ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0208.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: fracture density; double-layer model; unconventional reservoirs; multicomponent seismic; shear-wave splitting
Online: 16 April 2018 (11:33:54 CEST)
Fracture density, a critical parameter of unconventional reservoirs, can be used to evaluate potential of unconventional reservoirs and location of production wells. Many technologies, such as amplitude variation with offset and azimuth (AVOA) technology, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) technology, and multicomponent seismic technology, are generally used to predict fracture of reservoirs. they can qualitatively predict fracture by analyzing seismic attributes, including seismic wave amplitudes, seismic wave velocities, which are sensitive to fracture. However, it is important to quantitatively describe fracture of reservoirs. In this study, based on a double-layer model, the relationships between fracture density and the double-layer model’s physical parameters, such as velocity of fast shear-wave, velocity of slow shear-wave, and density, were established, and then a powerful quantitative prediction method for fracture density was proposed dramatically. Afterwards, the Hudson model for crack was used to test the applicability of the method. The result shown that the quantitative prediction method for fracture density can be applied suitable to the Hudson model for crack. Finally, the result of validation models indicated that the method can predict fracture density effective, in which absolute relative deviation (ARD) were less than 5% and root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 4.88×10-3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0629.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: phase-field; multiphase-field; grey cast iron; brittle fracture; ductile fracture; anisotropic fracture
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:16:13 CEST)
In this work, a small-strain phase-field model is presented, which is able to predict crack propagation in systems with anisotropic brittle and ductile constituents. To model the anisotropic brittle crack propagation, an anisotropic critical energy release rate is used. The brittle constituents behave linear-elastically, in a transversely isotropic manner. Ductile crack growth is realised by a special crack degradation function, depending on the accumulated plastic strain, which is calculated by following the J2-plasticity theory. The mechanical jump conditions are applied in solid-solid phase transition regions. The influence of the relevant model parameters on a crack, propagating through a planar brittle-ductile interface, and furthermore a crack developing in a domain with a single anisotropic brittle ellipsoid, embedded in a ductile matrix, is investigated. We demonstrate that important properties, concerning the mechanical behaviour of grey cast iron, such as the favoured growth of cracks along the graphite lamellae and the tension-compression load asymmetry of the stress-strain response, are covered by the model. The behaviour is analysed on basis of a simulation domain consisting of three differently oriented elliptical inclusions, embedded in a ductile matrix, which is subjected to tensile and compressive load. The used material parameters correspond to graphite lamellae and pearlite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0511.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ductile fracture, ductile fracture mechanisms, critical effective plastic strain, stress triaxiality, Lode angle
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:44:38 CEST)
In this paper, the ductile fracture mechanism is discussed. The results of the numerical and experimental analyses are used to estimate of the onset of the crack front growth . It is assumed that the ductile fracture in front of the crack starts at the location along the crack front where the accumulated effective plastic strain reaches a critical value. It is also assumed that the critical effective plastic strain depends on the stress triaxiality and the Lode angle. The experimental programme was performed using five different specimen geometries, three different materials and three different temperatures of +20°C, -20°C and -50°C. Using the experimental data and the results of the finite element computations, the critical effective plastic strains are determined for each material and each temperature. However, before the critical effective plastic strain is determined, a careful calibration of the stress–strain curves was performed after modification of the Bai–Wierzbicki procedure. Finally, by analysing the experimental results recorded during the interrupted fracture tests and scanning microscopy observations, the research hypothesis is verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0138.v2
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:16:33 CEST)
The hydraulic fracturing is studied by using dimensional analysis. A universal scaling law of the hydraulic fracturing is obtained. This simple relation has not been seen in the literature.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Fracture Fatigue Entropy; Thermography; Exergy
Online: 13 November 2019 (10:28:55 CET)
Recent works in mechanical fatigue consider that a threshold of entropy exists, the fracture fatigue entropy. The determination of this quantity is usually done considering empirical models for the mechanical power estimation. In this paper, we experimentally observe the existence of a threshold of entropy and exergy in low cycle fatigue for a flat Al-2024 specimen avoiding the use of a model, solely measuring the heat generated during a fatigue test. Results are then compared considering various hypotheses (1D heat dissipation with convection and radiation considered as heat sources, and, heat transfer from a fin with convection and radiation as boundary conditions) to an empirical mechanical model known in the literature and deviations between them are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0464.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Ti3SiC2; Si3N4; mechanical properties; fracture toughness
Online: 29 February 2020 (10:30:51 CET)
In-situ grown C0.3N0.7Ti and SiC, which derived from non-oxide additives Ti3SiC2, are proposed to densify silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics with enhanced mechanical performance. Remarkable increase of density from 79.20% to 95.48% could be achieved for Si3N4 ceramics with 5vol% Ti3SiC2. The capillarity of decomposed Si from Ti3SiC2, and in-situ reaction between nonstoichiometric TiCx and Si3N4 were believed to be responsible for densification of Si3N4 ceramics. An obvious enhancement of flexural strength and fracture toughness for Ti3SiC2 doped Si3N4 ceramics was observed. The maximum flexural strength of 795 MPa for Si3N4 composites with 5vol% Ti3SiC2 and maximum fracture toughness of 6.97 MPa.m1/2 for Si3N4 composites with 20vol% Ti3SiC2 are achieved when mixed powders are hot-press sintered at 1700℃. Pull out of elongated Si3N4 grains, crack bridging, crack branching and crack deflection were demonstrated to dominate enhance fracture toughness of Si3N4 composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: austempering; fatigue; ausferrite; nodular graphite; austenitization; fracture
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:02:20 CEST)
The influence of the austempering temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) was investigated. ADI is nodular graphite cast iron, which owing to higher strength and elongation exceeds mechanical properties of conventional spheroidal graphite cast iron. Such a combination of properties is achieved by the heat treatment through austenitization, followed by austempering at different temperatures. The austenitization conditions were the same for all the samples: temperature 890°C, duration 30min, and quenching in a salt bath. The main focus of this research was on the influence of the austempering temperatures (270°C, 300°C, and 330 C) on the microstructure evolution, elongation, toughness and fatigue resistance of ADI modified by certain amount of Ni, Cu, and Mo. The Vickers and Rockwell hardness decreased from 535.7 to 405.3HV/1 (55.7 to 44.5HRC) as the austempering temperature increased. Optical images showed the formation of graphite nodules and matrix composed of ausferrite; the presence of these phases was confirmed by an XRD diffraction pattern. A fracture surface analysis revealed several types of the mechanisms: cleavage ductile, transgranular and ductile dimple fracture. The stress-controlled mechanical fatigue experiments revealed that a 330°C austempering temperature ensures the highest fatigue life of ADI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0606.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: fracture; theoretical model; seepage pressure; rock deformation
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:36:54 CEST)
The formation of rock fractures in nature has a certain relationship with water seepage. In order to analyze the shape of rock fracture, we propose a rock deformation theoretical model in three-dimensional space considering with the condition of seepage water pressure, and establish the mass conservation equation, seepage equation, surrounding rock displacement equation, so as to deduce the rock deformation control equation under seepage pressure action. The numerical analysis of the nonlinear quadratic partial differential equation obtains the fracture deformation distribution in the example, and verifies with the calculated fracture morphology. And we further use this principle to analyze the fracture morphology in nature and prove the rationality of the theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: embedment; shale rock; proppant pack; fracture width
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:31:00 CEST)
This paper concerns the effect of proppant embedment related with hydraulic fracturing treatment. This phenomenon occurs if the strength of the reservoir rock is lower than proppant grains. The aim of the research is laboratory determining the loss of width of the proppant pack built of light ceramic grains. The laboratory simulation of the embedment phenomenon was carried out for a shale rock on a hydraulic press, in a specially prepared for this purpose a heated embedment chamber. Tests were conducted at high temperature and axial compressive stress conditions. The surfaces of the cylindrical core plugs (fracture faces) were imaged under an optical microscope equipped with 3D software. The fracture faces were examined and compared before and after the embedment phenomenon. The analysis of the obtained images of the fracture face were made based on the research method of the embedment phenomenon developed at Oil and Gas Institute-NRI. On the basis of laboratory tests, the parameters characterizing the embedment phenomenon were collected and discussed. In addition, the percentage reduction in the width of the proppant pack was determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0155.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: single fiber; cutting; fracture morphology; failure mechanism
Online: 22 May 2017 (05:29:48 CEST)
The present study investigates the failure mechanisms of industrial fiber materials, using a custom designed fiber cutting performance test bench. The fracture morphologies of single PA6 fibers are examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis reveals that fiber cutting can be distinguished according to four distinct stages of fiber failure represented by shearing, cutting, brittle fracture, and tensile failure, which are the result of different mechanisms active during the processes of crack initiation, extension and fracture. The results of fractographic analysis are further verified by an analysis of the blade assembly speed with respect to time over the entire fracture failure process based on high-speed camera data. The results of fractographic analysis and blade assembly speed are fully consistent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cohesive fracture of fibre reinforced concrete; softening functions; fracture behaviour; glass fibre reinforced concrete; polyolefin fibre; steel fibres
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:46:47 CEST)
Fibre reinforced cementitious materials (FRC) have become an attractive alternative for structural applications. Among such FRC, steel and polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete and glass fibre reinforced concrete are the most used ones. However, in order to exploit the properties of such materials structural designers need constitutive relations that reproduce FRC fracture behaviour accurately. This contribution analyses the suitability of multilinear softening functions combined with a cohesive crack approach for reproducing the fracture behaviour of the FRC previously mentioned. The implementation performed accurately simulates the fracture behaviour while being versatile, robust and efficient from a numerical point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Subcondylar fracture; Histopathologic study; TMJ; MMF; Miniplate fixation
Online: 2 August 2022 (10:20:48 CEST)
Objectives: The present study was performed to compare between two different fixation techniques and evaluate the histopathological changes which occur in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of the dogs after surgically induced unilateral subcondylar fracture. Methods: Twenty- One healthy beagle male dogs with a mean age of 30 months were used in the present study. One of these animals was sacrificed to study the normal histology of the dog TMJ. The rest of the animals (20 animals) were operated on to induce a displaced unilateral subcondylar fracture then, the animals were randomly equally divided into 2 groups. After surgery, 5 dogs of each group were sacrificed at 2 months after surgery (Short-Term), while the remaining 5 were sacrificed at 4 months after surgery (Long-Term). The heads were separated and fixed, oscillating saw was used to articulate the entire TMJ. Specimens were decalcified, then the specimens were washed, grossed and sectioned in a sagittal plane. Tissue sections of 4 um thick were cut and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin to be studied microscopically. Results: In group I animals, at 2 months after surgery, there was a marked hypertrophy of the articular fibrous covering of the condylar head, while at 4 months after surgery, the articular fibrous covering appeared thinner than normal, with marked decrease in thickness of the articular cartilage layer. In group II, at 2 months after plate insertion, the articular fibrous covering became hypertrophic, and the articular cartilage was markedly reduced but it was of a uniform thickness, while at 4 months after subcondylar fracture and plate fixation, no significant changes could be detected either in thickness or structure of the articular fibrous covering. Conclusion: Based on this study, it is obvious that the plate fixation group gave the most favorable results, when compared with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0106.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: seepage characteristics; single fracture; roughness; numerical simulation; Fluent
Online: 9 May 2022 (06:13:55 CEST)
A single fracture is the basic unit of fracture medium, and the roughness of fracture wall surface is an important factor influencing hydraulic characteristics of the ﬂow in bedrock fracture. However, effects of the shape and density of roughness elements (various bulges/pits on rough fracture wall surfaces) on water ﬂow in a single rough fracture have not been thoroughly discovered. Thus the water ﬂow in single fracture with different shapes and densities of roughness elements was simulated by using Fluent software in this study. The results show that in wider fractures the flow rate mainly depends on fracture aperture, while in narrow and close fracture medium the surface roughness of fracture wall is the main factor of head loss of seepage; there is a negative power exponential relation between the hydraulic gradient index and the average fracture aperture, i.e. with the increase of fracture aperture, the relative roughness of fracture and the influence weight of hydraulic gradient both decrease; and in symmetrical-uncoupled fractures there is a super-cubic relation between the discharge per unit width and average aperture. Above results would help to deepen the understanding of rough fracture seepage.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: femur fracture; orthopedic; trauma; management and outcome; Qatar
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:11:23 CEST)
Background: We aimed to describe the patterns, management, and outcome of traumatic femoral shaft fractures. Methods: An observational descriptive retrospective study was conducted for all trauma patients admitted with femoral shaft fractures between January 2012 and December 2015 at the only level 1 trauma center and tertiary hospital in the country. Data were analyzed and compared according to the time to intramedullary nailing, mechanisms of injury and age groups. Main outcomes included in-hospital complications and mortality Results: A total of 605 cases were analyzed, with mean age of 30.7±16.2 years. The majority of fractures were unilateral (96.7%) and 91% were closed fractures. Three-fourth of fractures were treated by reamed intramedullary nailing (rIMN); antegrade in 80%. The pyriform fossa nails were used in 71.6% while trochanteric entry nails were used in 28.4%. Forty-five (8.9%) of fractures were treated with external fixator, 37 (6.1%) had conservative management. Traffic-related injuries occurred more in patients aged 14-30 years whereas; injuries related to fall were significantly higher in patients aged 31-59 years. Thirty-one patients (7.8%) had rIMN < 6 h post-injury, 106 (25.5%) had rIMN < 6-12 h and 267 (66.8%) had rIMN > 12 h. The implant type, duration of surgery, DVT prophylaxis, in-hospital complications and mortality were comparable among the three treatment groups. Conclusion: In our center, the frequency of femoral fracture is 11% which mainly affects severely injured young males due to traffic-related collisions or falls. Further multicenter studies are needed to reach a consensus for the appropriate management based on the location and timing of injury
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0431.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Hip fracture; Casemix; Validation; Discrimination; Risk score; Calibration
Online: 9 July 2020 (17:23:04 CEST)
Objectives Independent validation of risk scores after hip fracture is uncommon, particularly for evaluation of outcomes other than death. We aimed to assess the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) for prediction of mortality, physical function, length of stay and postoperative complications. Design Analysis of routinely collected prospective data partly collected by follow-up interviews. Setting and Participants Consecutive hip fracture patients were identified from the Northumbria hip fracture database between 2014-2018. Patients were excluded if they were not surgically managed or if scores for predictive variables were missing. Methods C-statistics were calculated to test the discriminant ability of the NHFS, Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and ASA grade for in-hospital, 30- and 120-day mortality, functional independence at discharge, 30-days and 120-days, length of stay, and postoperative complications. Results We analysed data from 3208 individuals, mean age 82.6 (SD 8.6). 2192 (70.9%) were female. 194 (6.3%) died during the first 30-days, 1686 (54.5%) were discharged to their own home, 211 (6.8%) had no mobility at 120-days, 141 (4.6%) experienced a postoperative complication. The median length of stay was 18 days (IQR 8-28). For mortality, c-statistics for the NHFS ranged from 0.68-0.69, similar to ASA and AMTS. For postoperative mobility, the c-statistics for the NHFS ranged from 0.74-0.83, similar to AMTS (0.61-0.82) and better than the ASA grade (0.68-0.71). Length of stay was significantly correlated with each score (p<0.001 by Jonckheere-Terpstra test); NHFS and AMTS showed inverted U-shaped relationships with length of stay. For postoperative complications, c-statistics for NHFS (0.54-0.59) were similar to ASA grade (0.53-0.61) and AMTS (0.50-0.58). Conclusions and Implications The NHFS performed consistently well in predicting functional outcomes, moderately in predicting mortality, but less well in predicting length of stay and complications. There remains room for improvement by adding further predictors such as measures of physical performance in future analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Acoustic emissions, fracture process, failure prediction, q-statistics
Online: 9 January 2019 (16:35:10 CET)
In this paper we present experimental results concerning Acoustic Emission (AE) recorded during cyclic compression tests on two different kinds of brittle building materials, namely concrete and basalt. The AE inter-event times were investigated through a non-extensive statistical mechanics analysis which shows that their decumulative probability distributions follow q-exponential laws. The entropic index q and the relaxation parameter q 1=Tq, obtained by fitting the experimental data, exhibit systematic changes during the various stages of the failure process, namely (q; Tq) linearly align. The Tq = 0 point corresponds to the macroscopic breakdown of the material. The slope, including its sign, of the linear alignment appears to depend on the chemical and mechanical properties of the sample. These results provide an insight on the warning signs of the incipient failure of building materials and could therefore be used in monitoring the health of existing structures such as buildings and bridges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stress-strain model; size effect; fracture energy; softening
Online: 22 August 2018 (09:34:23 CEST)
In this study, the model proposed by Yang et al. to generalize the stress–strain model for unconfined concrete with consideration of the size effect is expanded. Sim et al.’s compressive strength model that is based on the function of specimen width and aspect ratio was used for the maximum stress. In addition, a strain at the maximum stress was formulated as a function of compressive strength by considering the size effect using the regression analysis of datasets compiled from a wide variety of specimens. The descending branch after the peak stress was formulated with consideration of less dissipated area of fracture energy with the increase in specimen width and aspect ratio in the compression damage zone (CDZ) model. The key parameter for the slope of the descending branch was formulated as a function of specimen width and aspect ratio, concrete density, and compressive strength of concrete considering the size effect. Consequently, a rational stress–strain model for unconfined concrete was proposed. This model explains the trends of the peak stress and strain at the peak stress to decrease and the slope of the descending branch to increase, as the specimen width and aspect ratio increase. The proposed model agrees well with the test results, irrespective of the compressive strength of concrete, concrete type, specimen width and aspect ratio. In particular, the proposed model for the stress–strain curve rationally considered the effect of decreasing peak stress and increasing the descending branch slope, with the increase in specimen width and aspect ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Trauma, pelvic fracture, pelvic binder, external fixation, management
Online: 4 October 2017 (16:41:02 CEST)
Background: We aimed to evaluate the effect of early pelvic binder use in emergency management of suspected pelvic trauma, compared with the conventional stepwise approach. Methods: We enrolled trauma patients with initial stabilization using a pelvic binder for suspecting pelvic injury. Inclusion criteria were traumatic injury requiring a trauma team and at least one of the following: loss of consciousness or Glasgow coma score (GCS) < 13; systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg; falling from ≥6 m; injury to multiple vital organs; and suspected pelvic injury. Various parameters, including gender, age, mechanism of injury, GCS, mortality, hospital stay, initial vital sign, revised trauma score, injury severity score, and outcome, were assessed and compared with historical controls. Results: A total of 204 patients with high-energy multiple-trauma from single level I trauma center in North Taiwan were enrolled in the study from August 2013 to July 2014. The two group baseline patient characteristics were all collected and compared. The trauma patients with suspected pelvic fractures initially stabilized with a pelvic binder had shorter hospital and ICU stays. The study group achieved statistically significantly improved survival and lower mean blood transfusion volume and mortality rate although they were more severe in the trauma score. Conclusions: We recommend prompt pelvic binder use for suspected pelvic injury before definitive imaging is available, as a cervical spine collar is used to protect the cervical spine from further injury prior to definitive identification and characterization of an injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: tea intake; fracture; Mendelian randomization; genome-wide association studies
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:40:34 CEST)
Fracture is a global public health disease. Bone health and fracture risk have become the focus of public and scientific attention. Observational studies have reported that tea consumption is associated with fracture risk, but the results are inconsistent. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether tea consumption was causally associated with the risk of bone fracture through two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis. We included a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) associated with tea consumption of 447,485 individuals and analyzed the effects of genetic instruments on fractures using fracture cases from the UK Biobank dataset (n=361,194). Inverse variance weighted (IVW) indicated no causal effects of tea consumption on fractures of the skull and face, shoulder and upper arm, hand and wrist, femur, calf, and ankle (odds ratio=1.000, P=0.881; OR=1.000, P=0.857; OR=1.002, P=0.339; OR=0.997, P=0.054; OR=0.998, P=0.569, respectively). Consistent results were also found in MR-Egger, weighted median, and weighted mode. Our research provided evidence that tea consumption is unlikely to affect the incidence of fractures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0275.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement; martensite; dislocation density; fracture mechanics; stainless steel
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:37:29 CET)
Martensitic steels are used at a wide range of strength levels in environments which expose them to hydrogen or water vapor over a large range of partial pressures and temperatures. Hydrogen can cause catastrophic failures under many seemingly benign conditions. The effect of hydrogen on the dimension stability of high strength martensitic steels under such conditions has been poorly understood, and existing models do not seem to adequately account for it. Experiments were conducted to measure the variation in volume due to the uptake of hydrogen of such steels under near-ambient conditions, and the results were compared to theoretical estimates derived from the density of defects acting as hydrogen traps. Based on these results a new model for hydrogen embrittlement was developed. The hydrogen lattice dilation (HLD) model isolates volume expansion as a primary driver of hydrogen embrittlement. It provides and distinguishes two modes of failure acceleration: the fast, brittle, stress-intensity independent cracking under higher static crack loading, and a slower, highly stress-intensity dependent tearing mode at lower stress intensity. The relationship between the two is explained, as is how hydrogen absorption by defects accounts for the crack threshold and crack velocity of each.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0250.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: follicular cyst; fracture; mandible; osteosynthesis; mini-plate; collagenic xenograft
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:41:39 CET)
The problem of filling the bone cavity remains relevant in maxillofacial and oral surgery. There is a large selection of osteotropic materials of various natures for filling of bone defects of different etiology. The aim of our research was to improve the result of surgical treatment in a patient with a complicated mandibular fracture with the use of collagenic xenograft during osteosynthesis. In this article, we introduce our experience in the treatment of a patient with a complicated mandibular angle fracture in a combination with the follicular cyst. The obligate steps of treatment included stabilization of the bony fragments, a decrease of risk in fracture line malposition along with titan mini- plates, and shortening in the time of bone regeneration due to a filling of bone defect with the osteotropic material. This approach allowed us to reduce the rehabilitation period and further prosthetic treatment after 4-5 months without additional bone grafting manipulations. Though, the use of collagen osteotropic material, possessing osteoconductive properties, can improve the treatment of patients with mandibular fractures.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Crystal structure; hexagonal close packed; slip planes; anisotropy; fracture
Online: 26 November 2021 (11:33:12 CET)
NASA/ESA/CSA joint venture James Webb Space Telescope is about to be launched. It is hypothesized to operate in near-infrared range. It is also hypothesized to unveil early star formation, galaxies, and universe due to its orbit, point in orbit and orbital motion. It has been under manufacturing for over 20 years at a staggering cost of 10 billion US dollars (most expensive scientific experiment in history). Beryllium (Be) is chosen to be element for construction of its main mirrors due to its high stiffness, low density, low linear coefficient of thermal expansion (α) in cryogenics and high thermal conductivity. It is followed by gold (Au) layer deposition on its (Be) surface to enhance its sensitivity towards infrared radiation as later is hypothesized to bear superior properties. However, serious mistakes have been made in selecting this material for this application. Owing to its crystal structure (hexagonal close packed (hcp)), slip planes (basal, prismatic and pyramidal) and mechanisms of their activation, Be necessitates easy fracture at cryogenic temperature. It has anisotropic properties and prone to transverse fracture under tensile loading. Furthermore, its ductile to brittle transition temperature is very low making it entirely unsuitable for such an application. It is one of most expensive metals on planet. This study constitutes revisiting these fundamental properties and mechanisms which were entirely ignored during materials selection thus rendering whole project useless.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: rESWT; biomineralization; mussel shell; calcein green; fracture non-union
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:25:32 CET)
Background Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) is an attractive, non-invasive therapy option to manage fracture nonunions of superficial bones, with a reported success rate of approximately 75%. Using zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), we recently demonstrated that induction of biomineralization after exposure to focused extracorporeal shock waves (fESWs) is not restricted to the region of direct energy transfer into calcified tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that radial extracorporeal shock waves (rESWs) also induce biomineralization in regions not directly exposed to the shock wave energy in zebra mussels. Methods Zebra mussels were exposed on the left valve to 1000 rESWs at different air pressure (between 0 and 4 bar), followed by incubation in calcein solution for 24 hours. Biomineralization was evaluated by investigating the fluorescence signal intensity found on sections of the left and right valves prepared two weeks after exposure. Results General linear model analysis demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) effects of the applied shock wave energy as well as of the side (left/exposed vs. right/unexposed) and the investigated region of the valve (at the position of exposure vs. positions at a distance to the exposure) on the mean fluorescence signal intensity values, as well as statistically significant combined energy × region and energy × side × region effects. The highest mean fluorescence signal intensity value was found next to the umbo, i.e., not at the position of direct exposure to rESWs. Conclusions As in the application of fESWs, induction of biomineralization by exposure to rESWs may not be restricted to the region of direct energy transfer into calcified tissue. Furthermore, the results of this study may contribute to better understand why the application of higher energy flux densities beyond a certain threshold does not necessarily lead to higher success rates when treating fracture nonunions with extracorporeal shock wave therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0715.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: steel fiber; three-point bending; fracture parameters; gain ratio
Online: 30 November 2020 (10:58:49 CET)
Abstract: This study was aimed to determine the influence of the volume fraction of steel fibers and on fracture parameters of concrete. Fifty notched steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams and ordinary concrete beams with dimensions of 100mm×100mm×515mm were cast and tested via three-point bending test. Among them, the type of steel fiber is milling type (MF), and the volume fraction of steel fiber added is 0%, 0.5%, 0.5%, 1.5%, 1.5%, 2%, respectively. The effects of the steel fiber volume fraction (VF) on the critical stress intensity factor (KIC), fracture energy (GF), the deflection at failure(δ0), the critical crack mouth opening displacement (CMODC) and the critical crack tip opening displacement (CTODC)were studied. Through the analysis of test phenomena and test data such as load-deflection (P-δ) curve, load-crack mouth opening displacement (P-CMOD) curve and load-crack tip opening displacement (P-CTOD) curve following conclusions are drawn: With the increase of steel fiber volume fraction, some fracture parameters increase gradually and maintain a certain linear growth. The gain ratio of fracture parameters increases significantly, and the gain effect is obvious. Through this law of growth, the experimental statistical formulas of fracture energy and critical stress intensity factor are summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: surface metrology; surface topography; bending-torsion fatigue; fatigue fracture
Online: 16 May 2020 (17:54:13 CEST)
Post-mortem characterisation is a pivotal tool to trace back to the origin of structural failures in modern engineering analyses. This work presents a comparison of both the crack propagation profiles and the rupture roughness profiles based on areal parameters for total fracture area. Notched and smooth samples made of weather-resistant structural steel (10HNAP), popular S355J2 structural steel and aluminium alloy AA2017A under bending, torsion, and combined bending-torsion are investigated. After the fatigue tests, fatigue fractures are measured with an optical profilometer, and the relevant surface parameters are critically compared. The results show a great impact of the loading scenario on both the local profiles and the total fracture areas. In this work, the results of both approaches (local and total fracture zones) for specimens with different geometries are investigated. For all specimens, measured texture parameters decreased in the following order: total area, rupture area, and propagation area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0186.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: TSV, nanoindentation, FIB, micro-cantilever beam, mixed-mode, fracture
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:01:04 CET)
In-situ nanoindentation experiment has been widely adopted to characterize material behaviors of microelectronic devices. This work introduces the latest developments of nanoindentation experiment in characterizing nonlinear material properties of 3D integrated microelectronic devices with through-silicon-vias (TSVs). The elastic, plastic, and interfacial fracture behavior of the copper via and matrix-via interface have been characterized using small scale specimens prepared with focused-ion-beam (FIB) and nanoindentation experiment. A brittle interfacial fracture was found at the Cu/Si interface under mixed-mode loading with a phase angle ranging from 16.7 to 83.7 degrees. The mixed-mode fracture strengths were extracted using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis and a fracture criterion was obtained by fitting the extracted data with the power-law function. The vectorial interfacial strength and toughness were found to be independent with mode-mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0286.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Thread fracture; tool wear; Taylor Equation; Scanning Electron Microscopy
Online: 16 August 2018 (13:59:10 CEST)
The diameter of a H13 steel tool with M6 threads and a pin diameter of 5.9 mm and a pin length of 5 mm was measured after each 25.4 mm length of friction stir processing (FSP) of 6061-T6 extrusions. The change in pin diameter with FSP time or distance did not exhibit any steady state and was found to have two distinct regions. Metallographic analysis of two tools subjected to FSP for 60 and 120 seconds showed that (i) threads fractured in early stages of FSP, (ii) a built-up layer formed between the threads, and (iii) threads progressively wore with processing time. The metallographic analysis of an embedded tool showed the presence of a fractured piece of the tool in the stir zone. These points are discussed in detail in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0250.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Cholesteric Blue Phase III; nonlinear viscoelasticity; disclination network; fracture
Online: 29 March 2018 (12:00:13 CEST)
Nonlinear rheological properties of chiral crystal cholesteryl oleyl carbonate (COC) in blue phase III are investigated under different shear deformations; large amplitude oscillatory shear, step shear deformation, and continuous shear flow. Rheology of the liquid crystal is significantly affected by structural rearrangement of defects under shear flow. One of the examples on the defect-mediated rheology is the blue phase rheology. Blue phase is characterized by three dimensional network structure of the disclination lines. It has been numerically studied that the rheological behavior of the blue phase is dominated by destruction and creation of the disclination networks. In this study, we find that the nonlinear viscoelasticity of BPIII is characterized by the fracture of the disclination networks. Depending on the degree of the fracture, the nonlinear viscoelasticity is divided into two regimes; the weak nonlinear regime where the disclination network locally fractures but still show elastic response, and the strong nonlinear regime where the shear deformation breaks up the networks, which results in a loss of the elasticity. Continuous shear deformation reveals that a series of the fracture process delays with shear rate. The shear rate dependence suggests that force balance between the elastic force acting on the disclination lines and the viscous force determines the fracture behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: ion plasma treatment; fatigue loading; fracture; polyurethane; surface morphology
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:48:51 CET)
Plasma treatment of soft polymers is the promising technique to improve biomedical properties. The response to the deformation of such materials is not yet clear. Soft elastic polyurethane treated with plasma immersion ion implantation is subjected to fatigue uniaxial loading (50000 cycles, frequency – 1 Hz, strain amplitude – 10, 20, 40%). The influence of the strain amplitude and the plasma treatment regime on damage character is discussed. Surface defects are studied in unloaded and stretched states of the material. As a result of fatigue loading, transverse cracks (with closed overlapping edges as well as with open edges deeply propagating into the polymer) and longitudinal folds which are break and bend inward, appear on the surface. Hard edges of cracks cut the soft polymer which is squeezed from the bulk to the surface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bone fracture fixation; Osteosynthesis; Preoperative planning; Computer-assisted; Virtual surgery
Online: 2 September 2022 (15:30:04 CEST)
Background Bone fracture fixation surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the orthopedic field. However, fracture healing complications occur frequently, and the choice of the most optimal surgical approach often remains challenging. In the last years, computational tools have been developed with the aim to assist preoperative planning procedures of bone fracture fixation surgery. Objectives The aims of this review are (1) to provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in computer-assisted preoperative planning of bone fracture fixation surgery, (2) to assess the clinical feasibility of the existing virtual planning approaches, and (3) to assess their clinical efficacy in terms of clinical outcomes as compared to conventional planning methods. Methods A literature search was performed in the MEDLINE-PubMed, Ovid-EMBASE, Ovid-EMCARE, Web of Science, and Cochrane libraries to identify articles reporting on the clinical use of computer-assisted preoperative planning of bone fracture fixation. Results 79 articles were included to provide an overview of the state-of-the art in virtual planning. While patient-specific geometrical model construction, virtual bone fracture reduction, and virtual fixation planning are routinely applied in virtual planning, biomechanical analysis is rarely included in the planning framework. 21 of the included studies were used to assess the feasibility and efficacy of computer-assisted planning methods. The reported total mean planning duration ranged from 22 to 258 minutes in different studies. Computer-assisted planning resulted in reduced operation time (Standardized Mean Difference (SMD): -2.19; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -2.87, -1.50), less blood loss (SMD: -1.99; 95% CI: -2.75, -1.24), decreased frequency of fluoroscopy (SMD: -2.18; 95% CI: -2.74, -1.61), shortened fracture healing times (SMD:-0.51; 95% CI: -0.97, -0.05) and less postoperative complications (Risk Ratio (RR): 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.90). No significant differences were found in hospitalization duration. Some studies reported improvements in reduction quality and functional outcomes but these results were not pooled for meta-analysis, since the reported outcome measures were too heterogeneous. Conclusions Current computer-assisted planning approaches are feasible to be used in clinical practice and have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Including biomechanical analysis into the framework has the potential to further improve clinical outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0376.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Acid fracturing; UFD; Optimization; Fracture geometry; Acid type; Design parameters
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:01:51 CEST)
Acid fracturing simulation is used widely to optimize carbonate reservoirs and improve acid fracturing treatment performance. In this study, a method was used to minimize the risk of the acid fracturing treatment. First, optimal fracture geometry parameters with UFD methods are calculated. After that, design components change as long as fracture geometry parameters reach their optimal values. The results showed a high flow rate needed to achieve optimal fracture geometry parameters with increasing acid volume. Sensitivity analysis was performed on controllable and reservoir parameters. It observed that a high flow rate should be applied for a low fluid viscosity to achieve the optimization goals. Straight acid reaches optimal conditions at a high flow rate and low volume. These conditions for retarded acids appear only at a low flow rate and high volume. The study of the acid concentration for gelled acid showed that as it increased, the flow rate and volume increased. Besides, for low permeability formation, a large fracture half-length and small fracture width are desirable. In this case, a higher flow rate will be required. The sensitivity analysis showed that the optimum flow rate and acid volume increase and decrease for the high Young's modulus. The effect of closure stress was also investigated and observed for a sample with high closure stress, low flow rate, and high acid volume are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: wire-saw machining; material removal processing; brittle fracture; plastic deformation
Online: 24 August 2020 (08:00:01 CEST)
Multi-wire saw machining (MWSM) used for slicing hard-brittle materials in semiconductor, is an important material removal process that uses free abrasives. Cutting model of single-wire saw machining (SWSM) is the basis of MWSM, and the material removal mechanism of SWSM can better understand than MWSM. Mathematical model (includes brittle fracture and plastic deformation) is presented in this paper for SWSM ceramic with abrasives. This paper determines the effect of various machining parameters on the removal of hard-brittle materials. For brittle fracture of SWSM ceramics, the minimum of the strain energy density is used as a fracture criterion. The material removed of SWSM ceramics due to plastic deformation is calculated using the equations of motion. Actual wire-sawing experiments are conducted to verify the results from the developed mathematical model. Theoretical results agree with experimental data and practical experience. The developed mathematical model shows that brittle fracture plays a major concern role in material removed of SWSM ceramics. Wire speed and working load have positively correlated with material removed of SWSM ceramics. The coefficient of friction is low, a lateral crack, which propagates almost parallel to the working surface, leads to more brittle fracture and material removed is increased on SWSM ceramics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas; MRST; embedded discrete fracture model; open-source implementation
Online: 9 January 2020 (09:59:37 CET)
We present a generic and open-source framework for the numerical modeling of the expected transport and storage mechanisms in unconventional gas reservoirs. These unconventional reservoirs typically contain natural fractures at multiple scales. Considering the importance of these fractures in shale gas production, we perform a rigorous study on the accuracy of different fracture models. The framework is validated against an industrial simulator and is used to perform a history-matching study on the Barnett shale. This work presents an open-source code that leverages cutting-edge numerical modeling capabilities like automatic differentiation, stochastic fracture modeling, multi-continuum modeling and other explicit and discrete fracture models. We modified the conventional mass balance equation to account for the physical mechanisms that are unique to organic-rich source rocks. Some of these include the use of an adsorption isotherm, a dynamic permeability-correction function, and an embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) with fracture-well connectivity. We explore the accuracy of the EDFM for modeling hydraulically-fractured shale-gas wells, which could be connected to natural fractures of finite or infinite conductivity, and could deform during production. Simulation results indicates that although the EDFM provides a computationally efficient model for describing flow in natural and hydraulic fractures, it could be inaccurate under these three conditions: 1. when the fracture conductivity is very low. 2. when the fractures are not orthogonal to the underlying Cartesian grid blocks, and 3. when sharp pressure drops occur in large grid blocks with insufficient mesh refinement. Each of these results are very significant considering that most of the fluids in these ultra-low matrix permeability reservoirs get produced through the interconnected natural fractures, which are expected to have very low fracture conductivities. We also expect sharp pressure drops near the fractures in these shale gas reservoirs, and it is very unrealistic to expect the hydraulic fractures or complex fracture networks to be orthogonal to any structured grid. In conclusion, this paper presents an open-source numerical framework to facilitate the modeling of the expected physical mechanisms in shale-gas reservoirs. The code was validated against published results and a commercial simulator. We also performed a history-matching study on a naturally-fractured Barnett shale-gas well considering adsorption, gas slippage & diffusion and fracture closure as well as proppant embedment, using the framework presented. This work provides the first open-source code that can be used to facilitate the modeling and optimization of fractured shale-gas reservoirs. To provide the numerical flexibility to accurately model stochastic natural fractures that are connected to hydraulically-fractured wells, it is built atop other related open-source codes. We also present the first rigorous study on the accuracy of using EDFM to model both hydraulic fractures and natural fractures that may or may not be interconnected.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete; fracture behaviour; size effect; bending tests
Online: 18 March 2019 (10:36:28 CET)
The reinforcement of concrete by using polyolefin fibres may be considered in structural design to meet the requirements of the applicable code rules. In order to achieve a reliable use of such a composite material, use of full-scale real structures is needed. The conversion of lab testing data into real practice properties is challenging and significantly influenced by various aspects, among which the size effect is a key one. Given that the available literature does not report coinciding conclusions about such an effect on quasi-brittle materials reinforced with fibres, further research is justified. Therefore, this work studies the behaviour of notched beams with three proportional sizes by using self-compacting polyolefin reinforced concrete with a fibre volume fraction of 1.1%. Flexural testing was carried out according to the standard EN-14651, with the results revealing the existence of the size effect. In addition, a reduction of the residual strength identified in the larger specimens was observed in fracture surfaces with equal fibre content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0676.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: mandible fracture; disocclusion state; finite element analysis; critical blow force
Online: 29 October 2018 (11:36:55 CET)
The paper aims in assessing risks of mandible fractures consequent to impacts or sport accidents. The role of the structural stiffness of mandible, related to disocclusion state, is evaluated through numerical simulations using the finite element method (FEM). It has been assumed that the quasi-static stress field, due to distributed forces developed during accidents, could explain the common types of mandibular fractures. Geometric model of adolescent mandible was built, upon the basis of medical imaging, in CAD software with distinction between cortical layer and inner spongy bone. The finite element model of disoccluded mandible was next created. Mandibular condyles were supposed jammed in the maxillary fossae. The total force of 700 N, simulating an impact on mandible, has been sequentially applied in three distinct areas: centrally, at canine zone and at the mandibular angle. Clinically most frequent fractures of mandible were recognized through the analysis of maximal principal stress and maximal principal strain fields. Mandibular fracture during accidents can be analyzed at satisfactory level using linear quasi-static FE models for designing protections in sport and transport. The proposed approach can be improved by introducing more realistic interactions between condylar processes and fossae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0282.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; hollow cylinder; single fracture; fault activation; induced seismicity
Online: 22 May 2018 (05:04:47 CEST)
Pre-existing fracture and secondary cracks in rock mass are formed by natural power, such as magma condensed to igneous rocks and tectonic movement. The orientation and inclination of these fractures obey certain laws relating to the stress, temperature, minerals, water and so on. Therefore, cracks react differently under the same external loading on the condition of various inclination, fissure apertures, stiffness and joint roughness. To simulate the crack propagation, experiments on hollow cylinder cut by one oblique interface mimicking single fracture accumulated numerous data discovering the failure criterion in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. And theory on the Terzaghi’s effective principle take an essential role in controlling the behavior of triggering fault. This paper introduced a series of oblique plane cutting the cylinder regarded as fractures at different inclination to concentrate on how the fracture characteristics effect the stress and strain distribution inside the specimen, especially, the relationship between displacement and water head. The key point of this numerical simulation is coupling the solid phase and the fluid phase, specifically, the mechanic and seepage field. According to the statics, curves referring to deformation and water head could be described as increasing lines. Besides, simulation on coupling solid phase and fluid phase can supply crucial evaluation on activating existing fault, and thus predicting induced seismicity in reservoirs or estimating damage in shale gas exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0091.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: fracture toughness, scratch test, residual stress, tool steel, cryogenic treatment
Online: 24 February 2017 (14:46:47 CET)
The scratch test consists in pushing a tool across the surface of a material at a given penetration depth or applied load. It has several applications in Science and Engineering including strength testing, damage and quality control of thin films and coatings. Despite numerous attempts in scientific literature, the application of scratch test to characterizations of fracture properties remains a heavily controversial topic. Therefore, this investigation arises as an experimental study in order to assess the fracture toughness using scratch test. A study on the effect of cryogenic treatment, performed after tempering, on fracture toughness, via scratch test experiments, of different tool steels has been made. A laboratory investigation on AISI D2, AISI M2 and X105CrCoMo18 steel confirms the possibility of increasing the fracture toughness by carrying out the cryogenic treatment after the usual heat treatment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas; stimulated reservoir volume; fracture parameters optimization; formation parameters
Online: 3 September 2016 (11:16:08 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs has usually resulted in complex fracture network. The results of micro-seismic monitoring showed that the nature and degree of fracture complexity must be clearly understood to optimize stimulation design and completion strategy. This is often called stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). In the oil & gas industry, stimulated reservoir volume has made the shale gas exploitation and development so successful, so it is a main technique in shale gas development. The successful exploitation and development of shale gas reservoir has mainly relied on some combined technologies such as horizontal drilling, multi-stage completions, innovative fracturing, and fracture mapping to engineer economic completions. Hydraulic fracturing with large volumes of proppant and fracturing fluids will not only create high conductivity primary fractures but also stimulate adjacent natural fractures. Fracture network forming around every hydraulic fracture yields a stimulated reservoir volume. A model of horizontal wells which was based on a shale gas reservoir after volume fracturing in China was established to analyze the effect of related parameters on the production of multi-fractured horizontal wells in this paper. The adsorbed gas in the shale gas reservoir is simulated by dissolved gas in the immobile oil. The key to simulate SRV is to accurately represent the hydraulic fractures and the induced complex natural fracture system. However, current numerical simulation methods, such as dual porosity modeling, discrete modeling, have the following limitations: 1) time-consuming to set up hydraulic and natural fracture system; 2) large computation time required. In this paper, the shape of the stimulated formation is described by an expanding ellipsoid. Simplified stimulated zones with higher permeability were used to model the hydraulic fracture and the induced complex natural fracture system. In other words, each primary fracture has an enhanced zone, namely SRV zone. This method saves much developing fine-grid time and computing time. Compared with the simulation results of fine-grid reference model, it has shown that this simplified model greatly decreases simulation time and provides accurate results. In order to analyze the impacts of related parameters on production, a series of simulation scenarios and corresponding production performance were designed. Optimal design and analyses of fracturing parameters and the formation parameters have been calculated in this model. Simulation results showed that the number of primary fractures, half length, SRV half-width and drop-down have great effects on the post-fracturing production. Formation anisotropies also control the production performance while the conductivity of the primary fractures and SRV permeability do not have much impact on production performance. The complexity of stimulated reservoir volume has strong effect on gas well productivity. Fracture number mainly affects the early time production performance. The increase of SRV width cannot enlarge the drainage area of the multi-fractured horizontal wells, but it can improve the recovery in its own drainage region. Permeability anisotropies have much effect on production rate, especially the late time production rate. The results prove that horizontal well with volume fracturing plays an irreplaceable role in the development of ultra-low permeability shale gas reservoir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0561.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: finite element method; mesh strategy; linear elastic fracture mechanics; mesh refinement; fracture mechanics; numerical crack; h-AES method; interelement method; edge separation; crack propagation
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:43:56 CET)
H-adaptivity is an effective tool to introduce local mesh refinement in FEM-based numerical simulation of crack propagation. The implementation of h-adaptivity could benefit the numerical simulation of fatigue or accidental load scenarios involving large structures such as ship hulls. In engineering applications, the element deletion method is frequently used to represent cracks. However, the element deletion method has some drawbacks such as strong mesh dependency and loss of mass or energy. In order to mitigate this problem, the element splitting method could be applied. In this study, a numerical method called ‘h-adaptive element splitting’ (h-AES) is introduced. The h-AES method is applied in FEM programs by combining h-adaptivity with the element splitting method. Two examples using the h-AES method to simulate cracks in large structures under linear-elastic fracture mechanics scenario are presented. The numerical results are verified against analytical solutions. Based on the examples, the h-AES method is proven to be able to introduce mesh refinement in large-scale numerical models that consist of structured coarse meshes. By employing the mesh refinement introduced in this paper, very small cracks are well represented in large structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Well placement; CO2-EGS; water-EGS; Discrete fracture networks; THM modeling
Online: 12 October 2021 (12:40:20 CEST)
Well placement optimization in a given geological setting for a fractured geothermal reservoir is a prerequisite for enhanced geothermal operations. High computational cost associated in the framework of fully coupled thermo-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes in a fractured reservoir simulation, makes the well positioning as a missing point in developing a field scale investigation. Here, in this study, we shed light on this topic through examining different injection-production well (doublet) position in a given real fracture network. Water and CO2 are used as working fluids for geothermal operations and importance of well positions are examined using coupled THM numerical simulations for both the fluids. Results of this study are examined through the thermal breakthrough time, mass flux and the energy extraction potential to assess the impact of well position in a two-dimensional reservoir framework. Almost ten times of the difference between the final amount of heat extraction is observed for different well position but with the same well spacing and geological characteristics. Furthermore, stress field is be a strong function of well position that is important with respect to the possibility of unwanted stress development. As part of the MEET project, this study recommends to perform similar well placement optimization study for each fracture set in a fully coupled THM manner before a field well drilling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0545.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bone tissue regeneration; injectable; bone graft; fracture; osteoblast; bone tissue engineering
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:22:33 CEST)
The occurrence of bone-related disorders and diseases has increased dramatically in recent years around the world. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been widely used as a bone implant due to its osteoinduction and bioactivity. However, the use of DBM is limited because it is a particulate material, which makes it difficult to manipulate and implant with precision, in addition, these particles are susceptible to migrate to other sites. To address this situation, DBM is commonly incorporated into a variety of carriers. An injectable scaffold has advantages over bone grafts or preformed scaffolds, such as the ability to flow and fill the bone defect. The aim of this research is to develop a DBM carrier with such viscoelastic properties to obtain an injectable bone substitute (IBS). The DBM carrier developed consisted of a PVA/glycerol network cross-linked with borax and reinforced with CaCO3 as a pH neutralizer, porosity generator, and source of Ca. The physicochemical properties were determined by the injectability test, FTIR, SEM, and TGA. Porosity, degradation, bioactivity, possible cytotoxic effect, and proliferation in osteoblasts were also determined. The results show that the developed material has great potential to be used in bone tissue regeneration
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0435.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Impact energy; Fracture; Hatch Spacing; Scan Speed; Process Parameters
Online: 21 October 2020 (12:03:04 CEST)
The current paper aims to study the impact properties of additively manufactured Maraging steel (1.2709) using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) processing. The specimens were manufactured using 3Dsystems ProX 300 equipment under constant specific power input, or Andrew Number. The interactions between the build strategy and parameters, such as Hatch spacing and Scan speed was, and the impact strength and fracture were investigated. The Impact energy anisotropy was also investigated parallel and perpendicular to the build direction. Instrumented impact testing was performed, and the fractography supported that the fusion zone geometry dictated the fracture behaviour. The influence from gaseous elements such as Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen was found insignificant at the levels found in the printed material.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: pore-fracture networks; coal-facies; coalbed methane reservoir; Sanjiang-Mulinghe basin
Online: 18 January 2020 (10:15:20 CET)
Pore-fractures network play a key role in coalbed methane (CBM) accumulation and production, while the impacts of coal facies on the pore-fractures network performance are still poorly understood. In this work, the research on the pore-fracture occurrence of 38 collected coals from Sangjiang-Muling coal-bearing basins with multiple techniques including mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), micro-organic quantitative analysis, and optic microscopy, and its variation controlling of coal face were studied. The MIP curves of 38 selected coals indicating pore structures were subdivided into three typical types including type I of predominant micropores, type Ⅱ of predominant micropores and macropores with good connectivity and type Ⅲ of predominant micropores and macropores with poor connectivity. For coal facies, there are three various coal facies were distinguished, which include lake shore coastal wet forest swamp, the upper delta plain wet forest swamp, tidal flat wet forest swamp with Q-cluster analysis and tissue preservation index - gelification index (TPI-GI) and Wood index - groundwater influence index (WI -GWI). The results show there is positive relationship between tissue preservation index (TPI), wood index (WI) and mesopores (102nm-103nm), while a negative relationship between TPI, WI and macropores/fractures. In addition, groundwater level fluctuations can control the development of type C and D fractures, and the frequency of type C and D fractures shows an ascending trend with increasing GWI, which may be caused by the mineral hydration of the coal. Finally, from the perspective of the pore-fractures occurrence in CBM reservoirs, the wet forest swamp of upper delta plain is considered to be the optimization areas for Sanjiang-Mulinghe coal-bearing basins by a comparative study of various coal facies.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cocos nucifera; coconut endocarp; hierarchical structure; functional morphology; fracture toughening mechanisms
Online: 5 December 2019 (03:39:14 CET)
In recent years, the biomimetic potential of lignified or partially lignified fruit pericarps has moved into focus. For the transfer of functional principles into biomimetic applications, a profound understanding of the structural composition of the role models is important. The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyse and visualize the functional morphology of the coconut endocarp on several hierarchical levels, and to use these findings for a more precise evaluation of the toughening mechanisms in the endocarp. Eight hierarchical levels of the ripe coconut fruit were identified using different imaging techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy as well as micro-computer-tomography. These range from the organ level of the fruit (H0) to the molecular composition (H7) of the endocarp components. A special focus was laid on the hierarchical levels of the endocarp (H3-H6). This investigation confirmed that all hierarchical levels influence the crack development in different ways and thus contribute to the pronounced fracture toughness of the coconut endocarp. By providing relevant morphological parameters at each hierarchical level with the associated toughening mechanisms, this lays the basis for transferring those properties into biomimetic technical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: fibre reinforced concrete; polyolefin fibres; fibre distribution; fracture behaviour; structural fibres
Online: 5 December 2018 (07:57:24 CET)
Polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) has become an attractive alternative to steel for the reinforcement of concrete elements mainly due to its chemical stability and the residual strengths that can be reached with lower weights. The use of polyolefin fibres can meet the requirements in the standards, although the main constitutive relations are based on the experience with steel fibres. Therefore, the structural contributions of the fibres should be assessed by inverse analysis. In this study, the fibre dosage has been fixed at 6kg/m³ and both self-compacting concrete and conventional concrete have been used to compare the influence of the positioning of the fibres. An idealized homogeneous distribution of the fibres with such fibres crossing from side to side of the specimen has been added to self-compacting concrete. The experimental results of three-point bending tests on notched specimens have been reproduced by using the cohesive crack approach. Hence, the constitutive relations were found. The significance of this research relies on the verification of the formulations found to build the constitutive relations. Moreover, with these results it is possible to establish the higher threshold of the performance of PFRC and the difficulties of limiting the first unloading branch typical of fracture tests of PFRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fracture grouting; cement-silicate grout; geophysical prospecting; seepage; Yellow River Embankment
Online: 28 May 2018 (05:45:00 CEST)
Fracture grouting has been a widely used mitigation measure against seepage in the Yellow River Embankment. However, there is currently a lack of systematic investigation for evaluating the anti-seepage effectiveness of fracture grouting employed in this longest river embankment in China. Therefore, in this work, laboratory and in-situ experiments are carried out for investigating the reinforcement effect of fracture grouting in the Jinan Section of the Yellow River Embankment. In particular, firstly, the laboratory tests concentrate on studying the optimum strength improvement for cement-silicate grout by varying the content of backfilled fly ash and bentonite as admixtures. Flexural strength and Scanning Electron Microscope photographs are investigated for assessing the strength and compactness improvement. Subsequently, based on the obtained optimum admixtures content, in-situ grouting tests are carried out in the Jinan Section of the Yellow River Embankment to evaluate the anti-seepage effectiveness of fracture grouting, where geophysical prospecting and pit prospecting methods are employed. Laboratory results show that, compared with pure cement-silicate grouts, the gelation time of the improved slurry is longer and gelation time increases as fly ash content increases. The optimum mixing proportion of the compound cement-silicate grout is 70% cement, 25% fly ash and 5% bentonite, and the best volume ratio is 2 for the investigated cases. Geophysical prospecting using the Ground Penetrating Radar and High Density Resistivity methods can reflect the anti-seepage effectiveness of fracture grouting on site. It shows that the grouting material mainly flows along the axial direction of the embankment. The treatment that is used to generate directional fracture is proved to be effective. The injection hole interval distance is suggested to be 1.2 m, where the lapping effect of the grouting veins is relatively significant. For the investigated cases, the average thickness of the grouting veins is approximately 6.0 cm and the corresponding permeability coefficient is averagely 1.6 × 10−6 cm/s, which meets the anti-seepage criterion in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Fracture energy (GF); energy absorption capacity (E25mm); residual flexural strength(fRj); fibers
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:46:23 CEST)
Steel fibers (SF) and polyolefin (PF) are widely used for shotcrete, especially in tunnelling. Both SF and PF and have shown to meet the standards in order to reduce or substitute the conventional steel mesh as reinforcement of concrete showing mechanical and productive advantages. This study sought the analysis and assessment of the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced shotcrete, comparing in-situ with laboratory results. This was performed with low and high fiber dosages of SF and PF as well as a combination of them (hybrid mixtures). A total of seven mixtures, two of steel, two of polyolefins, two hybrids and a control mixture were manufactured at laboratory and in situ. By performing tests according to EN 14651 and slabs according to EN 14488-5, it was possible to characterize the residual flexural strengths (fRj), and energy absorption capacity (E25mm) in slabs. In addition, a fracture surface analysis was performed, and the orientation factor was obtained. This allowed the authors to quantify the loss of residual strength on site and correlate it with the fiber content and positioning. Moreover, some relationships between beam and slab tests were found, allowing to correlate the most relevant type of tests in the field of fiber reinforced concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries; phase-separation; fracture mechanics; surface stress; diffusion-induced stresses
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:07:05 CET)
Although lithium-ion batteries have extensively been used in various applications because of their high energy capacity, fracture and failure, the by-products of large strains and stresses caused by fast charging and discharging need yet to be addressed. The size effects on the mechanical behavior of the nano-sized structures are significant; however, the classical elasticity theory may not consider such effects. On the other hand, surface stress theory, as a robust and potential theory, is suitable in considering size effects in nano-scale structures. Therefore, in this paper, in order to involve the surface stress effects on the fracture behavior of Li-ion batteries, the following steps are taken. Firstly, a phase-field model is used to determine the evolution of the concentration profile. Subsequently, the stress distribution is obtained by using the surface stress theory combined with chemical equations for a planar electrode. Afterward, by using the weight function method for an edge crack in the plate, the stress intensity factor is derived for all time steps and possible crack lengths during the process. It is found that with increasing phase boundary thickness parameter or decreasing phase-separation phenomenon, the surface mechanics parameters become more influential. Furthermore, in the presence of positive surface stress, the diffusion-induced stress distribution decreases, which in turn reduces the stress intensity factor. In addition, in this paper, the two states of surface stress are compared either for elastic or total strain. Concerning stresses and concentrations, the results indicate a big difference at the beginning of the deintercalation process showing, in particular, 2% for stresses, but the differences diminish gradually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0353.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: fracture modeling; extended finite element method; cohesive zone method; epoxy; nanocomposite; Abaqus
Online: 21 September 2021 (09:30:05 CEST)
Linear elastic fracture modeling coupled with empirical material tension data result in good quantitative agreement with experimental measurements of fracture failure for both brittle and tough epoxy nanocomposites. The nanocomposites comprise diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A cured with O,O’ bis (2-aminopropylpropylene glycol) (Jeffamine D230) and doped with rubber nanoparticles of varying concentrations. Toughness, critical load, and critical displacement in quasi-static single edge-notched three-point bending are predicted accurately using both surface-based cohesive zone (CZS) and extended finite element (XFEM) methods implemented in Abaqus software. Fracture initiation within a crack is taken at the yield stress from uniaxial tension data. Prediction of fracture processes using a generalized truncated linear traction-separation law was significantly improved by considering the case of a linear softening function. There are no adjustable parameters in the XFEM model. The CZS model requires only optimization of the element displacement at fracture parameter. Thus, these continuum methods describe these materials in mode I fracture with a minimum number of independent parameters.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0641.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: three-dimensional laser scanning; rock discontinuity; rock fracture; rock joint; discontinuity orientation.
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:15:02 CEST)
Manual measurement of rock discontinuities is time-consuming and subjective according to the experience of the surveyor. This work proposes a three-dimensional laser scanning-based method for the semi-automatic identification of rock discontinuities. Multisite cloud scanning is performed with real-time kinematic (RTK)-assisted orientation to estimate the rock fracturing degree; then, discontinuity orientations are extracted with the man–machine interactive method or automatic method. The proposed method was applied to actual examples to illustrate its accuracy at identifying rock discontinuities. The sensitivity of the identification accuracy to different parameters was investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: total hip arthroplasty; intra-operative femur fracture risk; bone elastic-plastic behavior
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:41:30 CEST)
Total Hip Arthroplasty is one of the most successful surgery. However, due to the worldwide growing population life expectancy and the related incidence of age-dependent bone diseases, a growing number of cases of intra-operative fractures lead to revision surgery with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Surgeons choose the type of the implant, either cemented or cementless prosthesis, on the basis of the age, the quality of the bone and the general medical conditions of the patients. Generally, no quantitative measures are available to assess the intra-operative fracture risk. Consequently, the decision-making process is mainly based on medical operators’ expertise and qualitative information obtained by imaging. Motivated by this scenario, we here propose a mechanical-supported strategy to assist surgeons in their decisions, by giving intelligible maps of the risk fracture which take into account the interplay between actual strength distribution inside the bone tissue and its response to the forces exerted by the implant. To this end, we produce charts and patient-specific synthetic “traffic-light” indicators of fracture risk, by making use of ad hoc analytical solutions to predict the stress levels in the bone by means of CT-based mechanical and geometrical parameters of the patient. We felt that, if implemented in a friendly software or proposed as an app, the strategy could constitute a practical tool to help the medical decision-making process, in particular with respect to the choice of adopting cemented or cementless implant
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bioimpedance, Fracture detection, Bone, Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, Bioimpedance Analysis Electrical, Impedance Tomography
Online: 3 May 2019 (15:21:52 CEST)
Bioimpedance measurements are used increasingly in health applications because bioelectric parameters have been associated with anatomical and physiological properties, thus enabling to distinguish medical conditions. For bone fracture diagnostics, nevertheless, there is no established non-invasive method. Ex vivo studies and In vivo bioimpedance procedures, both invasive and non-invasive, on mammalians long bones are associated with promising results. In this work, out of a total of 568 papers, we reviewd 59 articles that mention long bone integrity by electric properties, be it Bioimpedance Analysis, Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy or Electrical Impedance Tomography. The papers are described in three sections, “Ex vivo measurements”, “In vivo invasive measurements” and “In vivo non-invasive measurements”. This review allows to establish the basics to planning the development of new technology to detect bone fracture via bioimpedance measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cruciform joint; fatigue; semi-elliptical crack; cooling; weld magnification factor; Fracture Mechanics
Online: 1 December 2017 (06:52:06 CET)
The objective of this research is to develop an experimental-theoretical analysis about the influence of the cooling medium and the geometry of the welding bead profile in fatigue life and associated parameters with structural integrity of welded joints. A welded joint with cruciform geometry is considered using SMAW, plates in structural steel ASTM A36 HR of 8 mm of thickness and E6013 electrode input. A three-dimensional computational model of the cruciform joint was created using the finite element method. For this model, the surface undulation of the cord and differentiation in the mechanical properties of the fusion zone were considered, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and base material, respectively. In addition, an initial residual stress field which was established experimentally was considered. The results were a set of analytical expressions for the weld magnification factor Mk. It was found that values for the latter decrease markedly in function of the intensity of the cooling medium used in the post welding cooling phase, mainly due to the effect of the residual compressive stresses. The obtained models of behavior of the weld magnification factor are compared with the results from other researchers with some small differences, mainly due to the inclusion of the cooling effect of the post weld and the variation of the leg of the weld bead. The obtained analytical equations in the present research for Mk can be used in management models of life and structural integrity for this type of welded joint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0316.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cardiac surgery; bone fracture; median sternotomy; rehabilitation; ossicication; functional mobility; assistanve device; feedback
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:36:05 CET)
Patients often need the use of their arms to assist with functional activities, but after bone disruption, pushing is frequently limited to less than 4.5 kg. No method exists to measure arm weight bearing objectively in clinical settings. This project aimed to design, construct, and test a walker for patients who need to limit arm force to prevent excessive bone stress during post-fracture (iatrogenic or traumatic) ossification. First, a qualitative study was conducted to obtain critiques of a Clinical Force Measuring (CFM) walker prototype from rehabilitation professionals. Key statements and phrases were coded that allowed “themes” to emerge from transcribed interviews, which guided device revisions. Next, a second CFM Walker prototype was designed based on the qualitative data and device criteria/constraints and finally tested. The result was fabrication of a new lightweight, streamlined, and cost-effective prototype walker with a simple visual display and auditory cue with upper limit alarms. Key features included attachments for medical equipment and thin film force-sensing resistors integrated into the walker handles that progressively activated 3 LEDs and a buzzer when arm force exceeded programmed thresholds. The innovative CFM Walker will help patients with restricted arm weight bearing, especially elderly adults, recover safer and faster in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0655.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Concrete; Mesoscale; Reduced order multiscale simulation; Microcracking; Micromechanics; Linear elastic fracture mechanics; Anisotropic damage
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:53:36 CEST)
Damage in concrete structures initiates as the growth of diffuse microcracks that is followed by damage localisation and eventually leads to structural failure. Weak changes such as diffuse microcracking processes are failure precursors. Identification and characterisation of these failure precursors at an early stage of concrete degradation and application of suitable precautionary measures will considerably reduce the costs of repair and maintenance. To this end, a reduced order multiscale model for simulating microcracking-induced damage in concrete at the mesoscale levelis proposed. The model simulates the propagation of microcracks in concrete using a two-scale computational methodology. First, a realistic concrete specimen that explicitly resolves the coarse aggregates in a mortar matrix was generated at the mesoscale. Microcrack growth in the mortar matrix is modelled using a synthesis of continuum micromechanics and fracture mechanics. Model order reduction of the two-scale model is achieved using clustering technique. Model predictions are calibrated and validated using uniaxial compression tests performed in the laboratory.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fracture behaviour; fibre reinforced concrete; high temperature; melting point; flexural tensile strength; polyolefin fibres
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:05:10 CET)
Concrete has become the most common construction material showing among other advantages good behaviour when subjected to high temperatures. Nevertheless, concrete is usually reinforced with elements of other materials such as steel in the form of rebars or fibres. Thus, the behaviour under high temperatures of these other materials can be critical for structural elements. In addition, concrete spalling occurs when concrete is subjected to high temperature due to internal pressures. Micro polypropylene fibres (PP) have shown to be effective for reducing such spalling although this type of fibres barely improve any of the mechanical properties of the element. Hence, a combination of PP with steel rebars or fibres can be effective for the structural design of elements exposed to high temperatures. New polyolefin fibres (PF) have become an alternative to steel fibres. PF meet the requirements of the standards to consider the contributions of the fibres in the structural design. However, there is a lack of evidence about the behaviour of PF and elements made of polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) subjected to high temperatures. Given that these polymer fibres would be melt above 250 °C, the behaviour in the intermediate temperatures was assessed in this study. Uni-axial tests on individual fibres and three-point bending tests of PFRC specimens were performed. The results have shown that the residual load-bearing capacity of the material is gradually lost up to 200 °C, though the PFRC showed structural performance up to 185°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: CO2 geological storage, fractured carbonates, CO2 migration plume, updated geological model, Discrete Fracture Network
Online: 23 May 2018 (16:43:00 CEST)
Investigation into geological storage of CO2 is underway at the Technology Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos, Spain), the only current onshore injection site in the European Union. The storage reservoir is a deep saline aquifer located within Low Jurassic Formations (Lias and Dogger), formed by fractured carbonates with low matrix permeability. Understanding the processes involved in CO2 migration within this kind of low-primary permeability carbonates influenced by fractures and faults is key to ensure safe operation and reliable plume prediction. During the hydraulic characterization tests, 2300 tons of liquid CO2 and 14000 m3 of synthetic brine were co-injected on site in various sequences to characterize the pressure response of the seal-storage pair [de Dios et al, 2017] The injection tests were analyzed with a compositional dual media model which accounts for both temperature effects (as the CO2 is liquid at the bottom of the wellbore) and multiphase flow hysteresis (to effectively simulate the alternating brine and CO2 injection tests that were performed). The pressure and temperature responses of the storage formation were history-matched mainly through the petrophysical characteristics of the fracture network [Le Gallo et al, 2017]. The dynamic characterization of the fracture network dominates the CO2 migration while the matrix does not appear to significantly contribute to the storage capacity. This initial modeling approach was improved using the characterization workflow developed within the European FP7 CO2ReMove project for sandstone fractured reservoirs [Ringrose et al., 2011; Deflandre et al., 2011]. Fractured reservoirs are challenging to handle because of their high level of heterogeneity that conditions the reservoir behaviour during the injection. In particular, natural fractures have a significant impact on well performance [Ray et al, 2012]. Furthermore, the understanding of the processes involved in CO2 migration within relatively low-permeability storage influenced by fractures and faults is essential for enabling safe storage operation [Iding and Ringrose, 2010]. As part of the European H2020 ENOS project, the site geological model is updated by integration of the recently acquired data such as the image log interpretations from injection and observation wells. The geological model is generated through the analysis and integration of data including borehole images and well test data. Following a methodology developed for naturally fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs [Ray et al., 2012], the image log analysis identified two sets of diffuse fractures. A Discrete Fracture Network [Bourbiaux et al., 2005] was built around both wells which encompass the caprock, storage and underburden formations. The fracture characteristics of the two sets of diffuse fractures, such as orientations, densities and conductivities, are calibrated upon the interpretation of the injection tests [Le Gallo et al, 2017]. For each facies, the DFN characteristics were then upscaled and propagated to the full-field reservoir simulation model as 3D fracture properties (fracture porosity, fracture permeability and equivalent block size).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0404.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Arctic conditions; Weldment fatigue; Temperature dependence of material fatigue; Fatigue and fracture mechanics testing at low temperatures; Fatigue and fracture transitions temperatures; Direct-current potential drop method; Scanning electron microscopy; FTT; FDBT; DBTT
Online: 26 January 2022 (18:42:43 CET)
The formation and propagation of cracks occurs through irreversible dislocation movements at notches, material defects and grain boundaries. Since this process is partly thermally controlled, the resistance to dislocation movements at low temperatures increases. This slows both fatigue initiation and fatigue crack propagation. From recent experimental data, it can be seen that fatigue crack growth is accelerated below the fatigue transition temperature (FTT) that correlates with the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) found by well-known fracture mechanics tests, i.e., Charpy impact, fracture toughness, and CTOD. Hence, this study investigates the relation between FTT and DBTT in S500 high-strength steel base material and welded joints at low temperatures using fatigue crack growth, fracture toughness tests as well as scanning electron microscopy. From the tests, an almost constant decrease in fatigue crack propagation rate is determined with decreasing test temperature even below the DBTT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: hip fractures; geriatric assessment; orthogeriatric care; functional recovery; geriatric syndromes; mortality; hip fracture surgery; multidisciplinary care
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:31:03 CET)
Hip fractures are an important socio-economic problem in western countries. Over the past 60 years orthogeriatric care has improved the management of older patients admitted to hospital after suffering hip fractures. Orthogeriatric co-management units have increased quality of care, reducing adverse events during acute admission, length of stay, both in-hospital and mid-term mortality, as well as healthcare and social costs. Nevertheless, a large number of areas of controversy regarding the clinical management of older adults admitted due to hip fracture remain to be clarified. This narrative review, centered in the last 5 years, combined the search terms “hip fracture”, “geriatric assessment”, “second hip fracture”, “surgery”, “perioperative management” and “orthogeriatric care”, in order to summarise the state of the art of some questions such as the optimum analgesic protocol, the best approach for treating anemia, the surgical options recommendable for each type of fracture and the efficiency of orthogeriatric co-management and functional recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Median sternotomy; Ossification; Cardiac surgery; Rehabilitation; Functional mobility; Bone fracture; Assistive device; Feedback training; Sternal precautions; Instrumented walker
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:43:01 CEST)
Patients recovering from bone disruption due to trauma or surgery need to limit movement to minimize shear force, thereby protecting callus formation and osteogenesis. Patients often use their arms to assist with functional activities, but pushing is frequently limited to <10 lb (4.5 kg). With only verbal instructions, patients’ ability to accurately limit weight-bearing (WB) force is poor. A therapeutic intervention to improve patient adherence with upper extremity (UE) WB guidelines during functional mobility using an instrumented walker could be beneficial. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe a feedback training protocol to improve the ability to modulate weight-bearing force in older adults and then provide an overview of the efficacy of this protocol and subsequent development of a Clinical Force Measuring Walker. An instrumented walker was used to measure UE WB during functional mobility in older healthy subjects (n = 30) before, during, and after (immediately and 2 hours) a visual and auditory concurrent feedback training session. During feedback training, force was significantly reduced with all 3 sessions as compared to baseline. When using the front wheeled walker, UE WB force during the second and third feedback training trials went down compared to the first trial. During the third feedback training trial, force was greater than the two previous trials while transferring sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit. After completion of practice with feedback, UE WB force was significantly reduced and remained so 2 hours later. These findings suggest that feedback training is effective for helping patients to modulate UE WB. Use of an instrumented walker and feedback training would be beneficial in clinical practice, especially with older patients. A more intensive feedback training with additional trials and or simultaneous visual and auditory cues during whole-practice may be needed to get UE WB below a 10 lb threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0215.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Discrete Fracture Network (DFN); fractured rock hydrology; Boundary Element Method (BEM); Domain Decomposition Method (DDM); subsurface fluid flow
Online: 19 November 2019 (02:55:27 CET)
Modeling fluid flow in three-dimensional (3D) Discrete Fracture Networks (DFNs) is of relevance in many engineering applications, such as hydraulic fracturing, oil/gas production, geothermal energy extraction, nuclear waste disposal and CO2 sequestration. A new Boundary Element Method (BEM) technique with discontinuous quadratic elements and a parallel Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) is presented herein for the simulation of the steady-state fluid flow in 3D DFN systems with wellbores, consisting of planar fractures having arbitrary properties and wellbore trajectories. Numerical examples characterized by DFNs of increasing complexity are investigated to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the presented technique. The results show that accurate solutions can be obtained with less nodes than with mesh-based methods (e.g. Finite Element Method). In addition, the DDM algorithm used provides a quite fast convergence. The simulation results of the fluid flow around intersections among traces (linear intersections between fractures), intersections between traces and a fracture boundaries, and wellbore intersections is accurate. Source code is available at : https://github.com/BinWang0213/PyDFN3D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: notch fatigue analysis; finite element analysis; fracture mechanics; stress gradient; notch acuity; S-N curves; statistical methods; artificial notches
Online: 10 February 2022 (10:44:15 CET)
The fatigue life of welded joints under cyclic loading is a complex process that can be roughly divided into fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and final fracture. Usually, these phases are evaluated separately. Several methods are available to estimate the extent of the different phases in welded components, such as stress-based fatigue concepts for crack initiation or linear elastic fracture mechanics for crack propagation; however, distinguishing these phases in welded components is a complex procedure and often relies on assumptions such as transition crack sizes. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between fatigue crack initiation and propagation in welded joints using artificially notched specimens with welded joints characteristics of different notch acuity (different radii and opening angle). The experiments show that the investigated relationship basically depends on the notch acuity, the load level and the stress ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: masonry; composite; short fibers; natural hydraulic lime; sisal; three-point bending test; fracture energy; strengthening; preservation; sustainability; carbon foot print
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:31:59 CEST)
The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of a new composite material for the conservation and development of the vast historical and architectural heritage that is particularly vulnerable to environmental and seismic actions. The new composite consists of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) -based mortar, reinforced by sisal short fibers randomly oriented in the mortar matrix. The NHL-based mortar ensures the chemical-physical compatibility with the original feature of the historical masonry structures (mostly in stone and clay) aiming to pursue both the effectiveness and durability of the intervention. The use of vegetable fibers (i.e. the sisal one) is an exciting challenge for the construction industry since they require a lower degree of industrialization for their processing, and therefore, their costs are also low, as compared to the most common synthetic/metal fibers. Beams of sisal-composite sizing 160x40x40 mm3 with a central notch are tested in three-point bending, aiming to evaluate both their bending strength and fracture energy. Also, tensile tests and compressive tests were performed on the composite samples, while water retention test and slump test were performed on the fresh mix. Finally, the tensile tests on the Sisal strand were carried out to evaluate the tensile strength of both strand and wire. A final comparison with unreinforced mortar specimens shows that the proposed composite ensures great workability and good performances in term of ductility and strength and it can be considered a promising alternative to the classic fiber-reinforcing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: blow-out; biocompatible materials; computer-aided design; finite element analysis; orbit; implant; orbital fracture; patient-specific modeling; printing; three-dimensional.
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:37:53 CEST)
Pure orbital blowout fractures occur within the confines of the internal orbital wall. Restoration of orbital form and volume is paramount to prevent functional and esthetic impairment. The anatomical peculiarity of the orbit has encouraged surgeons to develop implants with customized features to restore its architecture. This has resulted in worldwide clinical demand for patient-specific implants (PSIs) designed to fit precisely in the patient's unique anatomy. Fused filament fabrication (FFF) three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has enabled the fabrication of implant-grade polymers such as Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), paving the way for a more sophisticated generation of biomaterials. This study evaluates the FFF 3D printed PEEK orbital mesh customized implants with a metric considering the relevant design, biomechanical, and morphological parameters. The performance of the implants is studied as a function of varying thicknesses and porous design constructs through a finite element (FE) based computational model and a decision matrix based statistical approach. The maximum stress values achieved in our results predict the high durability of the implants, and the maximum deformation values were under one-tenth of a millimeter (mm) domain in all the implant profile configurations. The circular patterned implant (0.9 mm) had the best performance score. The study demonstrates that compounding multi-design computational analysis with 3D printing can be beneficial for the optimal restoration of the orbital floor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0059.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: moso bamboo; quasi-static behavior; tensile behavior; size effect on energy absorption; damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns; macroscopic tensile fracture mode
Online: 17 August 2017 (07:53:23 CEST)
In this paper, quasi-static axial compression tests are performed on the nodal Moso bamboos to study the size effect on energy absorption of the bamboos and the damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns. Experimental results show that under the same moisture content, growth age and growing environment, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the test samples increases with the increase of the out-diameter and thickness of the bamboo columns, indicating that size effect exists for energy absorption of the Moso Bamboos. For the multiple bamboo columns, there are mainly three failure modes for the constituent single bamboo columns: splitting above the node, splitting below the node and splitting through the node. Also, the tensile tests are conducted on three kinds of dog-bone shaped bamboo samples to investigate the macroscopic tensile fracture mode in the longitudinal direction of Moso bamboos. Results show that there is no direct relationship between the fracture pattern and moisture content of the bamboos, as well as the growth age of the bamboos. However, the tensile loading rate and the shape of the dog-bone shaped bamboo sample could affect the macroscopic fracture pattern of the bamboos in some cases.