitoring metabolic disorders, as well as other unknown diseases associated with the human biological system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: frailty; older people; cognitive impairment; assessment; gait
Online: 14 April 2022 (12:19:35 CEST)
Background: This study aims to set out key clinical features of different Motoric Cognitive Risk (MCR) subtypes based on individual quantitative measures of cognitive impairment and to compare their predictive power on survival over an 8-year observation time. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based study of 1138 subjects aged 65 years and older in south Italy. These individuals were targeted and allocated to subtypes of the MCR phenotype according to the slowness criterion plus one other different cognitive domain for each characterized phenotype. Clinical evaluation and laboratory assays, along with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological and physical tests, completed the sample investigation. Results: MCR prevalence was found to be 9.8% (N=112), 3.6% (N=41), 3.4% (N=39), and 1.8% (N=21) for the MCR, MCR-GlobalFunction, MCR-StructuredSCC, and MCR-SCC&GlobalFunction, respectively. Univariate Cox survival analysis showed an association only of the MCR-GlobalFunction subtype with a significant, 1.5-fold increased risk of overall death as compared to the other counterparts (HR 2.53, 95%CI 1.28 to 4.99, P-value<0.01) over an 8-year observation period, even after major adjustment (HR 2.02, 95%CI 1.02 to 4.02). Conclusions: MCR phenotypes assigned to the MMSE cognitive domain are more likely to have an increased risk of overall mortality, 1.5-fold higher than counterparts, over 8-year observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0495.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: computing image analysis; gait score; unrest index
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:17:10 CEST)
The genetic development of commercial broiler led to body misconfiguration and consequent walking disabilities, mainly at the slaughter age. The present study aimed to identify broiler locomotion ability using image analysis automatically. A total of 40 broiler 40 d-old were placed to walk on a specially built runway, and their locomotion was recorded. An image segmentation algorithm was developed, and the coordinates of the bird's center of mass were extracted from the segmented images for each frame analyzed, and the Unrest Index (UI) was applied. We calculated the center of mass's movement of the broiler walking's lateral images, therefore, capturing the bird's displacement speed in the onward direction. Results indicated that broiler speed on the runway tends to decrease with the increase of the gait score. The locomotion did not differ between males or females. The proposed algorithm was efficient if predicting the broiler gait score based on their displacement speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Gait; Stroke; Cerebellum; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:16:17 CEST)
Stroke often results in impaired gait, which can limit community ambulation and the quality of life. Recent works have shown the feasibility of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) as an adjuvant treatment to facilitate gait rehabilitation. Since the cerebellum plays an essential role in balance and movement coordination, which is crucial for independent overground ambulation, so, we investigated the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on the post-stroke overground gait performance in chronic stroke survivors. Fourteen chronic post-stroke male subjects were recruited based on convenience sampling at the collaborating hospitals where ten subjects finally participated in the ctDCS study. We evaluated the effects of two ctDCS montages with 2mA direct current, a) optimized configuration for dentate stimulation with 3.14cm2 disc anode at PO10h (10/5 EEG system) and 3.14cm2 disc cathode at PO9h (10/5 EEG system), and b) optimized configuration for leg lobules VII-IX stimulation with 3.14cm2 disc anode at Exx8 (electrodes defined by ROAST) and 3.14cm2 disc cathode at Exx7. We found ctDCS to be acceptable by all the exposed subjects. The ctDCS intervention had an effect on the 'Normalised Step length Affected side' (p=0.1) and 'Gait Stability Ratio' (p=0.0569), which was found using Wilcoxon signed-rank test at 10% significance level. Also, ctDCS montage specific effect was found using a two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test at a 5% significance level for 'Step Time Affected Leg' (p=0.0257) and '%Stance Time Unaffected Leg' (p=0.0376). Moreover, the changes in the quantitative gait parameters across both the montages were found to be correlated to the mean electric field strength in the lobules based on partial least squares regression analysis (R2 statistic = 0.6574) where the mean electric field strength at the cerebellar lobules, Vermis VIIIb, Ipsilesional IX, Vermis IX, Ipsilesional X, had the most loading. In conclusion, our feasibility study indicated the potential of a single session of ctDCS to contribute to the immediate improvement in the balance and gait performance in terms of gait-related indices and clinical gait measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0157.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Gait; Exercise Program; Kinematics
Online: 22 September 2023 (12:53:06 CEST)
This study examines the effects and durability of postural exercise on gait kinematics in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Thirty-four men with mild IDD were assigned to either the training group (n = 19) or the control group (n = 15). The TG performed the intervention over 8 weeks, 3 days/week, 1 h/day. The results indicated that the intervention program had a significant effect on some variables of gait. Also, in the TG between post-test and follow-up, there was no significant difference, which indicated that gait variables were maintained by the TG one month after the end of the program. This study provides evidence that postural exercises can be used as an effective intervention for improving gait in individuals with IDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: gait initiation; dual task; muscle activities; wireless electromyography
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:47:07 CEST)
To maintain a healthy lifestyle, adults rely on their ability to walk while simultaneously managing multiple tasks that challenge their coordination. This study investigates the impact of cognitive dual-task on lower limb muscle activities in 21 healthy young adults during both gait initiation and steady-state gait. We utilized wireless electromyography sensors to measure muscle activities, along with a 3D motion capture system and force plates to detect the phases of gait initiation and steady-state gait. Participants were asked to walk at their self-selected pace, and we compared single-task and dual-task conditions. We analyzed mean muscle activation and co-contraction in the biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. The findings revealed that during gait initiation with the dual-task condition, there was a decrease in mean muscle activation and an increase in mean muscle c-contraction between the swing and stance limb compared to the single-task condition. In steady-state gait, there was also a decrease in mean muscle activation in the dual-task condition compared to the single-task condition. When participants performed dual-task activities during gait initiation, early indicators of reduced balance capability were observed. Additionally, during dual-task steady-state gait, knee stabilizer muscles exhibited signs of altered activation, contributing to balance instability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: gait; cognitive function; mild cognitive impairment; neural correlates
Online: 16 June 2023 (09:00:08 CEST)
Background Some patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) experience gait disturbances. However, there are few reports on the relationship between gait disturbance and cognitive function in patients with MCI. Therefore, we investigated the neural correlates of gait characteristics related to cognitive dysfunction. Methods Eighty patients diagnosed with MCI from three dementia centres in Gangwon-do, Korea were recruited for this study. We defined MCI as a Clinical Dementia Rating global score of 0.5 or higher, with a memory domain score of 0.5 or greater. The patients were classified as having either early or late MCI based on their Mini Mental Status Examination z-scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the gait characteristics and cognitive impairment. Analyses included variables such as age, sex, years of education, number of comorbidities, body mass index and height. Results Gait velocity, step count, step length, heel-to-heel base support, swing and stance phase duration, and support time were associated with cognitive function. A decrease in gray matter volume in the right pericalcarine area was associated with gait characteristics related to cognitive dysfunction. An increase in the curvature of gray matter in the right entorhinal, right lateral orbitofrontal, right cuneus, and right and left pars opercularis areas was also associated with gait characteristics related to cognitive dysfunction. Conclusion Since gait impairment is an important factor in determining activities of daily living in patients with mild cognitive impairment, the evaluation of gait and cognitive functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment is important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0738.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: age; obesity; gait; physical activity; neuromuscular system; sarcopenia
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:02:19 CEST)
The potential impact of a specific physical activity program on biomechanical gait parameters and neuromuscular strategies around the ankle joint in older adults with sarcopenic obesity (SO) remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 24-week Posture, Strengthening, and Motricity (PSM) program in improving neuromuscular strategies and biomechanical gait parameters in older adults with SO. 40 Participants were randomly assigned to either the trained group (TG) and the control group (CG). Only the TG received the PSM program. Standardized evaluations were performed before and after the intervention, including walking tests on an instrumented gait analysis treadmill to evaluate biomechanical gait parameters and EMG activity of ankle muscles. After the PSM program, TG exhibited an increase in comfortable walking speed (+80%, p<0.001) and step length (+38%, p<0.05). Moreover, TG demonstrated a reduction in CoP velocity (-26%, p<0.01). These gait modifications were associated with a decreased muscle activity during the different gait phases (p<0.05). The PSM program effectively improved gait, and neuromuscular capacities in older adults with SO. Notably, Results sheds light on the remarkable trainability of neuromuscular capacities in older adults with SO, despite the adverse effects of aging and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Sensor; optoelectronics; shear; force; biomechanics; gait; wearables; healthcare
Online: 23 February 2022 (13:35:58 CET)
The need for miniaturized shear force sensors is expanding, particularly for biomedical applications. Examples include measuring interfacial shear stresses between a human and an external device (e.g., footwear or a prosthesis). However, there are considerable challenges in designing a shear sensor for these applications due to the need for a small package, low power requirements, and resistance to interference from motion artifact and electromagnetic fields. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization sensor that measures two-axis shear force by detecting displacement between a color panel and a red, green, and blue light-sensing photodiode. The sensor response to applied displacements and forces was characterized under benchtop testing conditions. We also present the design of a prototype wireless version of the sensor for integration into footwear. The sensor exhibited strong agreement with gold standard measurements for two axis shear displacements (R2>0.99, RMSE≤5.0 µm) and forces (R2>0.99, RMSE≤0.94 N). This performance, along with the sensor’s scalability, miniaturized form, and low power requirements make it well-suited a variety of biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0771.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Validation; Kinematic; Inertial measurement units; motion analysis; gait
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:47:51 CEST)
Gait analysis has historically been implemented in laboratory settings with expensive instruments; however, recently, wearable sensors have allowed the integration into clinical applications and use in daily activities. Previous studies have shown poor validity of ankle joints using inertial measurement units (IMUs), especially for small movement ranges. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of commercially available IMUs to accurately measure the ankle joint angles during running. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. Validation was performed by comparing the ankle joint angles measured using the wearable device with those obtained using the gold standard motion capture system during running. Reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, whereas validity was evaluated using Pearson coefficient correlation method. Day-to-day reliability was excellent in the two planes for ankle joints. Validity was good in both sagittal and frontal planes for ankle joints. The results suggested that the developed device might be used as an alternative tool to the 3D motion capture system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0336.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: AYUMI EYE; acceleration sensor; gait analysis; optical sensor
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:22:52 CET)
AYUMI EYE is an accelerometer-based gait analysis device that measures the 3D accelerations of the human trunk. This study investigated the measurement accuracy of the AYUMI EYE as hardware as well as the accuracy of the gait cycle extraction program via simultaneous measurements using AYUMI EYE, a ground reaction force (GRF), and an optical motion capture system called VICON. The study was conducted with four healthy individuals as participants. The gait data were obtained by simulating four different patterns for three trials each: normal walking, anterior-tilt walking, hemiplegic walking, and shuffling walking. The AYUMI EYE and VICON showed good agreement for both the acceleration and displacement data. The durations of subsequent stride cycles calculated using the AYUMI EYE and GRF were in good agreement based on the calculated cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) with an r value of 0.896 and p-value less than 0.05, and their accuracies for these results were sufficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetic foot; Diabetic neuropathies; Peripheral arterial disease; Foot ulcer; Gait; Walking; Postural balance; Wearable electronic devices; Gait analysis; Digital technology
Online: 13 September 2022 (09:28:22 CEST)
People with diabetic foot frequently exhibit poor gait and balance. However, there is no review to inform digital biomarkers of poor gait and balance related to diabetic foot, measurable by wearables outside traditional gait laboratories. Such information could assist in designing remote patient monitoring platform to track changes in gait and balance dysfunction among people with diabetic foot for timely referral and intervention. Accordingly, we conducted a web-based review using PubMed. Our search was limited to human subjects and English-written papers published in peer-reviewed journals. We identified 20 papers in this review. We found preliminary evidence of digital biomarkers of gait and balance dysfunction in people with diabetic foot, measured by wearables, such as slow gait speed, large gait variability, unstable gait initiation, and large body sway. However, due to heterogeneities in included papers in terms of study design, movement tasks, and small sample size, more studies are recommended to confirm this preliminary evidence. Additionally, based on our review, we recommend establishing appropriate strategies to successfully implement wearable-based assessment into clinical practice for diabetic foot care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0586.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: human activity recognition; gait analysis; human gait inference; wearable sensors; limb amputation; lower limbic prosthesis; machine learning; recurrent neural networks
Online: 25 October 2018 (04:51:27 CEST)
Several studies have analyzed human gait data obtained from inertial gyroscope and accelerometer sensors mounted on different parts of the body. In this article, we take a step further in gait analysis and provide a methodology for predicting the movements of the missing parts of the legs. In particular, we propose a method, called GaIn, to control non-invasive, robotic, prosthetic legs. GaIn can infer the movements of both missing shanks and feet for humans suffering from double trans-femoral amputation using biologically inspired recurrent neural networks. Predictions are performed for casual walking related activities such as walking, taking stairs, and running based on thigh movement. In our experimental tests, GaIn achieved a 4.55 degree prediction error for shank movements on average. However, a patient's intention to stand up and sit down cannot be inferred from thigh movements. In fact, intention causes thigh movements while the shanks and feet remain roughly still. The GaIn system can be triggered by thigh muscle activities measured with electromyography (EMG) sensors to make robotic prosthetic legs perform standing up and sitting down actions. The GaIn system has low prediction latency and is fast and computationally inexpensive to be deployed on mobile platforms and portable devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0584.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: human locomotion; symmetry; gait analysis; metabolic demand; kinematic analysis
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:34:43 CEST)
Gait variability (GV) is a crucial measure of inconsistency of muscular activities or body seg-mental movements during repeated tasks. Hence, GV might serve as a relevant and sensitive measure to quantify adjustments of walking control. However, has not been clarified whether GV is associated with walking speed to exploit effective better coordination level. Fourteen male stu-dents (age 22.4 ± 2.7 years, body mass 74.9 ± 6.8 kg, body height 1.78 ± 0.05 m) took part in this study. After three days of walking 1 km each day at a self-selected speed (SS) on asphalt with Apple Watch S. 7 (AppleTM), the participants were randomly evaluated on a treadmill at three different walking speed intensities for 10 minutes each one, at SS-20% / SS+20% of SS, with 5 minutes of passive recovery in-between. Heart rate (HR) was monitored beat-to beat and nor-malized as HR%MAX, while the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (CR-10) was asked after each trial. Kinematic analysis was performed assessing the Contact Time (CT), Swing Time (ST), Stride Length (SL), Stride Cycle (SC) and Gait Variability as Phase Coordination Index (PCI). RPE and HR increased with higher walking speed (P = 0.005 and P = 0.035, respectively). CT and SC decreased as the speed increased (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.013, respectively), while ST remained un-changed (P = 0.277). SL increased with higher walking speed (P = 0.0001). Conversely, PCI was 3.81 ± 0.88 % (high variability) at 3.96 ± 0.47 km·h-1, 2.64 ± 0.75 % (low variability) at SS (4.94 ± 0.58 km·h-1), 3.36 ± 1.09 % (high variability) at 5.94 ± 0.70 km·h-1 (P = 0.001). These results indi-cate that while the metabolic demand and kinematics variables changing linearly with increasing speed, the most effective GV was observed at SS. Therefore, SS could be a new methodological approach to choose the individual walking speed, normalize the speed intensity, and avoid a gait pattern alteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Head posture; biomechanical parameters; sports performance; posture; gait; jump.
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:06:31 CEST)
This study assessed the relationship between head posture displacements and biomechanical parameters in three different tasks. One hundred male and female students (20 ± 3yrs) were assessed via the PostureScreen Mobile app to quantify postural displacements of head rotations and translations including: 1) the cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) (°), 2) anterior head translation (AHT) (cm), 3) lateral head translation in the coronal plane (cm), and 4) lateral head side bending (°). Biomechanical parameters during gait and jumping were measured using the G-Walk sensor. The assessed gait spatiotemporal parameters were cadence (steps / min), speed (m / s), symmetry index, % left and right stride length (% height), and right and left propulsion index. The pelvic movement parameters were: 1) tilt symmetry index, 2) tilt left and right range, 3) obliquity symmetry index, 4) obliquity left and right range, 5) rotation symmetry index, and 6) rotation left and right range. The jump parameters measured were: 1) flight height (cm), 2) take off force (kN), 3) impact Force (kN), 4) take off speed (m / s), 5) peak speed (m / s), 6) average speed concentric phase (m / s), 7) maximum concentric power (kW), 8) average concentric power (kW) during the counter movement jump (CMJ), and 9) CMJ with arms thrust (CMJAT). At a significance-level of p ≤ 0.001, moderate to high correlations (0.4 < r < 0.8) were found between CVA, AHT, lateral translation head and all the gait and jump parameters. Weak correlations (0.2 < r < 0.4) were ascertained for lateral head bending and all the gait and jump parameters except for gait symmetry index and pelvic symmetry index, where moderate correlations were identified (0.4 < r < 0.6). The findings indicate moderate to high correlations between specific head posture displacements, such as CVA, lateral head translation and AHT with the various gait and jump parameters. These findings highlight the importance of considering head posture in the assessment and optimization of movement patterns during gait and jumping. Our findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may have implications for clinical practice and sports performance training. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and establish causality in these relationships, which could potentially lead to the development of targeted interventions for improving movement patterns and preventing injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0608.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Accelerometery; Energy expenditure; Stroke; Gait; Six-minute walking test
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:37:46 CEST)
Background: The aim of this study was to compare energy expenditure (EE) predicted by accelerometery (EEAcc) with indirect calorimetry (EEMETA) in individuals with hemiparesis. Methods: Twenty-four participants (12 with stroke and 12 healthy controls) performed a six-minute walk test (6MWT) during which EEMETA was measured using a portable indirect calorimetry system and EEACC was calculated using Bouten’s equation (1993) with data from a 3-axis accelerometer positioned between L3 and L4. Results: Median EEMETA was 9.85 [8.18;11.89] W·kg-1 in the stroke group, and 5.0 [4.56;5.46] W·kg-1 in the control group. Median EEACC was 8.57 [7.86;11.24] W·kg-1 in the control group and 8.2 [7.05;9.56] W·kg-1 in the stroke group. EEACC and EEMETA were not significantly correlated in either the control (p=0.8) or the stroke groups (p=0.06). The Bland-Altman method showed a mean difference of 1.77±3.65 W·kg-1 between EEACC and EEMETA in the stroke group and -2.08±1.59 W·kg-1 in the controls. Conclusions: The accuracy of the predicted EE, based on the accelerometer and the equations proposed by Bouten et al, is low in individuals with hemiparesis and impaired gait. This combination (sensor and Bouten's equation) is not yet suitable for use as a stand-alone measure in clinical practice for the evaluation of hemiparetic patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Bilateral vestibular dysfunction; saccular; posture; gait; vestibular implant; otolith
Online: 21 January 2022 (10:43:36 CET)
An ongoing EU Horizon 2020 Project called BionicVEST is investigating the effect of constant electrical stimulation (ES) of the inferior vestibular nerve in patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction (BVD). The evidence is that constant ES results in improved postural stability and gait performance and so the question of central importance is how could constant ES of mainly saccular afferents in these BVD patients cause this improved performance? We suggest that the constant ES is substituting for the absent saccular neural input to the vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum in these BVD patients and indirectly via these structures to other structures which have been of great recent interest in motor control. One target area, the anterior midline cerebellum (the uvula) has recently been targeted as a location for deep brain stimulation in human patients to improve postural stability and gait. There are projections from midline cerebellum to basal ganglia including the striatum, structures involved in the initiation of gait. It may be that the effect of this activation of peripheral saccular afferent neurons is analogous to the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) by electrodes in basal ganglia acting to help alleviate the symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0176.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: gait; loading rate; ethylene-vinyl acetate; styrene-butadiene rubber
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:57:03 CEST)
It is unclear whether military shoes (combat boots and sports shoes) attenuate loading rate or affect force transfer during walking. Therefore, this study compared ground reaction forces (GRF) related to impact and force transfer between combat boots, military sports shoes and running shoes. Ten army recruits walked over a walkway with two force plates embedded. GRF were measured when walking barefoot (for data normalization) and with combat boots, military sports shoes and running shoes. Loading rate, first and second peak forces and push-off rate of force were computed along with temporal analysis of waveforms. Reduced loading rate was observed for the running shoe compared to the combat boot (p = 0.02 and d = 0.98) and to the military sports shoe (p = 0.04 and d = 0.92). The running shoe elicited a smaller second peak force than the combat boot (p < 0.01 and d = 0.83). Walking with military shoes and combat boots led to larger force transfer then running shoes potentially due to harder material used in midsole composition (i.e. styrene-butadiene rubber). These results could lead to a potentially larger risk of injuries while long duration walking in military shoes and boots compared to traditional running shoes.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: permutation entropy; irreversibility; gait; Alzheimer's disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:24:00 CEST)
Gait is a basic cognitive propositive action that has been shown to be altered in late stages of neurodegenerative dementias. Nevertheless, alterations are less clear in mild forms of dementia, and the potential use of gait analysis as a biomarker of initial cognitive decline has hitherto mostly been neglected. We here report the results of a study of gait kinematic time series for two groups of patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease) and a group of matched control subjects. Two metrics based on permutation patterns are considered, respectively measuring the complexity and irreversibility of the time series. Results indicate that kinematic disorganisation is present at early phases of cognitive impairment; in addition, they depict a rich scenario, in which some joint movements display an increased complexity and irreversibility, while others a marked decrease. Beyond their potential use as biomarkers, complexity and irreversibility metrics can open a new door towards the understanding of the role of the nervous system in gait, as well as its adaptation and compensatory mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: sarcopenia; slow gait speed; cognitive impairment; older adult; aging
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:28:59 CEST)
Cognitive impairment and sarcopenia may share common risk factors and pathophysiological pathways. This study was performed to examine the association between impairments in specific cognitive domains and sarcopenia (and its defining components) in a large group of community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on the baseline data of 3,014 adults aged 70–84 years enrolled in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS). The final analysis included 1,887 adults underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cognitive function assessments. Those with disability in activities of daily living, dementia, severe cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, musculoskeletal complaints, neurological disorders, or who were illiterate were excluded. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet, the Frontal Assessment Battery. For sarcopenia, we used the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.6% for men and 7.6% for women. Sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.99) and slow gait speed (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.34–4.99) were associated with cognitive impairment in men. Only slow gait speed (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05–3.36) was associated with cognitive impairment in women. Sarcopenia is associated with cognitive impairment mainly due to slow gait speed. Our results suggested that cognitive impairment domains, such as processing speed and executive function, are associated with sarcopenia-related slow gait speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; wearables; inertial measurement unit; sensors; freezing of gait
Online: 8 March 2021 (16:15:41 CET)
Freezing of gait (FOG), a debilitating symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD), can be safely studied using the stepping in place (SIP) task. However, clinical, visual identification of FOG during SIP is subjective and time consuming, and automatic FOG detection during SIP currently requires measuring center of pressure on dual force plates. This study examines whether FOG elicited during SIP in 10 individuals with PD could be reliably detected using kinematic data measured from wearable inertial measurement unit sensors (IMUs). A general, logistic regression model (AUC = 0.81) determined that three gait parameters together were overall the most robust predictors of FOG during SIP: arrhythmicity, swing time coefficient of variation, and swing angular range. Participant-specific models revealed varying sets of gait parameters that best predicted FOG for each participant, highlighting variable FOG behaviors, and demonstrated equal or better performance for 6 out of the 10 participants, suggesting the opportunity for model personalization. The results of this study demonstrated that gait parameters measured from wearable IMUs reliably detected FOG during SIP, and the general and participant-specific gait parameters allude to variable FOG behaviors that could inform more personalized approaches for treatment of FOG and gait impairment in PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0604.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 5STS; stroke; MCID; responsiveness; stages; severity level; gait speed; FAC
Online: 29 January 2021 (08:19:05 CET)
This study aimed to analyze the responsiveness of the 5STS test among stroke patients and to estimate the MCIDs for different severity levels of community ambulation and stages of recovery. The 5STS and comparator instruments [gait speed and Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC)] were evaluated at baseline. These measures were repeated at 4 (Stage 1) and 8 weeks (Stage 2), together with the Global Rating of Change (GROC). The MCIDs were calculated with two anchor-based methods using the GROC as the external criterion. Responsiveness to change for the 5STS was estimated analyzing the correlation with changes in the two comparator instruments and their capacity to discriminate improvement. For the 5STS test, while the MCIDs of the limited community ambulators were similar in the two stages (around 3 s), those of the household ambulators decreased from 1.9 s to 0.72 s. Spearman's rho coefficients showed an acceptable correlation between changes in 5STS and changes for both the FAC and gait speed changes in both stages of recovery. Our study revealed that the 5STS is responsive to functional changes in patients with stroke and that their degree of severity and stage of recovery influence the MCID values of the 5STS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: locomotion disorder; cadence; gait oscillation; speed of movement; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:39:34 CET)
Understanding the motor patterns underlying the movement of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is fundamental to the effective targeting of non-pharmacological therapies. This study aims to analyze the gait pattern in relation to the evolutionary stage between I-II and III-IV according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) in people affected by PD. The study was conducted with the participation of 37 PD patients, with a mean age of 70.09±9.53 years, and of whom 48.64% were women. The inclusion criteria were: 1. To be diagnosed with PD; 2. To be in an evolutionary stage of the disease of between I and IV and; 3. To be able to walk independently and without any assistance. Kinematic and spatial-temporal parameters of the gait were analyzed. The results show differences in speed of movement, cadence, stride length, support duration, swing duration, step width, walking cycle duration and double support time between the stages analyzed. These results confirm the differences in PD gait pattern between stages I-II and III-IV. Different behaviors of the same variable were recorded depending on whether the right or left sides were affected by PD.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Parkinson's disease; motorized walker; haptic cue; gait pattern; statistics study
Online: 12 September 2018 (05:46:41 CEST)
Gait abnormalities are one of the distinguishing symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) that contribute to fall risk. Our study compares the gait parameters of people with PD when they walk through a predefined course without assistance, with a conventional walker, and with a motorized walker under different speed cues. Six PD subjects were recruited at the New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine to participate in this study. Spatial posture and gait data of the test subjects were collected via a VICON motion capture system. We developed a framework to process and extract gait features and applied statistical analysis on these features to examine the significance of the findings. The results showed that motorized walkers with haptic cues significantly improved gait symmetry of PD subjects. Specifically, the asymmetry index of the gait cycle time was reduced from 6.7% when walking without assistance to 0.56% and below when using a walker. Furthermore, the double support time of a gait cycle was reduced by 4.88% compared to walking without assistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Physiotherapy; neurorehabilitation; gait; transcranial electrical stimulation; stroke; non-invasive stimulation techniques
Online: 19 October 2023 (20:18:19 CEST)
Introduction: The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique for brain modulation after cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This treatment modality has been previously studied in the recovery of patients. The aim of this review is to analyze the evidence in the ap-plication of tDCS in the recovery of gait disturbance in stroke patients. Methods: This review was conducted according to the recommendations of the PRISMA statement. Three different elec-tronic databases were searched for relevant results: PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane. We included reviews and meta-analyses that only considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that inves-tigated the effects of transcranial direct electrical stimulation, in combination or not with other physiotherapy treatment, on gait recovery. Results: Thirteen studies with a total of 195 RCTs were included. Data on population, outcome measures, protocols and outcomes were extracted. The Amstar-2 scale and the GRADE system of certainty of evidence were used. Only one study re-ceived high certainty of evidence, 5 received low certainty of evidence and 7 received critically low certainty of evidence. Conclusions: Although the tDCS produces positive changes in gait recovery in spatio-temporal parameters, mobility, endurance, strength and motor function, there is insuf-ficient evidence to recommend this treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0186.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: age estimation; AFDEI; CNN; human gait; neural networks; GEI; invariant moments
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:12:12 CEST)
Accurately estimating a person's age is crucial for identity verification at all critical checkpoints, including airports, land borders, and seaports. Human gait may be used as a biometric identifier and indicator of age, among other things. This study aims to develop methods for estimating a person's age by observing their walk. In this paper, a novel technique for preprocessing the proposed gait dataset has been used by utilizing a combination of the gait energy image (GEI), the accumulated frame difference energy image (AFDEI), and the invariant moment of the image. The proposed technique outperformed state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy. The proposed method was tested and evaluated using a convolutional neural network (CNN), and it achieved an average accuracy of 90.35% across 14 different view angles within 5 K-Fold, the proposed method resulted in 94.68% and 94.54% in 30º and 75º view degree respectively. concluding that the approach is effective and promising for estimating age using human gait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: robot-assisted gait training; rehabilitation; stroke; cardiorespiratory fitness; robotics; disability; locomotion
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:40:16 CET)
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is a promising treatment for stroke rehabilitation. Although the coordination between the upper and lower limbs is important for locomotor training, commercially available robotics for gait training mainly focus on the restoration of lower limb function. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and usability of complex upper and lower limb RAGT in stroke patients using the GTR-A®, end effector-type robotic device. Patients with subacute stroke (N=9) received 30-minute RAGT thrice a week for two weeks (six sessions). Functionally, the hand grip strength (HGS), Functional Ambulatory Categories, modified Barthel Index, muscle strength test sum score, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and Short Physical Performance Battery were used. The heart rate and a structured questionnaire were used to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and the usability of RAGT. Among the nine patients, all functional parameters between the baseline and post-training were significantly improved after RAGT, except for HGS and the muscle strength test. The questionnaire’s mean scores for each domain were as follows: safety 4.40±0.35, effects 4.23±0.31, efficiency 4.22±0.77, and satisfaction 4.41±0.25. The GTR-A® is a feasible and safe robotic device for patients with gait impairment after stroke. It showed functional improvement with endurance training effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0416.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: hexapod walking robot; 3-UPU parallel mechanism; kinematics; stability; gait planning
Online: 23 August 2018 (13:31:36 CEST)
The paper presents an innovative hexapod walking robot built with 3-UPU parallel mechanism. In the robot, the parallel mechanism is used as both an actuator to generate walking and also a connecting body to connect two groups of three legs, thus enables the robot to walk with simple gait by very few motors. In the paper, the forward and inverse kinematics solutions are obtained. The workspace of the parallel mechanism is analyzed using limit boundary search method. The walking stability of the robot is analyzed, which yields the robot’s maximum step length. The gait planning of the hexapod walking robot is studied for walking on both flat and uneven terrains. The new robot, combining the advantages of parallel robot and walking robot, has a large carrying capacity, strong passing ability, flexible turning ability, and simple gait control for its deployment for uneven terrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0186.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Gait; Pain; Back disorder; Outcome evaluations; Daily activity; Fear of pain
Online: 9 August 2018 (11:26:15 CEST)
Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of paravertebral spinal injection (PSI), utilizing both subjective and objective assessments in chronic low back pain (LBP) associated with facet joint arthrosis over a one-month duration. Subjective questionnaires included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Health Survey SF-12, and the short Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Objective assessments included in-clinic gait and timed-up-and-go (TUG) tests using wearable sensors, as well as 48-hour daily physical activity (DPA) monitored using a chest-worn tri-axial accelerometer. Subjective and objective measures were performed prior to treatment, immediately after the treatment, and one-month afterthe treatment. Eight LBP patients were recruited for this study (mean age = 54±13 years, body mass index = 31.41±6.52 kg/m2, 50% males). Results show significant decrease in pain (~55%, p<0.05) and disability (Oswestry scores, ~21%, p<0.05). In-clinic gait and TUG were also significantly improved (~16% and ~18% faster walking and shorter TUG, p<0.05); however, DPA (including percentage of physical activities (walking and standing) and the number of steps) showed no significant change after PSI (p>0.25; effect size≤0.44). We hypothesize that DPA may continue to be truncated by conditioned fear-avoidance, a psychological state that may prevent increase in daily physical activity to avoid pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: treadmill; curved; running gait; imbalance; step angle; stride length; step length
Online: 5 June 2018 (13:04:21 CEST)
Running on a non-motorized, curved-deck treadmill is thought to improve gait mechanics. It is not known, though, if the change in gait carries over to running on a motorized treadmill or level ground. To determine the effect of running on a curved non-motorized treadmill (CNT) on gait characteristics measured during a subsequent bout of running on a traditional motorized treadmill (TMT). Sixteen healthy college-aged participants, age (mean±SD) 20.4±1.6 years volunteered to have their gait analyzed while running on a TMT and CNT. After familiarization and warm-up on both treadmills, each subject completed five, 4-minute bouts of running alternating between traditional motorized and curved non-motorized treadmills: TMT-1, CNT-1, TMT-2, CNT-2, and TMT-3. Variables of interest included step length (m), stride length (m), imbalance score (%), and step angle (°) and were measured using Optogait gait analysis equipment. Differences in gait char acteristics among TMT-1, TMT-2, and TMT-3 can be attributed to running on the CNT. The results show that running on a CNT resulted in significant changes in gait characteristics. These findings suggest that running on a CNT can significantly alter gait characteristics may result in improvements in running gait that persist to subsequent running on a TMT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1927.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Alzheimer´s disease; balance; gait; cognitive decline; exercise; feedback-based technology; prevention
Online: 28 July 2023 (07:20:39 CEST)
Background: Alzheimer's disease causes great changes, with the prefrontal cortex be-ing frequently damaged zones, affecting physical and cognitive behavioural and compromising autonomy and quality of life. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of feedback-based tech-nology on the improvement of physical-cognitive capacities in Alzheimer. Methods: Forty pa-tients with Alzheimer were recruited from the Santa Elena Alzheimer's Association, Seville, of which 15 ended up being pilot participants, divided randomly into controls (8) and experi-mental (7). They were evaluated with: Cognitive Mini-Examination Scale, Oddball Test and At-tention Network, Berg Scale, Tinetti, Timed up and Go and Geriatric Deterioration Scale. The experimental group was treated with feedback-based technology under the supervision of physiotherapists, during 16 thirty-minute sessions, twice a week. The control group performed their usual care. Result: A significant improvement was observed in the experimental group (Cognitive Mini-Examination and Tinetti). In the group of control, a worsening of physical and motor skills was evidenced because of the degenerative disease. Discussion/Conclusion: This treatment could be a strategy to keep the patient in early stages for longer, and improve quali-ty of life delaying dependency. It creates intergenerational bonds and use at home to promote treatment adherence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0217.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Bio inspired robot; legged Robot; locomotion; position control; walk gait; wooden robot
Online: 20 July 2020 (04:13:18 CEST)
We present the design and overall development of an eight degrees of freedom (DOF) based Bioinspired Quadruped Robot (BiQR). The robot is designed with a skeleton made of cedar wood. The wooden skeleton is based on exploring the potential of cedar wood to be a choice for legged robots’ design. With a total weight of 1.19 kg, the robot uses eight servo motors that run the position control. Relying on the inverse kinematics, the control design enables the robot to perform the walk gait-based locomotion in a controlled environment. The robot has two main aspects: 1) the initial wooden skeleton development of the robot showing it to be an acceptable choice for robot design, 2) the robot’s applicability as a low-cost legged platform to test the locomotion in a laboratory or a classroom setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Vestibular disorders; insole force sensors; gait analysis; Tsallis entropy; detrending; feature extraction; classification
Online: 15 August 2023 (05:00:17 CEST)
The healthy function of the vestibular system (VS) is of vital importance for individuals to carry out their daily activities independently and safely. This study carries out Tsallis entropy (TE)-based analysis on insole force sensor data in order to extract features to differentiate between healthy and VS-diseased individuals. Using a specifically developed algorithm, we detrend the acquired data to examine the fluctuation around the trend curve in order to consider the individual’s walking habit and thus increase the accuracy in diagnosis. It is observed that the TE-value increases for diseased people as an indicator of the problem of maintaining balance. As one of the main contributions of this study, in contrast to studies in the literature that focus on gait dynamics requiring extensive walking time, we directly process the instantaneous pressure values, enabling to reduce the data acquisition period significantly. The extracted feature set is then inputted into fundamental classification algorithms, with the Support-Vector-Machine (SVM) demonstrating the highest performance, achieving an average accuracy of 95%. This study constitutes a significant step of a large project aiming to identify specific VS disease together with its stage. The performance achieved in this study provides a strong motivation to further explore this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: dual-task; Trail-Walking Test; gait disorder; diagnosis; motor-cognitive interference; Parkinson's disease
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:57:20 CEST)
Background and Aims. Most research on Parkinson's disease (PD) focuses on describing symp-toms and movement characteristics. Studies rarely focus on the early detection of PD and the search for suitable markers of a prodromal stage. Early detection is important, so treatments that may potentially change the course of the disease can be attempted early on. While gait disturb-ances are less pronounced in the early stages of the disease, the prevalence, and severity increase with disease progression. Therefore, postural instability and gait difficulties could be identified as sensitive biomarkers. The aim was to evaluate the discriminatory power of the Trail-Walking Test (Schott, 2015) as a potential diagnostic instrument to improve the predictive power of the clinical evaluation concerning the severity of the disease and record the different aspects of walking. Methods. 20 older healthy (M = 72.4 years, SD = 5.53) adults and 46 older adults with PD and the motor phenotypes postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD; M = 69.7 years, SD = 8.68) and tremor dominant (TD; M = 68.2 years, SD = 8.94) participated in the study. The participants performed a motor-cognitive dual task (DT) of increasing cognitive difficulty in which they had to walk a given path (condition 1), walk to numbers in ascending order (condition 2), and walk to numbers and letters alternately and in ascending order (condition 3). Results. With an increase in the cognitive load, the time to complete the tasks (seconds) become longer in all groups, F(1.23, 73.5) = 121, p < .001, ɳ2p = .670. PD-PIGD shows the longest times in all conditions of the TWT, F(2, 60) = 8.15, p < .001, ɳ2p = .214. Mutual interferences in the cognitive and motor domain can be observed. How-ever, clear group-specific patterns cannot be identified. A differentiation between the motor phenotypes of PD is especially feasible with the purely motor condition (TWT-M; AUC = . 685, p = 0.44). Conclusions. PD patients with PIGD must be identified by valid, well-evaluated clinical tests that allow a precise assessment of the disease's individual fall risk, the severity of the dis-ease, and the prognosis of progression. The TWT covers various aspects of mobility, examines the relationship between cognitive functions and walking, and enables differentiation of the motor phenotypes of PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0616.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: gait diagnosis; wearable device; graphical descriptor; real-time monitoring; tele-rehabilitation; digital biomarkers
Online: 25 March 2021 (13:52:03 CET)
The deterioration of gait can be used as a biomarker for ageing and neurological diseases. Continuous gait monitoring and analysis are essential for early deficit detection and personalized rehabilitation. The use of mobile and wearable inertial sensor systems for gait monitoring and analysis have been well explored with promising results in the literature. However, most of these studies focus on the technologies for gait characteristic assessment, few of them have considered the data acquisition bandwidth of the sensing system. Inadequate sampling frequency will sacrifice signal fidelity, thus leading to an inaccurate estimation especially for spatial gait parameters. In this work, we developed an inertial sensor based in-shoe gait analysis system for real-time gait monitoring and investigated the optimal sampling frequency to capture all the information on walking patterns. An exploratory validation study was performed using an optical motion capture system on four healthy adult subjects, where each person underwent five walking sessions, giving a total of 20 sessions. Percentage mean absolute errors (MAE%) obtained in stride time, stride length, stride velocity, and cadence while walking were 1.19%, 1.68%, 2.08%, and 1.23%, respectively. In addition, an eigen-analysis based graphical descriptor from raw gait cycle signals was proposed as a new gait metric that can be quantified by principal component analysis to differentiate gait patterns, which has great potential to be used as a powerful analytical tool for gait disorder diagnostics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; activity analysis; automated detection; repetitive behavior; abnormal gait; visual saliency
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:49:24 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that limits social interactions, cognitive skills, and abilities. Since ASD can last during an affected person's entire life cycle, the diagnosis at the early onset can yield a significant positive impact. The current medical diagnostic systems (e.g., DSM-5/ICD-10) are somewhat subjective; rely purely on the behavioral observation of symptoms, and hence, some individuals often go misdiagnosed or late-diagnosed. Therefore, researchers have focused on developing data-driven automated diagnosis systems with less screening time, low cost, and improved accuracy while significantly reducing professional intervention. Human Activity Analysis (HAA) is considered one of the most promising niches in computer vision research. This paper aims to analyze its potentialities in the automated detection of autism by tracking the exclusive characteristics of autistic individuals such as repetitive behavior, atypical walking style, and unusual visual saliency. This review provides a detailed inspection of HAA-based autism detection literature published in 2011 on-wards depicting core approaches, challenges, probable solutions, available resources, and scopes of future exploration in this arena. According to our study, deep learning outperforms machine learning in ASD detection with a classification accuracy of 76\% to 95\% on different datasets comprise of video, image, or skeleton data that recorded participants performing a large number of actions. However, machine learning provides satisfactory results on datasets with a small number of action classes and has a range of 60\% to 93\% accuracy among numerous studies. We hope this extensive review will provide a comprehensive guideline for researchers in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ANN; biometric; crime-scene; fuzzy logic; gait; human footprint; Hidden Markov Model; PCA; Recognition
Online: 6 April 2018 (08:54:28 CEST)
Human footprint is having a unique set of ridges unmatched by any other human being, and therefore it can be used in different identity documents for example birth certificate, Indian biometric identification system AADHAR card, driving license, PAN card, and passport. There are many instances of the crime scene where an accused must walk around and left the footwear impressions as well as barefoot prints and therefore it is very crucial to recovering the footprints to identify the criminals. Footprint-based biometric is a considerably newer technique for personal identification. Fingerprints, retina, iris and face recognition are the methods most useful for attendance record of the person. This time world is facing the problem of global terrorism. It is challenging to identify the terrorist because they are living as regular as the citizens do. Their soft target includes the industries of special interests such as defense, silicon and nanotechnology chip manufacturing units, pharmacy sectors. They pretend themselves as religious persons, so temples and other holy places, even in markets is in their targets. These are the places where one can obtain their footprints easily. The gait itself is sufficient to predict the behaviour of the suspects. The present research is driven to identify the usefulness of footprint and gait as an alternative to personal identification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0347.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; Freeze of Gait; Deep Learning; Ensemble Learning; Wearable Sensor Data, Detection and Predication
Online: 16 August 2021 (16:48:14 CEST)
Freezing of Gait (FOG) is an impairment that affects the majority of patients in the advanced stages of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). FOG can lead to sudden falls and injuries, negatively impacting the quality of life for the patients and their families. Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) can be used to help patients recover from FOG and resume normal gait. RAS might be ineffective due to the latency between the start of a FOG event, it’s detection and initialization of RAS. We propose a system capable of both FOG prediction and detection using signals from tri-axial accelerometer sensors that will be useful in initializing RAS with minimal latency. We compared the performance of several time frequency analysis techniques, including moving windows extracted from the signals, handcrafted features, Recurrence Plots (RP), Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Pseudo Wigner Ville Distribution (PWVD) with Deep Learning (DL) based Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). We also propose three Ensemble Network Architectures that combine all the time frequency representations and DL architectures. Experimental results show that our ensemble architectures significantly improve the performance compared with existing techniques. We also present the results of applying our method trained on publicly available dataset to data collected from patients using wearable sensors in collaboration with A.T. Still University.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0277.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Dairy cow; Lyapunov exponent; bio-mechanical model; Nonlinear dynamics; gait; Weight scale; Three-link model; Fractals
Online: 24 February 2022 (09:57:02 CET)
The shape of the knee is a chain-like structure of an ellipsoid. This suggests that, in the latest study, in addition to rolling, there is slippage in the motion of the knee. This paper selects a mechanical braking model for cattle based on two mechanical structures in different directions at the joints. The experimental results show that the modified dynamical system has strong chaotic properties. This can be one of the basis for judging various health states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0529.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: hemodialysis; end stage renal disease; diabetes; motor performance; gait; balance; wearable; aging; frailty; diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Online: 27 September 2018 (04:19:43 CEST)
Motor functions are deteriorated by aging. Some conditions may magnify this deterioration. To examine whether hemodialysis (HD) process would negatively impact gait and balance beyond diabetes condition among mid-age adults (48-64 years) and older adults (65+ years). One hundred and ninety-six subjects (age=66.2±9.1 years, body-mass-index=30.1±6.4 kg/m2, female=56%) in 5 groups were recruited: mid-age adults with diabetes undergoing HD (Mid-age HD+, n=38) and without HD (Mid-age HD-, n=40); older adults with diabetes undergoing HD (Older HD+, n=36) and without HD (Older HD-, n=37); and non-diabetic older adults (Older DM-, n=45). Gait parameters (stride velocity, stride length, gait cycle time, and double support) and balance parameters (ankle, hip, and center of mass sways) were quantified using validated wearable platforms. Groups with diabetes had overall poorer gait and balance compared to the non-diabetic group (p<0.050). Among people with diabetes, the HD+ had significantly worsened gait and balance when comparing to the HD- (Cohen’s effect size d=0.63-2.32, p<0.050). Between-group difference was more pronounced among older adults with the largest effect size observed for stride length (d=2.32, p<0.001). Results suggested that deterioration in gait speed among the HD+ was correlated with age (r=-0.440, p<0.001), while this correlation was diminished among the HD-. Interestingly, results also suggested that poor gait in the Older HD- related to poor balance, while no correlation was observed between poor balance and poor gait among the Older HD+. Using objective assessments, results confirmed that the presence of diabetes can deteriorate gait and balance, and this deterioration can be magnified by HD process. Among non-HD people with diabetes, poor static balance described poor gait. However, among people with diabetes undergoing HD, age was a dominate factor describing poor gait irrespective of static balance. Results also suggested feasibility of using wearable platforms to quantify motor performance during routine dialysis clinic visits. These objective assessments may assist in identifying early deterioration in motor function, which in turn may promote timely intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: bilateral vestibulopathy; galvanic vestibular stimulation; stochastic resonance; [18F]-FDG imaging; locomotion; gait analysis; animal models; adaptive neuroplasticity
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:27:29 CEST)
Low-intensity noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) can improve static and dynamic postural deficits in patients with bilateral vestibular loss (BVL). In this study, we aimed to explore the neurophysiological and neuroanatomical substrates underlying nGVS treatment effects in a rat model of BVL. Regional brain activation patterns and behavioral responses to repeated 30-min nGVS treatment in comparison to sham stimulation were investigated by serial whole-brain [18F]-FDG-PET measurements and quantitative locomotor assessments before and at 9 consecutive time points up to 60 days after chemical bilateral labyrinthectomy (BL). [18F]-FDG-PET revealed a broad nGVS-induced modulation on regional brain activation patterns encompassing biologically plausible brain networks in the brainstem, cerebellum, multisensory cortex and basal ganglia during the entire observation period post-BL. nGVS broadly reversed brain activity adaptions occurring in the natural course post-BL. Parallel behavioral locomotor assessment demonstrated a beneficial treatment effect of nGVS on sensory-ataxic gait alterations, particularly in the early stage of post-BL recovery. Stimulation-induced locomotor improvements were finally linked to nGVS brain activity responses in the brainstem, hemispheric motor and limbic networks. In conclusion, combined [18F]-FDG-PET and locomotor analysis discloses the potential neurophysiological and neuroanatomical substrates that mediate previously observed therapeutic nGVS effects on postural deficits in patients with BVL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Lie group; Constrained extended Kalman filter; Gait analysis; Motion capture; Pose estimation; Wearable devices; IMU; Distance measurement
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:24:43 CET)
Tracking the kinematics of human movement usually requires the use of equipment that constrains the user within a room (e.g., optical motion capture systems), or requires the use of a conspicuous body-worn measurement system (e.g., inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to each body segment). This paper presents a novel Lie group constrained extended Kalman filter to estimate lower limb kinematics using IMU and inter-IMU distance measurements in a reduced sensor count configuration. The algorithm iterates through the prediction (kinematic equations), measurement (pelvis height assumption/inter-IMU distance measurements, zero velocity update for feet/ankles, flat-floor assumption for feet/ankles, and covariance limiter), and constraint update (formulation of hinged knee joints and ball-and-socket hip joints). The knee and hip joint angle root-mean-square errors in the sagittal plane for straight walking were 7.6±2.6∘ and 6.6±2.7∘, respectively, while the correlation coefficients were 0.95±0.03 and 0.87±0.16, respectively. Furthermore, experiments using simulated inter-IMU distance measurements show that performance improved substantially for dynamic movements, even at large noise levels (σ=0.2 m). However, further validation is recommended with actual distance measurement sensors, such as ultra-wideband ranging sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: nerve repair; median nerve; rat; autologous nerve graft; muscle-in-vein conduit; extracorporeal shock wave therapy; grasping test; gait analysis; CatWalk, nerve regeneration
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:17:43 CEST)
Investigations reporting positive effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) on nerve regeneration are limited to the rat sciatic nerve model. The effects of ESWT on muscle-in-vein conduits (MVCs) have also not been investigated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ESWT after repair of the rat median nerve with either autografts (ANGs) or MVCs. In male Lewis rats, a 7-mm segment of the right median nerve was reconstructed either with an ANG or MVC. For each reconstructive technique, one group of animals received one application of ESWT while the other rats served as controls. Animals were observed for 12 weeks and nerve regeneration was assessed via computerized gait analysis, the grasping test, electrophysiological evaluations and histological quantification of axons, blood vessels and lymphatic vasculature. Here we provide for the first time a comprehensive analysis of ESWT effects on nerve regeneration in a rat model of median nerve injury. Furthermore, this study is among the first reporting the quantification of lymphatic vessels following peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction in vivo. While we found no significant direct positive effects of ESWT on peripheral nerve regeneration, results following nerve repair with MVCs were significantly inferior to those after ANG repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Precision Livestock Farming (PLF); Animal welfare; Pig behavior; Mul-timodal data; Accelerometer sensors; Stress analysis; Gait analysis; Physiological monitoring; Sustainable farming practices
Online: 17 July 2023 (07:27:18 CEST)
This paper pioneers a novel exploration of environmental impacts in livestock farming, with a focus on pig farming's intersection with climate change and sustainability. It emphasizes the transformative potential of data-driven Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodologies, specifically the Internet of Things (IoT) and multimodal data analysis, in promoting equitable and sustainable food systems. The study observes five pigs, aged 86 to 108 days, using a tripartite sensor that records heart rate, respiration rate, and accelerometer data. The unique experimental design alternates between periods of isolation during feeding and subsequent pairing, enabling the investigation of stress-induced changes. Key inquiries include discerning patterns in heart rate data during isolation versus paired settings, fluctuations in respiration rates, and behavioral shifts induced by isolation or pairing. The study also explores potential detection of gait abnormalities, correlations between pigs' age and their gait or activity patterns, and the evolution of pigs' walking abilities with age. The paper scrutinizes accelerometer data to detect activity changes when pigs are paired, potentially indicating increased stress or aggression. It also examines the adaptation of pigs to alternating isolation and pairing over time, and how their heart rate, respiration rate, and activity data reflect this process. The study considers other significant variables, such as time of day and isolation duration, affecting the pigs' physiological parameters. Sensor data is further utilized to identify behavioral patterns during periods of feeding, isolation, or pairing. In conclusion, this study harnesses IoT and multimodal data analysis in a groundbreaking approach to pig welfare research. It underscores the compelling potential of technology to inform about overall pig welfare, particularly stress levels and gait quality, and the power of data-driven insights in fostering equitable, healthy, and environmentally conscious livestock production systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0643.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; axial motor symptoms; postural instability & gait difficulties; functional limits of stability; non-motor sensory symptoms; sensorimotor integration; somatosensory system; plantar cutaneous vibration perception thresholds; deep brain stimulation; subthalamic nucleus
Online: 10 November 2023 (01:49:33 CET)
Objective: To investigate whether impaired plantar cutaneous vibration perception contributes to axial motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether anti-parkinsonian medication and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), show different effects. Methods: Three groups were tested: PD patients on medication (PD-MED), PD patients on medication and additional STN-DBS (PD-MED–DBS), and healthy subjects (HS) as reference. Motor performance was analyzed using a pressure distribution platform. Plantar cutaneous vibration perception thresholds (VPT) were investigated using a customized vibration exciter at 30 Hz. Results: Motor performance of PD-MED and PD-MED–DBS was characterized by greater postural sway, smaller limits of stability ranges, and slower gait, due to shorter strides, fewer steps per minute, and broader stride widths compared to HS. Comparing patient groups, PD-MED–DBS showed better overall motor performance than PD-MED, particularly for the functional limits of stability and gait. VPTs were significantly higher for PD-MED compared to HS, which suggests impaired plantar cutaneous vibration perception in PD. However, PD-MED–DBS showed less impaired cutaneous vibration perception than PD-MED. Conclusion: PD patients suffer from poor motor performance compared to healthy subjects. Anti-parkinsonian medication in conjunction with STN-DBS seems to be superior for normalizing axial motor symptoms compared to medication alone. Plantar cutaneous vibration perception is impaired in PD patients, whereas anti-parkinsonian medication together with STN-DBS is superior for normalizing tactile cutaneous perception compared to medication alone. Consequently, based on our results and the findings of the literature impaired plantar cutaneous vibration perception might contribute to axial motor symptoms in PD.