ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0207.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Future rice production; Future maize production; Hybrid dynamical statistical; Climate change; Agriculture; Thailand
Online: 9 October 2020 (14:06:50 CEST)
Climate change effect on human-living in verities of way such as health and food security. This study presents predicting crop yields, and production risk in the near future (2020-2029) in northern Thailand using coupling 1 km resolution of regional climate model which is downscaled using a conservative remapping method and the Decision Support System for the Transfer of Agrotechnology (DSSAT) modeling system. The accuracy of the climate and agricultural model was appropriate compared to the observations with Index of Agreement (IOA) in ranges of 0.65 - 0.89. The DSSAT modeling system predicts that rice, and maize production will decrease by 5% and 4% in northern Thailand. In addition, a short-term risk analysis of rice and maize production has shown that, in the context of climate change, maize production appears to be at a high risk of low production in the near future, while rice cultivation might be a low risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0283.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: information technology; impact; society; future
Online: 13 September 2022 (08:27:14 CEST)
As we are aware Information Technology had its cutting-edge lifestyle from the overdue sixties of the remaining century whilst the Arpanet become introduced, funded with the aid of using the branch of protection of the USA. After that, the IT enterprise has come a protracted manner to its cutting-edge form in which its miles gambling a dominant function in each sphere of life. It has made innovative modifications in facts amassing and dissemination and worldwide communication. It is growing into a surely paperless painting environment. Also, we can now ship a message very without difficulty to everywhere withinside the international in seconds. From a schooling factor of view, we can have a digital elegance in which the teacher ought to take a seat down in any part of the arena and his college students scattered in all exceptional elements of the arena via video convention with the presentation of look at substances in addition to query and solution sessions. A health practitioner now sitting in any part of the arena ought to carry out a surgical procedure in which the affected person is mendacity in some other part of the arena. These work examples display where we stand these days compared to what has become 1/2 of a century back. But as we recognize, nothing on this international is only correct as the whole thing has a darkish side. In this paper, we might speak about the deserves and demerits of enforcing IT globally and in which we are heading withinside the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mobility as a Service (MaaS); future envision
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:07:04 CET)
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is an innovative transport concept, anticipated to provide travelers with different kinds of travel services, more sustainable than a private car, in a simpler, packaged way. It combines different transport modes to offer a tailored mobility package, like a monthly mobile phone contract. The rapid development of intelligent transportation system and the shared economy has speeded up the development of MaaS in these years. In this paper, we aim at classifying the existing research on MaaS and the characteristics of MaaS into different categories, in order to answer the following questions after reviewing the existing literature: What is MaaS? Who are the main actors in MaaS? How can MaaS be implemented? Why should it be implemented? Where will MaaS end up in this wave of disruption? When we talk about MaaS, what are we focusing on? What is the future leading frequency of MaaS? Finally, based on the existing literature, we envision the leading future of MaaS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: freight transportation; future scenarios; intuitive logic; logistics; digitalization
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:00:14 CET)
Road freight transportation is a key function of modern societies. At the same time, road freight transportation accounts for significant emissions. To reach the UN sustainability goals, sustainable road freight transportation is key. Digitalization, including automation, digitized information, and AI provide opportunities to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase service levels in road freight transportation. Digitalization may also radically change the business ecosystem in the sector. In this paper, the question “How will digitalization change the road freight transportation landscape?” is addressed by developing four different future scenarios, using Sweden as a case study. For each of the four scenarios the impacts on the road freight transportation sector are investigated, and opportunities and barriers to reach a sustainable transportation system in each of the scenarios are discussed. In all scenarios an increase in vehicle kilometers travelled is predicted, and in three of the four scenarios significant increases of recycling and urban freight flows are predicted. The scenario development process highlighted how there are important uncertainties in the development of the society that will be highly important for the development of the digitized freight transportation landscape. One example is the sustainability paradigm, which was identified as a strategic uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0488.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: renewable energy; startups; affordability; current condition; future potential
Online: 22 August 2020 (03:34:55 CEST)
India’s energy needs are in demand with the increase in energy and other electric uses which is highest among the world. There are sectors which heavily rely on energy generated by fossil fuels but there is also seen a paradigm shift towards renewable energy sources. If India continues to rely on the former then they end up blocking development in energy system meeting uncertainties and face difficulties in supply of fossil fuels. To meet the fast-growing economy, India needs to supply the energy 3-4 times more of what they are supplying now. Government of India has become aware of the situation and has started facilitating polices in action towards a sustainable energy. As of 2019, India’s on grid renewable energy capacity is 85.9 GW. Government is working to establish 500 GW of renewable energy source by 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: humanoids; robots; ageing population; elderly; attitude; future intention
Online: 13 September 2018 (11:38:28 CEST)
The processes of an ageing population are becoming a challenge in the context of social, technological, and research policy. Also, according to the perspective 2080, Poland belongs to the group of counties with the prognosticated number of citizens over 65 to account for one-third of the population. Different strategies aimed at dealing with the mentioned demographic challenges include widespread use of humanoids in care for older people. As the research of such nature was the first in Poland, this article aimed to identify the factors and their interlinks that determine the attitude and the future use of humanoids by older people of the Polish society. Based on the specific attributes of humanoid technology, the model hypothesises that an attitude to technology can be directly predicted by four perceived technology attributes, namely an impact on the quality of life, technological impact, ethical and social problems, while user attitude towards humanoid technology is predicted to have an indirect influence on the future intention of use. A survey method was used to collect research data. An electronic questionnaire was used to conduct confidential interviews. Finally, 643 filled questionnaires were received. Results received via a regression analysis confirmed that the most important factor influencing human attitudes was a positive social impact achieved using humanoids in the care of lonely people and improving the safety of older people. Another important factor was a technological impact from the use of humanoids performing functions desired by respondents. The technology in question could be useful for reminding older people about taking medication, informing family members about the health condition of their older people and calling for help on their behalf.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0205.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Sustainable; defined-contribution; optimisation; present value; future value
Online: 10 August 2018 (13:03:40 CEST)
This research aims to analyse the sustainability of retirement system and relevant optimal path to achieve sustainable post-retirement livings in Malaysia context. Focus of this study is put on Employees Provident Fund (EPF) which is mainly constituted by employees from private sector. EPF is a fully funded defined-contribution by both employees and employers. In this research, main variables used are contribution rate and retirement age based on relevant indexation of pension. For a sustainable retirement living, retirement benefits are expected to be in a maximisation function. Attempts to find sustainable retirement fund are via step-by-step mathematical calculation using formulas in Microsoft Excel and verification of the result with Excel Solver via Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG) algorithm. Eventually, two-third retirement decision model is used to justify the sustainability of retirement fund other than justification using monthly household expenditure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0331.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: superhydrophobic coatings; self-cleaning; stone artworks; conservation; future prospect
Online: 23 March 2020 (04:02:06 CET)
The development of innovative materials is one of the most important focuses of research in heritage conservation. Eligible materials can not only protect the physical and chemical integrity of artworks, but also preserve their artistic and aesthetic features. Recently, as one of the hot research topics in materials science, biomimetic superhydrophobic materials have gradually attracted the attention of conservation scientists due to their unique properties. In fact, ultra-repellent materials are particularly suitable for hydrophobization treatments on outdoor artworks. Owing to their excellent hydrophobicity, superhydrophobic materials can effectively prevent the absorption, penetration of liquid water as well as the condensation of water vapor, thus greatly relieving water-induced decay phenomena. Moreover, in presence of liquid water, the superhydrophobic surfaces equipped with self-cleaning property can clean the dirt, dust deposited spontaneously, thereby restoring the artistic features simultaneously. In the present paper, besides the basic principles of wetting on solid surfaces, materials and methods reported for preparing bioinspired ultra-repellent materials, the recently proposed materials for art conservation are also introduced and critically reviewed. Lastly, the current status and the problems encountered in practical application are also pointed out, and the focus of future research is prospected as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: president election; renewable energy; energy future; public opinion; polarization
Online: 31 August 2016 (08:34:50 CEST)
As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing the global climate change problem. However, presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the on-going 2016 presidential election, examining the energy plans proposed by the leading Democrat and Republican candidates. Our data from the Iowa caucus survey in January 2016 suggests that voters are more concerned about terrorism and economic issues than environmental relative issues. We then compare the Democratic and Republican candidate’s view of American’s energy future, and evaluate their proposed renewable energy targets. We find that the view on renewable energy is polarized between Democratic and Republican candidates, while candidates from both parties agree on the need for energy efficiency. Results from our ordinal least squares regression models suggest that Democratic candidates have moderate to ambitious goals for developing solar and other renewable energy. The Republican candidates favor fossil fuel and they neglect to provide any plan for renewable energy. In addition, this trend of polarization has grown more significant when compared with the past three presidential elections. Our observation suggests that energy issues need to be discussed more to draw broader attention to salient issues of diversifying and decarbonizing the nation’s energy system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0271.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: 7xxx superhard aluminum; Heat treatment technological; Alloy microstructure; Future direction
Online: 15 November 2021 (19:14:37 CET)
Since the first generation of 7xxx superhard aluminum alloy was investigated in 1930, hitherto the fifth generation aluminum alloy materials with high comprehensive properties such as high static strength, high strength, heat resistance, high toughness, damage resistance, low density and low quenching sensitivity have been improved and developed. This paper reviews the progress of 7xxx aluminum alloy materials in composition, microstructure, properties, preparation methods, heat treatment strengthening and applications from 2014 to 2021. The effect of adding trace elements on microstructure and properties of 7xxx series alloy and the problems existing in aging precipitation characteristics and reinforcement mechanism are discussed. The future development direction of 7xxx superhard aluminum alloy is prospected by optimizing heat treatment technological, adding appropriate trace elements to alloy and controlling alloy microstructure.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; animal models; vaccines; future prospects
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:15:48 CEST)
The worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented challenge to global public health. With the intensification of the COVID-19 epidemic, the development of vaccines and therapeutic drugs against the etiological agent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are also widespread. To prove the effectiveness and safety of these preventive vaccines and therapeutic drugs, available animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of COVID-19 are urgently needed. Currently, animal models including mice, golden hamsters, ferrets, nonhuman primates and other susceptible animals have been involved in the study of COVID-19. 92 vaccine candidates have entered clinical trials after the primary evaluation in animal models, of which inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, virus-vectored vaccines and mRNA vaccines are promising vaccine candidates. In this review, we summarize the landscape of animal models and advanced vaccines with efficacy range from about 50% to more than 95%. In addition, we point out future directions for animal models and vaccine development, aiming at providing valuable information and accelerating the breakthroughs confronting SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Ideation; innovation; creativity; Reasonings-Outcomes Matrix; data; knowledge management; future
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:48:58 CEST)
The paper summarizes in a step by step ‘recipe’ format a model of developing new ideas (Ideation) that can be used to form a new venture or develop a new product. The proposed ‘recipes’ are widely used and can be applied in tandem with other prevalently available models or tools. The intention of the paper is also to serve as a resource for entrepreneurs and innovators, and the links and references munificently used in the paper are serving this purpose. The author has used the outline and the tools described here in numerous Ideation classes taught for over a decade in several countries around the world. The paper’s intention is not to conduct a systematic review on the subject of new venture creation or propose new research agenda (for that, see for example Shepherd et al., 2021). The purpose is to provide an effective and efficient set of tools, models and techniques that can assist the entrepreneur in her journey to create and achieve her dreams. One such tool is the matrix of Reasonings-Outcomes introduced here for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: building energy modeling; energy systems; energy demand; future climate; weather files
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:19:24 CEST)
The building sector accounts for nearly 40% of total primary energy consumption in the U.S. and E.U. and 20% of worldwide delivered energy consumption. Climate projections predict an increase of average annual temperatures between 1.1-5.4°C by 2100. As urbanization is expected to continue increasing at a rapid pace, the energy consumption of buildings is likely to play a pivotal role in the overall energy budget. In this study we used EnergyPlus building energy models to estimate the future energy demands of commercial buildings in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, using locally-derived climate projections. We found significant variability in the energy demand profiles when simulating the study buildings under different climate scenarios, based on the energy standard the building was designed to meet, with reductions ranging from 10% to 60% in natural gas consumption for heating and increases ranging from 10% to 30% in electricity consumption for cooling. A case study, using projected 2040 building stock, showed a weighted average decrease in heating energy of 25% and an increase of 15% in cooling energy. We also found that building standards between ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 90.1-2016 play a comparatively smaller role than variation in climate scenarios on the energy demand variability within building types. Our findings underscore the large range of potential future building energy consumption which depend on climatic conditions, as well as building types and standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0294.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Land Suitability Analysis, Multi Criteria Analysis, Country Park Periphery, Future Urban Development
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:17:11 CEST)
In recent years, land supply in Hong Kong has fallen sharply and fails to keep pace with the growth of population and number of households. Land shortage becomes urgent and dire. With the inadequate provision of residential land, housing supply is also adversely affected.Insufficient housing supply leads to surging property and rental price in the private market. According to the Rating and Valuation Department (RVD), the overall private domestic price index peaked in June 2017 at 336.1. Keen housing demand is also observed in the private rental market. RVD statistics showed that the domestic rental index also reached the peak at 183.6 in June 2017 and the vacancy rate of about 3.8% as at the end-2016, which is much lower than the average vacancy rate of 5% from 1996 to 2015 (Development Bureau, 2017).In addition, there is soaring housing demand in public housing. As at the end-December 2021, the average waiting time for general applicants was 5.7 years, which is nearly double of the Housing Authority’s target for providing the first flat offer to general applicants at around three years on average (Housing Authority, 2021). Identifying and securing sufficient land to meet both current and anticipated pressing housing demand becomes a key challenge of the government. In the light of this, the government has established a dedicated task force (Task Force on Land Supply) in September 2017 and appointed 30 professionals from different disciplines, such as planning, engineering, academia and think tank, to take a Marco-review on the land supply sources, look for feasible options as well as consider the pros and cons of various options. 18 land supply options were worked out for the public to make choices in the public engagement exercise. Among the 18 choices, the development area on the Periphery of Country Parks was regarded as one of the land supplies sources. This option does not only include the Hong Kong Housing Society’s studies on developing Two Pilot Areas on the Periphery of Tai Lam and Man On Shan Country Parks, but also include developing more areas on the periphery of Country Parks. The proposed option received overwhelming attention from the public and aroused debates in various perspectives. Its ecological value, recreational value, financial viability and even legitimacy were discussed. However, spatial analysis on the suitability of having residential development in Country Parks has not been conducted. Therefore, in this study, multi criteria GIS analysis is conducted to evaluate the geographic suitability of Hong Kong Country Parks for residential purpose with the consideration of various criteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0277.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; Disease resistance; Future perspective; Improvement of plants; Molecular scissor; Revolution
Online: 10 March 2021 (11:10:58 CET)
The growing population meet the challenge for agricultural production. CRISPR/Cas9 technology is based on plant research for the development of the new varieties as well as disease resistance crops. In addition the deletion of significant characters makes the new alleles from the CRISPR/Cas9. Recent and reliable molecular scissor for genetic engineering. The review is focused on the various application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant enhancement of plant disease resistance, stress burden in plant, nutritional improvement, and quality of crops from the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein9 (cas9) is adopted from the prokaryotic type II system. CRISPR/Cas9 is simplicity and efficiency than ZENs and TALENs for the genome engineering. Due to rapid growing of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been formulate the adaptation of many plant species. The current advancement of plants and future schemes of improve of CRISPR technology has been presented in contest of multiplex editing, knowledge on induced mutation whether the factor effect in CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant. Remarkable perspective and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in significance of plant genetic modification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0366.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: outcrop reservoir analog; tidal flat; reservoir performance; future drilling; reservoir quality prediction
Online: 16 September 2020 (12:56:56 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) facies and petrophysical models were generated from previously published data of carbonate strata in the Dam Formation (eastern Saudi Arabia) to quantitatively investigate, describe, understand, model, and predict the permeability anisotropy of tidal flat carbonate within a sequence stratigraphic framework. The resulting 3D models were used to conduct fluid flow simulations to demonstrate how permeability anisotropy influences the production of hydrocarbons and ultimately affects decisions concerning future drilling in the exploration and development of carbonate reservoirs that have tidal flat strata. The constructed 3D facies model consists of four lithofacies associations, two of which were grain-dominated associations and two of which were mud-dominated associations. These lithofacies associations varied spatially in four reservoir zones (zones 1 to 4), which represent two fourth-order sequences in the uppermost part of the Dam Formation. Zones 1 and 3 consist of transgressive parasequences, and zones 2 and 4 consist of the regressive parasequences of these sequences. The 3D porosity and permeability models have a coherent match with the distribution of the lithofacies and the stratigraphic framework of the Dam Formation. The results suggested that the permeability anisotropy in zones 1 and 3 is controlled by the occurrence of the grain-dominated lithofacies associated with tidal flat channels. This lithofacies association overlies the sequence boundaries of sequences 1 and 3, forms reservoir bodies with relatively high permeability values, and is elongated perpendicular to the shoreline of the depositional environments. In contrast, permeability anisotropy in zones 2 and 4 is thought to be controlled by the occurrence of the grain-dominated lithofacies associated with the oolitic shoal. This lithofacies association overlies the maximum flooding surface of sequences 2 and 4, forms reservoir bodies with relatively high permeability values, and is elongated parallel to the shoreline of the depositional environments. Fluid flow simulation results suggested that the trend in hydrocarbon production from the constructed 3D models depends on permeability anisotropy in each reservoir zone. Thus, recognizing trends in permeability anisotropy, which might be predicted using sequences stratigraphy, could help to identify potential areas for future drilling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: future development analysis; machine tool; machine learning; multi-source data; topic model
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:20:58 CEST)
The combination of new-generation information technology and manufacturing technology has resulted in major and profound impact on future development paradigm of manufacturing. It is challenging for existing methods to conduct a multidimensional trend exploration related to machine tool domain, which is the basis of virtually everything in manufacturing. In this paper, we proposed an integrating approach framework combined topic models, bibliometric, trend analysis and patent analysis to mine insightful information about future development from multi-source data related to machine tool, such as papers, grants, patents and news. Specifically, papers and grants provided two different perspectives to explore the current focuses and future trends in machine tool research. Furthermore, the future technology development of machine tool was investigated through patents analysis. Finally, news related to machine tool industry in recent years was analyzed to analyze future machine tool business mode. The integration of the above various analytical methods and the multi-dimensional mining of literatures enabled the analysis of the future development of machine tool domain systematically from multi-perspectives which include research, technology development and industry. The conclusions obtained in this paper is beneficial to different communities of machine tool in terms of determining the research directions for researchers, identifying industry opportunities for corporations and developing reasonable industry policy for policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0662.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; future perspectives; renewable energy sources; Romania energy structure; exploratory study
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:22:02 CET)
In 2015, Romania was the first country in Europe that achieved EU targets regarding the share of renewables in the generation mix, far ahead of the 2020 deadline. Starting with the energy structure in Romania, the paper: (1) analyses the evolution of the main indicators in the renewable energy sector, (2) discloses the perspectives of renewable energy in Romania synthesizing the main trends of development in the field and (3) analyses the challenges facing with the development of renewable energy in Romania. Based on analyzing the exploratory data, the paper makes a preliminary prediction of the development of the sector for the future decades and proposes targeted countermeasures and suggestions. Romania still has unexploited potential concerning renewable energy sources. Because Romania registered a continuous economic growth, the demand for electricity is steadily growing, and this trend is expected to continue. Also, Romania could introduce a support mechanism for developing the potential of unexploited potential. The results of the present study may be useful for further research regarding public policies for the development of renewable energy. Also, it can represent a useful analysis in order to identify the future trends of renewable energy in Romania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0290.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: adolescents; alienation in PE class; school happiness; future healthy life expectancy; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:55:44 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the changes in the structural relationship between alienation in physical education (PE) class, school happiness, and future healthy life expectancy in Korean adolescents after the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from adolescents in the Republic of Korea using scales for these factors. The collected data were analyzed with frequency analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, independent t-test, and path analysis. The key results were as follows. First, there were partial changes in each of the parameters since the outbreak of COVID-19. Second, before the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; however, alienation in PE class did not affect future healthy life expectancy showing a complete mediating effect. Third, during the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; alienation in PE class negatively affected future healthy life expectancy, showing a partial mediating effect. These findings emphasize the importance and potential of school education, especially PE, in promoting happiness and healthy life in adolescents. We expect these findings to have practical implications for future research by presenting theoretical and empirical data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: engineering education; Forth Industrial Revolution; 4IR; skills gap; future of work; e-learning; didactics
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:50:42 CEST)
We are calling for a paradigm shift in engineering education. In times of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (“4IR”), a myriad of potential changes is affecting all industrial sectors leading to increased ambiguity that makes it impossible to predict what lies ahead of us. Thus, incremental culture change in education is not an option any more. The vast majority of engineering education and training systems, having remained mostly static and underinvested in for decades, are largely inadequate for the new 4IR labor markets. Some positive developments in changing the direction of the engineering education sector can be observed. Novel approaches of engineering education already deliver distinctive, student centered curricular experiences within an integrated and unified educational approach. We must educate engineering students for a future whose main characteristics are volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Talent and skills gaps across all industries are poised to grow in the years to come. The authors promote an engineering curriculum that combine timeless didactic tradition, such as Socratic inquiry, project-based learning and first-principles thinking with novel elements (e.g. student centered active and e-learning by focusing on the case study and apprenticeship pedagogical methods) as well as a refocused engineering skillset and knowledge. These capabilities reinforce engineering students’ perceptions of the world and the subsequent decisions they make. This 4IR engineering curriculum will prepare engineering students to become curious engineers and excellent communicators better navigating increasingly complex multistakeholder ecosystems.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0421.v2
Subject: Keywords: Anyon, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Unification, Topological Universe, Intergalactic Travel, Future Computers, Dark Matter/Dark Energy
Online: 28 June 2021 (16:26:23 CEST)
In 1982, MIT physicist Frank Wilczek predicted and named ANYONS, quasiparticles (particle-like formations) that are confined to 2 dimensions and were discovered in 2020. The name might come from Prof. Wilczek's lighthearted comment "anything goes". This article's main goal is to show that anyons could be another name for 1) virtual particles, 2) Mobius strips, and 3) figure-8 Klein bottles. Along the way, we'll see the picture painted by the article confirm that Einstein's dream of gravitational-electromagnetic unity fits in with anyons being Mobius strips. The topological hypothesis offers an explanation of dark matter and dark energy. We'll also have encounters with intergalactic travel and imaginary computers. They really could exist but are imaginary in the sense that they use imaginary time (as well as space-time warping).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0168.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: aquaculture; shellfish; future food; nursery stage; mud crab; juvenile; seed production; hatchery; crablet; breeding
Online: 5 February 2021 (16:18:19 CET)
This study attempted to explain the definition, objectives, and key stages in mud crab nursery activities. The nursery stages of Scylla spp was started from megalopa stage to several crablet instar stages or started from earlier crablet stage to several crablet stages. Direct stocking of megalopa into ponds is not recommended due to their sensitivity. Instead, nursery rearing is needed to produce mud crab of larger size before stocking. Individual nursery rearing results in higher survival rate (up to 100%), but with reduced growth rate, and a more complicated maintenance process compared with communal rearing. Nursery of mud crab can be done indoors, or outdoors, with adequate shelter and feed required to obtain good survival and growth performance. Artemia nauplii are the main, established nursery feed, particularly at megalopa stage, while survival rate may be improved if combined with artificial feed, such as micro bound diet formulations. Water quality parameters, identical to those proposed in tiger shrimp culture, can followed. Crablets may be transported to the pond location with, or without water. The provision of monosex seeds from mud crab hatcheries is expected to become more common, increasing seed price, and thus improving income of farmers. Numerous aspects of mud crab nursery, including nutrition, feeding strategies, understanding of their behaviour, i.e., cannibalism, control of environmental factors, and practical rearing techniques, still need further improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: motorised mobility; average distances; international comparison; future automobiles; automotive companies; battery autonomy (range); economic analysis
Online: 22 June 2019 (15:59:01 CEST)
This paper aims at providing a multisource data analysis, including direct data collection, focussed on daily average distances covered with motorised mobility. Its results can be used as a basis for policies involving a shift towards new propulsions, electric motors or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) for road vehicles. A number of variables influence the propensity of drivers to acquire or use electric traction, even the option of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This paper addresses one of such variable: the compliancy of electric traction regarding both hybrid plug-in solutions and full-electric vehicles, in addition to the autonomy of batteries (range), with the daily travels by road vehicles, mainly by automobiles. We want to understand whether the constraints leading towards a greater independence from crude oil rather than constraints concerning emissions, mainly in urban contexts, might be compliant with the habitual daily trips of drivers. We also want to understand if these daily trips have varied much during recent years and the consequences they may have on operational costs of plug-in automobiles. We are well aware that the average distances do not represent the actual daily runs of vehicles; yet similar distributions of daily distances for different case studies indicate that a high percentage of trips respond to certain features. After introducing a general overview of road-motorised mobility in Italy, the paper compares data from other studies to provide an indication of average daily driving distances. This reveals how different recent analyses converge on a limited range of average road distances covered daily by Italians, which is compliant with ranges allowed by electric batteries, provided that their low energy density in comparison with that of oil-derived fuels do not imply a significant increase in vehicle mass. Subsequently, average distances in some EU Countries are taken from the literature, and the results are also compared with U.S. data. The study extends the analysis of trends on the use of automobiles and road-vehicles to the international context by also addressing average daily distances covered for freight transport in some EU Countries, thereby providing a further basis for comparison and for understanding whether the daily motorised mobility can be considered as a stable phenomenon. Finally, an analysis is provided of the economic operational advantages from using plug-in vehicles. The main aim of this paper is thereafter to investigate the average daily motorised mobility of single vehicles – so not an aggregated motorised mobility as collected by some statistics – by using private motorised vehicles in Italy, with related trends; thereafter, to compare these data with those obtained from other countries, making use of both existing research studies and directly collected data; the final aim is to understand both the compliance of daily activities based on the use of automobiles with the autonomy of batteries (range) and to calculate some economic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore wind energy, future turbine design, floating foundation, fixed-bottom foundation, levelized cost of electricity
Online: 13 February 2019 (15:43:22 CET)
Renewable energy sources will play a central role in the sustainable energy systems of the future. Scenario analyses of such hypothesized energy systems require sound knowledge of the techno-economic potential of renewable energy technologies. Although there have been various studies concerning the potential of offshore wind energy, higher spatial resolution, as well as the future design concepts of offshore wind turbines, has not yet been addressed in sufficient detail. Here, we aim to overcome this gap by applying a high spatial resolution to the three main aspects of offshore wind potential analysis, namely ocean suitability, the simulation of wind turbines and cost estimation. A set of constraints is determined that reveal the available areas for turbine placement across Europe’s maritime boundaries. Then, turbine designs specific to each location are selected by identifying turbines with the cheapest levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), restricted to capacities, hub heights and rotor diameters of between 3-20 MW, 80-200 m and 80-280 m, respectively. Ocean eligibility and turbine design are then combined to distribute turbines across the available areas. Finally, LCOE trends are calculated from the individual turbine costs, as well as the corresponding capacity factor obtained by hourly simulation with wind speeds from 1980 to 2017. The results of cost-optimal turbine design reveal that the overall potential for offshore wind energy across Europe will constitute nearly 8.6 TW and 40.0 PWh at roughly 7 €ct kWh-1 average LCOE by 2050. Averaged design parameters at national level are provided in an appendix.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0776.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Saponins; anticancer activities; traditional plants; mechanism of action; cell cycle arrest; apoptosis; chemopreventive; future cancer research
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:08:23 CEST)
Abstract Traditional plants are known to contain a wide array of secondary metabolites with important biological activity, including anticancer activity. One of such metabolites is saponin; a steroidal or triterpenoid glycoside that is distinguished by its soap forming nature. Different saponins have been characterized and purified so far, and are gaining attention in cancer chemotherapy. Saponins possess incredible structural diversity which has been linked to their activity. They have been implicated in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Several studies have reported the role of saponins in cancer and their mechanism of actions including cell cycle arrest, antioxidant, cellular invasion inhibition, induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Despite the extensive research and significant anticancer effect of saponins there are no known FDA approved saponin based anticancer drugs due to a number of limitations including toxicities and drug likeness properties. Recent studies have explored options such as structural optimization, combination therapy and drug delivery systems to design saponins with increased efficacy and decreased toxicities. This review discussed the current knowledge on different saponins, their anticancer activity, mechanism of action as well as the current promising research on saponins within the last two decades and recommendations for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Effective Drought Index (EDI); meteorological drought; climate change; GCMs under RCP scenarios; future drought projections; Bangladesh
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:49:09 CEST)
The impacts of climate change on precipitation and drought characteristics over Bangladesh were examined by using the daily precipitation outputs from 29 bias-corrected general circulation models (GCMs) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. A precipitation-based drought estimator, namely, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), was applied to quantify the characteristics of drought events in terms of the severity and duration. The changes in drought characteristics were assessed for the beginning (2010–2039), middle (2040–2069), and end of this century (2070–2099) relative to the 1976–2005 baseline. The GCMs were limited in regard to forecasting the occurrence of future extreme droughts. Overall, the findings showed that the annual precipitation will increase in the 21st century over Bangladesh; the increasing rate was comparatively higher under the RCP8.5 scenario. The highest increase of rainfall is expected to happen over the drought-prone northern region. The general trends of drought frequency, duration, and intensity are likely to decrease in the 21st century over Bangladesh under both RCP scenarios, except for the maximum drought intensity during the beginning of the century, which is projected to increase over the country. The extreme and medium-term drought events did not show any significant changes in the future under both scenarios except for the medium-term droughts, which decreased by 55% compared to the base period during the 2070s under RCP8.5. However, extreme drought days will likely increase in most of the cropping seasons for the different future periods under both scenarios. The spatial distribution of changes in drought characteristics indicates that the drought-vulnerable areas are expected to shift from the northwestern region to the central and the southern region in the future under both scenarios due to the effects of climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0026.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: wearable devices; ethics; children; privacy; large data; right to an open future; living in the spot-light
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:00:42 CEST)
Wearable and mobile technology has advanced in leaps and bounds in the last decade with technological advances creating a role from enhancing healthy living to monitoring and treating disease. However, the discussion about the ethical use of such commercial technology in the community, especially in minors, is lacking behind. In this paper, we first summarize the major ethical concerns that arise from the usage of commercially available wearable technology in children, with a focus on smart watches, highlighting issues around the consent process, mitigation of risk and potential confidentiality and privacy issues, as well as the potential for therapeutic misconceptions when used without medical advice. Then through a relevant thought experiment we move on to outline some further ethical concerns that are connected to the use of wearables by minors, to wit the issue of informed consent in the case of minors, forcing them to live in the spotlight, and compromising their right to an open future. We conclude with the view that mitigating potential pitfalls and enhancing the benefits of wearable technology especially for minors requires brave and comprehensive moral debates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Covid-19; Resilience; Sustainable Development Goals; Technology; Urbanisation; Climate Change; Complex Systems; Systemic Change; Future of Sustainable Development
Online: 13 October 2020 (12:18:09 CEST)
Washing hands, social distancing and staying at home are the preventive measures set in place to contain the spread of the COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. These measures, although straightforward to follow, highlight the tip of an imbalanced socio-economic and socio-technological iceberg. Here, a System Dynamic (SD) model of COVID-19 preventive measures and their correlation with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is presented. The result demonstrates a better informed view of the COVID-19 vulnerability landscape. This novel qualitative approach refreshes debates on the future of SDGS amid the crisis and provides a powerful mental representation for decision makers to find leverage points that aid in preventing long-term disruptive impacts of this health crisis on people, planet and economy. There is a need for further tailor-made and real-time qualitative and quantitative scientific research to calibrate the criticality of meeting the SDGS targets in different countries according to ongoing lessons learned from this health crisis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0154.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; smart cities; urban sustainability; cities of future; internet of things (IoT); data science; big data
Online: 13 August 2019 (10:00:34 CEST)
Deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) methods have recently contributed to the advancement of models in the various aspects of prediction, planning, and uncertainty analysis of smart cities and urban development. This paper presents the state of the art of DL and ML methods used in this realm. Through a novel taxonomy, the advances in model development and new application domains in urban sustainability and smart cities are presented. Findings reveal that five DL and ML methods have been most applied to address the different aspects of smart cities. These are artificial neural networks; support vector machines; decision trees; ensembles, Bayesians, hybrids, and neuro-fuzzy; and deep learning. It is also disclosed that energy, health, and urban transport are the main domains of smart cities that DL and ML methods contributed in to address their problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal; power plant; utilization factor; plant load factor; PLF; generation mix; renewable; future; declared capacity; NTPC; energy; peak; deficit; environment; India
Online: 19 August 2020 (11:38:11 CEST)
As on 31.03.2020, 55.4 % (205135 MW) of total installed capacity (370106 MW) in India is through coal and lignite based power plants. These plants, set up by central, state and private utilities with substantial capital investment are facing consistently reducing Plant Utilization Factor (known as Plant Load Factor, PLF, in India). In the year 2019-20 the national average thermal power PLF stood at 55.4%, down from 78.6 % in 2007-08. On the other hand, the electricity demand is consistently rising in the country and there exists a peak and energy shortage at national level. In 2019-20 energy shortage was 0.7 % and peak shortage was 0.5 %. A disturbing paradox therefore exists here. On one hand, the country is power deficit, and on the other hand, a large amount of coal based affordable power, ready to be generated by thermal power generators, remains grossly unused. Looking into the fact that considerable investment has gone into developing these thermal power generation assets in the country, the falling PLF is a matter of concern for all the key stakeholders including the power producers, lenders, regulators and consumers. This paper identifies seven major factors that are affecting PLF of thermal power plants and then makes an attempt to project future scenario of PLF so that critical stakeholders can intervene through appropriate actions. Primary research with responses from power professionals has been used to find out the major factors. Future projection of PLF has been done using Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. Projection shows that in the Business As Usual case (Factors increasing at the current CAGR rate), the thermal power plants will face very low level of PLF (14.76 %) by 2024-25. This will mean that many plants will be shut down and many will run for only few hours in a day that too at very low loads. If the future generation mix is kept as indicated by Central Electricity Authority (CEA), a Govt. of India in its report (Draft report on optimal generation capacity mix for 2029-30- CEA- Govt of India) then the thermal power plant average PLF can sustain above 68 % until 2024-25. If followed, this path can be a breather for the thermal power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: entrepreneur rail model; value capture; city deals; private railways; transit-oriented development; western Australia; tramways; land grants; future cities; urban planning
Online: 25 July 2018 (05:54:23 CEST)
Urban transit planning is going through a transition to greater private investment in many parts of the world and is now on the agenda in Australia. After showing examples of private investment in transit globally the paper focuses on historical case studies of private rail investment in Western Australia. These case studies mirror the historical experience in rapidly growing railway cities in Europe, North America and Asia (particularly Japan), and also the land grant railways that facilitated settlement in North America. The Western Australian experience is noteworthy for the small but rapidly growing populations of the settlements involved, suggesting that growth, rather than size, is the key to successfully raising funding for railways through land development. The paper shows through the history of transport, with particular reference to Perth, that the practice of private infrastructure provision can provide lessons for how to enable this again. It suggests that new partnerships with private transport investment as set out in the Federal Government City Deal process, should create many more opportunities to improve the future of cities through once again integrating transit, land development and private finance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; Artificial intelligence; Big Data; Crafting the Future; Digital Strategy 2025; High-Tech Strategy 2025; ICT policy; Industry 4.0; Initiative; Internet of things; Made in China 2025; Make in India; M-Pesa; Public-private partnership; Society 5.0
Online: 12 April 2020 (09:08:45 CEST)
The war to technology and economic power have been the driver for industrialization in most developed countries. The first industrial revolution (industry 1.0) earned millions for textile mill owners while the second industrial revolution (industry 2.0) opened the way for tycoons and captains of industry like John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan and Henry Ford. The third industrial revolution (industry 3.0) engendered technology giants like Apple and Microsoft, and made magnates of men like Steve Jobs and Bill Gates. Now, the race for the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0) is on and there is no option, every country whether developed or developing must participate. Many countries have positively responded to industry 4.0 by developing strategic initiatives to strengthen industry 4.0 implementation. Unlocking the country’s potential to industry 4.0 has been of interest to researchers in the recent past. However, the extent to which industry 4.0 initiatives being launched globally has never been revealed. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring industry 4.0 initiatives through comprehensive electronic survey of literature to estimate the extend of its launching in different regions. Inferences were drawn from industry 4.0 initiatives in developed nations to be used as the recommendations for East Africa Community. Results of the survey revealed that 117 industry 4.0 initiatives have been launched in 56 countries worldwide consisting of five regions. The country’s percent of industry 4.0 initiatives as per region were: Latin America and the Caribbean (15%), North America (40%), Europe (53%), Asia and Oceania (25%), Middle East and Africa (11%). While the worldwide percent was estimated as 25%. This revealed that the big gap is existing between countries towards the race for industry 4.0.