ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0325.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Rainfall; QPESUMS; Regional Frequency Analysis; L-moments; Taiwan
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:53:34 CEST)
This study proposed a spatially and temporally improving methodology adopting the Regional Frequency Analysis with L-moments approach to estimate rainfall quantiles from 22787 grids of radar rainfall in Taiwan for a 24-hour duration. Due to limited radar coverage in the eastern region, significant discordant grids were found in the coastal area of the eastern region. A K-means cluster analysis using scaled at-site characteristics was used to group the QPESUMS grids in Taiwan into 22 clusters/sub-regions based on their characteristics. Spatially, homogeneous subregions with QPESUMS data produce more detailed homogeneous subregions with clear and continuous boundaries, especially in the mountain range area where the number of rain stations is still very limited. According to the results of z-values and L-moment ratio diagrams, the Wakeby (WAK), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Generalized Pareto (GPA) distributions of rainfall extremes fitted well for the majority of subregions. The Wakeby distribution was the dominant best-fitted distribution, especially in the central and eastern regions. The east of the northern part and southern part of Taiwan had the highest extreme rainfall for each return period. Both areas were frequently struck by typhoons. By using grid-based (at-site) as the basis for assessing regional frequency analysis, the results show that the regional approach in determining extreme rainfall is very suitable for large-scale applications and even better for smaller scales such as watershed areas. The spatial investigation was performed by establishing regions of interest in small subregions across the northern part. It showed that regionalization was correct and consistent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0519.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rockfall; failure; propagation; hazard; risk; probability; frequency
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:23:02 CET)
There is an increasing need for quantitative rockfall hazard and risk assessment that requires a precise definition of the terms and concepts used for this particular type of landslide. This paper suggests to use terms that appear to be the more logic and explicit as possible, and describes methods to derive some of the main hazard and risk descriptors. The terms and concepts presented concern the rockfall process (failure, propagation, fragmentation, modelling) and the hazard and risk descriptors, distinguishing the cases of localized hazards and diffused hazards. For a localized hazard, the failure probability of the considered rock compartment in a given period of time has to be assessed and the probability for a given element at risk to be impacted with a given energy must be derived combining the failure probability, the propagation probability and the exposure of the element. For a diffuse hazard that is characterized by a failure frequency, the number of rockfalls reaching the element at risk per unit of time and with a given energy (reach frequency) can be derived. However, when the element at risk is not replaced or repaired, the probability that it is impacted by at least one rockfall must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: radiometer; kurtosis; skewness; spectrogram; radio-frequency interference (RFI)
Online: 13 December 2018 (08:12:14 CET)
For the elimination of radio-frequency interference (RFI) in a passive microwave radiometer, the threshold level is generally calculated from the mean value and standard deviation. However, a serious problem that can arise is an error in the retrieved brightness temperature from a higher threshold level owing to the presence of RFI. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and mitigate RFI contamination using the threshold level from statistical criteria based on a spectrogram technique. Mean and skewness spectrograms are created from a brightness temperature spectrogram by shifting the 2-D window to discriminate the form of the symmetric distribution as a natural thermal emission signal. From the remaining bins of the mean spectrogram eliminated by RFI-flagged bins in the skewness spectrogram for data captured at 0.1-s intervals, two distribution sides are identically created from the left side of the distribution by changing the standard position of the distribution. Simultaneously, kurtosis calculations from these bins for each symmetric distribution are repeatedly performed to determine the retrieved brightness temperature corresponding to the closest kurtosis value of three. The performance is evaluated using experimental data, and the error in the retrieved brightness temperature is observed to be less than approximately 3 K from a window with a size of 100 × 100 time-frequency bins according to the RFI levels and cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0855.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: frequency synthesis; phase noise; phase settling time; stability analysis
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:25:20 CEST)
The frequency synthesizer is a critical component in Cs beam clock technology. In this paper, we present a demonstration of a direct microwave frequency-synthesis chain for a cesium-beam atomic clock, which utilizes frequency multiplication and a dual-phase-locked loop mode. A detailed analysis of the frequency-synthesis chain is conducted, and a mathematical model is established. The phase settling time and system stability are simulated, measured, and verified. The experimental results for the phase settling time align with the simulation outcomes. The phase settling time can be adjusted within the range of 644.5 µs to 1.5 ms, and the absolute phase noise values are -63.7 dBc/Hz, -75.7 dBc/Hz, -107.1 dBc/Hz, and -122.5 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Additionally, the Ramsey fringes are detected, and the Allan deviations of the 10 MHz output from the cesium-beam atomic clock are measured to be 2.99×10−12 at 1s and 8.02×10−14 at 10,000 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Frequency estimation; FM; sensors; Internet of Things (IoT); software-defined radio (SDR); al-pha-stable noise; time-frequency distribution; deep learning
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:15:26 CEST)
Deep Learning (DL) and Machine Learning (ML) are widely used in many fields, but rarely used in Frequency Estimation (FE) and Slope Estimation (SE) of signals. Frequency and slope estimation for Frequency-Modulated (FM) and single-tone sinusoidal signals are essential in various applications, such as wireless communications, sonar, and radar measurements. In this work, artificial neural network (ANN) and convolutional neural network (CNN) are used in frequency and slope estimation for FM signals under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Additive Symmetric alpha Stable Noise (SαSN). SαS distributions are impulsive noise disturbances found in many communication environments like marine systems; their distribution lacks a closed-form Probability Density Function (PDF), except for specific cases, and infinite second-order statistic, hence Geometric SNR (GSNR) is used in this work to determine the impulsiveness of noise in a mixture of Gaussian and SαS noise processes. ANN is a machine learning classifier, designed with few layers for reducing FE and SE complexity while getting higher accuracy as compared with classical techniques. CNN is a deep learning classifier, designed with many layers for FE and SE, and proved to be more accurate than ANN when dealing with big data and finding optimal features. Simulation results show that SαS noise can be much more harmful for FE and SE of FM signals than Gaussian noise. DL and ML can significantly reduce FE complexity, memory cost, and power consumption, which is important in many systems such as some Internet of Things (IoT) sensor applications. After training DCNN for frequency and slope estimation of LFM signals, the performance of DCNN (in terms of accuracy) can give acceptable results at very low signal-to-noise ratios where TFD fails, giving more than 20dB difference in the GSNR working range.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: composite preparation; random fiber design; natural frequency; moderate thick plates
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:09:48 CEST)
The experimental verification for the computational method sometimes varies due to numerous factors such as the manufacturing process and the materials' property change due to environmental aspects. In this work, we performed verification of experimental and computational evaluation of a hybrid composite moderate thick plate. The experiment was performed with simplistic approaches and without the advanced tools of preparing composite materials. This is due to the fact that most of the students in many developing countries around the world cannot have access to such equipment. As such, in this research, we are presenting cheap and easy preparation methods, with some details, for even equipment calibration and some tricks to attain a reliable composite structure for educational purposes. Moreover, the software and solvers used in this study are freely provided by the supplier for educational purposes. This study examined two methods for producing carbon and glass/polyester composite plates and discussed which one was best based on mechanical properties for different volume fractions, random stacking sequences, and ply angles (using OCTAVE's random estimation program). It also determined the three natural frequencies experimentally and with the aid of ANSYS. Less than 6% separated the experimentally determined natural frequencies from the calculated results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Cross-term; Fourier transform; Frequency shifting; Time-frequency method; Natural frequency
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:55:32 CEST)
The natural frequency of buildings decreases during a strong-motion earthquake, and the structure loses its stiffness. As a result, understanding the damaging process in the structure owing to changes in structural properties is critical during a seismic excitation. The time-frequency technique can detect the damaged building’s time-varying frequency contents. Wigner distributions (WD), Wigner-Ville distributions (WVD), pseudo-Wigner-Ville distributions (PWVD), smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distributions (SPWVD), and synchrosqueezing transforms (SST) have all become popular in recent years for a variety of earthquake engineering applications, including building damage detection. This study proposes the local maximum synchrosqueezing transform (LMSST) for detecting frequency shifts in buildings during strong earthquakes. The data presented in the research show that the suggested method outperforms as compared to the conventional time-frequency methods for detecting frequency shifting in earthquake-damaged structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0506.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS; MEMS gyroscope; vibrating ring gyroscope; dynamics; motion equations; resonance frequency; ring resonator; inertial sensor
Online: 8 November 2023 (04:05:07 CET)
This paper describes developing and analyzing an analytical model of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) internal vibrating ring gyroscope. The internal ring structure consists of eight semicircular beams attached to the externally placed anchors. The paper analyses the vibrating ring gyroscope inplane displacement behavior and the resulting elliptical vibrational modes. The elliptical vibrational modes appear as pairs with the same resonance frequency due to the symmetric nature of the design. The analysis commences by conceptualizing the ring as a geometric structure with a circular shape, possessing specific dimensions such as thickness, height, and radius. We construct a linear model that characterizes the vibrational dynamics of the internal vibrating ring. The analysis encompasses comprehensive mathematical formulations for the radial and tangential displacements in local polar coordinates, considering the inextensional displacement of the ring structure. By utilizing the derived equations, we highlight the underlying relationships driving the vibrational characteristics of the MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope. These dynamic vibrational relationships are essential in enabling the vibrating ring gyroscope's future utilization in accurate navigation and motion sensing technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Driveability; low-frequency; energy path analysis; powertrain; model-based engineering
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:21:24 CEST)
Vehicle driveability is one of the important vehicle attributes in range-extender electric vehicles due to the electric motor torque characteristics at low-speed events. The process of validating and rectifying vehicle driveability attributes is typically utilised by a physical vehicle prototype that can be expensive and required several design iterations. In this paper, a model-based energy method to assess vehicle driveability is presented based on a high-fidelity 49 degree-of-freedom powertrain and vehicle systems. Multibody dynamics components were built according to their true centre of gravity relative to the vehicle datum for providing an accurate system interaction. The work covered a frequency at less than 20 Hz. The results that consisted of the component frequency domination are structured and examined to identify the low-frequency sensitivity based on different operating parameters such as a road surface coefficient. An energy path technique was also implemented on the dominant component by decoupling its compliances to study the effect on the vehicle driveability and low-frequency response. The outcomes of the research provided a good understanding of the interaction across the sub-systems levels. The powertrain rubber mounts were the dominant components that controlled the low-frequency contents (< 15.33 Hz) and can change the vehicle driveability quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1641.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: dietary habits; meal timing; meal frequency; late night dinner; skipping meals; Kuwait
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:23:15 CEST)
Dietary habits, including meal frequency, meal timing, and skipping meals, have been extensively studied due to their association with the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study describes dietary habits, meal timing, meal frequency, skipping meals, and late-night eating in Kuwaiti adults. The Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System data was utilized to reach the objectives of this study. The findings reveal that approximately 50% of the adults in Kuwait eat after 10 p.m., 29% skip breakfast, and 9.8% skip dinner. Furthermore, adults in Kuwait consume 4.4 meals per day on average. Women skip breakfast more often and have extended night fasting than men (p<0.001). Married adults skip breakfast and dinner less than unmarried adults (p<0.001). In conclusion, this descriptive study provides valuable insights into the dietary habits of Kuwaiti adults, emphasizing the importance of further investigating the association between meal timing, meal frequency, and the prevalence of NCDs in Kuwait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Time Frequency Transfer; Precise Point Positioning; Ambiguity Resolution (AR); Analysis Center (AC)
Online: 24 October 2022 (05:33:45 CEST)
These days, numerous organizations and Analysis Centers (AC) offer various Ambiguity Resolution (AR) products using various methodologies. To use it for time-frequency transfer, there is no associated study. This paper chooses 16 MGEX stations with external high-precision atomic clocks to constitute 15 international time comparison links and uses AR products data from CNES, SGG, CODE, and PRIDE laboratory, using three ambiguity-fixed strategies, to thoroughly evaluate the effects of various strategies and AR products for high-precision time-frequency transfer. We reach the following results by using the IGS final clock product as a reference and comparing it to ambiguity-float. With various ambiguity-fixed procedures, the time stability STD of time transfer is increased for a single GPS, and the improvement ranges from 10% to 40%. The frequency stability has barely improved; up to 40%, the most notable improvement comes from FCB with GRM products. The time stability STD of combinations has improved after the addition of the Galileo system compared to the single GPS, and the improvement ranges from 2% to 9%. Most strategies have improved, while a few techniques have weakened with the GEC (GPS+Galileo+BDS) combination. We feel that the stability has not significantly increased with the system's increase within short-term stability after comparing multiple groups of linkages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0380.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: correlation power-frequency; frequency stability; hydropower; power quality analysis
Online: 21 March 2023 (14:29:33 CET)
One of the challenges posed by renewable energies is the stabilization of parameters related to the quality of electrical energy. This study demonstrates the existence of a relationship between input blocks of hydropower and the variation of the fundamental frequency of the electricity grid. By mapping production data provided by Spanish Electric Network with frequency measured in the laboratory, it is shown that gradients of hydropower are correlated with frequency fluctuations for certain characteristic times. Considering hourly instances of energy input, the study compares two methods for calculating hydropower gradients (linear regression and pseudo-linear regression); and two methods for calculating local frequency extremes (the "specular inertia" method and analysis by comparison with the moving average), in order to corroborate the results.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0591.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: motor acceleration study; reactor coolant pump (RCP); canned motors; small modular reactor (SMR); variable frequency drive (VFD)
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:31:22 CEST)
Recently, SMR (Small Modular Reactor) is expected to be able to operate flexibly in conjunction with a high renewable energy penetration grid as a result of improved safety and easy power control compared to large nuclear power plants. SMRs such as South Korea’s System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor (SMART) are designed to use canned motors (CMs) for their reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) to enhance safety. The CMs passively enhance the reactor’s safety by preventing leakage of radioactive reactor coolant. However, with motor sizes designed to be as small as possible, and the increased air gap of CMs between stator and rotor, starting torque may be insufficiently small compared to that of similar sized induction motors (IMs). Thusly, CMs may require variable frequency drives (VFDs) to start. This paper compares the torque characteristics of CMs with those of IMs for SMART’s RCPs. ETAP is then used to perform motor starting analysis for CMs started with and without VFDs. The results are presented and analyzed to find out if the VFDs deal with the CM starting torque issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1634.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: transportation disasters; western Asia; accident frequency; road safety; data analysis; public awareness; infrastructure development
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:47:14 CEST)
Investigating transportation disasters in Western Asia over two decades (2003-2023), this study provides a meticulous examination of a comprehensive dataset, shedding light on the dynamics and nuances of these catastrophic events in terms of frequency, modality (air, rail, road, and water), and subsequent outcomes. The data reveals a concerning uptrend in mishaps from 2003 to 2010, which fortunately reverses into a notable decline in the subsequent years. Noteworthy is the predominance of road-related incidents, yet an alarming 73.8% of events are ambiguously categorized under "Unknown", hinting at potential gaps or inconsistencies in record-keeping. With Turkey being a significant epicenter, accounting for nearly 45% of all incidents, the regional distribution of these disasters becomes evident. Advanced ANOVA analyses discern marked variations in fatality rates over the years and between nations. However, the contrast in injury rates among different disaster categories did not achieve statistical significance. While the post-2010 era showcases a commendable reduction in calamities, the data punctuates the persistent necessity for robust safety measures, targeted public awareness campaigns, and infrastructural advancements. In synthesis, this study vehemently advocates for heightened regional collaboration and systematic knowledge dissemination as cornerstones for bolstering transportation safety across Western Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0516.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Frequency response characteristic (FRC) curve; frequency response; renewable generation; governor
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:40:43 CET)
This letter introduces a frequency response characteristic (FRC) curve and its application in high renewable power systems. In addition, the letter presents a method for fast frequency response assessment and frequency nadir prediction without performing dynamic simulations using detailed models. The proposed FRC curve and fast frequency response assessment method are useful for operators to understand frequency response performance of high renewable systems in real time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: injection locked frequency multiplier; Frequency Locked Loop (FLL); phase noise
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:02:01 CEST)
This paper presents a 612–1152 MHz Injection Locked Frequency Multiplier (ILFM). The proposed ILFM is only used for sending an input signal to the receiver in the I/Q mismatch calibration mode. Using the Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) to calibrate the receiver places a burden on this system due to the extra area required and power consumption. Instead of the PLL, to satisfy high frequency, low jitter, and low area, a Ring Oscillator is proposed. The free-running frequency of the ILFM is automatically digitally calibrated to reflect the frequency of the injected signal from the harmonics of the reference clock. To control the frequency of the ILFM, the load current is digitally tuned with 6-bit digital control signal. The proposed ILFM locks to the target frequency using a digitally controlled Frequency Locked Loop (FLL). This chip is fabricated using 1-poly 6-metal 0.18 µm CMOS and achieve the wide tuning range of 612–1152 MHz. The power consumption is 0.95 mW from a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The measured phase noise of the ILFM is −108 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Compliant amplifying mechanisms; Multi-body system transfer matrix method; Displacement amplification ratio; Resonance frequency; Iterative optimization algorithm
Online: 29 June 2023 (08:32:18 CEST)
Compliant amplifying mechanisms are used widely in high-precision instruments driven by piezoelectric actuators, and the dynamic and static characteristics of these mechanisms are closely related to instrument performance. Although the majority of existing research has focused on analysis of their static characteristics, the dynamic characteristics of the mechanisms affect their response speeds directly. Therefore, this paper proposes a comprehensive theoretical model of compliant amplifying mechanisms based on the multi-body system transfer matrix method to analyze the dynamic and static characteristics of these mechanisms. The effects of the main amplifying mechanism parameters on the displacement amplification ratio and the resonance frequency are analyzed comprehensively using the control variable method. An iterative optimization algorithm is also used to obtain specific parameters that meet the design requirements. Finally, simulation analyses and experimental verification tests are performed. The results indicate the feasibility of using the proposed theoretical compliant amplifying mechanism model to describe the mechanism’s dynamic and static characteristics, which represents a significant contribution to the design and optimization of compliant amplifying mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0665.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ancillary services; secondary frequency control; tertiary frequency control; real time operation
Online: 8 August 2023 (13:34:09 CEST)
Modern electrical power systems integrate ancillary services to provide security and quality of service in real-time operation because of the intense variations in frequency caused by the massive development and uncertainty of solar-wind generation. Therefore, this ancillary services market focuses on power reserves for secondary and tertiary frequency control. Adjusting reserves and dispatching plants is a manual instruction executed by the system operator to maintain the frequency in the normal operating state (49.80≤f≤50.20 Hz). However, in the absence of an economic model for real-time power reserve reallocation in the ancillary services market, the reserve adjustments made by the system operator are not always optimal since they generate a displacement between the scheduled and actual marginal costs. Then, this work proposes a methodology for operating the ancillary services market in real-time through a dynamic and hourly mathematical model that integrates the variability of solar-wind generation, the demand monitoring curve, and the trajectory of the marginal cost. This model minimizes power reserve costs, which are governed by hourly price auctions, for candidate plants classified as supra/infra-marginal and can optimally reallocate power reserves for secondary and tertiary frequency control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Nanocomposite; microcantilever; mass sensing; frequency shifts; carbon nanotubes; nonlinear frequency response
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:36:54 CEST)
A nonlinear MEMS multimass sensor is investigated. The MEMS design consists of an array of nonlinear microcantilevers clamped to a shuttle mass which, in turn, is attached to a linear spring and a dashpot. The microcantilevers are made of a polymeric hosting matrix reinforced by aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) with different CNT volume fractions in each cantilever so as to suitably tune the frequency bandwidth of the device. The advantages of a single input-single output (SISO) system are here exploited for the design, actuation and detection principles as in previous literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0495.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: floods; frequency analysis; extreme value statistics; Pareto; Wakeby; estimation parameters; approximate form; method of ordinary moments; method of linear moments
Online: 29 March 2023 (02:29:25 CEST)
This article analyzes 6 probability distributions from the Generalized Pareto family, with 3, 4 and 5 parameters, with main purpose to identify other distributions from this family with applicability in flood frequency analysis compared to the distribution already used in the literature from this family such as Generalized Pareto Type II and Wakeby. This analysis is part of a larger and more complex research carried out in the Faculty of Hydrotechnics regarding the elaboration of a norm for flood frequency analysis using the linear moments method. In Romania, the standard method of parameter estimation is the method of ordinary moments, thus the transition from this method to the method of linear moments is desired. All the necessary elements for the distributions use are presented like, the probability density functions, the complementary cumulative distribution functions, the quantile functions, the exact and approximate relations for estimating parameters, for both methods of parameters estimation. All these elements are necessary for a proper transition between the two methods, especially since the use of the method of ordinary moments is done by choosing the skewness of the observed data depending on the origin of the maximum flows. A flood frequency analysis case study, using annual maximum and annual exceedance series, was carried out for the Prigor river, to numerically present the analyzed distributions. The performance of this distributions is evaluated using relative mean error, relative absolute error and linear moments diagram.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0036.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Riccati Difference equations; Power System Stability; Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filter; Load frequency controller; Time Delays
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:47:50 CET)
In this paper, initially a mathematical model is formulated for transient frequency of power system considering time delays which occur while transmitting the control signals in open communication infrastructure. Time delay negligence in a power system leads to improper measurement of frequency variation in power system. The study of impact of time delays on the stability of power system is performed by estimating the decay rate of frequency wave form using Kalman Filter (KF). In power system, there is a possibility of multiple time delays. This paper also focusses on developing Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) Algorithm with multiple model space using Kalman Filter (KF) as state estimator tool. The multiple time delays in power system is considered as multiple model space. The result shows that KF provides better estimate of correct model for a particular input-set. The qualitative properties of Riccati difference equation (RDE) in terms of state error covariance of IMMKF are also analyzed and presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Hydroelectric units; Low frequency oscillation; Internal characteristic model; Sliding mode control; Robust control; HTRS(Hydro-turbine regulating system)
Online: 16 March 2023 (02:20:26 CET)
Hydro generator sets serve as the peak and frequency regulation of the power system,and play a very important role in maintaining system stability and improving power quality.Based on the internal characteristics model of a specific type of hydro generator,this paper constructs a hydroelectric coupling model for hydropower units,studies the influence of the regulation system of hydropower units on low-frequency oscillations under different load conditions,and adopts variable speed reaching law and fuzzy sliding mode control strategy to improve the regulation quality of the system and ensure the stable operation of the units.Results of simulation and water turbine set under different load conditions show that varible speed reaching law can effectively improve the power-angle oscillation behavior of the hydropower set and suppress the occurrence of low-frequency oscillations of the system when the system is subject to power disturbance,which provide a new theoretical basis and solution for the vibration analysis and control optimization of hydraulic turbine units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Heterogeneous Cellular Networks; Deliberate Jamming; Inter-cell Interference; Independent Homogenous Poisson Point Process; Coverage Probability; Reverse Frequency Allocation
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:57:04 CEST)
The demand of high data rate and ubiquitous coverage in heterogeneous cellular (HetNets) is increasing progressively. In order to meet this demand, sophisticated model having applied interference reduction scheme and cell association technique is needed. The small base station (sBS)are deployed inside the broadcasting area of macro base station (mBS), in heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets). Since mBS has high transmission power therefore a large number of users get connected with mBS. This causes disproportion of load distribution across the HetNets. For load balancing users from high power mBS are migrated to low power sBS to increase network capacity and to decrease the load from mBS. This results in interference in the communication signal because of strong mBS Interference. Hence, we need interference management technique to mitigate interference and user association and to efficiently use sBSs’ resources. Inter-cell interference (ICI) limit the HetNets’ performance. Additionally, there exist deliberate jamming interference which depends on jammers transmission power and its proximity with the target, which notably degrades the network performance. In this paper, we employ reverse frequency allocation scheme (RFA) to reduce inter cell interference, deliberate jamming interference and to accomplish load balancing. The proposed setup is analyzed inquisitively and with the help of simulations. The result shows reduction in interferences as well as balance of load distribution in the network achieved by employing RFA scheme together with cell association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0528.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: magnetoelectric sensors; frequency upconversion technique; piezomagnetic material; low-frequency weak magnetic field
Online: 28 December 2022 (04:06:49 CET)
Magnetoelectric (ME) sensor is a new type magnetic sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity, low power consumption, and suitable for the measurement of low frequency weak magnetic field. In this study, metglas/PZT-5B ME sensor with a mechanical resonance frequency f_res of 60.041 kHz was prepared. It is interesting to note that its magnetic field resolution reaches 0.20 nT at f_res and 0.34 nT for DC field, respectively. In order to measure the ultralow frequency AC magnetic fields, a frequency upconversion technique was employed. Under this technique, a limit of detection (LOD) of AC magnetic field lower than 1 nT at 8 Hz is obtained, and the minimum LOD of 0.51 nT is achieved at 20 Hz. The high resolution ME sensor with sub-pT level is promising in the field of low frequency weak magnetic field measurement technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rotor; moving foundation; nonlinear oscillations; critical frequency; natural oscillations; weakly conductive liquid; magnetic and electrohydrodynamics.
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:13:14 CEST)
The generalized dynamic model of the rotor system, presented in the paper, is the first model that takes into account the interconnected oscillations of the “rotor - weakly conductive fluid – foundation” system under the action of such parameters as fluid and rotor motion, linear eccentricity, friction forces, foundation vibration and nonlinear characteristics of rolling bearings, as well as the action of a magnetic field on the fluid. Consistent equations of motion for the system “rotor - weakly conductive fluid – foundation” were derived and solved analytically. Forced and natural oscillations of the system were analyzed, and the distinctive features of the rotor system dynamics were revealed. The values of frequencies and amplitudes, which are one of the main factors determining the dynamic behavior of the system, were obtained and studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0603.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: regional flood frequency analysis; flood-related attribute; region of influence; flood region revision process; Canadian annual maximum flow
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:12:32 CEST)
The identification of homogeneous flood regions is essential for regional flood frequency analysis. Despite the type of regionalization framework considered (e.g., region of influence or hierarchical clustering), selecting flood-related attributes to reflect flood generating mechanisms is required to discriminate flood regimes among catchments. To understand how different attributes perform across Canada for identifying homogeneous regions, this study examines five distinctive attributes (i.e., geographical proximity, flood seasonality, physiographic variables, monthly precipitation pattern, and monthly temperature pattern) for their ability to identify homogeneous regions at 186 gauging sites. We add an automatic component to enhance identification of homogeneous regions is proposed as an addition to the region of influence framework. Results are presented spatially for Canada to assess patterning of homogeneous regions. Memberships of two selected regions are investigated to provide insight into membership characteristics. Sites in eastern Canada are highly likely to identify homogeneous flood regions, while the western prairie and mountainous regions are not. Overall, it is revealed that the success of identifying homogeneous region is relevant to local hydrological complexities, to whether considered attribute reflects primary flooding mechanism, and to whether catchment sites are clustered in small geographic region. Formation of effective pooling groups affords the extension of record lengths across the Canadian domain (where gauges typically have <50 years of record), facilitating more comprehensive analysis of higher return periods floods need for climate change assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0081.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: age-related skeletal muscle loss; sarcopenia; malnutrition risk assessment; DXA; multi-frequency BIA; aging
Online: 23 August 2017 (17:57:14 CEST)
Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) based on theoretical models, and (2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht), weight, and ALM obtained using DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz) in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86-years-old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group). The traditional impedance index (Ht2/Z50) and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z250/Z5) of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = (0.6947 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−55.24 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−10,940 × (1/Z50)) + 51.33 for men, and ALM = (0.6144 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−36.61 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−9332 × (1/Z50)) + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2 standard deviations of the skeletal muscle mass index (ALM/Ht2) in these participants were 6.8 and 5.7 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The current study established and validated a theoretical and age-independent equation using MF-BIA to estimate ALM and provided reasonable sarcopenia cutoff values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cancer; inhibition; resonant; frequency; formant
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:23:20 CEST)
Pulsed electric fields of specific frequencies emitted by a glass plasma antenna tube have been shown to slow the growth of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia cells by as much as 43% when exposed to a series of frequencies between 156kHz and 162kHz. This narrow band of frequencies is termed a “Destructive Cancer Resonant Frequency Formant” (DCRFF).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0220.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current sensor; lift-off variation; radius measurement; peak frequency feature; multi-frequency testing
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:10:02 CEST)
This paper proposes a linear eddy-current feature to determine the radius of a metallic ball in a non-contact manner. An electromagnetic eddy-current sensor with two coils is placed co-axially to the metal ball during measurement. It is well known that the distance between the sensor and test piece (i.e. lift-off) affects eddy-current signals. In this paper, it is found that the peak frequency feature of inductance spectrum is linear to the lift-off spacing between the centre of coil and ball. Besides, the slope of peak frequencies versus lift-offs is linked to the radius of ball. The radius of metallic balls is retrieved from the experimental and embedded analytical result of the slope. Measurements have been carried out on 6 metallic balls with different radii. The radius of the metallic ball can be retrieved with an error of less than 2 %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0478.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: active filters; filtering theory; low-pass filter; voltage followers; pole frequency; quality factor; frequency response
Online: 28 March 2023 (09:26:54 CEST)
A new low-pass filter (LPF) circuit with independent adjustment of various, incl. digitally controlled, pole frequency resistors, pole quality factor and transmission coefficient. The proposed low-pass filter is based on the use of the properties of a multi-differential operational amplifier that performs the functions of a signal adder. The peculiarity of the filter is that it has three inputs, with respect to which different transmission coefficients are implemented, incl. inverting (-1) and non-inverting (+1). To check these properties of a low-pass filter in the Micro-Cap environment, computer simulation of a specific circuit was performed on a multi-differential operational amplifier AD 8130. Mathematical expressions are given for the main parameters of the proposed low-pass filter, which allow parametric synthesis of elements of a specific circuit under given restrictions on the used element base.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: active filters; filtering theory; low-pass filter; voltage followers; pole frequency; quality factor; frequency response
Online: 28 March 2023 (02:29:28 CEST)
A new circuit of a low-pass filter (LPF) is considered, which is switched on at the input of analog-to-digital converters to limit the spectrum of input signals. The peculiarity of the proposed low-pass filter is the independent adjustment of the pole frequency, the quality factor of the pole and the transmission coefficient by different resistors. Computer simulation performed in the Micro-Cap environment confirms these properties of the LPF. The basic mathematical expressions are obtained, which make it possible to carry out the parametric synthesis of the LPF circuit. It is shown that the sensitivity of the LPF transmission coefficient to changes in the parameters of the frequency-setting elements of the circuit is close to zero and depends only on the ratio of the resistances of the two resistors in the feedback circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: emotion discrimination; voice; frequency-tagging; EEG
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:07:12 CET)
Successfully engaging in social communication requires efficient processing of subtle socio-communicative cues. Voices convey a wealth of social information, such as gender, identity and the emotional state of the speaker. We tested whether our brain can systematically and automatically differentiate and track a periodic stream of emotional utterances among a series of neutral vocal utterances. We recorded frequency-tagged EEG responses of 20 neurotypical male adults while presenting streams of neutral utterances at 4 Hz base rate, interleaved with emotional utterances every third stimulus, hence at 1.333 Hz oddball frequency. Four emotions (happy, sad, angry, and fear) were presented as different conditions in different streams. To control the impact of low-level acoustic cues, we maximized variability among the stimuli and included a control condition with scrambled utterances. This scrambling preserves low-level acoustic characteristics but ensures that the emotional character is no longer recognizable. Results revealed significant oddball EEG responses for all conditions, indicating that every emotion category can be discriminated from the neutral stimuli, and every emotional oddball response was significantly higher than the response for the scrambled utterances. These findings demonstrate that emotion discrimination is fast, automatic, and is not merely driven by low-level perceptual features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Decomposition; Frequency Analysis; Recurrence Analysis; Bifurcations
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:59:28 CEST)
A novel kind of power spectrum is constructed, the inter-spike spectrum, which transforms any signal into its spike-frequency domain. This method clearly shows the apparent cycles in the data and overcomes the problems for spike-train-like signals when using the obvious idea of Fourier-transforming it. We invent this instructive approach with the idea of transforming the τ-recurrence rate of a recurrence plot (RP), which often has a spiky appearance. The τ-recurrence rate is the density of recurrence points along diagonals of the RP, which are parallel to the main diagonal with a distance of τ. In this context the inter-spike spectrum can be interpreted as a nonlinear power spectrum of a potentially high dimensional system which constitutes the RP. The proposed measure is robust to noise and is able to detect and analyze bifurcations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Pneumonic plague; transmission; risk; frequency; epidemic
Online: 9 December 2021 (10:32:40 CET)
Pneumonic plague outbreaks are relatively infrequent in modern times but in the early part of the 20th century, they were commonplace including several well-documented epidemics responsible for the deaths of thousands. The transmissibility of this disease seems to be discontinuous since in some outbreaks few transmissions occur, while in others, the progression of the epidemic is explosive. Modern epidemiological studies explain that transmissibility within populations is heterogenous with relatively few subjects likely to be responsible for most transmissions and that ‘super spreading events’, particularly at the start of an outbreak, can lead to a rapid expansion of cases. These findings concur with outbreaks observed in real-world situations. It is often reported that pneumonic plague is rare and not easily transmitted but this view could lead to unnecessary complacency since future risks such as the spontaneous incidence of anti-microbial strains, climate change leading to a disruption of natural cycles within plague foci and use of plague as a bioweapon cannot be discounted. Carers and first responders are vulnerable, particularly in poorer countries where access to medicines may be limited, out-breaks occur in inaccessible areas or where there is a lack of surveillance due to a paucity of funds.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: antenna sensor; radio frequency; dipole antenna
Online: 3 November 2019 (18:03:26 CET)
An antenna sensor is proposed to execute dual functions of antenna and sensor in the wireless sensor system, in order to reduce data loss and to increase transmission rate by omitting a certain interface. The as-made sensor was test at a center frequency of 46 MHz for measuring human finger postures using principle of dipole antenna. The antenna sensor was attached on a wearable glove. The results showed that the motion sensor can accurately identify finger angles at 0°, 20°, 40°, 60° and 80°.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: frequency estimation; asynchronously sampled; harmonic; flicker
Online: 26 April 2018 (09:01:07 CEST)
The signal processing technique is one of the principal tools for diagnosing power quality (PQ) issues in electrical power systems. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is a frequency analysis technique used to process power system signals and identify PQ problems. However, the DFT algorithm may lead to spectral leakage and picket-fence effect problems for asynchronously sampled signals that contain harmonic, inter-harmonic, and flicker components. To resolve this shortcoming, a hybrid method for frequency estimation based on a second-level DFT approach and a frequency-domain interpolation algorithm to obtain the accurate fundamental frequency of a power system is proposed in this paper. This method uses a second-level DFT to compute the cosine and sine parts for the fundamental frequency components of the acquired signals. Then, a frequency-domain interpolation approach is adopted to determine the amplitude ratio for the cosine and sine parts of the system's fundamental frequency. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed frequency estimation method, the observation window used by this paper to evaluate different estimation algorithms is 200 ms. According to the IEC standards, a 200 ms acquisition window is recommended for power system quality assessment. A set of mixed signals with harmonic, inter-harmonic, and flicker components with the fundamental frequency deviation is used. The evaluation results demonstrate the superiority of the new method over other approaches for assessing asynchronously sampled signals contaminated with noise, harmonic, inter-harmonic, and flicker components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0383.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ombrian curves; intensity-duration-frequency curves; rainfall extremes; regionalization; regional frequency analysis; spatial rainfall; design rainfall
Online: 29 March 2022 (13:39:12 CEST)
Ombrian curves, i.e. curves linking rainfall intensity to return period and time-scale, are well-established engineering tools, crucial to the design against storm waters and floods. Whereas at-site construction of such curves is considered a standard hydrological task, it is a rather challenging one when large regions are of interest. Regional modelling of ombrian curves is particularly complex due to the need to account for spatial dependence together with the increased variability of rainfall extremes in space. We develop a framework for the parsimonious modelling of the extreme rainfall properties at any point in a given area. This is achieved by assuming a common ombrian model structure except for a spatially varying scale parameter which is itself modelled by a spatial smoothing model for the 24 h average rainfall maxima that employs elevation as an additional explanatory variable. The fitting is performed on the pooled all-stations data using an advanced estimation procedure (K-moments) that allows both for reliable high-order moment estimation and simultaneous handling of space-dependence bias. The methodology is applied in the Thessaly region, a 13 700 km2 water district of Greece characterized by varying topography and hydrometeorological properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0300.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: crystals; nonlinear frequency conversion; functional capabilities of the frequency conversion; temperature-noncritical processes; KTP and its isomorphs
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:02:25 CEST)
We report the results of an analysis of the functional capabilities of the KTP crystal and its isomorphs for nonlinear-optical frequency conversion of all types of interaction in the transparency range of the crystal. The possibility of implementing angle-, wavelength- (frequency-) and temperature-noncritical phase matching is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: high-frequency ultrasound transducer; intravascular ultrasound; tissue harmonic imaging; dual-frequency IVUS transducer; dual-element IVUS transducer
Online: 14 June 2018 (11:46:44 CEST)
The superharmonic imaging of tissue has the potential for high spatial and contrast resolutions, compared to the fundamental and second harmonic imaging. For this technique, the spectral bandwidth of an ultrasound transducer is divided for transmission of ultrasound and reception of its superharmonics (i.e., higher than the second harmonic). Due to the spectral division for the transmission and reception, transmitted ultrasound energy is not sufficient to induce superharmonics in media without using contrast agents, and it is difficult that a transducer has a -6-dB fractional bandwidth of higher than 100%. For the superharmonic imaging of tissue, thus, multi-frequency array transducers are the best choice if available; transmit and receive elements are separate and have different center frequencies. However, the construction of a multi-frequency transducer for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is particularly demanding because of its small size of less than 1 mm. Here, we report a recently developed dual-element focused IVUS transducer for the third harmonic imaging of tissue, which consists of a 35-MHz element for ultrasound transmission and a 105-MHz element for third harmonic reception. For high quality third harmonic imaging, both elements were fabricated to have the same focus at 2.5 mm. The results of tissue mimicking phantom tests demonstrated that the third harmonic images produced by the developed transducer had higher spatial resolution and deeper imaging depth than the fundamental images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: earthquake; P wave; characteristic period; frequency domain.
Online: 3 November 2023 (06:44:46 CET)
The earthquake alert of the early warning systems is based on the delay that the S waves have in reference to the P waves and on the interpretation of the P waves’ specific parameters. One of the most used parameters for estimating the moment magnitude of an earthquake is the characteristic period measured in the first 3 seconds of the appearance of the P wave. The typical method determines the characteristic period in the time domain, based on the velocity wave and the displacement wave. In the present work, we present a method for estimating the frequency of the characteristic period. This method includes zero padding of the P wave sequence, conversion of the extended sequence from the time domain to the frequency domain, the identification of local frequency maxima and the calculation of the weighted average of the frequency based on the identified maxima. Tests conducted on synthetic signals, as well as standard deviation evaluation tests for simultaneous recordings on several stations, reveal better performance to the usual method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0584.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: earthquake, footprint, predict events, cluster, frequency grid
Online: 8 August 2023 (12:02:08 CEST)
This paper considers the problem of predicting earthquakes. It uses a small amount of information to create a descriptive key that can be used as a footprint to describe an event. A frequency grid clusters events that occurred at the same time and then the algorithm averages the history of these events over preceding days, in particular the gaps when the events did not occur. The gaps are measured for the clustered events only and can be used to create a description that is quite unique. Results suggest that seismic events can in fact be traced using this key and subsequently recognised again, if the same conditions reoccur. They also suggest that force direction may be more important than magnitude, after the initial cluster selections are made. Greek and USA datasets have been looked at and the prediction accuracy can be 70% or better. The author therefore suggests that this is an interesting method that deserves attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1916.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Frequency; Restoration; Interaction; Daily life; Human geography
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:27:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between mental and physical therapeutic through three dimensions: man-environment relationships; a sense of place and symbolic landscapes. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local residents living in the coastal area of Xinglin Bay are the research objects. Quantitative data analysis revealed that the frequency of residents' visits was an important variable affecting their physical and treatment perceptions. In addition, the significance is higher for females than for males. The text analysis shows that the environment, especially the ecological restoration of water quality and migratory birds, is of great significance to the identity of local residents. Daily activities contribute to a sense of place and are what make the coast a place of therapeutic landscape function.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0092.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: narrow-bandwidth; two-color laser; tunable frequency
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:23:02 CET)
Modifiable THz spectral shapes are important tools that facilitate the comprehensive study of phonon dynamics in condensed matter systems. The generation of narrow bandwidth THz spectra with tunable center frequency which are suitable THz forms needed to achieve such objectives are currently less studied from the table top laser-induced plasma emitters’ perspective. This experimental research is aimed at developing a robust two-color laser induced plasma set-up comprising of a temporal pulse stretcher and an Optical Parametric Amplifier that generates chirped and wavelength tunable pulses respectively. By focusing and independently controlling the ω and 2ω arms of the chirped pulses resulting after the interaction with a β-BBO crystal, I aim to generate narrow bandwidth THz signal (from plasma) scalable at MV/cm intensity and tunable in a wide THz spectral range, in addition to varying the frequency ratio mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cognitive Radio; MATLAB; WSN; Spectrum; Radio Frequency
Online: 23 June 2022 (03:48:36 CEST)
The vast rise in the number of Internet-connected devices necessitates a more accessible spectrum. As a result, Cognitive Radio was already proposed as a solution to the problem of restricted spectrum resources by utilizing available spectrum which is assigned to primary users. This method allows the secondary user to utilize the spectrum whenever the primary user is not using it, and it does so without intruding with the primary user. Whenever the secondary user detects the spectrum, it faced some issues, such as complexity in sensing leading to a lack of noise value, and the primary user is hidden to all secondary users. In order to tackle these challenges, an adaptive threshold matched filter detector and a cooperative matched filter detector are utilized in this paper to detect the spectrum. The probability of detection (Pd), probability of miss detection (Pm), and probability of false alarm (Pf) are the metrics used to assess sensing accuracy. To simulate suggested detectors, the MATLAB R2020a software was utilized. In comparison to earlier studies, the simulation conclusions reveal that the detection process starts with lower SNR values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: mushroom; organic-debris; fruiting bodies; diversity; frequency
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:22:51 CEST)
A The present investigation was undertaken in foothill regions of Uttarakhand from July-2016 up to December-2018. A total of thirty four different sites ranging from the roadside areas, grasslands to forests were studied and Mushroom fruiting bodies were collected. A total of One Hundred sixty six fruiting counts were obtained and 68 mushroom genera belonging to 15 orders and 43 families were identified. During collection visits mushroom were apparent from organic debris of diversified habitats ranging from humid soil; grassland; leaf litter; living tree trunk; dead wood log of forest zone. Maximum fruiting bodies (75%) were obtained between July to September and minimum i.e. 6% between November – February. Among the collected mushroom Stereum rugosum, Crepidotus variabilis, Laccaria laccata, Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applantum, Cantharellus cibarius were more prevalent. Out of all collected mushroom sample the frequency of Mushroom belonging to order Agaricales was 45.18% followed by Polyporales i.e., 27.7%. The collected mushroom were cultured on PDA medium and their mycelial forms were preserved for further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0107.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Values; Actions; Value-actions; Practice frequency; Methodology.
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:46:51 CET)
Qualitative and quantitative values estimation is a crucial aspect of social data science and plays a vital role in social and psychological research. Numerous methods of personal values measurement such as Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and its re-modified versions have been proposed and invented, but many are challenged with one or more limitations. In this article, an alternative approach in a new paradigm of values measurement called Kabiru’s Value Survey (KVS) was proposed to measure the relative degree of importance or significance attached to particular value-actions of an individual(s) in a given population over a period. The methodological innovations in KVS unlike other existing methods of human value measurement include the use of habitually reported practices associated with a particular value-action in place of judging the series of Schwartz hypothetical statements, the use of multiple dependent variables rather than a single coded hypothetical statement. In terms of data analysis, a new approach of multivariate compression is introduced which merges the chain of multiple dependent variables into one coded scale. Psychometric result interpretation is also another innovative aspect of KVS methodology. Finally, the proposed methodology however solved some of the criticized limitations of the other methods of human value measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: radio frequency; microwave; spectrum analyzer; integrated; photonic
Online: 26 January 2021 (09:57:01 CET)
We report an all-optical radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer with a bandwidth greater than 5 terahertz (THz), based on a 50-cm long spiral waveguide in a CMOS-compatible high-index doped silica platform. By carefully mapping out the dispersion profile of the waveguides for different thicknesses, we identify the optimal design to achieve near zero dispersion in the C-band. To demonstrate the capability of the RF spectrum analyzer, we measure the optical output of a femtosecond fiber laser with an ultrafast optical RF spectrum in the terahertz regime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0515.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: PV; frequency control; droop; inertia; grid standards
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:13:04 CET)
This paper studied the solar PV frequency control in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI) and Texas Interconnection (ERCOT) systems. The studied frequency control approaches include droop frequency control, inertia control, and droop-inertia-combined frequency control. The control effects of different frequency controls of PV in the EI and ERCOT are studied using actual high PV penetration interconnection grid models to provide suggestions to the future revision of future PV frequency control standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: ABO blood groups; antigen; allele frequency; phenotype
Online: 29 February 2020 (08:26:18 CET)
Approximately 300 different types of blood groups are identified so far, the ABO and Rh antigens are still the clinically most significant and genetically most polymorphic of all human blood group systems to date. A total of 200 unrelated individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups. In total 200 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.5% (n=73), followed by O (34.5%; n=69), A (20.5%; n=41) and AB (8.5%; n=17). The O, A and B frequencies were 0.5849, 0.1571 and 0.2580 respectively. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The variation in phenotypic frequencies between male and female might be due to small sample size of male sample. The allelic frequency of Rh-negative was 0.2.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Drought; SPEI; Pluvial; Severity; Frequency; Duration; Kenya
Online: 4 February 2020 (15:56:58 CET)
This work examines drought and wet events based on Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) over Kenya from 1981 to 2016. Spatiotemporal analysis of dry and wet events is conducted for 3 and 12-month SPEI. The drought incidences were observed during the period 1984, 1987, 2000, 2006, 2009, 2015, and 2016 for SPEI-3 whilst the SPEI-12 demonstrated the manifestation of drought during the year 2000 and 2006. SPEI clearly shows that the wettest period, 1997 and 1998 that coincide with the El Nino event in both time steps. SPEI -3 shows a reduction in moderate drought events while severe and extreme cases were on increase towards the end of the twentieth century. Conversely, SPEI-12 depicts an overall increase in severe drought occurrence over the study location with observed intensity of -1.54 and cumulative frequency of 64 months during the study period. The trend of wet events is upwards in the western and central highlands while the rest of the regions show increase in dry events during the study period. Moreover, moderate dry/wet events predominate whilst extreme events occur least frequent across all grid cells. It is apparent that the study area experiences mild extreme dry events in both categories although moderately severe dry events dominate most parts of the study area. High intensity and frequency of drought is noted in SPEI-3 while least occurrences of extreme events are recorded in SPEI-12. Although drought event prevails across the study area, there is evidence of extreme flood conditions over the recent decades. These findings form a good basis for next step of research that will look at projection of droughts over the study area based on regional climate models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0126.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; financial markets; high-frequency trading
Online: 8 May 2019 (08:47:44 CEST)
Methods of path integrals are used to develop multi-factor probabilities of bid-ask variables for use in high-frequency trading (HFT). Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is used to fit the nonlinear forms so developed to a day of BitMEX tick data. Maxima algebraic code is used to develop the path integral codes into C codes, and sampling code is used for the fitting process. After these fits, the resultant C code is very fast and useful for forecasting upcoming ask, bid, midprice, etc., when narrow and wide windows of incoming data are used. A bonus is the availability of canonical momenta indicators (CMI) useful to forecast direction and strengths of these variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0107.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: multibeam echosounder; backscatter; multi-frequency; machine-learning
Online: 5 October 2018 (16:09:53 CEST)
We propose a probabilistic graphical model for discriminative substrate characterization, to support geological and biological habitat mapping in aquatic environments. The model, called a fully connected conditional random field (CRF), is demonstrated using multispectral and monospectral acoustic backscatter from heterogeneous seafloors in Patricia Bay, British Columbia, and Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia. Unlike previously proposed discriminative machine learning algorithms, the CRF model considers both the relative backscatter magnitudes of different substrates and their relative proximities. The model therefore combines the statistical flexibility of a machine learning algorithm with an inherently spatial treatment of the substrate. The CRF model predicts substrates such that nearby locations with similar backscattering characteristics are likely to be in the same substrate class. The degree of proximity and allowable backscatter similarity are controlled by parameters that are learned from the data. CRF model results were evaluated against a popular generative model known as a Gaussian Mixture model that doesn't include spatial dependencies, only covariance between substrate backscattering response over different frequencies. Both models are used in conjunction with sparse bed observations/samples in a supervised classification. A detailed accuracy assessment, including a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis, was performed using both models. Using multispectral backscatter, the GMM model trained on 50% of the bed observations resulted in a 75% and 89% average accuracies in Patricia Bay and Bedford Basin, respectively. The same metrics for the CRF model were 78% and 95%. Further, the CRF model resulted in a 91% mean cross-validation accuracy across four substrate classes at Patricia Bay, and a 99.5% mean accuracy across three substrate classes at Bedford Basin, which suggest that the CRF model generalizes extremely well to new data. This analysis also showed that the CRF model was much less sensitive to the specific number and locations of bed observations than the generative model, owing to its ability to incorporate spatial autocorrelation in substrates. The CRF approach therefore may prove to be a powerful `spatially aware' alternative to other discriminative classifiers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: clopidogrel; pharmacogenetics; Puerto Ricans; genotypes; allele frequency
Online: 6 April 2018 (11:31:00 CEST)
Background: Variations in several clopidogrel-pharmacogenes have been linked to clopidogrel response variability and clinical outcomes. We aimed to determine the frequency distribution of major polymorphisms on CYP2C19, PON1, ABCB1 and P2RY12 pharmacogenes in Puerto Ricans. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 200 unrelated “Guthrie” cards specimens from newborns registered in the Puerto Rican Newborn Screening program (PRNSP) between 2004 and 2014. Taqman® SNP assay techniques were used for genotyping. Results: Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) were 46% for PON1 (rs662), 41% for ABCB1 (rs1045642), 14% for CYP2C19*17, 13% for CYP2C19*2, 12% for P2RY12-H2 and 0.3% for CYP2C19*4. No carriers of the CYP2C19*3 variants were detected. All alleles and genotype proportions were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Overall, there were no significant differences between MAFs of these variants in Puerto Ricans and the general population (n=453) of the 1,000 Genome project, except for the Yoruba in Ibadan from Nigeria (YRI, West-African ancestry; p<0.05). As expected, the prevalence of these markers in Puerto Ricans most resembled those in the 181 subjects from reference populations of the Americas. Conclusions: These prevalence data provide a necessary groundwork for future clinical studies of clopidogrel pharmacogenetics in Caribbean Hispanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: high frequency; acceleration; vibration; orthodontics; tooth movement
Online: 6 April 2018 (10:57:40 CEST)
Evaluation of the effect of a high frequency acceleration device on clear aligner exchange intervals and treatment time required to achieve prescribed tooth movements. Sixteen subjects with similar Class I malocclusions, 5mm or less crowding, and treated with Invisalign were divided into two groups. Group 1 (experimental; N=8) underwent aligner treatment in conjunction with daily use of the high frequency acceleration device and exchanged aligners every 5 days. Group 2 (controls; N=8) underwent aligner treatment without use of the device and exchanged aligners every 14 days according to the manufacturer's recommended interval. All subjects were treated by one investigator, and results were evaluated by both; total number of aligners used, and number of refinements required, prior to final Vivera retention scan. A significant decrease in both treatment time, and number of aligners required to complete treatment was observed by experimental subjects as compared to controls. In addition, no refinements were required by experimental subjects, whereas 6 of 8 of the control subjects required 1 or more refinements. Use of the high frequency acceleration device in conjunction with Invisalign treatment resulted in more predictable tooth movement and a significant decrease in the length of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0930.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nonlinear systems, vibration energy harvester (VEH), output frequency response function (OFRF), generalised associated linear equations (GALEs), frequency domain
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:54:02 CET)
Ambient vibration energy is widely being harnessed as a source of electrical energy to drive low-power devices. The vibration energy harvester (VEH) of interest employs an electromagnetic transduction mechanism, whereby ambient mechanical vibration is converted to electrical energy. The limitations affecting the performance of VEHs, with an electromagnetic transduction structure, include its operational bandwidth as well as the enclosure-size constraint. In this study, an analysis and design of a nonlinear VEH system is conducted, using the Output Frequency Response Function (OFRF) representations of the actual system model. However, the OFRF representations are determined from the Generalised Associated Linear Equation (GALE) decompositions of the system of interest. The effect of both nonlinear damping and stiffness characteristics, to respectively extend the average power and operational bandwidth of the VEH device, is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: big data; data acquisition; data visualization; data exchange; dashboard; frequency stability; Grafana lab; Power Quality; GPS reference; frequency measurement.
Online: 18 October 2021 (18:07:43 CEST)
This article proposes a measurement solution designed to monitor instantaneous frequency in power systems. It uses a data acquisition module and a GPS receiver for time stamping. A program in Python takes care of receiving the data, calculating the frequency, and finally transferring the measurement results to a database. The frequency is calculated with two different methods, which are compared in the article. The stored data is visualized using the Grafana platform, thus demonstrating its potential for comparing scientific data. The system as a whole constitutes an efficient low cost solution as a data acquisition system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0671.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Basketball Rim and Backboard; Modal Analysis; Frequency; Damping
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:52:49 CEST)
Six mode shapes, including bending and torsion, were documented for five different basketball rims and backboards at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, USA. The frequency and damping ratio of each mode shape were also determined. The empirical process began with the time-domain excitation and response of each rim-backboard system. The impulse of excitation came from an impact hammer separately applied to sequentially, to each node. The sinusoidal response was gathered from an accelerometer at a fixed location, node 1. Each time-domain excitation-response was then converted to a frequency domain Bode plot for each node by a B&K 2034 Signal Analyzer, giving transfer functions of output/input versus frequency. Structural Measurements System (SMS) Software was used to fit mode shapes to the Bode plots. Each of the six mode shapes were fitted to the Bode plots of each node at a specific modal frequency. Each of the six mode shapes were a function of the locations of the nodes, and the Bode plot gathered at each node. The first and second modes were critical for showing that the Energy Rebound Testing Device statistically correlated with the energy transferred to the rim and backboard. A known perturbation mass was selectively attached to the rim, to help isolate the dynamic masses and spring rates for the rim and backboard, to ascertain the kinetic energy transferred to the rim had a 95.67% inverse correlation with rim stiffness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Dietary fiber; food frequency questionnaire; questionnaire screening; validation
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:22:50 CET)
Dietary fiber has been associated with health benefits, therefore, the availability of validated tools to assess food consumption associated with high-fiber foods would allow the quantification of the intake of this functional nutrient, the identification of risk groups and target populations, and the development of public policies and/or programs aimed at improving the health of the population. In this study, a fiber intake short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was translated into Spanish and its content validity was determined by a group of experts, to subsequently conduct a pilot test including 198 subjects aged 36+12.5 years, residing in Chile (46 men and 150 women), with the purpose of quantifying dietary fiber intake. The global assessment of the FFQ revealed a validity coefficient of 0.98+0.02; after the application of the pilot, mean dietary fiber intake in adult Chilean residents was of 13 g per day, with similar results to those found in the National Food Consumption Survey 2010 (12.5 g per day in men, and 11.5 g in women). The FFQ is a quick and valid tool to classify people on the basis of their habitual dietary fiber intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Taylor; exponentially-fitted; two-parameter; periodic; oscillatory; frequency
Online: 1 November 2022 (07:29:50 CET)
Classical numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations often produce less accurate results when applied to problems with oscillatory or periodic behaviour. To adapt them for such problems, they are usually modified using the exponential fitting technique. This adaptation allows for the construction of new methods from their classical counterparts. The new methods are usually more accurate, efficient and suitable for handling the oscillatory or periodic behaviour of the problem. In this work, we construct a two-parameter exponentially-fitted Taylor method suitable for solving oscillatory or periodic problems that possess two frequencies. The construction algorithm is based on a proposed six-step flowchart discussed by authors in related literature. Two standard test problems were used to illustrate the accuracy and performance of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0465.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Optimal control; frequency regulation; battery energy storage system
Online: 20 July 2021 (16:28:04 CEST)
The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources in power grids highlights the role of battery energy stor- age systems (BESSs) in enhancing the stability and reliability of electricity. A key challenge with the renewables’, specially the BESSs, integration into the power system is the lack of proper dynamic model for stability analysis. Moreover, a proper control design for the power system is a complicated issue due to its complexity and inter-connectivity. Thus, the application of decentralized control to improve the stability of a large- scale power system is inevitable, especially in distributed energy sources (DERs). This paper presents an optimal distributed hybrid control design for the interconnected systems to suppress the effects of small disturbances in the power system employing utility-scale batteries based on existing battery models. The results show that i) the smart scheduling of the batteries’ output reduces the inter-area oscillations and improves the stability of the power systems; ii) the hybrid model of the battery is more user-friendly compared to the Western electricity coordinating council (WECC) model in power system analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: forecasting methods; statistical learning; high-frequency order book
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:24:12 CET)
This paper proposes a forecast-centric adaptive learning model that engages with the past studies on the order book and high-frequency data, with applications to hypothesis testing. In line with the past literature, we produce brackets of summaries of statistics from the high-frequency bid and ask data in the CSI 300 Index Futures market and aim to forecast the one-step-ahead prices. Traditional time series issues, e.g. ARIMA order selection, stationarity, together with potential financial applications are covered in the exploratory data analysis, which pave paths to the adaptive learning model. By designing and running the learning model, we found it to perform well compared to the top fixed models, and some could improve the forecasting accuracy by being more stable and resilient to non-stationarity. Applications to hypothesis testing are shown with a rolling window, and further potential applications to finance and statistics are outlined.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0064.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Sum frequency generation; femtosecond pulses; noncollinear phase matching.
Online: 3 September 2020 (07:58:18 CEST)
We show broadband sum-frequency generation (SFG) in the Green-Yellow-Orange-Red spectral range using bismuth triborate, BiB3O6 crystal (BIBO) as nonlinear material. We perform a noncollinear phase-matching configuration within BIBO crystal using the remaining light behind the second harmonic generation stage and the infrared idler of an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). The obtained mixing radiation of ultrafast light sources to generate femtosecond pulses across 520.5 to 742.5 nm region is observed. SFG spectrum from single-pass cross-correlation intensity over such visible range is showed. The SFG wavelengths as a function of tunable wavelength idler OPA agrees with the expectations of parametric conversion condition and open the door to practical multi-beam or multi-color sum-frequency generators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0457.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: resonance frequency analysis; implant stability quotient; reliability; validity
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:05:06 CEST)
Background: Actually, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by the different RFA devices, however, inter- and intra- rater reliability and validity of some devices remains unknown. Methods: Thirty implants were placed in 3 different pig mandibles. ISQ was measured axial and parallel with Osstell® Beacon, Penguin® and MegaISQ® by 2 different operators and one operator performed a test-retest. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the validity. Results: The higher inter- and intra- rater reliability was obtained by Penguin® when measuring axial. The highest ISQ values were obtained using Penguin® in an axial measurement; the lowest, using the MegaISQ® in an axial measurement. The highest correlation values with the other devices were obtained by MegaISQ® measuring axially. Conclusion: Penguin® had a good reliability for measuring ISQ both inter- and intra- rater. Osstell® had good validity for measuring ISQ both axial and parallel and MegaISQ® had the best validity for measuring ISQ axial.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic; signal channelization; integrated optical frequency comb
Online: 26 March 2020 (02:19:45 CET)
We report a broadband radio frequency (RF) channelizer with up to 92 channels using a coherent microcomb source. A soliton crystal microcomb, generated by a 49 GHz micro-ring resonator (MRR), is used as a multi-wavelength source. Due to its ultra-low comb spacing, up to 92 wavelengths are available in the C band, yielding a broad operation bandwidth. Another high-Q MRR is employed as a passive optical periodic filter to slice the RF spectrum with a high resolution of 121.4 MHz. We experimentally achieve an instantaneous RF operation bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and verify RF channelization up to 17.55 GHz via thermal tuning. Our approach is a significant step towards the monolithically integrated photonic RF receivers with reduced complexity, size, and unprecedented performance, which is important for wide RF applications ranging from broadband analog signal processing to digital-compatible signal detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0207.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia,photon-electron theory,high-frequency electromagnetic radiation
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:31:59 CEST)
The exact etiology of myopia remains elusive. The author proposes the particle property of photon in living tissue and the photon-electron theory in living tissue, if the frequency of the photon exceeds the threshold, the photon has enough energy to strike the electron away and forms a hole of a diameter in photon diameter scale in living tissue include the eye. Longer time of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation will cause more holes and a larger radius of holes. The visual light which passes through the radiated hole in the eye cannot be refracted on the macula, this is myopia symptom of blurred vision, shortening the distance of the eye and the object will include more visual light into cornea and lens, this is myopia another symptom of nearsightedness. The particle property of photon causes elongation of the eye and the macular holes.Blue light and X-ray are two kinds of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation which can shot holes in eye and cause myopia.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sampling frequency; deterministic approach; simulation model; water quality.
Online: 5 June 2019 (10:29:22 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel deterministic methodology for estimating the optimal sampling frequency (SF) of water quality monitoring systems. The proposed methodology is based on employing two-dimensional contaminant transport simulation models to determine the minimum SF considering all the potential changes in the boundary conditions of a water body. A two-dimensional contaminant transport simulation model (RMA4) was implemented to estimate the distribution patterns of the total dissolved solids (TDS) within the Al-Hammar Marsh in the southern part of Iraq for 30 cases of potential boundary conditions. Using geographical information system (GIS) tools, a spatiotemporal analysis approach was applied to the results of the RMA4 model to determine the minimum SF of the monitoring stations with an accuracy level of detectable change in TDS concentration (ALC) of 5%, 10% and 15%. The proposed methodology specified a minimum and maximum SF for each monitoring station (MS) that ranged between 12 and 33 times per year, respectively. Additionally, increasing the ALC to 10% and 15% increase the minimum SF for some MSs by approximately 18% and 21%, respectively. However, the proposed methodology includes all the potential values and cases of boundary conditions, which increases the certainty of monitoring the system and the efficiency of the SF schedule. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be effectively applied to all types of surface water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: orthodontics clear aligner, pain; vibration, high-frequency, HFA
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:14:49 CEST)
Evaluation of the effects of a high-frequency acceleration (HFA) device on patient pain response to orthodontic forces. A multi-centered trial investigating pain sensitivity to orthodontic forces on 75 subjects at 4 study centers. Subjects underwent clear aligner treatment, with or without adjunctive HFA and documented their pain intensity using the validated NRS10 numeric rating scale. In-Office and At-Home ratings were measured separately for each subject for immediate and extended effect evaluations. Use of HFA devices in conjunction with clear aligner orthodontic treatment demonstrated significant reduction in subjects’ recorded pain ratings vs controls within 5 minutes of aligner exchange, (p = 0.006) and significant reduction in recorded pain ratings vs controls over a 7-day period following aligner exchange (p = 0.018). A 99.6% daily compliance rate with at home use of the HFA device was recorded for all subjects in the study. HFA significantly reduces pain attributed to orthodontic force. HFA delivers clinically significant immediate pain relief, and clinically significant extended pain relief over the 7 days following adjustment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: electronic cigarette; e-cigarette; smoking; adolescent; frequency; tobacco
Online: 14 March 2017 (07:56:50 CET)
Introduction The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study determines the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, it evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods Participants were 68,043 middle and high school students aged 13–18 years from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. Of the 68,043 participants, we analyzed 6,655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use. Results The prevalence of ever using and current (past 30 days) use of e-cigarettes was 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever e-cigarette users, approximately 40% used e-cigarettes for ≥1/month and 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. Daily e-cigarettes users were 10 times greater among daily cigarette smokers than among cigarette users for <1/month (18.1% vs. 1.8%) and 16 times more prevalent among those smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day than among those smoking <1 cigarette/month (38.9% vs. 2.4%). The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), smoking cessation (13.1%), and indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, smoking cessation and indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of e-cigarettes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0196.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Boiling Water Reactors; density wave oscillations; stability monitor; Shannon Entropy; noise-assisted Empirical Mode Decomposition variants; mode-mixing; Hilbert-Huang transform; instantaneous frequency
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:28:28 CEST)
There are currently around 78 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in the world based on Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The current parameter to assess BWR instability issues is the linear Decay Ratio (DR). However, it is well known that BWRs are complex non-linear dynamical systems that may even exhibit chaotic dynamics that normally preclude the use of the DR when the BWR is working at a specific operating point during instability. In this work a novel methodology based on an adaptive Shannon Entropy estimator and on Noise Assisted Empirical Mode Decomposition variants is presented. This methodology was developed for real-time implementation of a stability monitor. This methodology was applied to a set of signals stemming from several NPPs reactors (Ringhals-Sweden, Forsmark-Sweden and Laguna Verde-Mexico) under commercial operating conditions, that experienced instabilities events, each one of a different nature
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0501.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Timoshenko beam; rotary inertia; moment shear force circular frequency curvature relationship; spring mass system; closed-form solutions; first-order dynamic stiffness matrix; second-order vibration analysis
Online: 7 October 2022 (10:34:31 CEST)
This study presents an exact solution to the free vibration analysis of a uniform Timoshenko beam, with a harmonic vibration being assumed. The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. In this paper, a moment-shear force-circular frequency-curvature relationship was presented. The complete study was based on this relationship and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations were derived. The free vibration response of single-span systems and spring-mass systems was analyzed; closed-form formulations of matrices expressing the boundary conditions were presented and the natural frequencies were determined by solving the eigenvalue problem. Systems with intermediate mass, spring, or spring-mass system were also analyzed. Furthermore, first-order dynamic stiffness matrices in local coordinates were derived. Finally, a second-order analysis of beams resting on an elastic Winkler foundation was conducted. The results obtained in this paper were in good agreement with those of other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1680.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: high frequency welding; process parameters; anode current; welding time; active pressure of upper electrode; frequency; power; dielectric constants; dielectric losses; time
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:36:48 CET)
So far, scientific studies on high frequency welding (HF) have observed the three main parameters: anode current, welding time and pressure of upper electrode. Some authors have also observed and studied the welding frequency, the power, and the values of the dielectric constants of the materials or the angle of dielectric losses. Due to the complex effects that the parameters have on the quality of the welded joint, it is necessary to extend the research and study the mutual relationships between a large numbers of process parameters on the welded joint in order to achieve satisfactory strength of the welded joint. In this research, the number of considered parameters is increased to 17, each of which is relevant to the processes of HF welding, and their mathematical equations are presented. The research is carried out on a HF welding machine improved with a linear pneumatic actuator for lowering the upper electrode and regulating the compressive force, and a measuring machine with the appropriate measuring method for determining the breaking forces with a tension gage and performing the „T“ test is made. Numerous researches were carried out on the functional changes of the process parameters of the percentage share of the values of the coupling capacitor, the anode current and the welding time on the values of the breaking forces of the welded joints. Based on the conducted research, it was concluded that the optimization of the process parameters of HF machine must be performed before the welding process, which is determined by a certain amount of energy that must be introduced into the material. These parameters are the capacity of the output capacitor, i.e., the value of the electric current flowing through the material and the time for the development of the operating power to produce welded joints with a certain strength and quality of welded joints for a specific material used in the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: DLD; multifeature paradigm; mismatch response; ERPMMR time-frequency analysis
Online: 17 November 2023 (04:36:51 CET)
This study compared cortical responses to speech in preschoolers with typical language development (TLD) and Developmental Language Disorder (DLD), and in adults. We investigated whether top-down language effects modulate speech perception in an adult-like manner. We compared cortical mismatch responses (MMR) during passive perception of speech differing in linguistic complexity in three groups of participants: preschoolers with TLD (n=11), preschoolers with DLD (n=16) and adults (n=20). We also measured children’s phonological skills and investigated if they are associated with the cortical responses. MMR results indicated top-down language effects in adults, with enhanced cortical discrimination of lexical stimuli but not of non-words. In preschoolers, the TLD and DLD groups did not differ on the MMR measures and no top-down effects were detected. Moreover, we found no association between MMRs and phonological awareness skills, even though the DLD group’s phonological skills were significantly lower. Our findings suggest that top-down language modulations on speech discrimination may not be present during early childhood, and that children with DLD may not exhibit cortical speech perception deficits. The lack of association between phonological and MMR measures indicates that further research is needed to understand the link between language skills and cortical activity in preschoolers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0871.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil; low-frequency; discrete element method; vibration response; transmission
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:15:42 CEST)
The vibration response of soil is a key property in the field of agricultural soil tillage. Vibration components of tillage machinery are generally used to reduce tillage resistance and improve work efficiency, the pressure variation under low-frequency vibration will affect the fragmentation and dispersion of farmland soil. However, the gradient of pressure variation, frequency domain response, and effective transmission range are unclear. A new method based on DEM (Discrete Element Method) is presented to study the vibration response and pressure transmission under low-frequency vibration. Bench test results showed that peak pressure positively correlates with the vibration frequency and attenuates rapidly at the vibration distance of 100 to 250 mm. The results data were also selected to determine the simulation model parameters. Amplitude, vibration frequency, and soil depth were used as test factors in single-factor simulation tests, and their effects on the peak pressure, frequency domain response, and effective transmission distance were analyzed. The results showed a positive relationship between the peak pressure and the test factors. The peak pressure increases with a maximum gradient of 19.02 kPa/mm at a vibration distance of 50 mm. The amplitude, vibration frequency, and soil depth positively correlate with the dominant frequency amplitude. The main frequency is independent of amplitude and soil depth. At the vibration distance of 250 mm, the dominant frequency is approximately twice the vibration frequency at 7–11 Hz and approximately equal to the vibration frequency at 13–15 Hz. Multiple exponential functions were used to fit the peak pressure attenuation function, obtaining an effective transmission distance range of 347.15 to 550.37 mm for the 5kPa cut-off pressure. For a soil depth of 300 mm, the vertical shear wave diffusion angle is greater than the horizontal shear wave diffusion angle. The study clarifies the vibration response of soil under low-frequency vibration, which helps to design vibration type soil-engaging components of tillage machinery and match vibration parameters for energy saving and resistance reduction in soil tillage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Uncertainty; Flood Frequency; Rainfall Disaggregation; Peak Flow Continuous Simulation
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:23:06 CEST)
Estimating peak flow for a catchment is commonly undertaken using the design event method, however this method does not allow for the understanding of uncertainty in the result. This research first presents a simplified method of fragments approach to rainfall disaggregation that ignores the need to consider seasonality, offering a greater diversity in storm patterns within the resulting sub-daily rainfall. By simulating 20 iterations of the disaggregated sub-daily rainfall within a calibrated continuous simulation hydrologic model, we were able to produce multiple long series of stream flow at the outlet of the catchment. With this data, we investigated the use of both the annual maximum and peaks over threshold approaches to flood frequency analysis and found that for a one in 100 year annual exceedance probability peak flow, the peaks over threshold method (333m3/s ±50m3/s) was significantly less uncertain than the annual maximum method (427m3/s ±100m3/s). For the one in 100 year annual exceedance probability, the median peak flow from the peaks over threshold method (333m3/s) produced an outcome comparable to the design event method peak flow (328m3/s), indicating that this research offers an alternative approach to estimating peak flow, with the additional benefit of understanding the uncertainty in the estimation. Finally, the paper highlighted the impact that length and period of streamflow has on peak flow estimation and noted that previous assumptions around the minimum length of gauged streamflow required for flood frequency analysis may not be appropriate in particular catchments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1831.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Vitamin K; Food Frequency Questionnaire; Dietary Intake; Mediterranean Diet
Online: 26 June 2023 (15:06:28 CEST)
Vitamin K is a multifunctional micronutrient essential for human health, and deficiency has been linked to multiple pathological conditions. In this study we aimed to develop and validate a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate total vitamin K intake, over the course of a 30-day interval, in a Portuguese, Mediterranean-based, population. We conducted a prospective study in a non-random sample of 38 healthy adult volunteers. The FFQ was designed based on a validated Portuguese FFQ used in nationally representative studies and on literature reviews, to include foods containing ≥ 5μg of vitamin K/100g and foods with a lower vitamin K content, yet commonly in-cluded in a Mediterranean diet. Vitamin K intake was estimated from 24h recalls and six days of food records. The final FFQ included 54 food items which, according to regression analyses, explains 90% of vitamin K intake. Mean differences in vitamin K intake based on food records (80±47.7 μg/day) and on FFQ (96.5±64.3 μg/day) were statistically non-significant. Further, we found a strong correlation between both methods (r= 0.7; p=0.003). Our results suggest that our new FFQ is a valid instrument to assess the last 30-days of vitamin K intake in the Portuguese Mediterranean population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Low frequency; Co3O4/CC; Co-MOFs/CC; thinner thickness
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:35:25 CEST)
With the rapid development of electronic and communication technology in military radar, the demand for microwave absorbing materials in low-frequency with thin layer is growing increasingly. In this study, flexible Co3O4/CC (carbon cloth) composites derives from Co-MOFs (metal-organic frameworks)/CC are prepared by hydrothermal and thermal treatment processes. The flexible precursors of Co-MOFs/CC are calcined with different calcination temperatures, which the material structure, dielectric properties and microwave absorption performance are changed. With the increase of calcination temperature, the minimum reflection loss of the corresponding Co3O4/CC composites gradually moves to the lower frequency with thinner thickness. In addition, the Co3O4/CC composites with 25 wt% filler loading ratio exhibit the minimum reflection loss (RL) of -46.59 dB at 6.24 GHz with 4.2 mm thickness. When the thickness is 3.70 mm, the effective absorption bandwidth is 3.04 GHz from 5.84 to 8.88 GHz. This study not only proves that the composite Co3O4/CC is a kind of outstanding microwave absorbing material with better flexibility, but also provides a useful inspiration for the low frequency and broadband microwave absorbing material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: graphene chip; surface topography; photoresist residues; low-frequency noise
Online: 30 May 2023 (03:57:20 CEST)
Graphene quality for use in biosensors was assessed in fabricated chips by a set of methods that includes atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and low-frequency noise. It is shown that local areas of residues on the graphene surface, which arisen due to the interaction of graphene with a photoresist at the initial stage of chips development, leads to a spread of chips resistance (R) within 1-10 kΩ and to an increase in the root mean square (RMS) roughness up to 10 times that can significantly impair reproducibility of graphene parameters in biosensors chips. It was observed that the control of the photoresist residues after photolithography (PLG) by AFM and subsequent additional cleaning allow reducing the spread of R values in chips to 1–1.6 kΩ and obtaining RMS roughness similar to the roughness in pristine graphene before PLG. Monitoring of the spectral density of low-frequency voltage fluctuation (SU), which provides integral information about the defect system and quality of the material, makes it possible to identify chips with low graphene quality and with inhomogeneously distributed compressive stresses areas by the type of frequency dependence SU (f).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance; mutations; CVINT; malaria; allele frequency
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:04:50 CET)
The replacement of chloroquine with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for over a decade has had varying impacts on the ability of malaria parasite to sustain its chloroquine resistance prowess in different malaria-endemic regions. We evaluated the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) mutations in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria 17 years after replacement of chloroquine with ACTs for malaria treatment. Genomic DNA was isolated from dried blood spot samples obtained from 129 patients (aged 1-35 years) with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection. PfCRT fragments covering codons 72-76, CVMNK (wildtype) and A220 were amplified and sequenced. Two mutant PfCRT haplotypes on residues 72-76 (CVIET and CVINT) were identified with a prevalence of 18.6% and 2.3%, respectively. Interestingly, the CVINT haplotype was identified for the first time in this region. A220S changes were found in 16.3% of samples occurring concurrently with the CVIET haplotype, while a Q271E mutation occurred in a wildtype isolate. The reduced prevalence of the PfCRT mutant alleles in this study may suggest a gradual disappearance of chloroquine-resistant malaria parasites following reduced drug pressure. It may also be an indicator of the ability of malaria parasites to develop resistance gradually against the current first-line regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0107.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Emotion recognition; Emotion cues; Pure tone; Frequency dependent relationship
Online: 1 June 2022 (07:44:13 CEST)
The recent advances in Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence have significantly increased the importance of identifying human emotions from different sensory cues. Hence, understanding the underlying relationships between emotions and sensory cues have become a subject of study in many fields including Acoustics, Psychology, Psychiatry, Neuroscience and Biochemistry. This work is a preliminary step towards investigating cues for human emotion on a fundamental level by aiming to establish relationships between tonal frequencies of sound and emotions. For that, an online perception test is conducted, in which participants are asked to rate the perceived emotions corresponding to each tone. The results show that a crossover point for four primary emotions lies in the frequency range of 417–440 Hz, thus consolidating the hypothesis that the frequency range of 432–440 Hz is neutral from human emotion perspective. It is also observed that the frequency dependant relationships between emotion pairs Happy—Sad, and Anger—Calm are approximately mirrored symmetric in nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0425.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: transposon; order; triplet frequency; tRNA; clustering; taxonomy; symmetry; photosystem
Online: 27 January 2022 (17:40:07 CET)
A comprehensive presentation of a variety of biologically sounding properties of genomes is present; chloroplast genomes are used as a biological matter. Triplet frequency composition is the general issue standing behind the properties. Besides, the new alignment-free error-tolerant method of sequences comparison highly efficient for in/del mismatches is present, for transposons search. Triplet frequency dictionaries determined for a genome, or for a part of that latter were studied through various clustering techniques. The interplay between triplet composition and function reveals on tRNA genes unambiguously shows the prevalence of the function encoded in tRNA gene over the phylogeny: the genes gather into the clusters comprising the genes encoding the same amino acid; more exactly, few gene families exhibit fine cluster pattern corresponding the synonymous codons of amino acid. Previously reported symmetry in chloroplast genomes is shown for a set of gymnosperm: that is mirror symmetry, rotational symmetry, and the second Chargaff's parity rule asymmetry. A family of transposons was found in gymnosperm chloroplast genomes. This family is revealed through the novel comparison method based on convolution calculation, for a set of DNA sequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0441.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: board independence; audit committee; meeting frequency; M-score model
Online: 24 November 2021 (08:08:04 CET)
The increase in the number of firms manipulating financial reports has misled shareholders' investment decisions and resulted in an indelible blot on foreign investors’ trust. Due to earnings management (EM) practice, managers' inefficiency, and lack of transparency in Iraq companies. This study tested the influence of the corporate governance mechanisms (CG), (board independence, audit committee, meeting frequency) on EM based on agency theory, as well, to link between EM and firm's performance (FP) in Iraqi listed companies and the impact of moderating role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) based on the Stakeholder Theory. The study's sample consists of 65 companies for the 2013-2018 financial years. Data were collected mainly from the annual reports (secondary data) of the Iraqi listed firms. This study uses the M-score model to detect EM practices as practical techniques in detecting earnings manipulation practices. The panel static model estimators. Hence, this paper adds to the CG literature from the perspective of stakeholder theory using Iraq's unique industrial environment. Based on the research results, policy-makers might use the study‘s findings to recognize the essential roles of several CG mechanisms in alleviating the opportunistic practices in Iraq. Further, companies should also be encouraged to enhance the CSR disclosure quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: focal vibration therapy; vibration frequency; vibration amplitude; vibration intensity
Online: 5 March 2021 (10:10:38 CET)
Focal vibration therapy can provide neurophysiological benefits. Unfortunately, standardized protocols are non-existent. Previous research presents a wide range of protocols with a wide range of effectiveness. This paper is part of a broader effort to identify effective, standardized protocols for focal vibration therapy. The vibration characteristics of four commercially available focal vibration devices that have been used for research and clinically were measured. An accelerometer was used for the measurements. Frequency and peak-to-peak amplitude were measured. Measurements were made when the devices were free and then again when they were strapped to the human body. Vibration frequency ranged from 120 to 225 Hz. Free vibration amplitude ranged from 2.0 to 7.9 g’s (peak-to-peak). When the devices were strapped to the body (constrained), vibration amplitude decreased by up to 65.7%. These results identify effective ranges of focal vibration frequency and amplitude. They illustrate the importance of identifying vibration environment, free or constrained, when quoting vibration characteristics. Finally, the inconsistency of multi-actuator devices is discussed. These results will guide protocol development for focal vibration and potentially better focal vibration devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0042.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Modulus of elasticity; frequency spectrum; mic; Euler-Bernoulli equation
Online: 1 March 2021 (18:31:31 CET)
This paper presents the simplified and quick way to obtain an experimental measure of the modulus of elasticity(E) of a piece of metal rod using the Smartphone microphone and through the experimental configuration in mode of unsupport beam Euler-Bernoulli(E-B). To understand it, it is required to have knowledge about flexural vibration of E-B beams and to know the analysis of the spectogram of the audio signal. The methodology consists in measuring the flexural resonance frequency through an app installed on a Smartphone and using the E formula deduced from the E-B theoretical framework. The results of the experimental measurements have a discrepancy of less than 5% with respect to the factory value, for a carbon steel rod with circular cross section using the impact excitation technique. It describes the precision and accuracy of the experimental measurement. It is useful, because it helps to classify the materials in the Faculty of Engineering and it helps to make a more efficient quality control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: current-reuse; injection-locked frequency divider; radar sensor; wideband
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:33:22 CET)
An 18.8–33.9-GHz, 2.26-mW current-reuse (CR) injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for radar sensor applications is presented in this paper. A fourth-order resonator is designed using a transformer with a distributed inductor for wideband operating of the ILFD. The CR core is employed to reduce the power consumption compared to conventional cross-coupled pair ILFDs. The targeted input center frequency is 24 GHz for radar application. The self-oscillated frequency of the proposed CR-ILFD is 14.08 GHz. The input frequency locking range is from 18.8 to 33.8 GHz (57%) at an injection power of 0 dBm without a capacitor bank or varactors. The proposed CR-ILFD consumes 2.26 mW of power from a 1-V supply voltage. The entire die size is 0.75 mm ´ 0.45 mm. This CR-ILFD is implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar PV; power grid; impact; frequency response; grid code
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:44:45 CET)
Due to the high solar irradiance or energy price, certain regions in the U.S. may reach 100% PV penetration and experience degradation of frequency response greater than the interconnection as a whole. Therefore, in this section, the 100% PV penetration region in each interconnection is simulated to study the local high PV penetration effects. The study was performed by quantifying RoCoF, frequency nadir, and settling frequency at different regional PV penetration levels. The impact of high regional PV penetration on the compliance of grid code on frequency response is also studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0418.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; plasma oscillations; low frequency plasmons
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:39:01 CEST)
We report the negative effective mass metamaterials based on the electro-mechanical coupling exploiting plasma oscillations of a free electron gas. The negative mass appears as a result of vibration of a metallic particle with a frequency of ω which is close the frequency of the plasma oscillations of the electron gas m_2 relatively to the ionic lattice m_1. The plasma oscillations are represented with the elastic spring k_2=ω_p^2 m_2, where ω_p is the plasma frequency. Thus, the metallic particle vibrated with the external frequency ω is described by the effective mass m_eff=m_1+(m_2 ω_p^2)/(ω_p^2-ω^2 ) , which is negative when the frequency ω approaches ω_p from above. The idea is exemplified with two conducting metals, namely Au and Li.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0347.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: nonlinear resonance; frequency detuning; 3-wave system; resonance enhancement
Online: 24 February 2020 (05:32:49 CET)
In this manuscript we report new effects of resonance detuning on various dynamical parameters of a generic 3-wave system. Namely, for suitably chosen values of detuning the variation range of amplitudes can be significantly wider than for exact resonance. Moreover, the range of energy variation is not symmetric with respect to the sign of the detuning. Finally, the period of the energy oscillation exhibits non-monotonic dependency on the magnitude of detuning. These results have important theoretical implications where nonlinear resonance analysis is involved, such as geophysics, plasma physics, fluid dynamics. Numerous practical applications are envisageable e.g. in energy harvesting systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0359.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: ocean waves; double-frequency microseisms; continental margin; continental slope
Online: 27 December 2019 (07:59:29 CET)
This study presents an exploration into identifying the interactions between ocean waves and the continental margin in the origination of double-frequency (DF, 0.1-0.5 Hz) microseisms recorded at 33 stations across East Coast of USA (ECUSA) during a ten-day period of ordinary ocean wave climate. Daily primary vibration directions are calculated in three frequency bands and projected as great circles passing through each station. In each band, the great circles from all stations exhibit largest spatial density primarily near the continental slope in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Generation mechanisms of three DF microseism events are explored by comparing temporal and spatial variations of the DF microseisms with the migration patterns of ocean wave fronts in Wavewatch III hindcasts. Correlation analyses are conducted by comparing the frequency compositions of and calculating the correlation coefficients between the DF microseisms and the ocean waves recorded at selected buoys. The observations and analyses lead to a hypothesis that the continental slope causes wave reflection, generating low frequency DF energy and that the continental shelf is where high frequency DF energy is mainly generated in ECUSA. The hypothesis is supported by the primary vibration directions being mainly perpendicular to the strike of the continental slope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0274.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: meteorological drought; effective drought index; bangladesh; frequency of drought
Online: 24 September 2019 (12:17:36 CEST)
This study aims to assess the spatiotemporal characteristics of meteorological droughts in Bangladesh during 1981–2015 using the Effective Drought Index (EDI). Monthly precipitation data for 36 years (1980-2015) obtained from 27 metrological stations, were used in this study. The EDI performance was evaluated for four sub-regions over the country through comparisons with historical drought records identified at the regional scale. Analysis at a regional level showed that EDI could reasonably detect the drought years/events during the study period. The study also revealed that the overall drought severity had increased during the past 35 y; the most significant increasing trend was observed in the central region. The characteristics (severity and duration) of drought were also analysed in terms of spatiotemporal evolution of the frequency of drought events. It was found that the western and central regions of the country are comparatively more vulnerable to drought. Moreover, the southwestern region is more prone to extreme drought, whereas the central region is more prone to severe droughts. In addition, the central region was more prone to extra-long-term droughts, while the coastal areas in the southwestern as well as in the central and north-western region were more prone to long-term droughts. The frequency of droughts in all categories significantly increased during the last quinquennial period (2011 to 2015). The seasonal analysis showed that the north-western areas were prone to extreme droughts during the Kharif (wet) and Rabi (dry) seasons. The central and northern regions were affected by recurring severe droughts in all cropping seasons. Further, the most significant increasing trend of the drought-affected area was observed within the central region, especially during the pre-monsoon (March-May) season. The results of this study can aid policymakers in the development of drought mitigation strategies in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0655.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: artificial intelligence; electronics; psychochemical properties; frequency response of soil
Online: 29 October 2018 (05:17:56 CET)
Soil conditions is a major aspect of interest for farmers due to the knowing of the physicochemical properties of the same can help with any necessary restoration of soil that guarantees the quality and the production of their crop. However, technology and analysis of the soil become of difficult access mainly in developing countries, by which the present paper shows the development of a system thought to estimate physicochemical variables of soils growing sugar cane through studies of spectroscopy. Its characteristic is that it is a portable system, with low cost, easy to use and can estimate physicochemical variables in-situ with the objective of knowing the degree of degradation present in the soil and through this help the farmers define possible strategies to restore it. The device uses the frequency response of the soil determining values of magnitude and phase, which are used by algorithms of artificial intelligence capable of getting an estimation of the physicochemical properties. The obtained results show errors below 8% in the estimation of the variables compared to the analysis results of the soil at laboratories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: wavelet transform; covariance matrix; spatial diversity; frequency diversity; robustness
Online: 1 August 2018 (10:10:13 CEST)
Crowd counting is of significant importance for numerous applications, e.g., urban security, intelligent surveillance and crowd management. Existing crowd counting methods typically require specialized hardware deployment and strict operating conditions, thereby hindering their widespread deployment. To acquire a more effective crowd counting approach, a device-free counting method based on Channel Status Information (CSI) is proposed, which could mitigate environment noise through wavelet transform and extract the amplitude or phase covariance matrix as the feature vector. Moreover, both the spatial diversity and frequency diversity are leveraged to improve detection robustness. The accuracy of the proposed CSI-based method is compared with a renowned crowd counting one, i.e., Electronic Frog Eye: Counting Crowd Using WiFi (FCC). The experimental results reveal an accuracy improvement of 30% over FCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0003.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: acoustic frequency comb; phononic frequency comb; vibrations, nonlinear acoustics; acousto-optics; gas bubbles; liquid drops; Faraday waves; Brillouin light scattering; plasmonics; liquid metals
Online: 4 May 2022 (11:50:25 CEST)
Frequency combs (FCs)—spectra containing equidistant coherent peaks—have enabled researchers and engineers to measure the frequencies of complex signals with high precision thereby revolutionising the areas of sensing, metrology and communications and also benefiting the fundamental science. Although mostly optical FCs have found widespread applications thus far, in general FCs can be generated using waves other than light. Here, we review and summarise recent achievements in the emergent field of acoustic frequency combs (AFCs) including phononic FCs and relevant acousto-optical, Brillouin light scattering and Faraday wave-based techniques that have enabled the development of phonon lasers, quantum computers and advanced vibration sensors. In particular, our discussion is centred around potential applications of AFCs in precision measurements in various physical, chemical and biological systems in conditions, where using light, and hence optical FCs, faces technical and fundamental limitations, which is, for example, the case in underwater distance measurements and biomedical imaging applications. This review article will also be of interest to readers seeking a discussion of specific theoretical aspects of different classes of AFCs. To that end, we support the mainstream discussion by the results of our original analysis and numerical simulations that can be used to design the spectra of AFCs generated using oscillations of gas bubbles in liquids, vibrations of liquid drops and plasmonic enhancement of Brillouin light scattering in metal nanostructures. We also discuss the application of non-toxic room-temperature liquid-metal alloys in the field of AFC generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0611.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: high-frequency arc discharge; hydrogen reduction; silicon chlorides; germanium chlorides
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:20:32 CET)
The processes of hydrogen reduction of silicon and germanium chlorides under the conditions of high-frequency (40.68 MHz) counteracted arc discharge stabilized between two rod electrodes are investigated. The main gas-phase and solid products of plasma-chemical transformations are determined. Thermodynamic analysis of SiCl4 + H2 and GeCl4 + H2 systems for optimal process parameters was carried out. Using the example of hydrogen reduction of SiCl4 by the method of numerical modeling, gas-dynamic and thermal processes for this type of discharge are investigated. The impurity composition of gas-phase and solid reaction products is investigated. The possibility of single-stage production of high-purity Si and Ge mainly in the form of compact ingots, as well as high-purity chlorosilanes and trichlorogermane, is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2024.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: target detection; side-scan sonar images; seabed object; frequency domain
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:13:35 CET)
Side-scan sonar (SSS) detection is a key method in applications such as underwater environmental security and subsea resource development. The use of acoustic images for seabed target detection has gradually become a mainstream underwater detection method. However, many existing detection approaches primarily concentrate on tracking the evolution path of optical image object detection tasks, resulting in complex structures and limited versatility. To tackle this issue, we introduce a pioneering Dual-Domain Multi-Frequency Network (D2MFNet) meticulously crafted to harness the distinct characteristics of SSS image detection. In D2MFNet, aiming at the underwater detection requirements of small scenes, we introduce a novel method for optimize and improve the detection sensitivity of different frequency ranges and propose a Multi-Frequency Combined Attention Mechanism (MFCAM). This mechanism amplifies the relevance of dual-domain features across different channels and space. Moreover, recognizing that SSS images can provide richer insights after frequency domain conversion, we introduce a Dual-Domain Feature Pyramid Network (D2FPN). By incorporating frequency domain information representation, D2FPN significantly augments the depth and breadth of feature information in underwater small datasets. Our methods are seamlessly designed for integration into existing networks, offering plug-and-play functionality with substantial performance enhancements. We have conducted extensive experiments to validate the efficacy of our proposed techniques, and the results showcase their state-of-the-art performance. MFCAM improves the mAP by 16.9% in the KLSG dataset and 15.5% in the SCTD dataset. The mAP of D2FPN was improved by 8.4% in the KLSG dataset and by 9.8% in the SCTD dataset. We will make our code and models publicly available at https://dagshub.com/estrellaww00/D2MFNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: optical labels; pilot tone; frequency shift monitoring; faster-than-Nyquist
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:11:03 CEST)
Optical network monitoring and soft failure identification such as optical filter shifting and filter tightening is increasingly significant in the future complex and dynamic optical networks. Center frequency shift of optical filtering device in optical network has a serious impact on the perfor-mance of multi-span transmission, especially in high spectrum efficiency faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) transmission systems with various optical switching and add/drop nodes. Existing moni-toring schemes generally have problem of high cost, high complexity and the inability to realize multi-channel online monitoring, which makes it difficult to be applied in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system with numerous nodes. In this paper, a monitoring scheme of fre-quency shift of optical filtering devices based on optical label (OL) is proposed and demonstrated. The signal spectrum of each channel is intentionally divided into many sub-bands with corre-sponding optical labels loading. The characters of spectrum power changing caused by frequency shift can be reflected on labels power changing of each sub-band, which are used to monitor and estimate the value of frequency shift by DSP algorithm. Simulation results shows that the that the monitoring errors of frequency shift can be kept below 0.5GHz reasonably after 10-span WDM transmission in FTN polarization multiplexing m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-mQAM) systems. In addition, 250km fiber transmission experiments are also carried out and the similar results are obtained, which further verify the feasibility of our proposed scheme. The characters of low cost, high reliability and efficiency make it a better candidate for practical ap-plication in the future FTN WDM networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: frequency spectrum; theoretical analysis; moving vehicle; vehicle velocity; turbulent crosswinds
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:17:19 CEST)
Wind loads have become one of the key influence factors for the running safety of vehicles and comfort of passengers. Investigation on the wind speed spectrum characteristics of a moving vehicle under turbulent crosswinds is of great influence. Expressions of the wind speed spectrum of a moving vehicle was obtained from the von Kármán spectrum based on Taylor’s frozen flow hypothesis. The influence factors, including the ratio of the vehicle speed to the wind speed and the wind yaw angle from 15° to 175°, were analyzed. The maximum value of the wind speed spectrum and the corresponding frequency were studied as well. The results show that the maximum values of the wind speed spectrum of the moving vehicle were larger than those of the static vehicle. The maximum value of the wind speed spectrum corresponding to the moving vehicle first increased and then decreased as the wind yaw angle increased. Some of the frequencies corresponding to the longitudinal wind speed spectrum values of the moving vehicles were smaller than those of the static vehicle. For moving vehicles, the frequency values corresponding to the maximum values of the longitudinal wind speed spectrum first increased and then decreased as the ratio of the vehicle speed to the wind speed and the wind yaw angle increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sierpinski triangle; U-shaped resonators; frequency tunability; RF MEMS; metamaterials
Online: 18 September 2023 (10:45:32 CEST)
Triangular resonators re-shaped with the Sierpinski geometry and U-shaped resonators have been designed, linking them with single-pole-double-through (SPDT) RF MEMS switches to provide frequency tuning for potential applications in the K-Band. Prototypes of band-stop narrowband filters working around 20 GHz and 26 GHz, interesting for RADAR and satellite communications, have been studied in coplanar waveguide (CPW) configuration, and the tuning was obtained by switching between two paths of the devices loaded with different resonators. As a result, dual-band operation or fine-tuning can be obtained depending on the choice of the resonator, acting as a building block. The studied filters belong to the more general group of devices inspired by the metamaterial design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0876.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Self-monitoring, Motor Awareness, Premotor Cortex, TMS, low-frequency, Awareness
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:00:01 CEST)
Previous studies on the mechanisms underlying willed actions reported that the premotor cortex may be involved in the construction of motor awareness. However, its exact role is still under investigation. Here we investigated the role of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) in motor awareness by modulating its activity applying inhibitory rTMS to PMd, before a specific motor awareness task (under three conditions: without stimulation, after rTMS and after sham stimulation). During the task, subjects had to trace straight lines to a given target, receiving a visual feedback of the line trajectories on a computer screen. Crucially, in most trials the trajectories on the screen were deviated and to produce straight lines, subjects had to correct their movements towards the opposite direction. After each trial, participants were asked to judge whether the line seen on the computer screen corresponded to the line actually drawn. Results show that participants in the no stimulation condition did not recognize the perturbation until 14 degrees of deviation. Importantly, active, but not sham, rTMS significantly modulated motor awareness, decreasing the amplitude of the angle at which participants became aware of the trajectory correction. These results suggest that PMd plays a crucial role in action self- monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: levofloxacin; orally disintegrating tablet; crystalline form; low frequency Raman spectroscopy
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:37:48 CEST)
: We evaluated the pharmaceutical properties of levofloxacin (LV) in the form of an orally disintegrating tablet (LVODT) to find a new usefulness of low frequency (LF) Raman spectroscopy. LVODT contained dispersed granules with diameters in the order of several hundred micrometers, which were composed of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), as confirmed by infrared (IR) microspectroscopy. On the contrary, the API and inactive pharmaceutical ingredients (non-APIs) were homogeneously distributed in LV tablet (LVT) formulations. Microscopic IR spectroscopy and thermal analyses showed that LVODT and LVT contained the API in different crystalline forms or environment around the API each other. Furthermore, powder X-ray diffraction showed that LVT contained a hemihydrate of the API, while LVODT showed a partial transition to the monohydrate form. This result was confirmed by microscopic LF Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, this method confirmed the presence of thin layers coating the outer edges of the granules that contained the API. Spectra obtained from these thin layers indicated the presence of titanium dioxide, suggesting that the layers coexisted with a polymer that masks the bitterness of API. The microscopic LF Raman spectroscopy results in this study indicated new applications of this method in pharmaceutical science.