ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0993.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: food insecurity; food access; food assistance; food pantry; SNAP; barriers; text message; information; nudge; feasibility; intervention; mixed methods
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:55:59 CEST)
Food insecurity is an economic and social condition involving limited or uncertain access to food. The problem of food insecurity in communities is influenced by economic conditions, food deserts, and barriers to accessing healthy food. Individuals experiencing food insecurity often endure concurrent problems of financial instability, hunger, and poor mental and physical health. Public and non-profit services in the U.S., such as the federally supported Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and community food banks, provide food-related assistance to individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing food insecurity. Unfortunately, many individuals who qualify for these services still experience food insecurity due to barriers preventing them from accessing food. Effective approaches for removing barriers that prevent individuals from accessing food are needed to mitigate the increased risk of chronic disease among vulnerable populations. This study tested a novel food insecurity intervention called FINDING-Food, which stands for Frequent Informational Nudges Directing Individuals to Needed Goods. Informational nudges in the intervention promoted food security through the elimination of information barriers to accessing food. The intervention used in this mixed-methods feasibility study consisted of informational nudges in the form of weekly text messages that were sent to food pantry clients experiencing food insecurity. The study aims were to test the efficacy and acceptability of the intervention by examining whether the informational nudges could enhance food pantry utilization, increase SNAP registration, and promote food security. Quantitative study results showed a lower prevalence of food insecurity in the intervention group than the control group at the end of the study. Qualitative findings revealed how the intervention group found the text messages to be helpful and informative. These study findings can enhance future food insecurity interventions aiming to eliminate barriers that prevent individuals who are food insecure from accessing healthy food.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: food security; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems; metabolic food waste; nutrition; overconsumption
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:21:51 CEST)
The Metabolic Food Waste [MFW (kg of food)], first time developed in 2016 as a new indicator by Serafini and Toti, indicates the amount of food consumed over the nutritional requirements and the impact of this overconsumption on the environment. It is necessary to identify the causes and to develop potential methods to prevent and reduce MFW, at the same time with increasing consumer awareness about unsustainable diets and changing diet habits toward more environmentally conscious consumption patterns. By analysing and corroborating external data available for food waste, nutritional requirements, environmental impact of food waste and consumer behaviour, we identified as primary causes for MFW the lack of nutritional education and little understanding of the nutritional requirements amongst all categories of consumers, no access to appropriate food resources or reduced availability of fresh produced food. We conclude that for the quantification of the negative impact of MFW on both the environment and human health, we need a decisive action to raise consumer awareness for healthy and sustainable diets, together with an uniform worldwide distribution of the nutritious food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0291.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: food availability; food access; food utilization; food stability; Asia
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:39:54 CEST)
Food insecurity has adverse consequences on women and child health in a developing country. This study aims to fill the existing research gap by examining the dynamic impacts of food insecurity on women and child health outcomes, this study adds fresh large scale panel data; and unlike the existing studies, this study estimates the short-run dynamics on food insecurity on women as child health of developing countries. We found that there was a positive association between health expenditure, women's fertility rate, women, and child health outcomes. There was a negative and statistically significant impact of food insecurity on women anemia in developing countries of Asia. Overall, the empirical analysis found that there was a strong strength to be a negative correlation between food insecurity and women and child health outcome, particularly in relation to women’s participation as a productive labor force. The study suggests that there is need to multidimensional approaches such as women and child health outcome, is needed to advance this type of research areas and should be followed broad-spectrum policy interventions to improve the women and child health status as part of sustainable development goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0274.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Food Security; Food lnflation; Bayesian VAR
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:21:46 CET)
The general objective of the study is to analyze food insecurity determinants mainly related to food price at macro level. The study used a time series data from the year 1988 quarter one to 2018 quarter four. Our empirical finding on the macroeconomic model show the short term consequence of food price change is positive with food security (negative with food insecurity). The long term consequence of food price change is, however, negative with food security (positive with food insecurity) at macro level. From the variance decomposition, it can be learned that the speed by which the undernourished people decrease in number in the short term because of the inflation happened is higher than the speed by which the number of undernourished people increase in the long run. At macro level, concern should be made to the supply side for food security improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: homeless; food insecurity; urban health
Online: 14 December 2017 (11:45:48 CET)
The number of families sheltered in the Paris region (France) increased by a factor of 5 between 1999 and 2009. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs and the developmental problems in children. This random survey was conducted in 17 languages among homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers and social hotels in the Paris region. The situation was particularly worrying regarding their food security. Indeed, only 14.0% of people were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics can lead homeless families to be at higher risk of food insecurity and/or at higher risk of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than 3 children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, difficult access to cheap or free food locally. These harmful situations are intolerable in such a wealthy region as the Paris region. They argue for a better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up and an increase in food aid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1386.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; food security; food system; risk; vulnerabilities; Northern Ghana
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:43:47 CEST)
Evidence shows how food system activities from production to consumption underpin food security. However, studies exploring climate impacts on food security in northern Ghana have overly focused on production systems, neglecting post-production activities that loom large in food security. This paper addresses the research need to comprehensively analyze how climate change affects post-production activities and exacerbates food insecurity risks in northern Ghana. The study collects and analyzes data on climate hazards, impacts, and food system vulnerabilities using questionnaires and participatory engagement with farming households in northern Ghana. Results show that climate-induced food insecurity risks in northern Ghana are not just products of persistent climate impacts on food production in the region. Instead, risks are inextricably connected to the vulnerability contexts within which food is harvested, processed, stored, and marketed. Specifically, the results reveal that climate hazard events such as floods, extreme temperatures, and droughts damage stored grain, disrupt food supply to the market, and cause seasonal volatilities in food prices. However, these impacts are not solely externally generated circumstances. The food system is highly vulnerable; most households lack access to threshing and grinding machines, warehouse storage, post-harvest management information, and transportation services. These underlying characteristics of the post-food-production system of northern Ghana, which is ultimately quite remote from climate change, exacerbate household-level food insecurity risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1092.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: food insecurity; food access; food assistance; SNAP; barriers; text message; information; nudge; qualitative; interview
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:57:59 CEST)
Background: Food insecurity is an ongoing problem in the U.S. with implications for health problems and social disadvantages. Past food insecurity intervention studies have targeted barriers to accessing healthy food. Although, information barriers have not been adequately addressed by food insecurity interventions. Methods: This qualitative study involved testing a text message as an informational nudge through interviews among adults in the southwest U.S. (n = 10). Interview questions focused on the message content, persuasiveness, relevancy, clarity, and details that participants liked and disliked. A qualitative content analysis of interview responses then highlighted any necessary modifications to the text message. Results: Interview responses highlighted that the message conveyed details about how to access food assistance resources. The message was perceived as informative, clear, and friendly. Participants highlighted the need for better spacing in the message layout, more details about the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and why SNAP is relevant. Conclusion: Text message readability and informativeness were common concerns raised during interviews. Participant-informed modifications to the text message were applied in preparation for using the message in a food insecurity intervention. Future food insecurity research efforts should similarly test novel interventions to ensure the intervention is acceptable for the target population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0636.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: food insecurity; built environment; gender equality; well-being; disparities; food systems; social sustainability; transportation; walkability
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:18:37 CEST)
Food insecurity is a pervasive issue for Allegheny County as one in five residents experience food insecurity. Food insecurity is linked to chronic health conditions like heart disease and hypertension and disproportionately affects women in the United States, particularly women who are head of household. There are multiple dimensions used to measure regional food insecurity, one of which is food accessibility. Prior research has examined the linkages between food access and food insecurity, and this study aims to further explore the relationship between equitable access to sustainable food and levels of regional food insecurity. This study examines food outlets in Allegheny County to determine if there is a significant relationship between food outlet availability and food insecurity. Both the presence and accessibility of these food outlets were examined. To measure accessibility, the walking distance to the nearest public transportation stop was calculated for each public transportation stop. The minimum distance to each food outlet was compared to food insecurity rates on a Census Tract level. Results showed that communities without grocery stores did, on average, have higher rates of food insecurity. Also, communities with a higher proportion of female-headed households experienced greater food insecurity, regardless of access to food outlets. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between the distance from public transportation stops to grocery stores and rates of food insecurity. Based on these findings, we suggest that sole reliance on distance as an indicator of food insecurity can be misleading, and there should be a greater focus on walkability within the community as using opposed to physical distance alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0156.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Burkina Faso; discrete choice; education; food insecurity; monetary poverty
Online: 26 February 2018 (09:09:43 CET)
Given the Income enabling nature of education as stipulated by human capital theory, it can be postulated that “ceteris paribus”, households with formally educated heads experience less food insecurity and monetary poverty than those with uneducated heads. We test this claim in the case of Burkina Faso, using the 2014 National Survey on Households Living Conditions, along with semi-parametric modeling techniques. In its design the study uses households “willingness and ability” to spend annually on food consumption a per-capita amount above the food poverty line of 102,040 CFA Franc to characterize “household food security”, and households “unwillingness or inability” to spend above the overall poverty line of 153,530 CFA Franc to characterize “monetary poverty”. In addition, the study relies not only on single equation multivariate probit and logit specifications, but also on both fully parametric and semi-parametric bivariate probit representations of food insecurity and monetary poverty. The results show that relaxing the linearity and independence assumptions through joint semi-parametric bivariate modeling captures better the true effects of heads of households’ educational attainment on households' food insecurity and monetary poverty. In fact, compared to households headed by someone with no education, those headed by someone with a primary, secondary or higher education are respectively 19.8% , 49.7% and 118.9% less likely to experience food insecurity, and respectively 40.1%, 77.0% and 172.3% less likely to experience monetary poverty in Burkina Faso. In addition, the experience of food insecurity and monetary poverty are highly correlated at 92.7%, suggesting that educational policies that alleviate poverty in Burkina Faso should also impact positively food security in the country.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Food safety; food environments; food hygiene; machine learning
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:13:25 CET)
Consumer food environments have transformed dramatically in the last decade. The number of food outlets has increased, and a large proportion of the UK population now purchase food from a takeaway or restaurant at least once a week. Despite these developments, national spending on food control has reduced and many Local Authorities struggle to meet health inspection targets. This work presents a data driven approach to enhance current inspection processes with a view to reduce consumer risk of foodborne illness whilst eating outside the home. We explore the utility of three machine learning algorithms to predict non-compliant food outlets in England and Wales as defined by Food Hygiene Rating Scheme scores >= 2. Using socio-demographic, business type and urbanness features we experiment with under and over sampling strategies at five ratios to address problems of class imbalance in the dataset prior to analysis. We find that Synthetic Minority Over Sampling Technique alongside a Random Forest algorithm with a 1:1 sampling strategy provides the best predictive power. Our final model retrieves 84% of total non-compliant outlets in a test set of 92,595 (sensitivity=0.843, specificity=0.745, precision=0.274). We discuss the utility of machine learning algorithms to prioritise high risk establishments for inspection by Local Authority officials and make recommendations for weighting outcomes to improve their appropriateness in an applied setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Food; feeding style; eating trends; food interactions, food intake; food preparation; food management; food insecurity; meal planning; parent; child; family food environment; COVID-19; systematic review
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:26:38 CEST)
Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by dramatic changes in household food dynamics that can significantly influence health. This systematic literature review presents parental perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food preparation and meal routines, as well as other food-related behaviors, capturing both favorable and unfavorable changes in the family food environment (FFE). Themes and trends are identified and associations with other lifestyle factors are assessed. In overall, families enjoyed more time together around food, including planning meals, cooking, and eating together. Eating more diverse foods and balanced meals was combined with overeating and increased snacking, as parents became more permissive towards food; however, food insecurity increased among families with the lowest income. Adoption of meal planning skills and online shopping behavior emerged alongside behaviors aimed at self-sufficiency, such as bulk purchasing and stockpiling. These results are an important first step in recognizing how this pandemic may be affecting the FFE, including low-income families. Future obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, but also ongoing efforts to address food management, parental feeding practices, and food insecurity, can account for these changes moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: food insecurity; transit; food stamps; education; food; policy; nutrition
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:20:42 CEST)
Food security is intrinsically related to health and well-being. This paper investigates the status-quo of food insecurity among the population residing close to transit in various parts of the United States of America (USA). The data from the 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the USA are analyzed in this research. Logistic regression is carried out by treating food insecurity as the dependent variable and socioeconomic variables such as age, income, education and dependency on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) as independent variables. Food insecurity is assessed with aggregated information on four aspects of inputs from those respondents who live near a transit: 1) worry food would run out, 2) food didn't last, 3) couldn't afford to eat balanced meals, and 4) cut the size of meals or skip meals. Findings suggest that respondents who live close to transit in the USA and are from large central metro counties of the Northeast, Southern and Western states showed an increase in food insecurity if they were below 65 years of age, had income below country’s median income or their educational attainment was below bachelor’s degree. There was a significant association found between food insecurity of respondents living close to transit and subscribed to using food stamps or SNAP. Policies that could alleviate food insecurity by reducing cost of living near transit are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0481.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: food insecurity; food provision; food assistance program,; impact assessment
Online: 18 November 2020 (14:16:49 CET)
Introduction In 2016 the European Union setup its first structured food provision program to combat food insecurity. We aimed to measure the program’s capacity in assisting its beneficiaries to achieve a healthy diet and measure their satisfaction. Methods A computational study was carried out to calculate daily food provision per person under the program for January 2016-December 2017. A cross sectional survey in 3942 beneficiaries took place in December 2017-June 2018 collecting anthropometric, sociodemographic and program satisfaction data. Descriptive statistics were performed and reported as relatively frequencies, mean ± standard deviation. Results Dairy, fresh meat, legumes, sugar, olive oil and tomato concentrate were the most commonly procured items. The program’s contribution to vegetable, dairy and cereal intake was the lowest (3.4%, 6.1%, 6.0% respectively) as opposed to free sugars (12.2%) and oils (24.5%). The program’s algorithm favors greatly (almost 3-fold) single person applications compared to 4+ persons applications. The monetary value was estimated at 21.23±23.4 euros/food provision, however 64.4% of beneficiaries reported a high positive impact on the household budget. 50.7% and 41.6% reported high positive impact on feelings of anxiety and security, respectively. ~70% of the beneficiaries were highly satisfied with the foods provided, with lower scores for quality and shelf-life (50.7% and 58.8% high respectively). Conclusions The program is met by high beneficiary satisfaction and is perceived as a substantial assistance. Increases in the amounts and variety of foods delivered, with a focus on fruit, vegetables and fish should be considered, to further improve the program’s dietary impact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0816.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sulphite; food additive; food toxicology.
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:05:15 CEST)
Sulphites are the most widely used food additives for their versatile applications in processing; perhaps we are negligence of its shortcomings. On account of various research studies, sulphites induce serious allergic reactions and other health alignments, but still regulatory agents permit its usage. Is it a wiser choice? The purpose of this paper is to clear up ambiguity and provide a clear view on why sulphites are employed in the food industry, why its usage is restricted, and why sulphite is a toxicant
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0180.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: antibiotic resistance; food chain; antimicrobial peptides; food safety; food pathogens
Online: 10 January 2023 (07:56:04 CET)
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is concerning issue due to its direct and indirect repercusions on public health, since decreased therapeutic effect of certain antibiotic to treatment complications that can cause death. There are several mechanism as to how ABR can be transferred from one microoorganisms to another, and many of them are dependant many environmental factors. The food supply chain is a environment in which ABR gene transfer can occur is multiple pathways, which generate concerns regarding food safety. Here, we summarize relevant mechanisms which are implied in ABR in food supply chain but also we are addressing routes of transmission and prevalence of ABR, implications on public health, and the application of new alternatives to antibiotics such as antimicrobial peptides, mainly bacteriocins, in order to countermeasure ABR.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: foodshed; archipelago; city-region; food modelling; food self-sufficiency; self-reliance; food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:36:05 CET)
Regionalization of food systems for shortening supply chains and developing local agriculture to feed city-regions presents particular challenges for food planning and policy. Existing foodshed approaches enable to assess the theoretical capacity of food self-sufficiency of a specific region, but they struggle to consider the diversity of existing crops in a way that could be usable for informing decisions and support urban food strategies. Most studies are based on the definition of the area required to meet local consumption, obtaining a map represented as an isotropic circle around the city, without considering the site-specific pedoclimatic, geographical and socio-economic conditions, which are essential for the development of local food supply chains. In this study we propose a first stage to fill this gap by combining the Metropolitan Foodshed and Self-sufficiency Scenario (MFSS) model, which already considers regional yields and specific land use covers, with spatially explicit data on cropping pattern, soil and topography. We use European-wide available data and apply the methodology in the city-region of Avignon (France), initially considering a foodshed with a radius of 30 Km. Our results show that even though a theoretical high potential self-sufficiency could be achieved for the whole food commodities consumed (>80%), when considering the specific pedological conditions of the area, this could be suitable only for domestic plant-based products, whereas for animal products an expansion of the initial foodshed to a radius of 100Km was required to provide >70% of self-sufficiency. We conclude that it is necessary to shift the analysis from the size assessment to the commodity-group specific spatial configuration of the foodshed based on biophysical and socio-economic features, and discuss avenues for further researches enabling to develop a foodshed assessment as a complex of complementary pieces: the foodshed archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: foodshed archipelago; proximity food supply chains; spatial signature; city-region; food self-sufficiency; regional food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system; food policy
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:37:50 CET)
: Foodshed approaches allow the assessment of the theoretical food self-sufficiency capacity of a specific region based on biophysical conditions. Recent analyses show that the focus needs to be shifted from foodshed size portrayed as an isotropic circle to a commodity-group-specific spatial configuration of the foodshed that takes into account the socio-economic and biophysical conditions essential to the development of local food supply chains. We focus on a specific animal product (beef) and use an innovative modeling approach based on spatial analysis to detect the areas of the foodshed dedicated to beef feeding (forage, pasture, and grassland), considering the foodshed as a complex of complementary areas called an archipelago. We use available statistical data including a census to address the city-region of Avignon (France) covering a 100 km radius. Our results show that the factors driving the use of short supply chains for beef feeding areas are the foodshed archipelago’s number of patches, the connectivity between them, and the rugosity of the boundaries. In addition, our beef self-sufficiency assessment results differ depending on geographical context. For instance, being located within the perimeters of a nature park seems to help orient beef production towards short supply chains. We discuss possible leverage for public action to reconnect beef production areas to consumption areas (the city) via short supply chains (e.g. green, home-grown school food programs) so as to increase local food security through increased local food self-sufficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Agri-Food; Food Supply Chain; Blockchain; IoT; Big Data; Sustainability; Food Security; COVID-19; Food Safety; Digitalization
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:52:59 CET)
Technological advances such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, big data, social media, geographic information systems represent a building block of the digital transformation that supports the resilience of the food supply chain (FSC) and increases its efficiency. This paper reviews the literature surrounding digitalization in FSCs. A bibliometric and key-route main path analysis was carried out to objectively and analytically uncover the knowledge development in digitalization within the context of sustainable FSCs. The research began with the selection of 2140 articles published nearly over five decades. Then, the articles were examined according to several bibliometric metrics such as year of publication, countries, institutions, sources, authors, and keywords frequency. A keyword co-occurrence network was generated to cluster the relevant literature. Findings of the review and bibliometric analysis indicate that research at the intersection of technology and the FSC has gained substantial interest from scholars. On the basis of keyword co-occurrence network, the literature is focused on the role of information communication technology for agriculture and food security, food waste and circular economy, and the merge of the Internet of Things and blockchain in the FSC. The analysis of the key-route main path uncovers three critical periods marking the development of technology-enabled FSCs. The study offers scholars a better understanding of digitalization within the agri-food industry and the current knowledge gaps for future research. Practitioners may find the review useful to remain ahead of the latest discussions of technology-enabled FSCs. To the authors’ best knowledge, the current study is one of the few endeavors to explore technology-enabled FSCs using a comprehensive sample of journals articles published during the past five decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: food; commons; epistemologies of food; commons epistemologies; food narratives; food values; public good theory; academic schools; paradigms
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:13:41 CEST)
Commons and food are experiencing a revival in recent years and yet the links between both are almost absent in academic and political discourses. Commons are often portrayed as historical and yet innovative governing mechanisms that can challenge the State-Market hegemony. On the other side, food is both a relevant agent of change and a major driver of planetary destruction, being thus cause and solution to multiple crises that affect humankind. Departing from the commodification of food as one root cause of the broken global food system, this text firstly situates and discusses the different schools of thought (or epistemologies) that have addressed the private/public, commodity/commons nature of goods in general, and then explores how those schools have considered food in particular. To do so, the author has defined five epistemologies, four academic (economic, legal, historical and political) and one non-academic (grassroots activists). The analysis highlights how those epistemologies have yielded incommensurable understandings and conflicting vocabularies, hence creating confusion in the socio-political realm and even rejection around the idea of food being considered as a commons. The economic epistemic regard has reigned over the others by applying an approach to commons, public and private goods that is theoretical, reductionist and ontological instead of phenomenological, therefore preventing or obscuring other scholarly or practical understanding of commons. When applied to food, the iron law of economics dictated that food, a private good based on rivalry and excludability, shall be better allocated through market mechanisms with absolute proprietary rights and valued as a pure commodity. This reductionist view collides with the plurality of meanings of food in different societies, civilisations and historical periods, as other schools of thought indicate. The author uses diverse epistemic tools to re-construct food as a commons, based on its essentiality to human beings and societies and the customary and contemporary praxis to produce, consume and govern food collectively through non-market mechanisms for more than 2000 centuries. As commoning has instituting power to create different political and legal frameworks, if food is valued differently the entire architecture of the global food system would change, as the grassroots activist school claims. Re-commoning food defies the legal and political scaffoldings that sustain the hegemony of market and state decision-makers over eaters and food producers and informs sustainable forms of food production (agro-ecology), new collective practices of governance (food democracies) and alternative policies to regain control over the food system (food sovereignty). Food as a commons is an agent of change with transformative power, no matter what economists say.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0703.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: food safety; knowledge-attitude-practice; food security; food handlers; training; Maldives; observation
Online: 9 June 2023 (10:50:02 CEST)
Poor hygiene in the food services industry is a critical public health concern in the Maldives, with an average of 35 public complaints per month regarding the poor hygienic conditions of the restaurants in Male’, the capital of Maldives. Thus, this study aimed to identify the level of knowledge, attitude, and the gap of self-reported with the observed practice (KAP) of food handlers as well as the potential association between KAP. 290 food handlers from restaurants were surveyed, demonstrating moderate knowledge (55.5%), moderate attitude (3.62±0.51) and good practice (4.18±0.54). However, it is critical the result shows the food handlers in Male’ have poor practice on the time and temperature control where especially on thawing and storage resulting from a lack of training in the temperature danger zone. The work experience impacting the level of knowledge, education impacts the level of attitude and age, and education and work experience impacting practice. Male’ restaurants mostly employed the foreigners mostly from Bangladesh and the food handlers were identified to have low level of education. Association analysis identified significant relationships between knowledge, attitude, and practice, while the principle component analysis shows categories that are related to each of KAP. This study is fundamental for policymakers to review and improve law enforcement to address the current food safety situation in the Maldives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2054.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Food Choice Motives (FCM); food insecurity (FI); food security (FS); college students
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:28:15 CEST)
We are already more than year away from the pandemic period, followed by a year within a global economic crisis and a war in Ukraine, with the marks and the changes caused in all parameters of life becoming clear now including food choice motives of citizens worldwide. In this study we investigate the changes in food choice motives caused by the pandemic to college students in Greece in the 10 key food motives namely health, convenience, sensory, appeal, nutritional quality, moral concerns, weight control, mood and stress, familiarity, price, and shopping frequency and behavior. A self-response questionnaire survey was carried out in January to February 2023 on a sample of 1017 college students’ participants through the Google platform. Basic statistical tools, combined with cross and Chi-square tests were used in order to analyze the collected data. The results show that students exhibit quiet and very important preferences on health, convenience, weight control, and mood and stress. Food choices related to sensory appeal, nutritional quality, and familiarity is of less importance for the students, similarly to ethical concerns expect the environmental impact of the food which is high to their concern. The motive which continues to have the highest concern for students before and after the pandemic is price looking for value for money food (88.8%), not to be expensive (80.7%), and be cheap (78.7%). The shopping frequency and behavior motives, which were changed during the pandemic, have now returned to the motives of the pre pandemic period, with purchase of foods from supermarket (29%), local grocery (37.6%), and only 12.3% via online, and 20.4% by delivery, weekly or every two weeks. They prefer to cook at home full meals is now very high reaching 74.4%, avoiding eating at a restaurant or fast food (only 27% positives answers). Our findings indicate that students have already returned to their food choice motives of the period before COVID-19 except the home cooking food which is now high in their preference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 12 October 2022 (05:41:27 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global concern, as the supply of food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible, local consumption patterns towards an increased homogeneity of diets, with food products being disconnected from their source, leading to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, driven by the extensive availability of affordable seasonal foods throughout the year and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain – susceptible to disruptions, causing food insecurity. To determine what the nutritional model is in the case of the present study – Romania – we developed a questionnaire of 32 questions and distributed it to 1,053 respondents from Romania. The survey was conducted during 2021 and 2022, both in urban and rural areas with the aim of investigating the consumption pattern of the population. The analysis of the questionnaire data reveals overconsumption of animal products, starchy vegetables and bread and pastry products. This nutritional pattern with a high intake in animal protein, correlated with a lack of diversification, is extremely unsustainable, having a negative impact on human health and environmental health.behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 8 June 2022 (03:35:57 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global interest, as the provision of food resources is the primary determinant of human existence. Food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible local consumption patterns to an increased homogeneity of diets, food products being disconnected from their source. This disconnection led to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, with seasonal foods now available throughout the year, and a decrease in food prices on the global market, and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain, susceptible to disruptions, as was the case during the Covid-19 pandemic. The present study, based on the research and analysis of third-party data on food security, sustainable diets, consumption patterns and recommended actions to change the current unsustainable consumer behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food safety; local health departments; food inspection; primary prevention; food safety policy
Online: 4 May 2022 (15:38:09 CEST)
(1) Background: Several agencies in the United States play a primary role in ensuring food safety, yet foodborne illnesses result in about 3,000 deaths and cost more than $15.6 billion each year. The study objectives included analyzing local health departments’ (LHDs) level of engagement in food safety and other related services, and LHDs’ characteristics associated with those services. (2) Methods: We used data from 1,496 LHDs that participated in the 2019 National Profile of Local Health Departments Survey, administered to all 2,459 LHDs in the United States. Logistic regression analyses were performed to model multiple dichotomous variables. (3) Results: An estimated 78.9% of LHDs performed food safety inspections, 78.3% provided food safety education, 40.7% provided food processing inspections, and 48.4% engaged in policy and advocacy. The odds for LHDs to directly provide preventive nutrition services were 20 times higher if the LHD had one or more nutritionists on staff (Adjusted Odds Ratio or AOR=20.0; Confidence Interval, CI=12.4-32.2) compared to LHDs with no nutritionists. Other LHD characteristics significantly associated with the provision of nutrition services (p<.05) included population size, state governance (rather than local), and LHD having at least one registered, licensed, practical, or vocational nurse. The odds of providing food processing services were lower for locally governed than state governed LHDs (AOR=0.5; CI=0.4-0.7). The odds of performing food safety inspections varied by LHD’s population size, whether a nutritionist was on staff or not, state governance (vs. local), and having completed a community health assessment (CHA) within 5 years. (4) Conclusions: LHDs play a critical role in ensuring safe food for Americans, yet variations exist in their performance, based on their specific characteristics. Adequate funding and a competent workforce are essential for LHDs to utilize evidence-based practices and engage in policymaking and advocacy concerning food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0483.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bombyx mori; silk fibroin; food safety; shelf-life; toxicity; mutagenicity; allergenicity; silk; protein; silk protein; food; food access; food waste; nutrition; food technology
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:41:54 CEST)
Recent studies have demonstrated silk fibroin’s ability to extend the shelf life of foods by mitigating the hallmarks of spoilage, namely oxidation and dehydration. Due to the potential for this protein to become more widespread, its safety was evaluated comprehensively. First, a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) was conducted in five bacterial strains. Second, an in vivo erythrocyte test was conducted with Sprague Dawley rats at doses up to 1,000mg/kg-bw/day. Third, a range-finder study was conducted with Sprague Dawley rats at the highest consumption amount given solubility and oral gavage volume constrains (500mg/kg-bw/day). Fourth, a 28-day study in Sprague Dawley rats was conducted at the 500mg/kg-bw/day amount. Fifth, an in vitro pepsin digestion assay was performed to assess the potential for protein allergenicity. Sixth, allergenic potential was further assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy for detection of allergenic insect proteins. Seventh, the protein sequences were subjected to bioinformatic analyses. Together, these studies raise no mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxicological, or allergenic concerns with the oral consumption of silk fibroin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0274.v1
Subject: Polymers And Plastics, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: Food packaging; Anthocyanins; Biodegradable materials; Food quality
Online: 5 December 2023 (13:05:04 CET)
Currently, active and intelligent packaging have been developed to solve the spoilage problem for rich protein foods during storage, especially by adding anthocyanin extracts. In such film system, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties were dramatically increased by adding anthocyanins. The physicochemical properties were enhanced through interactions between active groups in anthocyanins and reactive groups in polymer chains. Additionally, active and intelligent film could monitor the spoilage of rich protein foods in response to pH change. Therefore, this film could monitor the sensory acceptance, and extending the shelf life of rich protein foods simultaneously. In this paper, the structure and functional properties of anthocyanins, the composite actions of anthocyanin extracts and biomass materials, and their reinforced properties of active and intelligent film were discussed. Also, the applications of this film in quality maintenance, shelf-life extension and quality monitoring for fresh meat, aquatic product and milk were summarized. The film that achieves high stability and continuous release of anthocyanins on demand will become an underlying trend in packaging applications for rich protein foods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1663.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Salmonella spp; food safety; food official control
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:12:38 CEST)
Salmonella is the second most frequent bacterial pathogen involved in human gastrointestinal outbreaks in the European Union; it can enter the food production chain from animal or environmental sources or from asymptomatic food operators. European food legislation has established microbiological criteria to ensure consumer protection. Salmonella is listed under both process hygiene criteria and food safety criteria. Each Member State designates an agency to organize or perform controls and other official activities. This paper describes the official control plans performed by competent authorities in northern Italy in the three-year period 2019-2021. A total of 4413 food samples were delivered to the IZS Food Safety laboratories for Salmonella detection and 36 (0.8 %) tested positive. Salmonella was most frequently detected in poultry meat samples (25/36 positive samples) followed by other meat products and pork products. The official controls for the protection of consumer health apply the EU’s from farm-to-fork approach: the samples were collected during production (food production plants) and on the market and from collective catering (restaurants, cafeterias, canteens). This manuscript will provide information about the presence of Sal-monella in foodstuffs and can help competent authorities to set control plans based on a risk assessment.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Obesity; food system; agriculture; ultra-processed food
Online: 22 May 2023 (14:20:35 CEST)
More people around the world now have obesity than suffer from starvation thanks to our modern food system. Agriculture was transformed over the 20th century by a variety of technological advancements that relied heavily on fossil fuels. In the United States of America, government policies and economic incentives led to surplus production of cheap inputs to processed food industries that produced a wide variety of heavily marketed, convenient, rewarding, timesaving, and relatively inexpensive ultra-processed foods. The energy available in the United States food supply increased much more than population needs, albeit with large inequities in food distribution and nutrition security. While most of the rise in per capita food availability during the late 20th and early 21st centuries in the United States resulted in increased food waste, a variety of mechanisms have been proposed by which changes in the increasingly ultra-processed food environment resulted in excess energy intake disproportionately in people genetically susceptible to obesity. As populations continue to grow, substantial investments in coordinated nutrition and agricultural research are needed to transform our current food system to one that relies less on fossil fuels, preserves biodiversity, ensures environmental health, and provides equitable access to affordable, safe, and nutritious food that reduces the prevalence of chronic diseases like obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0436.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: FIBROMYALGIA; FOOD INTOLERANCE; FOOD SENSITIVITY; AUTISM; HYPERMOBILITY
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:17:18 CET)
Introduction People are presenting with chronic musculoskeletal pain at a younger age, and many fulfil criteria for fibromyalgia. We have recently shown a strong association between fibromyalgia symptoms and autistic traits in a self-selected community population, with the relationship mediated in part by the presence of hypermobility. Many respondents also described food sensitivities and intolerances. This study explores relationships between food issues and fibromyalgia symptoms in this population Methods The study used a nonexperimental, correlational design with data collected from a volunteer sample of 442 adults (aged 18-60) who completed online self-report questionnaires assessing each of fibromyalgia symptoms (ACR criteria), autistic traits (RAADS score) and hypermobility (Beighton’s test). Subjects were also asked to record any food sensitivities, allergies, or intolerances, along with their consequences. Correlation analyses and linear regressions were used to test the relationships between these features and each of fibromyalgia, autistic traits and hypermobility. Data was analysed using parametric and non-parametric techniques to assess the strength and significance of relationships, causes of variance and the potential mediating effect of food-related symptoms in the correlation between fibromyalgia features and autistic traits Results Our self-selected community population had a mean age of 24 years and was 77% female. The prevalence of fibromyalgia, autistic traits and hypermobility was 40%, 65% and 44% respectively. Half of all subjects reported food sensitivity and 31% reported food intolerance. The incidence of food-related symptoms was higher among subjects who met criteria for fibromyalgia than those who reported autistic traits or hypermobility. Food sensitivity and food intolerance were both more significantly associated with fibromyalgia (r=0.24, p>0.001 and r=0.38, p>0.001) than with autistic traits (r=0.15, p>0.01 and r=0.17, p>0.01). Discussion This is the first community study to provide evidence for a direct association between features of fibromyalgia and reported food intolerance and sensitivity. Although self-selected, the findings in our predominantly young population suggest that gluten and lactose consumption may be associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Avoidance of these foodstuffs was commonly reported to reduce symptoms. Dietary adjustment may merit further investigation as a therapeutic modality for some patients with fibromyalgia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0058.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Rural; Food System; Inequities; Disparities; Food Security
Online: 5 July 2020 (09:13:17 CEST)
We seek to elucidate an aspirational vision for the food system and explore whether the characteristics of such a system inadvertently set unattainable standards for rural, low wealth communities. We apply discourse analysis to the following qualitative datasets: (1) interviews with food experts and advocates, (2) scholarly and grey literature, (3) industry websites, and (4) email exchanges between food advocates. The analysis revealed eight aspirational food system discourses: Production, Distribution, and Infrastructure; Healthy, Organic, Local Food; Behavioral Health and Education; Sustainability; Finance and Investment; Huger Relief; Demand Side Preferences; Romanticized, Community Led Transformations. Study findings reveal that of eight discourses only three encompass the experiences of rural, low wealth residents. This aspirational food system may result in the disempowerment of the needs of rural, low wealth groups; a perpetuation of the failure of groups who will be unable to reach the aspirational food vision; silencing of discourses that might question those that play a role in the inequitable distribution of income while sanctioning discourses that focus on personal or community solutions; and the absence of other policy-based solutions that address issues located within the food system. Further research is needed to inform policies and programs to mitigate food insecurity in rural, low wealth populations.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0410.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: aspartame; sweeteners; food additives; food control; German national survey; food safety; risk assessment
Online: 17 April 2023 (05:38:26 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the artificial sweetener aspartame (E951) in a wide range of foods and beverages sampled by food control authorities in Germany between 2000 and 2022. The dataset was obtained through the Consumer Information Act. The results showed that aspartame was present in a wide range of product groups tested, most commonly in powdered drink bases (84%) and flavored milk drinks (78%). In the solid food groups, the highest mean aspartame content was found in chewing gum (1543 mg/kg, n=241), followed by sports foods (1453 mg/kg, n=125), fiber supplements (1248 mg/kg, n=11), powdered drink bases (1068 mg/kg, n=162), and candies (437 mg/kg, n=339). Liquid products generally had the highest aspartame content in diet soft drinks (91 mg/l, n=2021), followed by regular soft drinks (59 mg/l, n= 574), flavored milk drinks (48 mg/kg, n=207), and mixed beer drinks (24 mg/l, n=40). These results suggest that aspartame is widely used in foods and beverages in Germany and that certain product groups contain higher concentrations of the sweetener than others. However, the levels of aspartame found were generally within the legal limits set by the European Union. These findings provide the first comprehensive overview of aspartame in the German food market and may be particularly useful in informing the forthcoming working groups of the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the WHO/FAO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), which are in the process of evaluating the human health hazards and risks associated with the consumption of aspartame.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1645.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: fake food; environmental health; food safety; legislation; poisoning
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:37:29 CET)
Food fraud (often called fake food in South Africa), the deliberate misrepresentation or adulteration of food products for financial gain, is a growing problem in South Africa (SA) with severe public health and financial consequences for consumers and businesses. The recent public outcry against food fraud practices, especially in communities that have lost loved ones due to the consumption of allegedly unsafe foodstuffs, highlights the grave danger that food fraud poses to consumers and the potential for significant reputational damage to food manufacturers. Despite the risks, food fraud often goes undetected, as perpetrators are becoming increasingly sophisticated. The precise magnitude of food fraud remains obscure, as incidents that do not cause consumer illnesses are frequently unreported and, as a result, are not investigated. Food fraud costs the global economy billion annually. This cost is borne by consumers, businesses, and the government. Food fraud can occur at any stage of the food supply chain, from production to processing to retailing or distribution. This is due in part to the limitations of current analytical methods, which are not always able to detect food fraud. This systematic literature review of food fraud in SA looks at several factors that may be contributing to epidemic of food fraud (fake food), including lenient penalties, inadequate government commitment, a complex labelling regulations, emerging threats such as e-commerce, and a shortage of inspectors and laboratories. The review recommends establishing a single food control/safety authority, developing more food safety laboratories, and adopting innovative technologies to detect and prevent food fraud. SA faces a serious food fraud crisis unless decisive action is taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: novel food; risk perception; valorization; food safety; insects
Online: 8 November 2023 (03:33:18 CET)
Edible insects can diversify diets, improve livelihoods, contribute to food and nutrition security, and have a smaller ecological impact. European Union has categorized insects as novel food, and recently, in 2021 and 2022, two species: Tenebrio molitor and Acheta domesticus have been authorized for commercialization. Acceptance and perception of food risk derived from insect consumption vary depending on factors impacting insect consumption acceptability, including neophobic tendencies, gender differences, familiarity, and gastronomic perceptions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the perception and acceptance of edible insects by exploring those factors. The study was carried out on higher education students from Universities from Valencia (Spain). Students recognize insects for their high nutritional value, particularly protein content, and have varying knowledge levels about specific nutritional components. In terms of labeling and marketing, removing health and sustainability benefits from packaging can improve consumer responses. Most respondents prefer clear labeling of insect derivatives, quality certification seals, and complete information about insect content. Students consider marketing and knowledge as significant influencers of insect consumption. In summary, the text highlights the multifaceted nature of insect consumption acceptability. These insights offer valuable perspectives on insect consumption dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0221.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; food security; food assistance
Online: 14 July 2022 (12:12:01 CEST)
Background: Machine learning has revolutionized situational awareness during disaster management by classifying, clustering, and predicting impacted locations and people. Despite its importance, no review has been conducted on machine learning tools for food assistance efforts during emergency or non-emergency situations. The purpose of this scoping review is to address that gap. Methods: Keywords were defined within the concepts of food assistance and machine learning. After the database searches, PRISMA guidelines were followed to perform a partnered, two-round scoping literature review. Text mining and Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modeling algorithms were used to determine trends. Results: 28 articles met criteria and were included in the analysis. The types of study designs included: model development (42.9%), non-study (i.e., text and opinion) (28.6%), qualitative research (14.3%), case study (10.7%), and meta-analysis (3.6%). There were no quantitative studies. The machine learning tools’ main functions were improving SNAP programs (32.1%), detecting needs and resources (25%), predicting food insecurity (21.4%), and situational awareness of current food insecurity issues (21.4%). None of these studies took place during a disaster or explicitly addressed emergency mitigation, preparedness, or recovery. All of the studies were in early phases of development and implementation. Conclusion: Machine learning tools for improving situational awareness, resource allocation, policymaking, and prediction have the potential to improve food assistance, but there is a lack of implementation and evaluation during all disaster phases. Also needed is more formative work on generating food-related queries and defining variables and features of food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2085.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: organic food knowledge; attitude toward organic food purchase; subjective norm; organic food purchase intention; organic food purchase self-efficacy; gender; education
Online: 30 August 2023 (12:05:24 CEST)
The objectives of this study are threefold. First, we evaluate the applicability of the information–motivation–behavioral skills (IMB) model for predicting organic food purchase intention (OFPI) in adults with chronic conditions. Second, we examine the indirect effects of organic food knowledge, attitudes toward organic food purchase, and subjective norms on OFPI through self-efficacy. Third, we examine whether these indirect effects are moderated by gender and educational attainment. Data were collected from Indian adults with chronic conditions using a self-administered questionnaire. The results show significant indirect effects of organic food knowledge, attitude toward organic food purchase, and subjective norm on OFPI through self-efficacy. Moreover, the mediating effect of knowledge was moderated by gender and education attainment, with the effect being stronger for females and among individuals with a lower level of education. Organic food marketers, social marketers, and public health agencies promoting organic food consumption to people with chronic conditions should aim to increase their confidence in comprehending organic food. This study contributes to the literature by assessing the applicability of Fisher and Fisher’s (1992) IMB model in understanding behavioral intention toward organic food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0883.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Food environments; Food systems; Food security; Dietary intake; Nutritional status; Nutrition transition; Household; South Africa
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:56:58 CEST)
A cross-sectional study was applied to investigate the influence of food systems and food environments on food choices and nutrition transition of households in Limpopo province, South Africa. A sample of 429 households were systematically selected using a paper selection draw from three districts. Food systems, food environments, food choices, and nutritional measurements of the households and informants were assessed, using a validated questionnaire. Most of the household informants responsible for food procurement were females (80.4%). There was a significant association (p < 0.001) between proximity to food stores and dietary diversity of the households. Staple foods were available in almost all surveyed households (95.6%). More than half of the households (59.8%) had home gardens in their yards. Almost half of the households (48.4%) had a low Dietary Diversity Score. The study revealed that 46.0% of households were food secure. Over a third (36.2%) of households’ informants were obese and 32.5% were diabetic. The mean total blood cholesterol was 3.69 ± 0.74 mmol/L. A high percentage of both females (89.6%) and males (91.5%) had normal haemoglobin levels. Most of the informants had normal systolic blood pressure levels (63%), with just over half who had high diastolic levels (57%). The 25 coping strategies were applied during food shortages periods. Even though the food environments provided both obesogenic and protective foods, the consumption of unhealthy foods was high.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1697.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: chemometrics; food contaminants; food processes; machine learning; spectroscopy; sustainability
Online: 26 October 2023 (09:46:52 CEST)
On a global scale, food safety and security aspects entail to be considered throughout the farm to fork continuum considering food’s supply chain. Generally, the agri-food system is a multiplex network of interconnected features and processes, with a hard predictive rate, where maintaining the food’s safety is an indispensable element and is part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It has led the scientific community to develop advanced applied analytical methods, such as Machine learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques applied for assessing foodborne diseases. The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the development of the consensus version of ongoing research about the application of artificial intelligence tools in the domain of food-crops safety from an analytical point of view. Writing a comprehensive review for a more specific topic can also be challenging, especially when searching within the literature. To our knowledge, this review is the first to address this issue. This work consisted of conducting a unique and exhaustive study of the literature, using our TriScope Keywords-based Synthesis methodology. All available literature related to our topic was investigated according to our criteria of Inclusion and Exclusion. The final count of data papers was subject to deep reading and analysis to extract the necessary information to answer our research questions. Although many studies have been conducted, limited attention has been paid to outlining the applications of AI tools combined with analytical strategies for crop-based food safety specifically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Technological risks; Governance; Food Security; Food Innovations; Technologies; Ethics
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:51:53 CEST)
Recently, the world has experienced severe food insecurity problems with most countries having inadequate access to affordable, nutritious and safe foods. Consequently, many food innovations and technologies have been approved to secure sustainable access to food for millions of people. This study investigated the implementation of two technologies to address food insecurity, namely genetically modified foods (GMOs) and the use of antibiotics in crops and animal production. In particular, the study explored how their implementation can be governed responsibly through approved legislation. Therefore, the knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the governance of antibiotic resistance risks and GMO foods were assessed. In-depth key interviews were conducted for the qualitative survey with triangulation with quantitative data sources. The findings showed that 46% of the population have little knowledge about GMOs with about 79% indicating that food with GM ingredients were being consumed in the country. The main concerns reported on GM foods by most respondents were impact on environment, human health and adverse effects on traditional farming practices with 36% indicating that it intensifies contamination and 32% indicating that it contributes to loss of biodiversity. Notably, 64%) reported that GMOs are a solution to food security and that they are safe. On the use of antimicrobials mainly meant to prevent diseases and access better markets, respondents perceived their use to be associated with antimicrobial resistance a “large level of risk” (score 2 in a scale of 1-3) (M = 1.85, SD = 1.06). Overall, the study found that efforts towards promoting awareness on antibiotic resistance risks and response in human health is relatively limited as reported by 56% of the respondents. Findings show that most of the respondents have only seen minimal or small-scale awareness campaigns. On governance of the two technologies, 71% and 50% of the respondents reported that scientists and elected officials respectively have the greatest role in governance of GMOs with small scale farmers playing a negligible role. Further, it was noted that all the respondents were knowledgeable in AMR and GMO technologies and these findings are crucial to the advancement of food innovations that are geared towards achieving food security in Kenya. This study highlights the risks associated with the poor governance and implementation of technologies and the need for a framework for technological risk governance that is sensitive to local values and socio-economic circumstances that will benefit the achievement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Probiotics; food matrices; food stress; cell viability; model digestion
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:59:51 CEST)
The aim was to evaluate the influence of model (alcohol, sugar, salt, protein and acid) and real foods and beverages on the viability of probiotics during incubation and artificial digestion. Viability of monocultures Lactobacillus acidophilus CCM4833 and Bifidobacterium breve CCM7825T and commercial mixture of 9 probiotic bacterial strains were tested by cultivation assay and flow cytometry. In model foods, the best viability was determined in the presence of 0.2 g/L glucose, 10% albumin and 10% ethanol. As the most suitable real food for probiotic survival complex protein and carbohydrate substrates were found, such as beef broth, potato salad with pork, chicken with rice, chocolate spread, porridge and yoghurt. The best liquid was milk and meat broth, followed by coca-cola, beer and coffee. Viability of probiotics was higher when consumed with meals than with beverages only. Addition of prebiotics increased the viability of probiotics especially in presence of instant and fast foods. Generally, the highest viability of probiotics during artificial digestion was observed in mixed culture in presence of protein, sugar and fat or their combination. The increase of cell viability observed in such foods during model digestion may further contribute to the positive effect of probiotics on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: food allergy, food allergen, fruits, seafood, nut and milk
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:32:18 CEST)
Food allergy has been recognised by the World Health Organisation as a chronic disease that could lead to fatality. The symptoms can mediate from mild to severe consequences. Some cases have reported that food allergy sufferers are bullied and are discriminated at workplace, thus increasing their stress level, apart from facing difficulty in consuming certain food due to allergy. This has an adverse effect on the quality of life amongst food allergy sufferers. Medical bills are increased when food allergy sufferers become unknowingly exposed to food allergen. Hence, this study investigated food allergens among food allergy sufferers in order to make their lives better. A total of 250 respondents participated in an online survey. Surprisingly, apart from chicken, soybean and other food allergens that have been listed under the Big Eight Allergens, the respondents mentioned some fruits that could trigger allergic reactions, such as rambutans and watermelons. Food allergy sufferers can be allergic to seafood and seafood products as well, such as shrimp paste or locally known as belacan, which refers to fermented shrimp paste cured under the sun. It is a common food ingredient used among Malaysians. The study findings offer practical insights, such as avoidance of food allergens amidst food allergy sufferers and help the government to carefully manage for menu planning. The knowledge contribution of this study reveals several specific food and fruits, as aforementioned, which appear to be common and nutritious food, yet harmful to food allergy sufferers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0434.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: food intake; food diversity; kidney stone disease; social epidemiology
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:20:49 CET)
Food intake plays a pivotal role of human growth, which necessarily contributes 45% of global economy and wellbeing in general. Consumption of balanced food is elementary for overall good health while a shift of equilibrium can lead to malnutrition, prenatal death, obesity, osteoporosis and bone fractures, coronary heart diseases (CHD), idiopathic hypercalciuria, diabetes and many more. Though CHD, osteoporosis, malnutrition, obesity are being classified thoroughly in the literature, there are fragmented findings in the regime of kidney stone diseases (KSD) and the correlation with food intake therein. KSD associated with hematuria and renal failure poses an increasing threat to the healthcare and global economy while its emergence of Indian populations is being affected with multi-factorial urological disorder resulting from several factors. In this realm, epidemiological, biochemical, macroeconomic situations been portrayed when food intake is also a paramount importance which rarely been forecasted. Hence, in this article we will be reviewing the corollary connotation with diverse food consumption and the efficacy it plays in KSD extrapolating in Indian context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0101.v1
Online: 5 January 2021 (16:54:04 CET)
The internationals guidelines about food intolerances, allergy and immunity provide for rigorous steps in which ultrasonography is not provided. However there is evidence in literature about an ancillar role of ultrasonography in these conditions. In this report we analyze the main pathologies with allergic or immune pathogenesis
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0568.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: public health; antimicrobial resistance; food safety; food poisoning; pathogenic speciation
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:48:22 CEST)
Our ability to cure common diseases is still in danger due to the creation and spread of bacteria and fungi that are resistant to drugs and has developed new resistance mechanisms. The increasing global expansion of multi- and pan-resistant bacteria commonly referred to as "superbugs," which cause diseases that cannot be treated with current antimicrobial medications like antibiotics, is particularly concerning. Indirect and direct risks to public health are posed by microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics in food. Food can get contaminated via cross-contamination, intentionally introducing resistance genes during food preparation, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food. Consuming unprocessed or unpreserved food products increases the danger of transferring antimicrobial resistance to people and other animals. Stressed cells in food can have an impact on food quality, safety, and security. They can also contribute to the development of resistance and afterwards spread it to unintended organisms in the food chain. These reviews look at a variety of topics to address the question of how antimicrobial resistance mechanisms work. The various types of bacteria that make up infections are examined, as well as the usage of antimicrobial agents and the requirement for alternative antimicrobial agents that will discourage the use of synthetic antimicrobial agents. Additionally, specific details are provided regarding the uniqueness, interdependence, and phylogenicity of organisms as well as their interactions with various ecological media. Thus, it is clear why it is important to work with food producers and handlers to stop the spread of pathogenic organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1556.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: risk analysis; risk communication; hazard; risk; food regulation; food safety
Online: 21 June 2023 (13:04:04 CEST)
For risk communication, it is important to understand the difference between "hazard" and "risk". Definitions can be found in Codex Alimentarius and the European Union (EU) General Food Regulation (EC) No 178/2002. The use of these terms as synonyms or their interchange is a recurrent issue in the area of food safety, despite awareness-raising messages sent by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and other interested entities. A quick screening of EU’s food regulations revealed several inconsistencies. Hence, it was considered necessary to further investigate if regulations could act as a source for this problem. A software tool was developed to support the detection and listing of inconsistent translations of “hazard” and “risk” in certain EU food regulations. Subsequently, native-speaking experts working in food safety, from each EU country, were asked to provide their individual scientific opinion on the prepared list. All data was statistically analyzed after applying numerical scores (1-5) describing different levels of consistency. Results showed that the most common problem was the interchange of “hazard” with “risk” and vice versa. This lack of consistency can create confusion that can further translate into misjudgments at food risk assessment and communication level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0244.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; food insecurity; psychological impact; socioeconomics; food access; Nigeria
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:05:34 CET)
The COVID-19 disease has infected many countries with generalised impacts on the different income categories. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a survey among households (n = 412) representing different income groups in Nigeria. We used validated food insecurity experience and socio-psychologic tools. We analysed the data obtained using descriptive and inferential statistics. The earning capacities of the respondents range from US$145/month for the low-income earners to US$1945/month for high-income earners. A total of 173 households (42%) ran out of food during the COVID-19 pandemic. All categories of households have experienced increasing dependency from the general public and perception of increasing insecurity, with the high-income earners having the greatest shift. In addition, increasing levels of anger and irritations have been experienced with all categories. Of the socio-demographic variables, only gender (p = 0.012), level of education of household head (p = 0.000), work hours per day (p = 0.006), and family income based on society class (p = 0.000) were significantly associated with food security and hunger due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Household heads with medium (OR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.64 – 7.21, p < 0.001) and high (OR: 30.27, 95% CI: 3.99 – 229.90, p < 0.001) family income based on society class were more likely to have satisfactory experience on food security and hunger than respondents with low family income. Irrespective of the social class of the respondents, some respondents had negative experiences such as movement/change of location within the same city (17.68%), begin a new relationship (14.43%), recent change of job/loss of job (11.55%), movement to another city (10.81%), and separation from spouse or long-term relationship (10.07%). However, 231 (60.16%) reported satisfaction with their jobs despite the pandemic. Psychological stress due to impact of COVID-19 was observed to be more in the low income earning group than others. It is recommended that socio-economic groups should be mapped and support systems should target each group as per the needed support in terms of health, social, economic, and mental wellness; the government should show political commitments and transparency in food security and counselling supports. National authorities should prioritize empirical-based interventions on resources allocation during crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0067.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nutritional intake; rural China; food consumption; food security
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:22:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced risks and challenges to global food and nutrition security. In this paper, we examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nutritional intake of China's rural residents using panel data and a fixed effect model. The data were collected in 2019 and 2020 and covered nine provinces and 2,631 households in rural China. The results reveal that an increase of 100 confirmed cases in a county resulted in a 1.48% (p<0.01), 1.46% (p<0.01), 1.77% (p<0.01), and 1.23% (p<0.01) decrease in per capita intake of dietary energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic only had a significant and negative effect on dietary energy intake in the low-income group at the 5% level of significance. Our study indicates that the potential insufficient nutrition situation, nutritional imbalance, and dietary imbalance of low-income rural residents should be addressed appropriately.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: lifestyle diseases; food processing; ultra-processed food; NOVA classification; nutrition
Online: 6 April 2022 (13:44:53 CEST)
The modern diet, which consists of food produced with high level of industrial processing, is associated with an increased risk of the development of lifestyle diseases. Current nutritional science is, however, focused on chemical composition of food, and not on the type and degree of processing used during the food production. Here, we take a fresh perspective on the relationship between the extent and type of food processing, and evaluate its impact on consumer health. We argue that the preference for consumption of minimally processed foods, and restriction of ultra-processed foods should be an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, disease prevention, and even treatment. We also present a simple, user-friendly consumer guide, which is intended to be used as a practical, ready-to-go identifier of ultra-processed foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0378.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: agriculture economy; mono-cropping; food import; sustainable agriculture; food security
Online: 22 September 2021 (11:42:38 CEST)
Malaysia is a developing country and agro-industries contribute country’s economy. However, it is largely unknown the scenarios of agricultural practice and food supply over the years. To understand the fact, this study was designed to explore the agricultural land use changes and domestic food supply for last 50 years in Malaysia. The result showed that oil palm plantation area and yield, both are increased by folds, conforming “oil palm” mono-culture practice. Rice cultivation area remained almost unchanged but the yield increased. However, both area of plantation and yield in case of rubber, coca and coconut were decreased. When, it comes to domestic food supply, in 1973 food grain (Rice, Wheat, Maize) import was lower than domestic production. However, the import increased more than 3 times than the domestic production in 2013. Domestic production of vegetables and vegetables import was almost 50:50. Fruits import increased almost 3 times of domestic production, though domestic production was increased. In conclusion, it is understood that Malaysian agriculture economy is standing on “oil palm” wearers domestic food supply is import dependent. It is high time to reshuffle the policy for sustainable development and achieving food sovereignty.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban household, migration, connectivity, food remittances, food security, Nairobi, Kenya
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
This paper draws on data from a representative city-wide household food security survey of Nairobi conducted in 2017 to examine the importance of food remitting to households in contemporary Nairobi. The next section of the paper provides an overview of urbanization and the rapid growth of Nairobi which has led to growing socio-economic inequality, precarious livelihoods for the majority, and growing food insecurity, as context for the more detailed empirical analysis of food security and food remittances that follows. It is followed by a description of the survey methodology and sections analyzing the differences between migrant and non-migrant households in Nairobi. Attention then turns to the phenomenon of food remitting, showing that over 50% of surveyed households in the city had received food remittances in the previous year. The paper then uses multivariate logistic regression to identify the relationship between Nairobi household characteristics and the probability of receiving food remittances from rural areas. The findings suggest that there are exceptions to the standard migration and poverty-driven explanatory model of the drivers of rural-urban food remitting and that greater attention should be paid to other motivations for maintaining rural-urban connectivity in Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0572.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption; Food businesses; Food environments; Asia
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:23:57 CET)
Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption benefits the health of populations, particularly those in East and Southeast Asian countries, which have undergone an unprecedented change in their food environments in the last decade. This current systematic review is the first to study determinants—facilitators, barriers, and moderators—associated with FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia. In a search of the literature, we consulted five electronic academic databases of English peer-reviewed papers published between 2010 and 2020 and found 31 studies. Results of these studies show that individuals strongly perceive FVs as being higher quality and safe and trust in their benefits, and food businesses with modernized systems have significantly fostered the consumption of FVs. A main barrier to FV consumption, however, is financial concerns, exacerbated by food businesses with FV unavailability and urbanization-induced FV price inflation and dietary patterns. Further hindering FV consumption are demographics and shopping patterns. The fragmented and conditionalized findings of the 31 studies require standardized FV consumption measurements. Unlike the impact of FV consumption determinants and their interactions in Western countries, those in Asia, particularly countries other than China, have been substantially understudied. Therefore, as the research gaps in studies of food environments and FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia urgently demand scholarly attention, this paper proposes recommendations that favour the consumption of FVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; foodborne illness; food safety; food security; sustainable development
Online: 23 February 2020 (02:21:34 CET)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens to reverse the essential benefits of antibiotics not only in humans, where decades of advancements in healthcare outcomes are endangered but also in the food production industry. The emergence of AMR in the pre- and post-harvest systems presents a serious risk of contamination or infection directly by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and genes (ARGs) for farmers, agricultural practitioners, abattoir workers, food handlers and their associated contacts as well as consumers at the end of the food chain. Any breach in the food safety barrier leading to the emergence and spread of ARB and ARGs has severe multi-sectorial implications and threatens to reverse decades of human and animal health improvements globally. As the world moves towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), food safety is a critical element to improve and strengthen global health, security and ensure sustainable development. This paper presents the challenge of AMR through the lens of food safety, by highlighting its multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional implications not only the SDG on food safety but also on food security, public health, animal health and welfare, the environment and climate and socio-economic development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Physical Activity; Exercise; Sedentary Behaviour; Hyperpalatable Food; Obesity; Food Addiction
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Obesity is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, and food addiction has been considered one of its phenotypes. The study aims to determine the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), exercise, and sedentary behaviour management in attenuating food addiction in obese and overweight healthy adults. A search strategy was undertaken using MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and CINAHL until April 2019. A total of 295 studies were found from which seven studies, after duplicates were removed, were included. The acute effect of PA of moderate intensity had an effect on attentional bias, craving, and sweet taste perception, although no difference was observed between genders and body mass index groups. No effect was observed on the hedonic and reward value. The acute effects of PA of moderate intensity may be a useful tool to control the levels of food addiction. More research is needed to clarify if this effect also occurs during chronic application, at different doses and types of PA, and for all populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0172.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: epidemiological survey; foodborne illnesses; food contamination; food safety; public health
Online: 16 August 2019 (05:50:39 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the foodborne diseases (FBD) outbreaks reported in Brazil between 2000 and 2018, based on data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (official data) and from the scientific literature. According to official data, 13,163 FBD outbreaks were reported in the country during this period, involving 247,570 cases and 195 deaths. The largest prevalence of FBD outbreaks was observed in the Southeast region of Brazil (45.6%). In most outbreaks it was not possible to determine the food implicated (45.9%) but among those identified, water was the most frequently associated (12.0%). The etiological agent was not identified in most outbreaks (38.0%), while Salmonella (14.4%) was the most frequently reported, among those identified. Homes were the main site of FBD occurrence (12.5%). Regarding data obtained from the scientific literature, 57 articles dealing with FBD in the country throughout the same period were selected and analyzed. Based on these articles, mixed foods were the most prevalent in the outbreaks (31.6%), Salmonella spp. was the pathogen most frequently reported (22.8%) and homes were also the main site of FBD occurrence (45.6%). Despite under-notification, the records of FBD outbreaks that have occurred in Brazil in the past recent years show alarming data, requiring attention from health authorities. The notification of outbreaks is essential to facilitate public health actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: food composition tables; lipid profile; trans fat; fast food; spreads
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:34:57 CEST)
The lipid fraction of margarines and fast-food French-fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered, and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (2 store and 4 premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (5 chains). Margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (gTFA/100g fat) for store and premium brands, respectively. French-fries values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5g/serving, so they could also be considered “trans free products”. This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes to update food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0882.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: food waste; food waste disposers; catering wastewater; COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns; pollution loads; catering food waste energy potential
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:30:06 CEST)
The use of food waste disposers in gastronomical facilities influence the municipal wastewater composition. Ground food waste poses problems in the operation of the sewerage network and generates high electric energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The study aimed to determine, for five towns with a PE of 4,000 to 220,000, the volumes of catering waste discharged to the WWTPs. The towns differed in the number of inhabitants, beds in hotel and catering places. The calculations were made based on data received from the operators of WWTP. The pollutant concentrations in 2019, were compared with data from the "pandemic" year - 2020. The loads of catering waste entering the sewerage system in 2019 ranged from 32.7 to 1062 tons. In town with the largest tourist base, the BOD value in 2020 accounted for 62.3% of 2019 value. In the largest town, the annual energy consumption for food waste treatment could be up to 2,539,770 kWh. If the waste was fermented, it could be obtained up to 1,376,650 m3 of methane. There is a strong need for implementing a collection system for food waste from catering facilities and its fermentation to produce methane, which can be used for energy purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0005.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: potential markets; improved forages; food systems; food security; forage hybrids; nutrition
Online: 1 February 2023 (02:45:07 CET)
The cattle sector is strategic sector for both the economic development and food security of Africa. However, the low availability and quality of forage puts the most vulnerable population in the field at risk. Hybrid forages have proven to be a real alternative for enhancing both the food security and sustainability of the sector. They are the product of genetic improvements and combine the superior traits of different materials. In 1987, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) began this line of research and together with the private sector various ma-terials have been released until today. Despite their beforementioned potential, forage hybrid adoption levels are still low in Africa, which is related to various factors among which the availability of seeds and planting material stands out. This document analyzes the potential markets for new forage hybrids adapted to the environmental conditions of eastern Africa and partially western Africa. Likewise, an estimation of the commercial value of these markets is provided. The results show a potential market of 414,388 ha for new interspecific hybrids of Urochloa and 528,409 ha for potential hybrids of Megathyrsus maximus, with approximate values of 73.5 and 101.1 million dollars, respectively. Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya have a 70% market share for Urochloa, while South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Tanzania have a 67% share for Megathyrsus maximus. The results will help different actors in decision-making, i.e., regarding private sector investments in forage seed commercialization or public sector incentives supporting adoption processes, and thus contribute to increasing food security and sustainability in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0210.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Food safety; Fresh-cut produce; salads; Food borne pathogens; Microbiological safety
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:47:27 CEST)
The consumption and sale of fresh-cut products and salads have been growing tremendously in the present era. Therefore, the microbial safety of such products is of great concern. In the current study, a survey of general microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and salads at quick-service restaurants (QSR) was undertaken across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These findings were compared with microbiological criteria for foodstuffs by Saudi standards, metrology, and quality organization SASO-GSO-1016. Of the 82 samples of fresh-cut produce, 7% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits. TPC count was unsatisfactory at 22%, coliform at 48%, and Staphylococcus aureus at 4%. For 108 samples for fresh salads, 11% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits,13%, 27%, 4%, and 27% of samples showed an unsatisfactory range of TPC, coliforms, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The fresh-cut produce and salads were microbiologically safe in the central region compared to the eastern region followed by the western region. The relatively higher count was found in green pepper, mixed vegetables, and lettuce followed by fresh-cut onions and coleslaw salads. No Salmonella was detected in both fresh-cut produce and salads. The restaurants should be more stringent in their processing to ensure the consumer safety. Washing and sanitization of produce is the only way to reduce the diffusion of food borne pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0793.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Food insecurity, Food insufficiency, Household Hunger, Coping Strategy, COVID-19, Pandemic
Online: 2 September 2021 (15:13:20 CEST)
The present study measured household hunger in South-East Nigeria amidst COVID-19 lockdown. A total of 1209 households (urban and rural locations) were sampled. Household hunger was determined using Radimer/Cornel hunger scale, while Chi-square test was done with significance of P<0.05. Results of this study revealed 82.7% prevalence of hunger among households before Covid-19 pandemic, while during Covid-19 lockdown, hunger prevalence rose to 98.6%. It was also observed that covid-19 lockdown significantly affected food prices.The major coping strategy employed by households was relying on less expensive foods (81.14%). High household hunger was identified as a short term cost of Covid-19 lockdown in Southeast Nigeria. Only few households benefited from the food aid programs and other forms of palliatives by Government. It is recommended that the Government should setup a formidable unit which will develop physical and digital plans for effective implemention during Covid-19 lockdown situation or other emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0301.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Food and non-food inflation; Threshold; TAR model; Economic Growth; Ethiopia
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:32:13 CET)
Economists have long been interested in examining inflation-growth nexus. Nevertheless, the nature of their relationship and the optimal level of inflation threshold for economic growth have still remained controversial in both theoretical and empirical works. Accordingly, this study investigates the existence of threshold effects of inflation on economic growth in Ethiopia over the period 1975-2018 using a Two-regime Threshold Auto-regressive (TAR) model. The study mainly departs from previous works since it estimates sector-specific inflation threshold level in food and non-food sectors. Our preliminary analyses clearly reveal that inflation in food sector has become more volatile, less-persistent and key contributor to the general inflation as compared to its non-food counterpart. Further, The TAR model results and robustness checks indicate the existence of inflation threshold in a range of 9-10%. In particular, the threshold level for food inflation is 10% and 8% for non-food inflation. In all cases, our results robustly confirm growth-detrimental effects of inflation after the threshold levels. After all, this study suggests the need for considering specific behaviors of food and non-food prices, and implementing appropriate fiscal and monetary policies to bring inflation down to a single-digit level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: High homogenization pressure; food functionality; bioactive components; agri-food waste; sustainability
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:39:05 CEST)
The interest in high homogenization pressure technology has grown over the years. It is a green technology with low energy consumption, not generating high CO2 emissions or polluting effluents. The main food applications derive from its effect on particle size, causing a more homogeneous distribution of fluid elements (particles, globules, droplets, aggregates, etc.) and favouring the release of intracellular components; and its effect on the structure and configuration of chemical components such as polyphenols and macromolecules such as carbohydrates (fibres) and proteins (also microorganisms and enzymes). The challenges of the 21st century lead food industry processing towards obtaining food with high nutritional quality and taking advantage of waste to obtain ingredients with specific properties. For this purpose, soft and non-thermal technologies such as high pressures homogenization have a huge potential. The objective of this work is to review how the need to combine safety, functionality and sustainability in food industry has conditioned the last decade applications of high-pressure homogenization technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: alternative food; resilient food; distributed production; edible plants; existential risk; food security; global catastrophic risk; leaf concentrate; leaf protein; non-target screening; resilience; sustainable food systems; toxins
Online: 19 January 2023 (01:57:51 CET)
In the event of an abrupt sunlight reduction scenario there is a time window that occurs between when food stores would likely run out for many countries (~6 months or less) and ~1 year when resilient foods are scaled up. A promising temporary resilient food is leaf protein concentrate (LPC). Although it is possible to extract LPC from tree biomass (e.g. leaves and needles), neither the yields nor the toxicity of the protein concentrates for humans from the most common tree species has been widely investigated. To help fill this knowledge gap, this study uses high-resolution mass spectrometry and an open source toolchain for non-targeted screening of toxins on five common North American coniferous species: Western Cedar, Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine, Western Hemlock, and Lodgepole Pine. The yields for LPC extraction from the conifers ranged from 1% to 7.5%. The toxicity screenings confirm that these trees may contain toxins that can be consumed in small amounts and additional studies including measuring the quantity of each toxin are needed. The results indicate that LPC is a promising candidate to be used as resilient food, but future work is needed before LPCs from conifers can be used as a wide-scale human food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1899.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Ultrasound; safety; food; traceability
Online: 30 November 2023 (04:29:45 CET)
Background The falsification of food products is a practice that has always been with mankind. Initially, it stemmed from the need to satisfy basic needs, and then from the desire for profit, at the expense of the health and sometimes the lives of consumers. Today, food safety issues are becoming a priority in consumers' daily lives. It is estimated that one in four food products is falsified. Man has lost the ability to naturally identify healthy food. He has therefore begun to prioritise the speed and ease of its preparation at the expense, often of health. The techniques currently available for detecting falsification are inaccessible to the ordinary consumer. The technique proposed by the authors is the beginning of a publicly available method for detecting falsification. Scope and approach Currently, instrumental or sensory methods are used to assess the authenticity, and therefore identification, of foods. The former are expensive and time-consuming and the latter are unobjective. The authors proposed a method using ultrasound with parameters that are neutral to the material to be tested. The technique allows results to be obtained in times measured in microseconds without destroying the material under test, saving costs. Three differently weighted groups of beers were used for the study. These were industrial, regional and domestic beers. Main findings and conclusions The results of the study indicate that the ultrasonic method is useful for the non-destructive identification of industrial and regional beers, which are produced using different technologies and differ in composition. The method analysed was not suitable for separating homebrew beers from other types of beer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0795.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: food; microbiota; diet; health
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:24:05 CEST)
Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in the topic of gut health and food, revealing a complex interplay that affects many facets of human health beyond just digestion. This in-depth overview investigates crucial aspects of this connection, illuminating issues including the effects of processed meals, the advantages of fermented foods, individualized diets, and the harmonious relationship between gut bacteria and dietary components. In this article, we'll take a look at how processed foods affect your digestive system, and how their convenience might backfire by upsetting your body's delicate microbial balance. The effects of these diets have been studied, and the results suggest that there may be disruptions in microbial diversity, inflammation, and metabolic health. Instead, fermented foods are explored as potential allies in the fight for gut health. These foods' high probiotic content not only improves digestion and nutrition absorption, but may also have an effect on one's state of mind. There is growing evidence that eating fermented foods can help you maintain a healthy and robust gut microbiome. Recognizing that everyone has a different gut microbiota composition, the idea of individualized nutrition has come to the forefront. One novel strategy for improving digestive health is to provide nutritional advice based on a person's unique microbial profile. This paper looks at how microbiome testing can be combined with professional advice to create food programs that feed specific bacteria communities, improving both diversity and health. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the reciprocal interaction between dietary choices and the gut microbiota, and the significant impact that gut health has on numerous aspects of human health. The more we learn about the complexities of this interplay, the more we can take a holistic approach to nutrition, one that respects the uniqueness of each person's gut microbiome and encourages healthy eating habits. By taking a more all-encompassing view, we are reminded of the critical function of the gut microbiota in determining our health and of the significance of fostering this nuanced symbiotic connection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0556.v1
Online: 25 August 2020 (13:42:09 CEST)
This paper analyzes calorie consumption in Vietnam using the household survey data. The data suggest that food insecurity is still a major problem in Vietnam, with nearly 40 percent of the population being unable to meet their calorie requirement. Employing nonparametric and parametric estimation techniques, the paper examines the relationship between household calorie consumption and per capita household expenditure in Vietnam. The analysis indicates a positive and significant relationship between per capita expenditure and per capita calorie consumption. The mean calorie elasticity is estimated to be between 0.21 and 0.31 by the parametric method and 0.20 by non-parametric method. In addition, simulated income and food price changes indicate that undernutrition is very responsive to changes in income and food prices
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0136.v1
Online: 31 October 2016 (07:59:32 CET)
Food is one of the basic necessities for all living things in this globe to grow, maintain life and develop. It is a source of energy for almost all bodily functions and it directly affects our health status and how we feel each day and the future. Yet, there are millions of people around the globe who do not have the sumptuousness to provide enough food to themselves and their beloved ones. Ethiopia is one of the highly food insecure countries in the world, it's name has been illustrious for famine and drought for decades. The study's main aim is to assess the livelihood resources and strategies of the smallholding farmers in their strive to achieve food security at household level. For this particular study, from Tigray region, Kilte Awelalo was taken as a study area and three Tabias were selected; Ayenalem, Genfel and Tahetay Adikesanded. The total sample number of households from these three Tabias was 370 and a formal interview schedule was employed to collect relevant primary inputs for the study. The study found that farmland holding size and its fertility as major impacting factors behind the livelihood strategies and food security condition of the smallholding farmers. It was also found that about one third of the total sample population were chronically food insecure, whereas about half of the population were transitory food insecure and rest very little number of households were food secure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0947.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: food grinding； Brandt’s voles； food restriction； short-chain fatty acids； fecal microbiota
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:05:05 CEST)
Food-grinding occurs in rodents and is influenced by multiple-factors. However, the factors affecting this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of food restriction on food grinding by Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii), as well as the potential role of the gut microbiota in this process, through a comparison of the variations between voles with different food supplies. Food restriction reduced the relative amount of ground food to a greater extent than it lowered the relative food consumption, and altered the abundance of Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Jeotgalicoccus, and Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1. Strong correlations between the ground-to-consumed food ratio and the abundance of fecal microbiota were found for Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1 and Aerococcus. The content of fecal acetate and propionate for the 7.5 g-food supply group was lower than that for the 15 g-food supply group. Further, the relative amount of ground food and ground-to-consumed food ratio were both positively correlated with the acetate content. Our study indicated that food restriction can effectively inhibit food grinding. Further, Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1 abundance, Aerococcus abundance, and acetate content were strongly related to food grinding. Variations in gut microbial abundance and metabolite short-chain fatty acid content induced by food restriction likely promote the inhibition of food grinding. These results could potentially provide guidance for reducing food waste during laboratory rodent maintenance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1332.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: child nutrition; dietary record; food groups; food intake; recommendations; dietary guidelines; kindergarten
Online: 21 July 2023 (03:16:14 CEST)
Data show that preschoolers consume few vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts. We investigated whether a properly planned kindergarten menu can contribute to optimized daily intake of healthy foods. In this cross-sectional experimental study, we designed a 5-day prototype kindergarten menu with consistently followed dietary guidelines and randomly divided six invited kindergartens into a prototype group that received the prototype menu (PG, n=4) and a control group that used their regular menu (CG, n=2). From the participating kindergartens, we invited healthy 5-6-year-old children to participate. Outside of kindergarten, participants ate as usual. All completed a 7-day dietary record of foods consumed inside and outside of kindergarten. We used the Dietary Assessment Tool OPEN to analyze the average daily intake of seven food groups and compare it to the dietary guidelines. Fifty-seven participants completed the study, 40 from PG and 17 from CG. The average daily intake of vegetables (54% vs. 28%), whole grains (100% vs. 47%), and nuts (104% vs. 4%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in participants from PG compared with guideline recommendations than in participants from CG. Average daily intake of fruits, meats, dairy products, and refined grains did not differ significantly between study groups. Only kindergarten diet made a significant contribution, as intake outside of kindergarten did not show significant differences. The study demonstrates the importance of a well-planned menu in kindergartens and can serve as a basis for future interventions aimed at improving the nutritional environment in childcare facilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Traditional food crops; Climate change; Food security; Omics; Translational genomics; Gene editing
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:02:24 CEST)
The indigenous communities across the globe especially in the rural areas consume locally available plants known as Traditional Food Plants (TFPs) for their nutritional and health-related needs. Recent research shows that many of the traditional food plants are highly nutritious as they contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, mineral elements and other nutrients. Excessive reliance on the mainstream staple crops has its own disadvantages. TFPs are nowadays considered important crops of the future and can act as supplementary foods for the burgeoning global population. They can also act as emergency foods in times of pandemics and other situations like COVID-19. The current situation necessitates locally available alternative nutritious TFPs for sustainable food production. To increase the cultivation or improve the traits in TFPs, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of the genes that regulate some important traits such as nutritional components and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. The integrated use of modern omics and gene editing technologies provide great opportunities to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of superior nutrient content, climate-resilient traits and adaptation to local agroclimatic zones. Recently, realising the importance and benefits of TFPs, scientists have shown interest in the prospection and sequencing of traditional food plants for their improvements, further cultivation and mainstreaming. Integrated omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics are successfully used in plants and have provided a comprehensive understanding of gene-protein-metabolite networks. Combined use of omics and editing tools has led to successful editing of beneficial traits in few TFPs. This suggests that there is ample scope of integrated use of modern omics and editing tools/techniques for improvement of TFPs and their use for sustainable food production. In this article, we highlight the importance, scope and progress towards improvement of TFPs for valuable traits by integrated use of omics and gene editing techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: SDG12.3; food waste; food waste recycling law; recycling as feed; food waste reduction promotion act; Japan
Online: 4 December 2023 (07:53:53 CET)
SDG target 12.3 calls for halving food waste at retail, food service, and household by 2030. The food waste index for this purpose includes parts attached to food that are usually removed intentionally ("unavoidable food waste") and allows counting the conversion to animal feed and utilisation as biomaterial as means of reduction. In Japan, the "Food Waste Recycling Law" which has been in effect since 2001, promotes the recycling of food waste generated from businesses, designating feed conversion as top priority. On the other hand, based on the more recent "Food Loss Reduction Promotion Act" of 2019, the government is currently promoting the reduction of avoidable food waste, as to meet the SDG target. Based on statistical sources and interviews with Ministry officers, this paper explains the history and achievements of Japan's 23-year policy based on the Food Recycling Law, as well as the tension between the two legislations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0510.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: start-up; innovation ecosystem; food system; transformation; Germany; food science; entrepre-neurship; food technology; sustainable development goals; learning from other countries
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:14:06 CET)
The food system represents a key industry for Europe and particularly Germany. However, it is also the single most significant contributor to climate and environmental change. A food system transformation is necessary to overcome the system's major and constantly increasing challenges in the upcoming decades. One possible facilitator for this transformation are radical and disrup-tive innovations that start-ups develop. There are many challenges for start-ups in general and food start-ups in particular. Various support opportunities and resources are crucial to ensure the success of food start-ups. One aim of this study is to identify how the success of start-ups in the food system can be supported and further strengthened by players in the innovation ecosystem in Germany. There is still room for improvement and collaboration toward a thriving innovation ecosystem. A successful innovation ecosystem is characterised by a well-organised, collaborative, and supportive environment with a vivid exchange between the members in the ecosystem. The interviewees confirmed this, and although the different actors are already cooperating, there is still room for improvement. The most common recommendation for improving cooperation is learning from other countries and bringing the best to Germany.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1963.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: visible-signaling biosensor; localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR); food quality; food safety; nanotechnology
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:04:21 CET)
Ensuring safe, high-quality food is an ongoing priority, yet consumers face heightened risk from foodborne pathogens due to extended supply chains and climate change in food industry. Nanomaterial-based assays are popular and have recently been developed to ensure food safety and high quality. This review discusses strategies for using nanomaterials in colorimetric biosensors. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors are commonly utilized for colorimetric biosensing. Several emerging technologies aimed at simple and rapid immunoassays for onsite applications have been introduced in the food industry. In the foreseeable future, field-friendly colorimetric biosensors could be adopted in food monitoring systems. The onsite and real-time detection of possible contaminants and biological substances in food and water is essential to ensure human health safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D Food printing; Guar gum; Insect protein; Mealworm; Printability; Rheological properties; Space food
Online: 4 October 2023 (08:01:19 CEST)
Increasing the availability of alternative protein from insects is important to solving food shortages. Not only are insects a rich source of protein, the use of insect ingredi-ents can reduce food waste. Insects are thus a potentially valuable ingredient for food industries and even food eaten on deep-space missions. The three-dimensional produc-tion of food on space missions has gained attention owing to its potential to reduce au-tonomous food production and produce sustainable food for long-duration space mis-sions. This study investigated the printability and rheological properties of a high-protein food system derived from mealworms and guar gum used as a stabilizer to im-prove printability. Stability and rheological properties were analyzed for various print-ing parameters. The results indicate that as the guar gum concentration was increased from 0 to 1.75%, the yield stress of the mealworm paste increased from 39 to 1096 Pa. Increasing the guar gum concentration thus resulted in a mealworm paste that was more viscous, exhibited shear thinning behavior, could support itself and was thus more stable. In summary, introducing guar gum resulted in a mealworm paste with rheological properties more suitable for printing in terms of printability and stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: biocultural conservation; expectation theory; extrinsic cues; food neophobia; sustainable extractivism; wild food plants
Online: 14 July 2023 (10:29:25 CEST)
Despite the global richness of food plants, only a small portion is used as food for humans. Although most wild food plants (WFPs) are underutilized as food, they can contribute to food security and biocultural conservation through sustainable management. The goal of this research was to identify the best terminological presentation of a novel food product and to understand the influences of the expectations on products with WFP. This research was conducted using an online questionnaire with a final national sample of 724 people. The participants answered questions about their socioeconomic profile, food neophobia, prior knowledge, and expectations regarding the taste and appropriateness of native fruit juices. The questions were randomized so that a person would not receive the same picture or product name more than once. The results show that taste expectancy decreases in relation to products associated with WFP names and forest environments. Food neophobia is the variable that influences expectations the most. To ensure biocultural conservation and cultural valuation, WFP popularization programs should maintain the original (popular) name of the species. However, to help more distant consumers develop familiarity, the flavor, shape, color, or texture of these products can be associated with those of conventional plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: RBAC; Biobran/MGN-3; microbiome; prebiotic; functional food; diet; Australian Recommended Food Score
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:42:08 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of modified rice bran arabinoxylan compound (RBAC) as a dietary supplement on the gut microbiota of healthy adults. Ten volunteers supplemented their diet with 1g of RBAC for six weeks and 3g of RBAC for another six weeks, with a three-week washout period. Faecal samples were collected every 3 weeks over 21 weeks. Microbiota from faecal samples were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing. Assessment of alpha and beta microbiota diversity was performed using the QIIME2 platform. The results revealed that alpha and beta diversity were not associated with the experimental phase, interventional period, RBAC dosage, or time. However, statistical significance of participant was detected in alpha (p<0.002) and beta (weighted unifrac, p=0.001) diversity. Explanatory factors including age and diet were significantly associated with alpha (p<0.05) and beta (p<0.01) diversity. The individual beta diversity of six participants significantly changed (p<0.05) during the interventional period. Seven participants showed statistically significant taxonomic changes (ANCOM W≥5). These results classified four participants as responders to RBAC supplementation, with a further two participants likely responders. In conclusion, the gut microbiome is highly individualised and modulated by RBAC as a dietary supplement, dependent on lifestyle and dietary intake
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Food reward; Liking; Wanting; Food preferences; Bariatric surgery; Eating behavior; Total Weight Loss
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:49:34 CET)
Changes in food preferences after bariatric surgery may alter its effectiveness as a treatment for obesity. We aimed to compare food reward for a comprehensive variety of food categories between patients who received a sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and to explore whether food reward differs according to weight loss. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, food reward was assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). We assessed liking and wanting of eleven food categories. Comparisons were done regarding type of surgery and Total Weight Loss (TWL; based on tercile distribution). Fifty-six patients (30 SG and 26 RYGB) were included (women: 70%; age: 44.0 (11.1) y). Regarding the type of surgery, scores were not significantly different between SG and RYGB, except for ‘non-dairy products – without color’ explicit liking (p = 0.04). Regarding TWL outcomes, explicit liking, explicit wanting and implicit wanting, scores were significantly higher for Good responders than Low responders for ‘No meat – High fat’ (post-hoc corrected p-value: 0.04, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Together, our results failed to identify major differences in liking and wanting regarding the type of surgery and tended to indicate that higher weight loss might be related to a higher reward for high protein-content food. Rather to focus only on palatable foods, future studies should also consider a broader range of food items, including protein reward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: COVID-19; Corona virus; Aquatic food system; Food security; Small-scale fisheries; Bangladesh
Online: 12 June 2020 (08:25:09 CEST)
COVID-19 is now a major global health crisis, can lead to severe food crisis unless proper measures are not taken. Though a number of scientific studies have addressed the possible impacts of COVID-19 in Bangladesh on variety of issues, problems and food crises associated with aquatic resources and communities are missing. Therefore, this study aimed at bridging the gap in the existing situation and challenges of COVID-19 by linking its impact on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries with dependent population. The study was conducted based on secondary data analysis and primary fieldwork. Secondary data focused on COVID-19 overview and number of confirmed, recovered and death cases in Bangladesh; at the same time its connection with small-scale fisheries, aquatic food production, demand and supply was analyzed. Community perceptions were elicited to present how the changes felt and how they affected aquatic food system and small-scale fisheries and found devastating impact. Sudden illness, reduced income, complication to start production and input collection, labor crisis, transportation abstraction, complexity in food supply, weak value chain, low consumer demand, rising commodity prices, creditor’s pressure were identified as the primary affecting drivers. Dependent people felt the measures taken by the Government should be based on protecting the health and food security, although it could be detrimental to economic growth in the short term. The study provides insight into policies adopted by the policy makers to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Listeria spp.; food; food contact surfaces; genotyping; virulence genes; toxin-antitoxin system mazEF
Online: 29 January 2020 (03:42:54 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the hazards posed by foodborne bacteria of the Listeria genus by analyzing prevalence, diversity and virulence of Listeria spp. in food and food manufacturing plants. Seventy five isolates obtained from the routine analysis of 653 samples by three diagnostic laboratories in Northern Italy were genotipically differentiated by Repetitive Extragenic Palindrome (rep) PCR with the GTG5 primer, identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and examined by specific PCR tests for the presence of L. monocytogenes virulence determinants occasionally found to occur in other species of the genus. The identity of the amplification products was confirmed by sequencing. Fifty seven isolates were identified as L. innocua, 12 as L. monocytogenes, 5 as L. welshimeri and one as L. seeligeri. All L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to the serotype 1/2a and were predicted to be virulent for the presence of the inlJ internalin gene. Potentially virulent strains of L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri, carrying the L. monocytogenes inlA gene and/or hly gene, were identified, and most isolates were found to possess the toxin-antitoxin system mazEF for efficient adaptation to heat shock. Results indicated the need to reinforce food contamination prevention measures against all Listeria species by efficiently defining their environmental distribution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0125.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: business models; business model innovation; food supply chain; food security; systematic literature review
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:41:18 CET)
This paper investigates the contribution of business model innovations in improvement of food supply chains. Through a systematic literature review, the notable business model innovations in the food industry are identified, surveyed, and evaluated. Findings reveal that the innovations in value proposition, value creation processes, and value delivery processes of business models are the successful strategies proposed in food industry. It is further disclosed that rural female entrepreneurs, social movements, and also urban conditions are the most important driving forces inducing the farmers to reconsider their business models. In addition, the new technologies and environmental factors are the secondary contributors in business model innovation for the food processors. It is concluded that digitalization has disruptively changed the food distributors models. E-commerce models and internet of things are reported as the essential factors imposing the retailers to innovate their business models. Furthermore, the consumption demand and the product quality are two main factors affecting the business models of all the firms operating in the food supply chain regardless of their positions in the chain. The findings of the current study provide an insight into the food industry to design a sustainable business model to bridge the gap between food supply and food demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0251.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: monolithic column; porous shell column; food additive; dye; food colorant; chromatography; fast chromatography
Online: 9 November 2018 (15:32:18 CET)
Food analysis demands fast methods for routine control and high throughput of samples. Chromatographic separation enables simultaneous determination of numerous compounds in complex matrices, several approaches increasing separation efficiency and speed of analysis were involved. In this work, modern types of column with monolithic rod or superficially porous particles were employed and compared for determination of eight synthetic food dyes, their chromatographic performance was evaluated. During method optimization, cyano stationary phase Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm and Ascentis Express ES-CN 100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm were selected for the separation of polar colorants. The separation was performed by gradient elution of acetonitrile/methanol and 2% water solution of ammonium acetate at flow rate 2.0 ml min-1. Mobile phase composition and the gradients were optimized in order to enable efficient separation on both columns. The method using fused-core particle column provided higher separation efficiency, narrow peaks of analytes resulted in increased peak capacity and shortening of analysis time. After the validation, the method was applied for analysis of colored beers, soft drinks and candies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0042.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: products labeling; organic food products labeling; labeling innovation; sustainable food consumption; buying decision
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:10:20 CEST)
The present context regarding development of the food products trade at European Union level presumes manifestation of some tendencies and challenges meant to claim at the highest level the adaptation capacity of economical agents - both producers and traders. Among these we can take into account their need to comply with organic product labeling standards as an integral part of food products safety policies at Union level. In order to be able to implement a proper label type, not only from the point of view of standards but especially from the perspective given by the consumers perception and motivation toward a healthy sustainable food consumption, producers have to constantly innovate, to find new design solutions for food products labels. This article propose an exploratory research in the form of a field survey that highlights the perceptions of Romanian and Serbian consumers, altogether from the urban environment in relation to organic food labeling and how they influence purchasing decision-making. A random number of 373 Serbian consumers’ questionnaires, respectively 1262 Romanian consumers’ questionnaires have been validated, the results showing interesting results from the point of view of national consumption profile differences due to different cultural, economic and social factors as well as different levels of integration within European economy for the both countries. Main conclusions of the research stress the fact that perceptions regarding organic food products labels are constructed around variables like: type of information to appear within the label, category of information that are missing from labels, degree of producers interest in proper labeling of organic food products, relevance of the information on the organic food labels as regards the decision to purchase the products etc. Conclusions propose some possible developments for innovative future characteristics for organic food products labels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: campus dining; food purchases; food environment, univerity dining environment; more healthful; less healthful
Online: 20 February 2018 (15:34:07 CET)
The purpose of this study is to determine the availability of "more healthful" (MH) versus "less healthful" (LH) entrée items in the campus dining and if students' purchases are reflective of what is offered. This is an observational study in which students' purchases of the available entrée items in the campus dining at a Midwestern university in one academic year were collected and categorized as either MH or LH according to the American Heart Association guidelines. Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences between the proportion of purchased MH and LH versus those available. Odds ratio estimates with 95% confidence limits were used to determine the associations between the demographics and MH and LH purchases. Of the total entrée items available, 15.0% were MH and 85.0% were LH. In the fall, 8.0% of purchases were MH and 92.0% purchases were LH as compared to 8.9% MH and 91.1% LH in the spring. Whites were less likely than non-whites to purchase a MH entrée. Females were two times more likely to choose MH entrées than males. The campus dining offerings and students' purchases of entrees were primarily LH. Work with campus dining providers to create profitable, yet healthful, dining entrees is needed to improve the healthfulness of entrée offerings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0776.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: food analysis; health; physical chemistry
Online: 12 October 2023 (09:45:56 CEST)
Cheese consumption provides humans with minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins. In Mexico, several cheese varieties are produced, each with its texture, scent, and flavor. The artisanal cheeses made in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas —including, among others, the varieties named crema (cream), doble crema (double cream), oaxaca, panela, fresco, bola, poro, Cotija, and asadero— have a high demand in the domestic and foreign markets. The intensification of anthropic activity in these states causes an increased emission to the environment of contaminants like heavy metals, which could reach human foodstuffs through the food chains. In particular, heavy metal contents in cheeses consumed daily by these states' local population might represent a public health risk. Because of that, our objectives in this work were to determine the concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, and iron in artisanal cheeses produced in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and to determine the values of the Hazard Quotient (HQ), Total Hazard Quotient (THQ), and Cancer Risk Total (CRT) for adult and young men and women. The results of our analyses of cheese samples from the states of Tabasco and Chiapas showed that the average concentrations (mg kg-1) of cadmium (0.0023±0.002, 0.0023±0.002 mg kg-1, respectively for each state), lead (0.0047±0.00, 0.0051±0.002), nickel (0.0039±0.0046, 0.0031±0.0039), copper (0.0199±0.021, 0.0202±0.022), zinc (0.1611±0.18, 0.194±0.21), and iron (61.84±4.23, 65.76±6.61 mg kg-1), the first three values lower than the limits established by the FAO/WHO and Codex Alimentarius. The value of THQ that we obtained was less than one, and that of CRT was within the limits established by the US-EPA, which means that the consumption of artisanal cheeses from Tabasco and Chiapas by humans does not imply a risk of disease or cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1972.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: heavy metals; uranium; contaminated food
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:12:51 CEST)
The rapid technological development of society determined increased demand for safe potable water and food resources. Unfortunately, this progress causes complex environmental pollution, that is continuously challenging the scholars’ community. Therefore, it is important to chemically analyze the food for a better understanding of pollution-spreading mechanisms. Our study is focused on food analysis originating from Vatra Dornei City, which belongs to Suceava County in the Bukovina region of Romania. It represents a well-known Romanian spa and ski resort in the northern parts of the Oriental Carpathians Mountains. The mountain region owns a lot of mineral resources, mainly consisting of mineral and sparkling waters, uranium, manganese, copper, pyrite, chalcopyrite, polymetallic ores, baryte, gold and silver-bearing orebodies, etc. The present contribution aims to point out the results obtained from the analysis of soil, water and food samples collected from the local markets. The food samples consisted of lettuce, spinach, apples, pork (smoked) chicken meat (raw), milk and cheese. Last year the survey was conducted over six months. The results highlighted that the mining activities carried out during time caused environmental pollution with uranium and heavy metals due to the waste heaps’ weathering phenomena and tailing ponds’ presence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0862.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: decontamination; food; UVC; threshold; irradiation
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:37:05 CEST)
Cross-contamination poses a pervasive challenge within the realm of food production. The propagation of infections is recognized to occur in an uncontrolled manner. Given the essential nature of food for human sustenance, the domain necessitates stringent control over contamination and cross-contamination due to the perilous potential for severe intoxication. In the context of managing biological contamination in fresh food items, commencing from production and extending to the final consumable, the utilization of chemicals must be judiciously limited to avert adverse effects. This biochemical approach, however, engenders environmental and health quandaries attributable to the incessant employment and discharge of such materials. The present research is centered upon demonstrating, at a laboratory scale, a process involving the leaching of plants, accompanied by the application of UVC irradiation during this procedure. This obviates the necessity for chemical solutions. The empirical findings showcased that subjecting the solution utilized for vegetable washing to UV irradiation rendered it 99 % microorganism-free in vegetables and 99.999% in the water component. This attests to efficacious decontamination, resource conservation, and mitigation of discharge-associated predicaments. The mathematical model precisely characterizes the behaviors manifested in the empirical data, thereby establishing a close correspondence with the kinetics law equation. Grasping the fundamental mechanisms and articulating them enables the enhancement of optimization and seamless integration of this approach to combat cross-contamination with heightened efficacy. This approach to addressing cross-contamination holds significant promise, underscoring its pivotal role in elevating food safety measures and ameliorating environmental repercussions. Envisioning the implementation of these practices at an industrial scale carries the potential to yield substantial dividends in terms of public health and sustainable practices
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nitrate; nitrite; nitrosamine; food additive
Online: 21 June 2023 (16:41:15 CEST)
Nitrate and nitrite are the most extensively used food additives in the food industry for their multifunctional properties, and they have been in the spotlight for decades for its controversial back effects. The conversion of nitrate and nitrite to various nitroso compounds, specifically N-nitrosamine raises the question of the integrity of these additives. Nitrosamine is a well-known carcinogen and mutagen. A large number of studies demonstrate the carcinogenic effects of these salts. Are these findings credible? Nonetheless, the regulatory agencies approve its usage; is it biased? Are we feeding on the carcinogens in processed foods? The current work provides an insight into the basic and toxicological findings of the food additives -nitrate and nitrite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Native collagen; Osteoarthritis; Food Supplement
Online: 16 June 2023 (14:04:29 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of pain and disability in adults. Dietary supplements such as undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) have shown to have some benefits in OA treatment. This study aimed to assess changes in pain levels among knee OA patients treated with UC-II for 6 months. Patients with knee OA of any grade were given a daily 40 mg dose of UC-II (CondroArtil®) as a dietary supplement for 6 months. Pain levels were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) before starting UC-II 6 months thereafter. A total of 100 patients (62/38: male/female) with a mean age of 46.3 ± 13.8 years participated in the study. Most patients (60%) had mild to moderate OA (grade I or II). The UC-II supplementation was shown to significantly reduce pain levels (p<0.001) with a negative correlation between pain reduction and age (p=0.006) and BMI (p=0.049). The OA severity also affected pain reduction (p=0.011), with grade II OA experiencing higher pain levels. Previous physical therapy and food supplements had a significant impact on pain reduction (p=0.017 and p=0.012, respectively). The study suggests that UC-II is an effective treatment for reducing pain in patients with knee OA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitosan; polyelectrolyte complexes; food packaging
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:38:20 CEST)
The current challenges in the food packaging field are, on one side, replacing plastic from non-renewable sources with biopolymers and, on the other hand, generating a packaging material with attractive properties for the consumer. Nowadays, the consumer is concerned ecologically; the food packaging industry must ahead satisfy their needs. In this sense, incorporating several compounds with properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, or nutraceutical properties results attractive for the consumers. However, many of these properties can be diminished, so an encapsulation system is required. A good encapsulating system is crucial for these purposes, so polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) can be used with that finality. Nowadays, PECs are eye-catching in many fields because of their fascinating properties, which make them very attractive, mainly for being used as encapsulating systems. Hence, this paper reviews the use of PECs in food packaging where chitosan forms polyelectrolyte complexes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0468.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Irrigation; Food Security; Poverty; Ethiopia; SDG
Online: 16 February 2023 (04:13:29 CET)
Ethiopia has 74.3 million hectares of arable land and an irrigation potential of 3,088,395 hectares. Despite the country's vast irrigation potential, it hasn’t benefited much. A huge percentage of Ethiopia’s population is currently food insecure and a very significant portion lives under the national poverty line. Studies have confirmed the role of irrigation in alleviating poverty and promoting food security. Irrigation plays a huge role in poverty reduction, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia where agriculture is the backbone of the economy and the major source of employment. Irrigation does so by boosting farmer incomes, improving crop productivity, providing more employment and better pay rate, and contributing to the national GDP in the long run. Irrigation also promotes food security by contributing to all the dimensions including, food availability, access to food, food utilization, and stability. Given such importance of irrigation in poverty and hunger alleviation, it’s believed that the development of the sector massively contributes to the realization of sustainable development goals (SDG). Hence, this article voices the need for exploiting the huge irrigation potential and improving the irrigation sector, in order for the country to pull its population out of the misery of hunger and poverty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0430.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cat; Tehran; weight loss; food access; waste reduction
Online: 13 October 2022 (11:34:42 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of reducing the amount of organic waste on the weight of cats in Tehran. The weight of 4192 cats was measured from spring 2016 to the end of winter 2020. They were classified into 6 age groups, 2 gender groups, and 13 geographical areas. Their weight was measured for 48 months (16 seasons). The statistical parameters analysis showed no weight loss in 2017, but since 2018, cats have been losing weight every year. They had lost about 178g of their weight in 2018. The sharpest annual decrease was observed in 2019 when about 301g of weight loss was recorded. In the winter of 2020, 115g of weight loss took place. In the spring of 2017, no weight change was observed, but in the spring of 2018, the cats lost 155g of their weight. Their weight loss intensified in the spring of 2019 and about 299g of weight loss was observed. In the summer of 2017, as in the spring of the same year, no weight loss was recorded, but for the summer of 2018, the weight loss was evident and about 205g of the weight of the cats had been reduced. The weight loss in the summer of 2019 not only continued but intensified and about 304g of weight loss was recorded for cats. Weight change was not observed in the fall of 2017 as in the spring and summer of the same year. In the fall of 2018, weight loss was recorded for cats. They had lost about 324g of their weight in the fall of 2018. Also, they experienced a weight loss of about 218g in the fall of 2019. During the spring, summer, and autumn of 2017, no weight loss was observed in the cats for the winter of 2018, but in the winter of 2019, the cats faced the most severe weight loss (seasonally). They lost about 401g of weight in the winter of 2019. Of course, in the winter of 2020, about 186g of weight loss was observed in cats. The results showed that female cats did not lose weight in 2017 but experienced weight loss in 2018 with a weight loss of 181g. The weight loss of females intensified in 2019 and 294g of weight loss was recorded. Female cats lost 186g of their weight in the winter of 2020. Male cats did not lose weight like female cats in 2017. But in 2018, a weight loss of 166g was observed in male cats. The weight loss of male cats continued in 2019 and 311g of weight loss was recorded for them. However, in 2020, unlike females, weight loss was not observed in male cats. It can be said that both sexes lost more weight in the winter of 2019 than in other seasons. In 2017, weight loss was observed only for the region of 10, and in the same year, weight gain was recorded for the region of 15. But in 2018, except for regions 3, 4, 15, and 19, weight loss was observed in other regions. In 2019, the weight loss of cats spread and weight loss was observed in all regions except the region of 12. In winter 2020, weight loss was recorded only in the region of 4. In the end, it can be concluded that the weight of cats has decreased since the spring of 2018 because the beginning of the decrease in the amount of organic waste has been recorded since the winter of 2018. So, there is a direct relationship between the weight of cats and the amount of organic waste (access to food). The amount of garbage has been decreasing since the winter of 2018, and the average weight of cats has also been decreasing since the spring of 2018 due to the decrease in access to food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Agroecology; territorial agroecologycal food systems.
Online: 2 June 2021 (07:20:43 CEST)
The health emergency caused by Covid 19 highlighted the food dependency of many cities in the world and Cali and the cities of Valle del Cauca were no exception as they depended on food flows from other regions and countries, so these Entities are part of the corporate food system, to which their rulers delegated food security for their inhabitants. In the same territory and for the last nine years, a second-level organization has been consolidating that brings together 14 peasant agroecological markets and that despite strict confinement measures was able to continue supplying food to consumers in the municipalities of influence that have supported this initiative. The foregoing leads to think that said organization can become a platform for an agroecological food system of regional scope, for which the characteristics that said system should have according to a model based on the principles of agroecology were evaluated.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Food waste, recycling, construction materials
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:01:15 CEST)
Highlights: A new material with a bending strength higher than that of concrete was developed using vegetable or fruit waste. The new material maintains the color, taste, and flavor of the original vegetable or fruit. Without water resistant treatment, the material is edible and can be conditioned with seasonings
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0153.v2
Online: 13 January 2021 (11:06:00 CET)
This study clearly shows that the corona pandemic has a significant impact on consumers’ eating habits. More food is eaten overall, and more convenience products such as ready meals and canned food with a longer shelf life are purchased. The consumption of alcohol and confectionery has also increased. In return, the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables has declined. It becomes clear that families who are financially affected by the pandemic represent a vulnerable group. With the increasing duration of the pandemic, repeated lockdowns, corona-related closings of schools and kindergartens, health consequences are to be expected in the medium to long term, especially for this population group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: texture; cross cultural; food preference
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:16:23 CEST)
Texture has long been considered an important attribute for food acceptance. However, which specific textural characteristics contribute to overall acceptance of a food is not well understood. It has been suggested that texture contrasts and combinations are a universal feature in giving foods a desirable texture, yet this notion is largely based upon anecdotal data. This study uses multiple survey research methods to assess the importance of texture contrast and combinations across cultures (Poland, U.S.A., and Singapore). Participants (n = 288) completed a survey that included overt measures of food texture contrast importance as well as free response questions regarding texture. The overall importance of texture for food liking was not different across the populations. However, the participants from Singapore and Poland gave more importance to a desirable food having multiple textures than the U.S.A. cohort. When looking at free responses, participants were twice as likely to mention combinations (multiple textures) with a texture contrast when describing foods they liked, in comparison to foods they disliked. This was observed across all 3 cultures. However, the type and quantity of texture terms used within combinations were different among cultures. For instance, Asians enjoyed more texturally diverse food combinations than the other two cultures. These findings highlight the importance of texture contrasts and combinations in three distinct cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0229.v1
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:29:32 CEST)
The goal of the project was to gain an understanding of the secondary school youth experience with food literacy and school gardens on their mental well-being. Over the course of five months, sixteen youth participated in a photovoice research project in which they expressed their personal experiences about food and gardening through photography and writing. The aspects of secondary school youths’ life experiences affected by exposure to food literacy and school gardens and their impact upon their well-being were identified. These included emotions and feelings, having a safe place, nutrition and relaxation. The youth explicitly connected relaxation with the themes of love and connectedness, growing food, garden as a place, cooking, and food choices. This was linked to nature, beauty, environment and sustainability. Youth clubs or groups were also identified as a key enabler for connection. Youth shared their food literacy experiences, observing that their engagement improved some aspect of their mental well-being. They identified food literacy and gardens as being the most important to mental well-being including: connecting, personal health and personal growth. The youth recognized that connecting comes from having community, relationships and respect. Fostering opportunities for food literacy such as growing and preparing food contributes to resiliency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0188.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: resilience; participation; planning; food systems
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:55:45 CET)
Resilience has emerged as a buzzword among researchers and practitioners. However, despite its popularity, there has been little progress in moving it from an elaborate metaphor describing an idyllic state of the system to a tool for planning and managing adaptation. While case study research is rich with examples of systems that have proven to be resilient or are striving to develop resilience, there is no defined approach that operationalises concepts described in the literature into the planning process. This paper helps close this gap by illustrating how facilitated modelling can be used for resilience planning in socio-ecological systems. The paper summarizes our experience using facilitated system dynamics to inform a model-based discussion of food security resilience to climate change in Guatemala. We identify at least three positive outcomes from the intervention, which a) helped to build consensus about the meaning of resilience, b) improved stakeholders understanding of adaptation and c) outlined potential policies to enhance resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0029.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: hunting invasive locusts; food security; entomophagy; pest; entry of toxins into the food chain
Online: 2 February 2023 (04:35:05 CET)
Locust is a pest that attacks human and animal food and endangers national security by threatening food security. Spraying is the easiest and fastest way to deal with them. But the easiest way is not always the best way. With chemical resistance, not only will permanent immunity from locust attacks not arise, but they will also become resistant to poisons. While we have to pay billions of dollars annually for this strategy, we will also cause water and soil pollution. Therefore, the research results of other researchers were used and modeled to measure the possibility of hunting invasive locusts to investigate the possibility and benefits of this action. So, this study was conducted in the field method. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to hunt invasive locusts. If traps are placed on time and in the right place, the possibility of preserving crops after the pest attack increases by 2.3 times more in protected fields than in unprotected fields. By hunting locusts, fields and even pastures are preserved, poisons are prevented from entering the food chain and ecosystem, part of the economic loss of farmers affected by the invasion of locusts will be compensated, and by providing animal feed through hunting locusts, water consumption will be reduced, soil erosion and energy consumption are saved.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0420.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Non-targeted methods; method validation; food fraud; food authenticity; mass spectrometry; spectroscopy; NGS; NMR
Online: 23 May 2022 (11:10:00 CEST)
Through its suggestive name, non-targeted methods (NTMs) do not aim at a predefined "needle in the haystack". Instead, they exploit all the constituents of the haystack. This new form of analytical methods is increasingly finding applications in food and feed testing. However, the concepts, terms, and considerations related to this burgeoning field of analytical testing needs to be propagated for the benefit of ones associated in academic research, commercial development, and official control. This paper addresses the frequently asked questions around notations and terminologies surrounding NTMs. The widespread development and adoption of these methods also necessitates the need to develop approaches to NTM validation, i.e., evaluating the performance characteristics of a method to determine if it is fit-for-purpose. This work aims to provide a roadmap to approaching NTM validation. In doing so, the paper deliberates on the different considerations that influence the approach to validation and provides suggestions thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0632.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: school catering; sustainable food; public procurement; parents; children; food choices; involvement; Covid-19 pandemic.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:52:59 CEST)
This paper describes a research project carried out in an Italian public school to assess whether parents were willing to take part in food procurement decisions, as well as their ability to accurately predict what foods children would pick at school lunch and their propensity to support sustainable food choices made by the school. The methodology included a questionnaire to 500 parents and an in-depth study of 138 child/parent pairs. The study comprised: (i) presentation of an innovative recipe in the weekly menu of the school canteen; (ii) meal observations of children’s intake at school lunch during the week of the menu modification; (iii) collection of both parents’ and children’s reports on their choices of recipes from the modified weekly menu. The results are commented in light of two important changes that have recently affected Italian public school food procurement: the opening of school canteens to lunches brought from home and the measures adopted since 2020 to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. Both events go in the direction of delegating to parents the multifaceted role of the school in the food arena. The article concludes that the results of the study should discourage this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: polygenic risk; wellness; food frequency; principal component analysis; healthy eating index; obesity; food desert
Online: 7 July 2020 (02:36:11 CEST)
Diet influences, and is influenced by, a wide range of socioeconomic, cultural, geographic, and genetic variables. Here we survey a matrix of such interactions as well as their connection to a variety of health outcomes, in a cohort of 689 diverse adults employed at Emory University and enrolled in the Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB) study. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire revealed seven PC cumulatively explaining 25.8% and each individually at least 2% of the proportional consumption of 110 food items. PC1 is strongly correlated with the Healthy Eating Index-2015 measure, and accordingly healthier scores associate with multiple measures of physical and mental health. It, as well as PC2 (likely a measure of food expense) and PC3 (carbohydrate versus protein consumption) show significant geographic structure across the Atlanta metropolitan area, correlating with race and ethnicity, income level, age and sex. Notably, a polygenic score for body mass index (BMI) consisting of 281 SNPs explains 2.8% of the variance in PC5, which is as strong as its association with BMI itself. PC5 appears to differentiate participants with respect to conscious eating behavior related to the choice of diet or comfort foods. Our analysis adds to the growing literature on factor analysis of socio-demographic influences on nutrition and health.