ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0758.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: forensic odontology; forensic dentistry; awareness on forensic odontology; dental students; dental faculty
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:12:48 CET)
This study sought to evaluate the awareness, comprehension, and practices concerning Forensic Odontology among dental students and faculty at a Dental School in Cyprus. An online, cross-sectional, descriptive survey was disseminated to the entirety of dental students and faculty of the School of Dentistry, European University Cyprus, in November 2022. Of those surveyed, 47 faculty members and 304 students responded, yielding response rates of 66.2% and 80%, respectively. The survey revealed that 87% of faculty and 65% of students were familiar with Forensic Odontology. A noteworthy 94% of faculty and 85% of students recognized teeth as DNA repositories. A high percentage, 98% of faculty and 89% of students, acknowledged the role of Forensic Odontology in the identification of criminals and deceased individuals. Awareness of age estimation through dental eruption patterns was evident in 85% of faculty and 81.6% of students. A substantial proportion (80% of faculty) maintained dental records, while 78% of students recognized the importance of dental record-keeping in ensuring quality care. Interestingly, 57% of students and 64% of faculty were aware of the possibility of dentists testifying as expert witnesses. The majority, 95.7% of faculty and 85% of students, concurred that physical harm, scars, and behavioral alterations predominantly indicate child abuse. The survey underscored a robust awareness of Forensic Odontology among respondents. Despite faculty's comprehensive understanding, there's a pronounced need to bolster their inclination towards attending relevant seminars. Emphasis on improved record-keeping practices for potential forensic applications is paramount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0049.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental pattern; forensic anthropology; forensic odontology; forensic dentistry; forensic radiolo-gy; forensic chemistry; forensic science; machine learning; identification; dental materials; acid solution; dissolution; sulfuric acid; dentition; teeth; acid degradation
Online: 24 February 2022 (03:41:16 CET)
(1) Teeth, represent in humans the most resilient tissues. However, exposure to concentrated acids might lead to their obliteration, thus making human identification difficult. Teeth often contain dental restorations from materials that are even more resilient to acid impact. This paper introduces novel method of 3D reconstruction of dental patterns as a crucial step for digital identification with dental records.; (2) With combination of modern methods of Micro-Computer Tomography, Cone Beam Computer Tomography, Attenuated Total Reflection in conjunction with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Artificial Intelligence Convolutional Neural Network algorithms, the paper presents the way of 3D dental pattern reconstruction and human remains identification. Research studies morphology of teeth, bone, and dental materials (Amalgam, Composite, Glass-ionomer cement) under different periods of exposure to 75% sulfuric acid; (3) Results reveal significant volume loss in bone, enamel, dentine, and as well glass-ionomer cement. Results also reveal significant resistance of composite and amalgam dental materials to sulfuric acid impact, thus serving as strong parts in the dental pattern mosaic. Paper also introduces probably first successful artificial intelligence application in automated forensic CBCT segmentation.; (4) Interdisciplinary cooperation utilizing mentioned technologies can solve problem of human remains identification with 3D reconstruction of dental patterns and their 2D projections over existing ante-mortem records.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: forensic; metagenomics
Online: 12 February 2020 (12:21:43 CET)
Advancements in DNA methods and biotechnology have enabled forensic scientists to explore the DNA evidence found as part of a criminal investigation on a much more comprehensive and predictive level. This has led to a rise in research into DNA intelligence tools such as phenotypic prediction (i.e., eye and hair colour) and inference of biogeographical ancestry. Both of which can be applied to gain further insights about a scene or sample in question. Although microorganisms have played a role in forensics for decades, investigations were focused on the pathogenicity aspect, mainly to determine the cause and time of death. Recent progress in studying the human microbiome has implicated the potential use of this data in forensics. Since each individual, place, or item has its own microbial pattern, a new suite of tools are now available to be exploited in criminal investigations. Although there is much interest and potential for these emerging metagenomic and microbial forensic tools, best practices and reference ranges need to be established before they are implemented. Here, we discuss existing DNA intelligence tools applied to forensic science, the application of microbial forensics and metagenomics along with the challenges and concerns that future developments entail.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: forensic genetic genealogy; investigative genetic genealogy; DNA; forensic DNA
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:29:22 CEST)
Forensic genetic genealogy, a technique leveraging new DNA capabilities and public genetic databases to identify suspects, raises specific considerations in a law enforcement context. Use of this technique requires consideration of its scientific and technical limitations, including the composition of current online datasets, and consideration of its scientific validity. Additionally, forensic genetic genealogy needs to be considered in the relevant legal context to determine the best way in which to make use of its potential to generate investigative leads while minimising its impact on individual privacy. This article presents these issues from an Australian perspective, with the observations and conclusions likely to be applicable to other jurisdictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: palatal rugae; sex; forensic dentistry
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:38:18 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to identify gender by highlighting common coordinates and discriminating coordinates in the two sexes through palatal rugoscopy, comparing sagittal sections of the hard palate and evaluating the assistance given by digital technology and its applicability in this method. In this study, 85 digital impressions were examined. The impressions were in .stl format. The palatal rugae, retroincisal papilla, and the palatal cusps of the second premolars were isolated using Meshmixer software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by eliminating everything else from the scan. Then the impressions were aligned using the same software so as to be subsequently imported to Geomagic® Control 14 software (3D System, NC, USA). Results: 2,223 impression sections were studied and 145 coordinates that were present with a frequency greater than 50% in one or both groups were obtained: 52 discriminating traits (DT) in the male group, 29 discriminating traits in the female group, and 64 common traits (CT). The sum of all the coordinates found in the 57 impressions was 9,328: 4,569 in the male group and 4,759 in the female group (P=0). The DTs in the female group showed no statistically significant difference from the same coordinates in the male one (P=0.832). Statistically significant differences were observed in the DTs in the male group compared to the same coordinates in the female group (P=0.018). No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of DTs in both sexes (P=0.056). Further research in forensic odontology is needed to determine its scientific certainty. It is certain that digital technology may one day be a valuable support for the forensic odontologist but to date the lack of dedicated and certified programs limits its reliability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0369.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: forensic accounting; Jordan; legal background
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:23:16 CET)
This review provides an understanding of the teaching and practising of forensic accounting across the globe. It includes a review of published forensic accounting studies that conclude that forensic accounting is of benefit to both students and professionals. Despite this, there are areas of concern; namely, the insufficiency of an appropriate structure of regulation and a lack of control over the academic qualifications to enter the profession. This review of both the teaching and practising of forensic accounting provides an overview of the vital issues and concerns that must be understood in order to advance the essential application of forensic accounting. It is expected that this review will influence future policy that will advance business and limit episodes of fraud. The amount of published literature on the subject of forensic accounting is widespread and diverse. However, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding regarding the strengths and weaknesses of forensic accounting; this review will address this and provide policymakers with a thorough explanation of the subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: forensic medicine; forensic dentistry; forensic anthropology; 3D CNN; AI; deep learning; biological age determination; sex determination; 3D cephalometric; AI face estimation; growth prediction
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:00:56 CET)
Three-dimensional convolutional neural networks (3D CNN) as a type of artificial intelligence (AI) are powerful in image processing and recognition using deep learning to perform generative and descriptive tasks. The advantage of CNN compared to its predecessors is that it automatically detects the important features without any human supervision. 3D CNN are used to extract features in three dimensions where input is a 3D volume or a sequence of 2D pictures e.g., slices in a cone-beam computer tomography scan (CBCT). The main aim of this article was to bridge interdisciplinary cooperation between forensic medical experts and deep learning engineers. With emphasis activating clinical forensic experts in the field with possibly basic knowledge of advanced artificial intelligence techniques with interest in its implementation in their efforts to advance the forensic research further. This paper introduces a novel workflow of 3D CNN analysis of full-head CBCT scans. Authors explore and present 3D CNN method for forensic research design concept in five perspectives: (1) sex determination, (2) biological age estimation, (3) 3D cephalometric landmark annotation, (4) growth vectors prediction, (5) facial soft-tissue estimation from the skull and vice versa. In conclusion, 3D CNN application can be a watershed moment in forensic medicine, leading to unprecedented improvement of forensic analysis workflows based on 3D neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: forensic toxicology; khat; cathinone; cathine; postmortem
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:22:24 CEST)
Interpreting khat-related fatalities is challenging due to a lack of data on cathinone and cathine reference concentrations in postmortem tissues. This study investigated the autopsy findings and toxicological results of Khat-related fatalities in Saudi Arabia's Jazan region from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2021. All confirmed cathine and cathinone results in postmortem blood, urine, brain, liver, kidney, and stomach samples were recorded and analyzed. Autopsy findings and the manner and cause of death of the deceased were assessed. Saudi Arabia's Forensic Medicine Center investigated 651 fatality cases over four years. Thirty postmortem samples were positive for khat's active constituents, cathinone and cathine. The percentage of khat-related fatalities was 3% in 2018 and 2019, and increased from 4% in 2020 to 9% in 2021, when compared to all fatal cases. They were all male ranging in age from 23 to 45. Firearm injuries (10 cases), hanging (7 cases), road traffic accident (2 cases), head injury (2 cases), stab wounds (2 cases), poisoning (2 cases), unknown (2 cases), ischemic heart disease (1 case), brain tumor (1 case), and choking (1 case) were responsible for deaths. 57% of postmortem samples tested positive for khat only, while 43% tested positive for khat with other drugs. Amphetamine is the drug most frequently involved. Cathinone and cathine average concentrations were 85 and 486 ng/mL in blood, 69 and 682 ng/mL in brain, 64 and 635 ng/mL in liver, and 43 and 758 ng/mL in kidney. The 10th–90th percentiles of blood concentrations of cathinone and cathine were 18 – 218 ng/mL and 222 – 843 ng/mL, respectively. These findings show that 90% of khat-related fatalities had cathinone concentrations greater than 18 ng/mL and cathine concentrations greater than 222 ng/mL. According to the cause of death, homicidal was most common in fatalities involving khat alone (77%). More research is required, especially toxicological and autopsy findings, to determine the involvement of khat in crimes and fatalities. This study may help forensic scientists and toxicologists investigate khat-related fatalities.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Forensic autopsy; Histopathology
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:50:18 CEST)
“Severe acute respiratory syndrome” (SARS) due to Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection is a known cause of death. Sometimes demise can occur unexpectedly in apparently previous healthy individual after a brief period of trivial flue-like symptoms. In this dobtfull cases the forensic pathologist could be requested to define cause of death occurred outside hospital. In this report the authors describe two thorough autopsied cases of SARS-CoV-2 related deaths occurred suddenly at home and not preceded by hospitalization, highlighting associated histopathologic patterns and correlating them to pathophysiology of viral infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: tessellation; forensic picture; bullets; homology; proximity
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:41:14 CET)
Here we show how a recently-introduced method from algebraic topology, namely proximal planar vortex 1-cycles, might be helpful in detecting hidden features of the shapes and holes in images, therefore contributing to the solution of both cold and fresh forensic cases. In particular, we test the efficacy of this technique by assessing one of the most puzzling cases of recent history, i.e., Aldo Moro’s death. Terrorists of the Red Brigades claimed that they killed Moro when he was placed inside the trunk of a car,shooting him with a barrage of bullets. We demonstrate, based on the analysis of the photographs taken during the autoptic procedure, that the terrorist’s account does not hold true. Our results, showing different series of shots, point towards a three-step execution, with the first phasestaking place outside the car. In conclusion, the novel forensic analysis method introduced in this paper permits the evaluation of a collection of vortex cycles/nerves equipped with a connectedness proximity, which makes it possible to assess unexpected spatial clusters in photographs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Thai START; Forensic psychiatric inpatients; Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data; Violence risk assessment; forensic psychology; Psychometrics
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:57:05 CET)
The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is deemed the most appropriate instrument for assessing violence risks and management because of its balanced approach between dynamic risk and protective factors. Although several facets of reliability and predictive validity of this tool were strong, its inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and implementation in Asian population were under-investigated. The objective of this research was to examine the inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the START: Thai version within forensic psychiatric inpatients. The participants consisted of 118 forensic psychiatric inpatients hospitalized at Galya Rajanagarindra Institute in Thailand. Trained mental health professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, forensic nurses, clinical psychologists, social workers, and occupational therapists) assessed each participant across twenty domains of the Thai START. The inter-rater reliability was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient and a confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal data was used to test the construct validity of the scale. The main finding showed a good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability and supported two relational constructs (i.e., strength vs vulnerability subscales) of the Thai START. The Thai START is a promising tool for using in Thai forensic psychiatric setting but some items were not significant in contributing to the scale. This study also provides the guideline for implementing the tool in non-Western forensic psychiatric populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biological profile; radiology; bone loss; forensic anthropology
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:14:46 CET)
Estimating age at death is essential to establish a biological profile from human skeletal remains in both forensic and archeological settings. Imaging studies of skeletal age changes in adults have described metamorphosis of trabecular bone structure and bone loss in the proximal femur , as well as changes in morphology during different stages of life. This study aims to assess the utility of a digital representation of conventional X-ray films of the proximal femur for the estimation of age at death in a sample of 91 adult individuals (47 females and 44 males) of the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection. The proposed approach showed a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 17.32 years (and mean absolute error of 13.47 years) for females and an RMSE of 14.06 years (mean absolute error of 11.08 years) for males. The main advantage of this approach is the consistency in the feature detection and extraction, as X-ray images projected on the femora space will always produce the same set features to be analyzed for age estimation while more traditional methods rely heavily on operator experience which can lead to inconsistent age estimates among experts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0870.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: image inpainting object removal detection forensic forgery
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:25:14 CEST)
In recent years, significant advancements in the field of machine learning have influenced the domain of image restoration. While these technological advancements present prospects for improving the quality of images, they also present difficulties, particularly the proliferation of manipulated or counterfeit multimedia information on the internet. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of existing inpainting algorithms and forgery detections, with a specific emphasis on techniques that are designed for the purpose of removing objects from digital images. In this study, we will examine various techniques encompassing conventional texture synthesis methods, as well as those based on neural networks. Furthermore, we will explore the artifacts associated with the identification of modified photos and present the artifacts frequently introduced by the inpainting procedure and assess the state-of-the-art technology for detecting such modifications. Lastly, we shall look at the available datasets and how the methods compare with each other. Having covered all of the above, the final outcome of this study is to provide a comprehensive perspective on the abilities and constraints to detect images for which an inpainting object removal method was applied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1771.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: forensic dentistry; age estimation; dental maturation; umbrella review
Online: 27 October 2023 (09:26:27 CEST)
Age estimation is an important tool when dealing with human remains or undocumented minors. Although the skull, the skeleton or the hand-wrist are used on age estimation as maturity indicators, they often present lack of good conditions for a correct identification or estimation. Few systematic reviews (SRs) have been recently published; therefore, this umbrella review critically assesses their level of evidence and provides a general comprehensive view. An electronic database search was conducted in four databases (PubMed, Cochrane, WoS, LILACS) up to December 2022, focusing on SRs of age estimation through forensic dentistry procedures. The methodological quality was analyzed using the measurement tool to assess SRs criteria (AMSTAR2). Eighteen SRs were included, five of critically low quality, six of low quality, three of moderate quality and four of high quality. The SRs posited that Willems’ method is more accurate and less prone to overestimation; most methods seem to be geographically sensitive; and 3D-Imaging and artificial intelligence tools demonstrate high potential. The quality of evidence on age estimation using dental approaches was rated as low to moderate. Well-designed clinical trials and high standard systematic reviews are essential to corroborate the accuracy of the different procedures of age estimation in forensic dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1666.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: cybersecurity; digital forensics; cyber threats; forensic investigator; python
Online: 25 July 2023 (07:56:11 CEST)
This article delves deeply into digital forensics, covering computer forensics, network 1 forensics, and mobile device forensics. It analyzes the techniques and methodologies used by forensic 2 investigators in various disciplines. It underlines the diffculties investigators encounter and the 3 importance of thorough investigations to combat ever-increasing cyber risks. The paper emphasizes 4 the necessity of leveraging digital forensic tools to improve cybersecurity and provides a thorough 5 list of widely used Python libraries suitable for each investigation strategy, allowing for effective 6 comparison. Furthermore, it emphasizes the availability and suitability of these Python libraries in 7 computer device investigations (PyTSK3, Volatility, Pyregf, and Pyevtx), mobile device investigations 8 (Pytsk3, Volatility, Pyewf, dfVFS, Androguard, and pyMobileDevice), and network forensics (Scapy, 9 Bro/Zeek, Dpkt, pypcap, and NetworkX). The creation of these libraries recognizes the complexities 10 of digital crimes and the importance of applying modern techniques in forensic investigations. 11 Particularly, digital forensics plays an important role for healthcare providers because modern 12 medical devices produce, store, and transmit large amounts of patient and therapy information, 13 which could provide a forensic investigator with a treasure trove of potential digital evidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1640.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: forensic sciences; crime scene; trace evidence; spectroscopy; polyethylene.
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:31:46 CEST)
Forensic assessments may involve the sampling of textile fibers when examining crime scenes. The need to characterize and identify those fibers is crucial as they can provide extensive information relating to a crime, linking a suspect to a location. Fibers in particular may contain issues in terms of both size and quantity of sample, and micro Fourier transform Infrared in attenuated total reflectance mode (micro FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy presents a non-destructive method to identify those fibers. In this study we carried out a rapid forensic assessment via micro FTIR-ATR of sixty textile fibers recovered from twenty white fabrics relying on tape lifting method, in order to discriminate those materials. Two dimensional principal component analysis and radar chart were applied to enhance the visual comparison of the fibers. Results of infrared spectra revealed that the technique allows the discrimination of textile fibers according to their spectral composition (cellulose, polyamide, polyester, or mixture of these composites) and to some characteristics, as number and width of peaks, peak position according to the wavenumber, absorbance index related to peak sharpness, etc. The technique was deemed useful in the forensic assessment of the fibers, presenting rapid and enlightening results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0141.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: forensic identification, machine learning, gender identification, lumbar vertebral column
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:40:25 CET)
Identifying skeletal remains has been and will remain a challenge for forensic doctors and forensic anthropologists, especially in disasters with multiple victims or skeletal remains in an advanced stage of decomposition. This study proposes a machine learning method to determine gender starting from morphometric analysis of L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae in a modern Romanian population. The purpose of the present study was to observe whether by using the ML method there is a good predictability of gender in forensic identification based on parameters obtained from the metric analysis of the lumbar spine specific to the Romanian population. This paper offers two models of ML, RF and XGB, each with its own characteristics, and presenting different performance, random forest having the best. For both, we used two metrics (accuracy and roc_auc), the latter being the most used to highlight model performance. The L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae exhibit sexual dimorphism and can be used in gender estimation. Machine learning is more accurate in determining gender than discriminatory function analysis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: forensic speaker comparison; voice processing; ordinary least squares; OLS
Online: 8 April 2021 (17:56:51 CEST)
This case report investigates 5 real cases which followed legal channels and were judged by Mato Grosso Court in Brazil. Audio systems served as elements of key evidence on those lawsuits. The goal here is to analyze the cases by using a methodology based on the forensic speaker verification by using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) algorithm and to compare results with analyses obtained on real cases. The comparative analysis is assessed for time elapsed for obtaining results, as well as results quality. In Brazil, the lawsuit duration is very important, since the Penal Code foresees prescription after a given time, and it may lead to impunity. Results show that the analysis, by using OLS, generates immediate, effective results when compared to those obtained with traditional methodologies on the studied Brazilian lawsuits.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Forensic; Ink Mismatch; Clustering; K-means algorithm; Elbow; Silhouette
Online: 1 July 2020 (09:01:50 CEST)
In document forensic, Ink mismatch relays very important information about forgeries in this way we can find out the authenticity of documents. Finding out and distinguishing these unique inks from the multispectral document is very challenging task. In this paper we proposed the method to identify the inks using clustering. We used K-Mean clustering instead of widely known Fuzzy C-Means Clustering (FCM) and successfully identity the number of inks. For the purpose of optimizing and improving our results we used two optimization techniques such as Elbow and silhouette optimization techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0434.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; pedagogy; forensic science; VR; learning technologies; crime scene
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:13:58 CEST)
Simulated crime scene investigation is an essential component of forensic science education, but its implementation poses challenges relating to cost, accessibility and breadth of experience. Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology which offers exciting prospects for teaching and learning, especially for imparting practical skills. We document here a multidisciplinary experimental study in which a bespoke VR crime scene app was designed and implemented, after which it was tested by both undergraduate student and staff/postgraduate student cohorts. Through both qualitative and quantitative analyses, we demonstrate that VR applications support learning of practical crime scene processing skills. VR-based practical sessions have the potential to add value to forensic science courses through offering cost-effective practical experience and the ability to work in isolation, in a variety of different scenarios. Both user groups reported high levels of satisfaction with the process and reports of adverse effects (motion sickness) were minimal. With reference to user feedback, we proceed to evaluate the scalability and development challenges associated with large-scale implementation of VR as an adjunct to forensic science education.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0059.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: psychosis; delusion; over valued idea; terrorism; mass shootings; violence; forensic psychiatry
Online: 23 January 2018 (02:41:33 CET)
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly-held, shared beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as: The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorder and consumer experience.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0714.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: adenoideocystic carcinoma; tumours of the external auditory meatus; medical liability; forensic sciences
Online: 9 June 2023 (11:59:10 CEST)
Ceruminous gland tumours are rare injuries of the external auditory canal (EAC). This tumor, even if considered a slow-growing carcinoma, has high rate of perineural invasion and metastasis. For this reason, it must be promptly diagnosed, then it must be treated with aggressive surgery combined with postoperative radiation. The present case report is about a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma arising the external auditory canal of 46 years old female patient, who complained hypoacusis and pain. The profile of medical liability is substantiated on the delayed diagnosis when the lately observed tumor progression by the invasion of both surrounding bone and vascular structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Amphetamine-related drugs; Forensic Toxicology; blood; UPLC-qTOF-MS; MMSPE; Validation; SWGTOX
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:09:57 CEST)
Abuse of amphetamine-related drugs (ARDs) causes traffic accidents, violence, and overdose. In forensic toxicology, analysis for ARDs in biological samples can help identify those driving or performing other tasks under the influence of drugs, clarify the cause of death, and identify recent drug users. In this study, we validated a pseudo-isocratic UPLC-qTOF-MS method following mixed mode cation exchange (MMSPE) extraction for analysis of ARDs in blood. The procedure requires 250 μL of blood to achieve a limit of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) of 20 ng/mL for all analytes. In aged animal blood samples, extraction recoveries of 63-90% and matrix effects of 9-21% were observed. Precision and accuracy for all analytes were within 20% and 89–118%, respectively. The analytical method was developed and validated in accordance with the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) Standard. It has acceptable accuracy and precision for use in doping control and forensic toxicology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1046.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Hyperspectral Images; forensic; Ink mismatch detection; K-means; Elbow; silhouette; iVision HHID dataset
Online: 14 June 2023 (11:12:10 CEST)
Forensic document examiners can determine the authenticity of questioned documents by analyzing the ink used to create them. If an ink mismatch is found, it could be a sign of scam, backdating, or forgery. In this research a Hyperspectral Images of iVision HHID dataset is used to detect number of possible inks used in document. By using Hyperspectral Images, it’s possible to detect ink mismatch in a given document. In this research unsupervised learning method K-means is used to detect number of inks. Approximate number of clusters are determined by Elbow and Silhouette method before implementation of K-means.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0345.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Cloud Storage Forensics, Cloud Application Artifacts, Data Remnants, Data Carving, Digital Forensic Investigations
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:17:11 CET)
This research proposed in this paper focuses on gathering evidence from devices with Windows 10 operating systems in order to discover and collect artifacts left by cloud storage applications that suggest their use even after the deletion of the Google client application. We show where and what type of data remnants can be found using our analysis which can be used as evidence in a digital forensic investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital forensic tool, mobile application forensics, geolocation, Upsight, Pokémon GO, Pokémon GO Plus
Online: 29 May 2017 (11:21:56 CEST)
As the geolocation capabilities of smartphones continue to improve, developers have continued to create more innovative applications that rely on this location information for their primary function. This can be seen with Niantic's release of Pokémon GO, which is a massively multiplayer online role playing and augmented reality game. This game became immensely popular within just a few days of its release. However, it also had the propensity to be a distraction to drivers resulting in numerous accidents, and was used to as a tool by armed robbers to lure unsuspecting users into secluded areas. This facilitates a need for forensic investigators to be able to analyze the data within the application in order to determine if it may have been involved in these incidents. Because this application is new, limited research has been conducted regarding the artifacts that can be recovered from the application. In this paper, we aim to fill the gaps within the current research by assessing what forensically relevant information may be recovered from the application, and understanding the circumstances behind the creation of this information. Our research focuses primarily on the artifacts generated by the Upsight analytics platform, those contained within the bundles directory, and the Pokémon Go Plus accessory. Moreover, we present our new application specific analysis tool that is capable of extracting forensic artifacts from a backup of the Android application, and presenting them to an investigator in an easily readable format. This analysis tool exceeds the capabilities of UFED Physical Analyzer in processing Pokémon GO application data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1878.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: use of force; IMUS; body injuries; forensic medicine; police arrest techniques; criminology; operational tactical procedures
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:10:19 CET)
ABSTRACT(1) Background:. Because of the numerous debates about the training on the use of force provided to police officers, this study intends to evaluate several parameters (Police Ergonomic Parameters, PEP) in connection with such training. (2) Research method: : A smartsuit equipped with a set of 19 wireless sensors including triaxial accelerometers, Inertial Measurement Units (IMU), gyroscopes and geomagnetic sensors has been used. Biomechanics of Body (BoB) software application allowed to evaluate the risks associated to the basic technique number 1 of the Operational Tactical Procedures (OTP) with regard to the established parameters (PEP). The OTP basic technique number 1 was performed by 4 novice police officers. (3) Results: According to the evaluation of a number of specific parameters such as Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), asymmetry over the sagittal plane, compression force at the L5-pelvic junction, shear force at the L5-pelvic junction and total muscle power, it was observed that the measured values clearly varied depending on each individual's performance, although they remained consistent with the values established by Police Ergonomic Parameters, and were significantly different from the values measured when a police officer used a traditional physical intervention procedure, in which case, the values measured were indicative of higher risks. (4) Conclusions: In order to achieve lower and more uniform values in terms of risk, we believe that it is necessary to employ a greater number of hours to the training of police officers on the use of force and also the convenience of conducting further studies on a larger and more representative sample of officers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0011.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; fingerprint; Gender classification; Data-Centric AI (DCAI); forensic science; Partial or low-quality fingerprint
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:15:23 CET)
Use of fingerprints found at a crime scene is a common practice for identifying suspects in criminal investigations. Over the past two decades, attempts have been made to obtain additional information from fingerprints, beyond locating suspects as part of an investigation. This includes gender, age and nationality. Researchers demonstrated 75%-90% accuracy in gender classification based on fingerprint images. Nonetheless, despite promising results, these studies have several significant shortcomings with respect to their practical feasibility. First, they ignore the low quality and quantity of fingerprints collected from the crime scene since typically the scene of a crime has only one fingerprint collected, and the fingerprint might be partially or of poor quality as well. Second, as most results are based on a single database, public or private, it is difficult to generalize the most suitable method. Third, studies miss the untapped potential of Data-Centric AI (DCAI) approaches for improving results. The aim of this study was to compare, for the first time, the gender classification from a fingerprint using several datasets and with varying fingerprint image quality. The results from four databases are compared, three public and one internal private database. In addition, we utilize the latest Data-Centric AI (DCAI) approaches for improving classification results. The results demonstrate that a conservative Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) such as VGG is sufficient for this task. Classification accuracy ranges from 80% to 95% depending on the quality of the fingerprint, with DCAI approaches adding 1%-4% improvement. For partially or low-quality fingerprint images, the periphery of a fingerprint is the most significant area for determining gender. The source code is also provided here for practical application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: forensic toxicology; amphetamine-related fatalities; brain; omega-3 fatty acids; docosahexaenoic acid; Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD)
Online: 4 May 2023 (13:28:44 CEST)
Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug with a high risk of toxicity and death when misused. Abuse of amphetamines is associated with an altered organic profile, which includes omega fatty acids. Low omega fatty acid levels are linked to mental disorders. Using the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD), we investigated the chemical profile of the brain in amphetamine-related fatalities and the possibility of neurotoxicity. We classified amphetamine cases as low (0-0.5 g/ml), medium (>0.5 to 1.5 g/ml), and high (>1.5 g/ml) based on amphetamine levels in brain samples. All three groups shared 1-octadecene, 1-tridecene, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosane, and oleylamide. We identified chemical-disease associations using the CTD tools and predict an association between docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids and curated conditions like autistic disorder, disorders related to cocaine, Alzheimer's disease, and cognitive dysfunction. An amphetamine challenge may cause neurotoxicity in the human brain due to a decrease in omega-3 fatty acids and an increase in oxidative products. Therefore, in cases of amphetamine toxicity, supplement therapy may necessitate preventing omega-3 fatty acid deficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0771.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Use of force; IMUS; body injuries; forensic medicine; police arrest techniques; criminology; Op-erational Tactical Procedures
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:45:23 CEST)
(1) Background: the use of force by Public and Private Security Forces is currently an issue of great relevance because of the potential injuries that any excessive use of force by either the active or passive subjects or a deficit in the real mastery of the appropriate Physical Intervention Techniques (PIT) may cause. For this reason, certain traditionally used Physical Intervention Techniques have been questioned by scientific research studies and punished by justice. On the other hand, certain media have dealt with this matter in a biased and unfair manner by broadcasting videos where the use of force by police officer is displayed out of context. As a consequence, this problem has been brought under the spotlight, causing general uneasiness of the communities and rapidly spreading over social networks while favoring all sorts of parallel judgments. (2) Research method: A suit equipped with 19 Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and a Biomechanics of Bodies software application for the Marras’ analysis of the data collected on trajectory, trunk twisting velocity, its sagittal angle, load, nature and severity of the injuries associated to the different intervention techniques that have been examined. (3) Results: according to the data registered, the implementation of Operational Tactical Procedures (OTP) reduces the probability of injuries and leads to a more satisfactory outcome. (4) Conclusions: the implementation of Operational Tactical Procedures, to-gether with the awareness on the risks associated to the excessive use of force by Public and Private Security Forces and Bodies, could reduce the risk of injuries suffered by both officers and citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0335.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Geoforensics (Forensic Geology); Sedimentology; Provenance; Comparative analyses; Optical Microscopy; SEM-EDS; Image Analysis; Missing Persons and Fugitives.
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:31:13 CEST)
Criminal investigations aimed to track the route walked by Missing Persons and Fugitives (MPFs) usually involve Intelligence analysts, military planners, experts in mobile forensics, traditional investigative methods, and sniffer dog handlers. Notwithstanding, when MPFs are devoid of any technological device and move in uninhabited rural areas devoid of tele cameras and densely covered by vegetation, tracking backwards the route walked by MPFs may be a much more arduous task. In such complex cases, a very efficient approach may consist in comparing the geological traces found on the MPFs with soils and plants exposed in the event scenes. In particular, the search for peculiar or rare particles and aggregates may strengthen the weight of the geological evidence comparisons. A match of mineralogical, textural, and botanical data may demonstrate the provenance of the traces from the soil of a specific site, linking in this way the MPFs to the scene of events. Based on the above, the present paper reports geological and botanical determinations accomplished for a “mediatic” casework. Results allowed to ascertain a general high degree of compatibility among traces collected on the MPFs and on the soil from the scene of events. The most significant positive matches, based on the finding of a ten of peculiar and rare particles and assemblages, allowed reconstructing a route about 1.1 km long, as the crow flies, on the event site. Notwithstanding this procedure was extremely time consuming and available only in a backwards reconstruction linked to the MPFs’ findings, it was of uttermost importance in strengthen the inferences proposed, where other methods could not provide any information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Electrochemical sensors; square-wave voltammetry; screen-printed electrodes; electrochemical profiling; illicit drugs; forensic analysis; Raman spectrometer; on-site detection; FTIR spectrometer
Online: 24 February 2022 (04:00:15 CET)
Illicit drug consumption is posing critical concerns in our society causing health issues, crime-related activities, and the disruption of border trade. The smuggling of illicit drugs urges the development of new tools for rapid on-site identification in cargos. Current methods used by law enforcement officers rely on presumptive color tests and portable spectroscopic techniques. However, these methods sometimes exhibit inaccurate results due to commonly used cutting agents, the colorful nature of the sample or because the drugs are smuggled (hidden or mixed) in common goods. Interestingly, electrochemical sensors can deal with these specific problems. Herein, an electrochemical device is presented that uses affordable screen-printed electrodes for the electrochemical profiling of illicit drugs by square-wave voltammetry (SWV). The identification of the illicit compound is based on the oxidation potential of the analyte. Hence, a library of electrochemical profiles is built upon the analysis of illicit drugs and common cutting agents. This library allows the design of a tailor-made script that enables the identification of each drug through a user-friendly interface (laptop or mobile phone). Importantly, the electrochemical test is compared by analyzing 48 confiscated samples with other portable devices based on Raman and FTIR spectroscopy as well as a laboratory standard method (i.e. gas chromatography – mass spectrometry). Overall, the electrochemical results obtained through the analysis of different samples from confiscated cargos at an end-user site, present a promising alternative to current methods, offering low-cost and rapid testing in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0569.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Differential extraction; Sexual Assault Kit (SAK); Sperm DNA; STRmix™, Combined DNA Index System (CODIS); Forensic DNA analysis; Low Sperm Samples; DNA Mixtures; Autosomal STR Analysis; SpermX
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:56:01 CEST)
The National Institute of Justice reported that current methods for processing sexual assault samples have a high failure rate, with 60 to 80 percent of tested kits unable to produce usable DNA profiles. Even when samples test positive for male DNA, 34 percent of sexual assault kits (SAK) do not yield recovered male DNA after differential extraction. Less than 30% recovery of available sperm DNA contributes to this low success rate. The SpermX™ method (SX) has been shown to recover 80 percent or more of sperm DNA from sexual assault samples. An interlaboratory evaluation compared SX to standard differential extraction (DE) protocols. Mock samples with known ratios of female epithelial cells and sperm cells were processed using both methods. Results revealed that SX consistently provided CODIS up-loadable DNA profiles, even with as few as 25 sperm cells, whereas DE failed to produce usable results. On average, SX yielded a seven-fold increase in the recovery of unshared male alleles compared to DE. In conclusion, SX outperformed DE in recovering higher quantities of male DNA with minimal female carryover in sexual assault-type samples. This improved success rate in obtaining usable DNA profiles can significantly aid in solving sexual assault cases. Keywords: Differential extraction, Sexual Assault Kit (SAK), Sperm DNA, STRmix™, Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), Forensic DNA analysis, Low Sperm Samples, DNA Mixtures, Autosomal STR Analysis, SpermX.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Deep phenotyping; AI; 2D and 3D facial scans; Genetic diseases; Early treatment; Big data; 2D and 3D facial scans; Facial traits; Healthcare; Citizen privacy; Ethical concerns; EU legal framework; Forensic medicine; Orwellian ramifications
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:56:59 CEST)
One in 12 babies is born with a rare genetic disease. Sadly, most cases are undetected until later age, missing time for early treatment and opportunity to prevent complications. Humanity has entered a new era where Big Data collected by governments, including 2D and 3D facial scans, are available. Many rare genetic diseases can be identified by artificial intelligence (AI) analysis of the facial photo. Phenotyping AI utilizations facilitate comprehensive and accurate genetic evaluations. AI processing of this Big Data to identify rare genetic diseases could bring unimaginable benefits to healthcare, although this would be a questionable step in terms of citizen privacy and could lead to future "Orwellian" ramifications with government abuse. Going forward, a balance must be found between protecting the privacy of citizens and the enticing use of AI for their health risks and cost savings through prevention. The unimaginable potential of AI early diagnostics from facial photos also raises various ethical and legal concerns. This paper presents concept, protentional methods and legal and other limitations within EU legal framework in contrast with potential benefits. This paper is focused on AI utilization to early diagnostic of rare genetic diseases. Shift of paradigm in the screening for rare genetic diseases in population with AI face analysis is expected to have a significant impact. The potential of AI algorithms utilizations similar to face2gene app in general population or systematically on Big governmental datasets recording facial traits changes in time can have significant impact on public health but at the same time give raise to profound concern as violation of one’s privacy.