REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: hemorrhagic shock; multimodal monitoring; individualized therapy; fluid therapy; critical care; trauma
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:56:33 CEST)
Worldwide, one of the main causes of death among young adults is multiple trauma. In these pa-tients hemorrhagic shock represents the leading cause for worsening of the clinical status and for increased morbidity and mortality. This is due to a multifactorial complex involving cellular, bi-ological, and biophysical mechanisms. The most important mechanisms affecting clinical out-come are oxidative stress, the augmentation of pro-inflammatory status, immune deficiency, dis-ruptions in the coagulation cascade, imbalances in electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Poly-trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock need adequate fluid management to ensure hemodynamic stability that must consider not only the maintenance of adequate blood pressure, but also the ad-equate oxygenation of tissues for optimal cellular function. In the current clinical practice, fluid resuscitation in polytrauma patients uses a variety of widely studied pharmacological products, such as crystalloids, colloids, blood transfusions, and the infusion of other blood products. Alt-hough these products exist, an agreement was not reached on a standard administration protocol that could be generally applied for all patients. Moreover, numerous studies have reported a se-ries of adverse events related to fluid resuscitation and to the inadequate use of these products. This review aims at describing the impact the administration of all the solutions used in fluid re-suscitation might have on the cellular and pathophysiological mechanisms in the case of poly-trauma patients suffering from hemorrhagic shock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0262.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Fluid-Structure interactions; Topological fluid dynamics; General fluid mechanics; Mathematical fluid dynamics; Applied mathematics
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:32:15 CET)
This article objectively assesses, the hypothesis of the streamline's shape theory and its formulated equation. The deduction of proof uses algebra rather than first-order partial differential equations to address the specific hypothesis of "Streamline's shape theory" from the fundamental perspective of applied mathematics and scientifically derives mathematical relations of the axioms and corollaries in the field of fluid dynamics. The algebraic methods employed provide progressively more distinct and precise solutions compared to first-order partial differential equations. The foremost objective of this work is to evaluate if the formulations of the streamline's shape theory can have solutions for inviscid-incompressible and viscid-compressible flows of Newtonian fluids and to identify their nature. Secondly, to understand how the topology of the body and the free-stream conditions affect these solutions with due regards to the shape and size of the body interacting with the fluid flow. Finally, to explore the possibility of this theory to develop a CFD solver for streamline simulation to reduce the experimentation in the analysis of flow-structure interactions of Newtonian fluids and also to identify its scope of applications and limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: morphing blade; adaptive geometry; computational fluid dynamics; fluid-structure coupling
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:06:29 CEST)
The concept of smart morphing blades, which can control themselves to reduce or eliminate the need for active control systems, is a highly attractive solution in blade technology. In this paper an innovative passive control system based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is proposed. On the basis of previous thermal and shape characterization of a single morphing blade for a heavy-duty automotive cooling axial fan, this study deals with the numerical analysis of the aerodynamic loads acting on the fan. By coupling CFD and FEM approaches it is possible to analyze the actual blade shape resulting from both the aerodynamic and centrifugal loads. The numerical results indicate that the polymeric blade structure ensures proper resistance and enables shape variation due to the action of the SMA strips.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0208.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: permeability; porous media; fluid dynamics; fluid current; turbulence; simple harmonic motion
Online: 18 October 2019 (07:29:42 CEST)
In this paper we develop from first principles a unique law pertaining to the flow of fluids through closed conduits. This law, which we call “Quinn’s Law”, may be described as follows: When fluids are forced to flow through closed conduits under the driving force of a pressure gradient, there is a linear relationship between the normalized dimensionless pressure gradient, PQ, and the normalized dimensionless fluid current, CQ. The relationship is expressed mathematically as: PQ = k1 +k2CQ. This linear relationship remains the same whether the conduit is filled with or devoid of solid obstacles. The law differentiates, however, between a packed and an empty conduit by virtue of the tortuosity of the fluid path, which is seamlessly accommodated within the normalization framework of the law itself. When movement of the fluid is very close to being at rest, i.e., very slow, this relationship has the unique minimum constant value of k1, and as the fluid acceleration increases, it varies with a slope of k2 as a function of normalized fluid current. Quinn’s Law is validated herein by applying it to the data from published classical studies of measured permeability in both packed and empty conduits, as well as to the data generated by home grown experiments performed in the author’s own laboratory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0067.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: General fluid mechanics; Mathematical Model; Streamline; Flow–structure interactions; Topological fluid dynamics
Online: 14 May 2019 (10:30:29 CEST)
This article attempts to formulate a mathematical model for a potential explanation regarding the unavoidable impact of a rigid body's peculiar shape on the seamless flow over it. The solid body completely immersed in a Newtonian fluid and respectively has a relative open circuit flow on it will typically experience various observable phenomena like flow separation, flow transition, down-wash, stalling at the higher angle of attack, stalling velocity and how cambered airfoil can typically generate lift at a zero incidence angle. This article respectively represents an understanding of the laminar flow over a rigid body's external surface with due respect to its distinctive shape and size. This working paper formulates a more realistic and simplified mathematical model for open circuit laminar flow over a body, based on the historical data of aerodynamics and theoretical mechanics. This is intended to properly estimate forces on the continuous surface of the body in a laminar flow, to properly explain, understand and predict mentioned phenomena. Most of all the mechanism of streamline formation and its deformation with due regards to flow, shape and size of the body in an open-circuit laminar are formulated mathematically to enhance better design theory which can reduce experimentation while designing a streamlined body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0310.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; energized fracturing fluid; tight gas; reservoir stimulation; frac fluid rheology
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:39:53 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing is the most effective method of stimulation for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However the use of water-based fracturing fluids, can be a problem in water-sensitive formations due to the permeability damage hazard caused by clay minerals swelling. For this reason, the foamed fracturing fluids with addition of natural, fast hydrating guar gum were examined. The rheology and filtration coefficients of foamed fracturing fluids were examined and compared to the properties of conventional water-based fracturing fluid. Laboratory results provided the input for numerical simulation of the fractures geometry for water-based fracturing fluids and 50% N2 foamed fluids. The results show, that the foamed fluids were able to create shorter and thinner fractures compared to the fractures induced by the non-foamed fluid. The simulation proved that the concentration of proppant in the fracture and its conductivity are similar or slightly higher when using the foamed fluid. Moreover such fluids are able to significantly reduce the amount of water necessary for fracturing treatments, limiting clay minerals swelling, and reducing the reservoir permeability damage. The foamed fluids, when injected to the reservoir, provide additional energy, that allow for more effective flowback, and maintain the proper fracture geometry and proppant placing. The results of laboratory work in combination with the 3D simulation showed, that the foamed fluids have suitable viscosity which allows opening the fracture, and transport the proppant into the fracture, providing successful fracturing operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0276.v1
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:40:15 CET)
Analyzing synovial fluid from joints affected by the pathological process of psoriatic arthritis is part of the overall patient examination, since it may have differential diagnostic significance. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of crystals in the synovial fluid of psoriatic arthritis patients as biomarkers for disease activity. Materials and methods: The synovial fluid of 156 patients with proven PSA diagnosis (patients covered CASPAR criteria) was analyzed over 24 months and compared to 50 patients with activated gonarthrosis. The Leica DM4500P polarization microscope (Leica Microsystems, Germany) was used for crystal detection. Pain and disease activity measures were also evaluated (PSA VAS for pain, DAPSA, PASDAI, mCPDAI, and HAQ-DI). The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 26 with a significance set at p < 0.05. Results: The macroscopic appearance of synovial fluid from patients with psoriatic arthritis was clear in 84.6% of the patients. Synovial fluid crystals were found in 23.71% of patients with psoriatic arthritis - predominantly monosodium urate (67.58%) but also calcium pyrophosphate (21.62%) and lipid drops (5.4%). The presence of monosodium urate crystals significantly correlates with all pain and disease activity measures – VAS for pain, DAPSA, PASDAI, mCPDAI, and HAQ-DI. In 67.56% of patients with established crystals treatment with an anti-TNF blocker was started at the discretion of the treating rheumatologist due to high levels of disease activity. Conclusion: Examining the synovial fluid in PSA patients is a necessary minimally invasive procedure in cases of joint effusion, since the presence of synovial fluid crystals is a significant indicator of disease severity. The current analyses demonstrate that the presence of synovial fluid crystals in PSA patients can be used as a biomarker for disease severity and the necessity to commence biological treatment (most often TNF-a-blocker).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0151.v1
Online: 10 September 2018 (05:53:04 CEST)
Gold, present as electrum, in the Battle Gap, Ridge North-West, HW, and Price deposits at the Myra Falls mine, occurs in late veinlets cutting the earlier VMS lithologies. The ore mineral assemblage containing the electrum comprises dominantly galena, tennantite, bornite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and rare stromeyerite is defined as an Au-Zn-Pb-As-Sb association. The gangue is comprised of barite, quartz, and minor feldspathic volcanogenic sedimentary rocks and clay. Deposition of gold as electrum in the baritic upper portions of the sulphide lenses occurs at relatively shallow water depths beneath the sea floor. Primary, pseudosecondary, and secondary fluid inclusions, petrographically related to gold, show boiling fluid inclusion assemblages in the range of 123 to 173 °C, with compositions and eutectic melt temperatures consistent with seawater at approximately 3.2 wt% NaCl equivalent. The fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are consistent with boiling seawater corresponding to water depths ranging from 15 to 125 metres. Slightly more dilute brines corresponding to salinities of approximately 1 wt% NaCl indicate that there is input from very low-salinity brines, which could represent a transition from subaqueous VMS to epithermal-like conditions for precious metal enrichment, mixing with re‑condensed vapour, or very low-salinity igneous fluids.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Biodiesel; Microreactor; Transesterification; Computational Fluid Dynamics
Online: 21 February 2022 (14:53:11 CET)
Microfluidic devices or microdevices refer to systems with a characteristic length in the micrometer range. Systems in this size allow handling small quantities of reagents and samples, with reduced residence time, better control of chemical species concentration, high heat and mass transfers, and high surface/volume ratio. These characteristics led to the application of these microdevices in several areas, such as biological systems, energy, liquid-liquid extraction, food, agricultural sectors, pharmaceuticals, flow chemistry, microreactors, and biodiesel synthesis. Microreactors are devices that have interconnected microchannels, in which small amounts of reagents are manipulated and react for a certain period of time. The traditional characteristics of microreactors are less quantities of reagents and samples, high surface area in relation to volume (10000 m2 m-3), reduction of resistance to heat and mass transfer, reduced reaction times, and narrower residence time distributions. In recent years, several studies have been carried out on biodiesel production in microreactors that explore the influence of operating conditions, mixing and reaction yield, numbering, and especially the microdevices design. Despite all the advantages of microreactors, the literature shows that there are only a few applications on an industrial scale. Two main reasons that hinder the adoption of this technology are the scale-up to a large enough volume to deliver the necessary production capacity and the costs related to industrial manufacturing microreactors. It is often stated that large-scale production of microreactors can be easily achieved by numbering-up. However, researches show that an incredibly high number of microdevices would be needed, which results in a technical unfeasibility and a strong impact on the construction costs of the industrial system. The present review aims to show whether microreactors can replace conventional biodiesel production processes and how this replacement technology could be carried out. The current chapter was divided into the following sections: Introduction, Synthesis and Purification of Biodiesel in Microreactors, Fundamentals of CFD, and Fundamentals of Scale-up. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives are exposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy; haemodynamics monitoring; fluid management; kidney transplantation; major postoperative complications; outcome of surgery
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:57:00 CET)
Background: Kidney transplantation is considered the first-choice therapy in ESRD patients. Despite recent improvements in terms of outcomes and graft survival in recipients, postoperative complications still concern health-care providers involved in the management of those patients. Particularly challenging are cardiovascular complications. Perioperative goal-directed fluid-therapy (PGDT) and hemodynamic optimization are widely used in high-risk surgical patients, and are associated with a significant reduction in postoperative complication rates and length of stay (LOS). The aim of this work is to compare the effects of perioperative goal-directed therapy (PGDT) with conventional fluid therapy (CFT), and to determine whether there are any differences in major postoperative complications rates and delayed graft function (DGF) outcomes. Methods: Prospective study with historical controls. Two groups, a PGDT- and a CFT- group were used: the stroke volume (SV) optimization protocol was applied in PGDT group throughout the procedure. Conventional fluid therapy with fluids titration at a central venous pressure (CVP) 8-12 mmHg and mean arterial pressure (MAP) >80mmHg was applied to the control-group. Postoperative data collection including vital signs, weight, urinary output, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum potassium, and assessement of volemic status and the signs and symptoms of major postoperative complications occurred at 24h, 72h, 7 days and 30 days after transplantation. Results: Among the 66 patients enrolled, 33 were in each group and both groups had similar physical characteristics. Good fuctional recovery was evident in the 94% of patients. The statistical analysis has showed a difference in postoperative complications as follows: significant reduction of cardiovascular complications, DGF episodes (p<0.05) and surgical complications (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in pulmonary or other complication. Conclusions: PGDT and SV optimization effectively influenced the rate of major postoperative complications, reducing the overall morbidity and thus the mortality in patients receiving kidney transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0446.v1
Online: 21 October 2020 (16:56:54 CEST)
The nature of fluid mechanics makes experimentation an important part of a course taught in the subject. Presented here is the application of a novel, large scale multidisciplinary model of practical education in a fluids engineering laboratory. Advantages of this approach include efficiencies through economy of scale leading to better pedagogy for students. The scale justifies dedicated academic resources to focus on developing laboratory classes and giving specific attention to designing activities that meet learning outcomes. Four examples of applying this approach to fluids mechanics experiments are discussed, illustrating tactics that have been developed and honed through many repeated instances of delivery. “The measurement lab” uses a flow measurement context to teach identifying and managing general experimental uncertainty. New students, unfamiliar with fluid mechanics are guided through a process to gain understanding that can be applied to all future experimental activities. The “pressure loss in pipes” lab discusses the advantage and process for sharing equipment and teaching resources between multiple cohorts. The provision for students is adapted for context, such as the degree program or year of study. The “weirs big and small” lab provides a methodology to teach the power of dimensional analysis to mechanical engineers using a field of fluid mechanics that is outside their usual theoretical studies. Finally, the “spillway design” lab discusses mechanisms to deliver student independent, open ended experiments at scale, without excessive staff resource requirement.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: equation of state; hard hyperspheres; fluid mixtures
Online: 25 March 2020 (08:47:08 CET)
New proposals for the equation of state of four- and five-dimensional hard-hypersphere mixtures in terms of the equation of state of the corresponding monocomponent hard-hypersphere fluid are introduced. Such proposals (which are constructed in such a way so as to yield the exact third virial coefficient) extend, on the one hand, recent similar formulations for hard-disk and (three-dimensional) hard-sphere mixtures and, on the other hand, two of our previous proposals also linking the mixture equation of state and the one of the monocomponent fluid but unable to reproduce the exact third virial coefficient. The old and new proposals are tested by comparison with published molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation results and their relative merit is evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0061.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Fluid Mechanic, Pulse Energy Tensor, General Relativity
Online: 17 June 2019 (09:35:44 CEST)
This paper is to summarize the involvement of the stress energy tensor in the study of fluid mechanics. In the first part we will see the implication that carries the stress energy tensor in the framework of general relativity. In the second part, we will study the stress energy tensor under the mechanics of perfect fluids, allowing us to lead third party in the case of Newtonian fluids, and in the last part we will see that it is possible to define space-time as a no-Newtonian fluids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0198.v1
Subject: Keywords: mathematical modelling; peristalsis; smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH); fluid dynamics; large intestine; colonl proximal colon; fluid-structure interactions; drug delivery
Online: 12 April 2020 (15:57:17 CEST)
The proximal part of the colon offers opportunities to prolong the absorption window following oral administration of a drug. In this work, we used computer simulations to understand how the hydrodynamics in the proximal colon might affect the release from dosage forms designed to target the colon. For this purpose, we developed and compared three different models: a completely-filled colon, a partially-filled colon and a partially-filled colon with a gaseous phase present (gas-liquid model).The highest velocities of the liquid were found in the completely-filled model, which also shows the best mixing profile, defined by the distribution of tracking particles over time. No significant differences with regard to the mixing and velocity profiles were found between the partially-filled model and the gas-liquid model. The fastest transit time of an undissolved tablet was found in the completely-filled model. The velocities of the liquid in the gas-liquid model are slightly higher along the colon than in the partially-filled model. The filling level has an impact on the exsisting shear forces and shear rates, which are decisive factors in the development of new drugs and formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: machine learning, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hybrid model, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial intelligence, big data, prediction, forecasting, optimization, hydrodynamics, fluid dynamics, soft computing, computational intelligence, computational fluid mechanics
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:30:56 CEST)
The combination of artificial intelligence algorithms and numerical methods has recently become popular in the prediction of macroscopic and microscopic hydrodynamics parameters of bubble column reactors. The multi inputs and outputs machine learning can cover small phase interactions or large fluid behavior in industrial domains. This numerical combination can develop the smart multiphase bubble column reactor with the ability of low-cost computational time. It can also decrease case studies for the optimization process when big data is appropriately used during learning. There are still many model parameters that need to be optimized for a very accurate artificial algorithm, including data processing and initialization, the combination of inputs and outputs, number of inputs and model tuning parameters. For this study, we aim to train four inputs big data during learning process by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system or adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method, and we consider the superficial gas velocity as one of the input variables, while for the first time, one of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) outputs named gas velocity is used as an output of the artificial algorithm. The results show that the increasing number of input variables improves the intelligence of the ANFIS method up to , and the number of rules during learning process has a significant effect on the accuracy of this type of modeling. The results also show that propper selection of model parameters results in more accuracy in prediction of the flow characteristics in the column structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Cell Disease; Stroke; Neuroimaging; Hematology; Computational fluid dynamics
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:38:29 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to demonstrate proof of principle that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is a tool for studying the contribution of covert and overt vascular architecture to the risk of cerebrovascular disease in in sickle cell disease (SCD) as well as uncover one or more mechanism of response to therapy such as chronic red blood cell (cRBC) transfusion. We analyzed baseline (screening), pre-randomization and study exit magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) images from 10 (5 each from the transfusion and observation arms) pediatric sickle SCD participants in the silent cerebral infarct transfusion (SIT) trial, using CFD modeling. We reconstructed the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery and branches and extracted the geometry using 3D Slicer. We cut specific potions of the large intracranial artery to include segments of the internal carotid, middle, anterior, and posterior cerebral artery such that the vessel segment analyzed extended from the intracranial beginning of the internal carotid artery up to immediately after (~0.25 inches) the middle cerebral artery branching point. Cut models were imported into Ansys 2021R2/2022R1 and laminar and time-dependent flow simulation was performed. Change in time averaged mean velocity, wall shear stress, and vessel tortuosity were compared between the observation and cRBC arm. We did not observe a correlation between time averaged mean velocity (TAMV) and mean transcranial doppler (TCD) velocity at study entry. There was also no difference in change in time average mean velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), and vessel tortuosity between the observation and cRBC transfusion arms. WSS and TAMV were abnormal for 2 (developed TIA) out of the 3 participants (one participant had SCI) that developed neurovascular outcomes. CFD approaches allows for the evaluation of vascular topology and hemodynamics in SCD using MRA images. In this proof of principle study, we show that CFD could be a useful tool and we intend to carry out future studies with a larger sample to enable more robust conclusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0365.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Fluid flow; conservation laws; Bidomain model; glymphatic system
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:42:20 CEST)
Biology is about structure. Structures within structures. Organs within animals, tissues within organs, cells within tissues, and molecules, often proteins within cells. The structures are so complex that they can only be described by numbers. No numbers are of more importance than those that describe proteins. The numbers that describe coordinates of its atoms, often determined by Patterson functions (which are inverse Fourier Transforms of intensities) of crystal diffraction. Without these numbers, structural biology would hardly exist. Without numbers, engineering would not exist. Numbers are surely needed by the engineers who produce the x-rays diffracting from atoms of protein crystals. Devices of engineering have function. They are built to implement equations. Engineering devices use structures to implement equations, when power is supplied at the right places, that produces appropriate flows. Flows are the essence of life. Equilibrium means death in most living systems. Flows in biological structures are hard to analyze because we do not know input output equations in advance. Sometimes we do not know their function. Flows, forces, and structures of life (like those of engineering) are related by field equations of conservation laws, partial differential equations, constrained by location and properties of structures. Constraints are boundary conditions located on the complicated domain of biological structure. Dealing with this complexity is simplified if one systematically analyzes structure using the most general field theory known, electricity described by the Maxwell equations, without significant known error. Currents are involved because flows of biology usually involve migration of charges, convection of water and solutes, diffusion of ions that form the plasma of life, and their interactions. Interactions can dominate function. Here I show how a few complex structures can be understood in engineering detail. This approach may be useful in dealing with biological and medical issues in many other cases. In one limited case—the clearance of a toxic waste (potassium ions) from the optic nerve—this approach seems to have succeeded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0266.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Special-shaped spinneret holes; Spinning; Spinnerets; Fluid simulation
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:19:13 CET)
In this paper, a method of direct spinning is proposed for direct spinning of heterogeneous spun wire-blown holes standard parts and the motherboard mounted on the spin board assemblies. The standardization of the spinneret hole was conducive to improving the machining accuracy and efficiency of the pores, and the spinneret holes could be replaced in time when a hole in the spinneret fails. Moreover; on the other hand, according to the needs of the process of spinning, the spinnerets with various cross-sections were combined and installed on the same motherboard for spinning, and the spinning obtained different bionic new functional products. Based on the results, a finite element model of the standard part of the spinneret hole was developed, and the spinnability of the combinable spinnable spinneret board was verified by simulating the melt flow in the spinneret channel through POLYFLOW software. Further, by the processing of the spinneret, the motherboard was installed into a combined spinneret, and the spinneret assembly was installed on the spinning machine for the experiments. Furthermore, the tow section was observed using a microscope, and the results showed the feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; OpenFOAM; docked vessel; gas pollutants
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:12:08 CEST)
Docked ships are a source of contamination for the city while they keep their engine working. Plumes emissions from large boats can carry a number of pollutants to the nearby cities causing a detrimental effect on the life quality and health of local citizens and ecosystems. A computational fluid dynamics model of the harbour area of Tromsø has been built in order to model the deposition of CO2 gas emitted by docked vessels within the city. The ground level distribution of the emitted gas has been obtained and the influence of the wind speed and direction, vessel chimney height, ambient temperature and exhaust gas temperature has been studied. The deposition range is found to be the largest when the wind speed is low. At high wind speeds, the deposition of pollutants along the wind direction is enhanced and spots of high pollutant concentration can be created. The simulation model is intended for the detailed study of the contamination in cities near the coast or an industrial pollutant source of any type of gas pollutants and can easily be extended for the study of particulate matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0723.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: general relativity; alternative gravity; compact stars; anisotropic fluid
Online: 31 August 2020 (10:43:38 CEST)
In this work, we study the existence of strange star in the background of f(T,T) gravity in the Einstein spacetime geometry, where T is the torsion tensor and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. The equations of motion are derived for anisotropic pressure within the spherically symmetric strange star. We explore the physical features like energy conditions, mass-radius relations, modified TOV equations, principal of causality, adiabatic index, redshift and stability analysis of our model. These features are realistic and appealing to further investigation of properties of compact objects in f(T,T) gravity as well as their observational signatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: microalgae; photobioreactor; flashing light effect; Computational Fluid Dynamics
Online: 5 June 2019 (14:56:44 CEST)
In a thin-volume photobioreactor where a concentrated suspension of microalgae is circulated throughout the established spatial irradiance gradient, microalgal cells experience a time-variable irradiance. Deploying this feature is the most convenient way of obtaining the so-called “flashing light” effect, improving biomass production in high irradiance. This work investigates the light flashing features of sloping wavy photobioreactors, a recently proposed type, by introducing and validating a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Two characteristic flow zones (straight top-bottom stream and local recirculation stream), both effective toward light flashing, have been found and characterised: a recirculation-induced frequency of 3.7 Hz and straight flow-induced frequency of 5.6 Hz were estimated. If the channel slope is increased, the recirculation area becomes less stable while the recirculation frequency is nearly constant with flow rate. The validated CFD model is a mighty tool that could be reliably used to further increase the flashing frequency by optimising the design, the dimensions, the installation and the operational parameters of the sloping wavy photobioreactor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0033.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Tank drainage; Power law MHD fluid; Analytical solution
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:41:11 CET)
This paper investigates the tank drainage problem of an isothermal, unsteady, incompressible electrically conducting Power law fluid. Analytic solution have been obtained from governing continuity and momentum equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions by using Perturbation method. The Power law fluid model solution without MHD is retrieved from this proposed model on substitution . Declaration on behalf of velocity profile, volume flux, average velocity, connection of time with respect to length of the tank and requirement of time for whole drainage of fluid are acquired. Special effects of numerous emerging parameter’s on velocity profile vz and depth of the fluid in the tank are graphically presented. Keywords: Tank drainage, Power law MHD fluid, Analytical solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0219.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Fluid dynamics; Turbulent cascades; Fluid equilibria; Casimir constraints; Euler equation; Quasigeostrophic equations; Rossby waves; Axisymmetric flows; Shallow water equations; Magnetohydrodynamics
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:48:18 CEST)
An overview is presented of several diverse branches of work in the area of effectively 2D fluid equilibria which have in common that they are constrained by an infinite number of conservation laws. Broad concepts, and the enormous variety of physical phenomena that can be explored, are highlighted. These span, roughly in order of increasing complexity, Euler flow, nonlinear Rossby waves, 3D axisymmetric flow, shallow water dynamics, and 2D magnetohydrodynamics. The classical field theories describing these systems bear some resemblance to perhaps more familiar fluctuating membrane and continuous spin models, but the fluid physics drives these models into unconventional regimes exhibiting large scale jet and eddy structures. From a dynamical point of view these structures are the end result of various conserved variable forward and inverse cascades. The resulting balance between large scale structure and small scale fluctuations is controlled by the competition between energy and entropy in the system free energy, in turn highly tunable through setting the values of the conserved integrals. Although the statistical mechanical description of such systems is fully self-consistent, with remarkable mathematical structure and diversity of solutions, great care must be taken because the underlying assumptions, especially ergodicity, can be violated or at minimum lead to exceedingly long equilibration times. Generalization of the theory to include weak driving and dissipation (e.g., non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and associated linear response formalism) could provide additional insights, but has yet to be properly explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0395.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air quality; nitrogen oxides; dispersion modelling; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 31 March 2022 (05:55:45 CEST)
Road vehicles are a large contributor to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) pollution. The routine road-side monitoring stations, however, may underrepresent the severity of personal exposure in urban areas, because long-term average readings cannot capture the effects of momentary, high peaks of air pollution. While numerical modelling tools historically have been used to propose an improved distribution of monitoring stations, ultra-high resolution Computational Fluid Dynamics models can further assist the relevant stakeholders in understanding the important details of pollutant dispersion and exposure at local level. This study deploys a 10 cm-resolution CFD model to evaluate actual high peaks of personal exposure to NOx from traffic, by tracking the gases emitted from the tailpipe of moving vehicles being dispersed towards the roadside. The investigation shows that a set of four Euro 5-rated diesel vehicles travelling at constant speed may generate momentary road-side concentrations of NOx as high as 1.25 mg/m3, with 25% expected increase for doubling the number of vehicles and approximately 50% reduction when considering Euro 6-rated vehicles. The paper demonstrates how the numerical tool can be used to identify the impact of measures to reduce personal exposure, such as protective urban furniture, as traffic patterns and environmental conditions change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0324.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: lipids; cerebrospinal fluid, parkinson´s disease, mass-spectrometry, lipidomics
Online: 12 April 2021 (21:16:21 CEST)
Lipid metabolism is clearly associated to Parkinson´s disease (PD). Although lipid homeostasis has been widely studied in multiple animal and cellular models as well as in blood derived from PD individuals, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lipidomic profile in PD remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have characterized the CSF lipidomic imbalance between neurologically intact controls (n=10) and PD subjects (n=20). The combination of dual extraction with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-qToF-MS/MS) allowed to monitor 257 lipid species across all samples. Complementary multivariate and univariate data analysis pointed out that glycerolipids (mono-, di-, and triacylglycerides), saturated and mono/polyunsaturated fatty acids, primary fatty amides, glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines), sphingolipids (ceramides, sphingomyelins), N-acylethanolamines and sterol lipids (cholesteryl esters, steroids) were significantly increased in the CSF of PD compared to control group. These results, despite the limitation of being obtained in a small population, demonstrate and extensive CSF lipid remodelling in PD, shedding new light on the deployment of CSF lipidomics as a promising tool to identify potential lipid markers as well as discriminatory lipid species between PD and other atypical parkinsonisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0556.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction; OpenFOAM; One-way approach; Structural Analysis
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:10:19 CET)
This study addressed a Fluid-Structure Interaction of an open Water test for vp1304 propeller to predict pressure and stress distributions with a low cost and high precision method. The most striking aspect of such a method(one-way coupling) is to use one hydrodynamic solution for the number of different structural sets involved in other materials or different layup methods and combinations of layers. An open-access software(OpenFOAM) with an open-source code solver is used to simulate the fluid domain. Abaqus is used To evaluate and predict the deformation and strength of the blade with the Finite Element Method(FEM). The coupling approach is based on dry condition, which means the added mass effects due to propeller blades vibration is neglected. The pressures imposed on the blades are extracted from the fluid solver for each time step. Then, These pressures role as a load condition for the structure solver. This approach was verified in the last paper(wedge impact); a key factor for the present solution is the rotational rate interrelated between two solution domains, which is explained in this paper. Finally, the blades' stress and strain are calculated and compared in each advance coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0825.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Modular Climbing Robots; Vacuum Generation; Computer Fluid Dynamics; Optimization
Online: 31 December 2020 (16:01:52 CET)
Adhesion systems are very important in robots for infrastructure inspection (especially in vertical walls). They present the challenge of optimizing the ratio vacuum/power consumption in battery-powered robots. In this paper a CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamics) modelling and optimization process of a robot adhesion system is carried out to determine the best performing configuration in terms of vacuum and power consumption. Analytical and numerical models were developed to predict the behaviour of the system for different configurations. The models were validated, using test rig measurements, by calibrating an arbitrary defined inlet height that simulates the leakage flow. Then, different geometric parameters were varied to determine the best performing configuration based on the vacuum/power consumption ratio value. The model presented in the paper was capable of predicting the behaviour of the system for different configurations, with a margin of error of 15% for the vacuum prediction and a 25% for the motor power calculation. Finally, the model was used to optimize parameters of the system, like the number of blades of the impeller. The adhesion system was conceived for the modular autonomous climbing legged robot ROMERIN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0168.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Casson fluid; Magneto-hydrodynamics; Nanofluid; Porous medium; Extending cylinder
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:08:26 CET)
It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transpiration of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of form strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter β, magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter Kp and Raynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). Moreover, uniqueness results are discussed and for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0595.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Bayesian Optimization; Machine Learning; Neural Architecture Search; Fluid Turbulence
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:51:21 CET)
The adoption of Machine Learning (ML) for building emulators for complex physical processes has seen an exponential rise in the recent years. While neural networks are good function approximators, optimizing the hyper-parameters of the network to reach a global minimum is not trivial, and often needs human knowl- edge and expertise. In this light, automatic ML or autoML methods have gained large interest as they automate the process of network hyper-parameter tuning. In addition, Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has shown promising outcomes for improving model performance. While autoML methods have grown in popularity for image, text and other applications, their effectiveness for high-dimensional, complex scientific datasets remains to be investigated. In this work, a data driven emulator for turbulence closure terms in the context of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models is trained using Artificial Neural Networks and an autoML frame- work based on Bayesian Optimization, incorporating priors to jointly optimize the hyper-parameters as well as conduct a full neural network architecture search to converge to a global minima, is proposed. Additionally, we compare the effect of using different network weight initializations and optimizers such as ADAM, SGDM and RMSProp, to explore the best performing setting. Weight and function space similarities during the optimization trajectory are investigated, and critical differences in the learning process evolution are noted and compared to theory. We observe ADAM optimizer and Glorot initialization consistently performs better, while RMSProp outperforms SGDM as the latter appears to have been stuck at a local minima. Therefore, this autoML BayesOpt framework provides a means to choose the best hyper-parameter settings for a given dataset.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Volcanic plumes; Periodicity; Basaltic volcanism; Passive degassing; Fluid dynamics
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:38:28 CEST)
Persistent, non-explosive passive degassing is a common characteristic of active volcanoes. Distinct periodic components in measurable parameters of gas release have been widely identified over timescales ranging from seconds to months. The development and implementation of high temporal resolution gas measurement techniques now enables the robust quantification of high frequency processes operating on timescales comparable to those detectable in geophysical datasets. This review presents an overview of the current state of understanding regarding periodic volcanic degassing, and evaluates the methods available for detecting periodicity, e.g., autocorrelation, variations of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Periodicities in volcanic degassing from published studies are summarised and statistically analysed, together with analyses of literature-derived datasets where periodicity had not previously been investigated. Finally, an overview of current knowledge on drivers of periodicity is presented and discussed in the framework of four main generating categories, including: (1) non-volcanic (e.g., atmospheric or tidally generated); (2) gas-driven, shallow conduit processes; (3) magma movement, intermediate to shallow storage zone; and (4) deep magmatic processes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel; gas pipeline; leakage; computational fluid dynamics; ventilation scheme
Online: 19 December 2017 (07:43:46 CET)
Due to poor ventilation conditions in the tunnel, if gas pipeline leaks, the consequence of the accident will be more serious. Therefore, before the emergency repair, gas in the tunnel needs to be excharged so as not to explode during the repair process. Therefore, it is necessary to study the ventilation of gas in the tunnel. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) theory and taking the Yanyingshan tunnel section of China-Myanmar pipeline as an example, this paper uses Fluent software to establish the leakage model of the gas pipeline and fan model in the tunnel and analyzes the influence of different fan locations and number of fans on gas concentration. It can be concluded that: (1) the use of press-in method makes it more efficient to discharge gas out of the tunnel. (2) In order to make ventilation efficient, the fan should be arranged in a higher position and needs to be at a distance from the top of the tunnel. (3) Parallel use of two fans has better ventilation effect than single fan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0150.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Geostrophic flows; Thermal forcing; Analytical model
Online: 19 May 2017 (16:33:10 CEST)
Starting with a hypothetical geostrophic zonal current in an unbounded ocean, the investigation points out the response of this simple system to a thermal forcing, applied to the free surface and consistent with the maintenance of the geostrophic balance. The main result is the formation of a meridional component of the current, according to the Sverdrup relation, such that the full velocity vector rotates clockwise for heating and anticlockwise for cooling to adjust eventually in the initial zonal direction for large depths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0145.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: General theory of Relativity; Bianchi Type I model; Isotropic and Anisotropic cosmology; Perfect fluid; Fluid mechanics; Quintessence model; cosmological inflation; Viscosity; Gravitational physics
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:19:51 CET)
We propose the Hamiltonian formalism of Bianchi type 1 cosmological model for perfect fluid. We have considered both the equation of state parameter ω and the cosmological constant Λ as the function of volume V(t) which is defined by the product of three scale factors of the Bianchi type 1 line element. We propose a Lagrangian for the anisotropic Bianchi type-1 model in view of a variable mass moving in a variable potential . We can decompose the anisotropic expansion in terms of expansion and shearing motion by Lagrangian mechanism. We have considered a canonical transformation from expanding scale factor to scalar field ø which helps us to give the proper classical definition of that scalar field in terms of scale factors of the mentioned model. This definition helps us to explain the cosmological inflation. We have used large anisotropy(as in the cases of Bianchi models) and proved that cosmic inflation is not possible in such large anisotropy. Therefore we can conclude that the extent of anisotropy is less in case of our universe. Otherwise the inflation theory which explained the limitations of Big Bang cannot be resolved.Part II is contained with some analysis of the lagrangian ; derived in Part I ; on the quintessence model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0473.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: seminal fluid; seminal plasma; epigenetics; transgenerational plasticity; sperm; paternal effects
Online: 30 September 2022 (03:25:29 CEST)
The evidence supports the occurrence of environmentally induced paternal epigenetic inheritance shaping the offspring phenotype in the absence of direct or indirect paternal care, and the empirical results clearly indicate that sperm epigenetics is one of the major actors mediating these paternal effects. However, sperm often make up only a small fraction of the male ejaculate in animals. Males also have a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, types of small RNAs, and cell-free DNA fragments in their seminal fluid. These molecules are in close contact with reproductive cells, tissues, organs, and other molecules of both males and females during reproduction. Moreover, their production and use are very sensitive to environmental conditions which makes them potential modulators of environmentally and developmentally induced paternal effects on the next generation(s). Although there is some intriguing evidence of seminal fluid-mediated paternal epigenetic effects, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. In this review, I discuss the current evidence regarding the association between seminal fluid and environmentally induced paternal effects, the possible trajectories, and the mechanisms in which seminal fluid can involve to mediate paternal epigenetic inheritance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0372.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: magnetic fluid; thermotropic nematic liquid crystals; terahertz modulation; microfluidic chip
Online: 23 September 2022 (10:27:05 CEST)
In recent years, solid state terahertz (THz) modulators have obtained rapid progress with the widespread use of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of THz; however, challenges remain in preparing flexible THz modulators. In this study, flexible ferromagnetic nematic materials were prepared by doping thermotropic nematic liquid crystals 5CB into magnetic fluids, and the influence of hydrogen bonding in water was reduced by a self-made cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microfluidic chip. THz modulation characteristics of magnetic fluid and ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal (FNLC) under the induction of external magnetic field were compared using a THz time domain spectroscopy system. Under the action of a 91 mT magnetic field, the magnetic fluid has a maximum modulation depth (MD) of 54%. Under the same magnetic field, the maximum MD of the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal materials increase to 78% because of the rearrangement of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by the topological defect of the liquid crystal. We demonstrate that the magneto-optical effect is significantly enhanced in the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal hybrid system. This strategy of doping thermotropic nematic liquid crystals to enhance the magneto-optical effect has great potential for THz filtering, modulation, and sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0142.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: gold; fluid inclusions; quartz; stable isotopes; gold deposits; Western Tuva
Online: 10 March 2022 (09:26:02 CET)
We examined PT parameters, geochemical peculiarities, and fluid sources of the Ulug-Sair ore occurrence attributable to class of intrusion-related gold deposits and according to ore mineral assemblages corresponding to Au-Bi type with wide Bi minerals (AgBiTe, Bi2Te2Se, Cu3,07BiS3, Bi), tellurides (Au and Ag), Se-tellurides (Ag and Bi), and selenides (Au, Ag, and Hg). We identified that ‘pre-gold’ quartz-tourmaline veins were deposited using an aqueous Mg-Na-K-chloride fluid with a salinity of 8–10 wt % NaCl eq. At 325–370 °C; host breasts were formed due to a CO2-water fluid containing CH4 and N2, with a salinity of 0,18–6,1 wt % NaCl eq. at least 200–400 °C. Gold-bearing mineral assemblages were formed at P ~ 0,75–1,0 kbar (~ 2,3–3 km) due to CO2-water chloride (Na-K±Fe, Mg) fluid with CH4, Na2SO4, and Na2B2O5, and salinities 1,7–12,5 wt % NaCl eq. during the decreasing temperatures from 360 up to 115 °C (gold-sulfide-quartz veins – 360–130 °С, and gold-telluride-sulfide-quartz veins – 330–115 °C) and variations fO2, fS2, fSe2, and fTe2. The isotopic composition of δ34SH2S fluid (-0,7…+2,5 ‰) indicates the juvenile or magmatic origin of fluid and ore elements. The δ34OH2O fluid indicates that, at an early substage, the formation of ore occurrence involved a fluid of magmatic or metamorphic origin (+7,3…+11,4 ‰), and, in the later substage, it mixed with meteoric waters (-2,3…+9,1 ‰).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: biomarker; diagnostic; prognostic; blood; cerebrospinal fluid; multiple sclerosis; disability pregression
Online: 26 February 2022 (03:33:31 CET)
Introduction: multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common immune-mediated chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting young people. Due to the permanent disability, cognitive impairment, and the enormous detrimental impact MS can exert on the patients’ health-related quality of life. It is of great importance to recognise it in time and commence adequate treatment at an early stage. The currently used disease-modifying therapies (DMT) aim to reduce disease activity and thus halt disability development, which in current clinical practice are monitored by clinical and imaging parameters but not by biomarkers found in blood and/or the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both clinical and radiological measures routinely used to monitor disease activity lack information on the fundamental pathophysiological features and mechanisms of MS. Furthermore, they lag behind the disease process itself. By the time a clinical relapse becomes evident or a new lesion appears on the MRI scan, potentially irreversible damage has already occurred in the CNS. In recent years several biomarkers that previously have been linked to other neurological and immunological diseases have received increased attention in MS. Additionally, other novel, potential biomarkers with prognostic and diagnostic properties have been detected in the CSF and blood of MS patients. Areas covered: in this review, we summarise the most up to date knowledge and research conducted on the already known and most promising new biomarker candidates found in the CSF and blood of MS patients. Author commentary: the current diagnostic criteria of MS rely on three pillars; MRI imaging, clinical events and the presence of oligoclonal bands in the CSF (which was reinstated into the diagnostic criteria by the most recent revision). Even though the most recent McDonald criteria made the diagnosis of MS faster than the prior iteration, it is still not an infallible diagnostic toolset, especially at the very early stage of clinically isolated syndrome. Together with the gold standard MRI and clinical measures, ancillary blood and CSF biomarkers may not just improve diagnostic accuracy and speed but very well may become agents to monitor therapeutic efficacy and make even more personalised treatment in MS a reality in the near future. The major disadvantage of these biomarkers in the past has been the need to obtain CSF to measure them. However, the recent advances in extremely sensitive immunoassays made their measurement possible from peripheral blood even when present only in minuscule concentrations. This should mark the beginning of a new biomarker research and utilisation era in MS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: predictive modeling; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; cross-sectional study; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (12:59:55 CET)
In recent years, metabolomics has been used as a powerful tool to better understand the physiology of neurodegenerative diseases and identify potential biomarkers for progression. We used targeted and untargeted aqueous, and lipidomic profiles of the metabolome from human cerebrospinal fluid to build multivariate predictive models distinguishing patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and healthy age-matched controls. We emphasize several statistical challenges associated with metabolomic studies where the number of measured metabolites far exceeds sample size. We found strong separation in the metabolome between PD and controls, as well as between PD and AD, with weaker separation between AD and controls. Consistent with existing literature, we found alanine, kynurenine, tryptophan, and serine to be associated with PD classification against controls, while alanine, creatine, and long chain ceramides were associated with AD classification against controls. We conducted a univariate pathway analysis of untargeted and targeted metabolite profiles and find that vitamin E and urea cycle metabolism pathways are associated with PD, while the aspartate/asparagine and c21-steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways are associated with AD. We also found that the amount of metabolite missingness varied by phenotype, highlighting the importance of examining missing data in future metabolomic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cows; milk fat; ruminal fluid; milk fatty acids; energy balance
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:08:31 CET)
The trials were performed on 20 multiparous cows of Holstein breed (39.7 ± 0.75 kg of milk) at the end of the first phase of lactation this different milk fat (4.1-2.8%). The aim of the research was to study the characteristics of nutrition, metabolism and biosynthesis of milk components in highly productive dairy cows with normal and low milk fat levels and the timing of their productive use. Study the characteristics of fermentation of scar formation substrates and their use in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of the milk components. Found that low fat milk is not associated with a lack of formation of acetate in the rumen (6.1 vs. 6.6 mmol/dl in the contents of the rumen, р>0.05) and the non change in the hormonal profile, but depends on the reduction of fatty acids synthesis de novo in mammary gland, regulated by conjugated higher fatty acids. The result is a reduction in the need of cows in the exchange energy (reduction of heat transfer by 6.2 MJ), a shorter service period (109.5 vs.139 days) and the prolongation of their productive use (the number of lactations correlated back with the level of fat in milk (r=-0.68, p<0.05, n=1300).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ellis fluid; Porous medium; Normal modes; Rayleigh–Bénard instability; Convection.
Online: 15 November 2021 (19:39:24 CET)
The onset of the thermal instability is investigated in a porous channel with plane parallel boundaries saturated by a non–Newtonian shear–thinning fluid and subject to a horizontal throughflow. The Ellis model is adopted to describe the fluid rheology. Both horizontal boundaries are assumed to be impermeable. A uniform heat flux is supplied through the lower boundary, while the upper boundary is kept at a uniform temperature. Such an asymmetric setup of the thermal boundary conditions is analysed via a numerical solution of the linear stability eigenvalue problem. The linear stability analysis is developed for three–dimensional normal modes of perturbation showing that the transverse modes are the most unstable. The destabilising effect of the non-Newtonian shear–thinning character of the fluid is also demonstrated as compared to the behaviour displayed, for the same flow configuration, by a Newtonian fluid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0449.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Femtoscopy; heat-mass transfer; fluid coherence fraction; radiated source characteristics
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:54:10 CEST)
Higher order femtoscopy measured to examine the heat exchanger characterization of the fluid debris produced in the collisions and investigated a remarkable suppression in the bosons interferences measurement. The analogous suppression can be analyzed to explore the coherence of boson thermal particle production sources at unprecedented energies. We illustrate the particles emissions from radiated sources with statistical coherence which induce the thermal particles interferences to probe the peculiarity of the heated sources as well as the distinctions about the heat exchangers in the collisions at higher temperature. We perspicacious that the bosons seem to the pertinent aspirant of heat exchanger, and the normalized three particles correlators evaluate the existence of such hybrid phases significantly. The key point of this research is that we analyze the three particles correlations with their normalized correlations by difference equations to determine the characteristics of heat exchanger and its applications. With such distinctive and efficient approach, we observe a significant difference in the correlation functions at higher temperature and momenta regimes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0546.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: helicopter, tail rotor, aeroacoustic, finite element method, computational fluid dynamic
Online: 20 April 2021 (13:19:15 CEST)
With the increasingly stringent airworthiness standards, the noise generated during the rotorcraft flight is gradually attracting people’s attention. It widely operated helicopters at low altitudes because of their maneuverability. The way to reduce the noise caused by the complex airflow of the helicopter rotor system has progressively become a hot topic for researchers. Using a hybrid acoustic analysis method, this paper investigates the improvement of the noise and thrust of the helicopter’s tail rotor through the tail rotor structural parameters. For the basic model, the turbulence simulation is performed using an incompressible detached eddy simulation (DES) method, and the Lighthill acoustic analog equation is calculated using the finite element method (FEM). We verified the accuracy of the method through wind tunnel tests. We chose a series of structural parameters for sound simulation and fluid simulation calculations. The results indicate that the modified tail rotor noise reduced by 16.5 dBA and the total thrust increased by 19.9% from the prototype model. This work can enhance the duct tail rotor design to improve aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0490.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental effects; oil and gas; produced water; drilling fluid; soil
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:15:14 CET)
Rotary drilling for oil and natural gas uses drilling fluid for lubrication of the bit, to seal off unstable shale layers, and floating out rock cuttings. Drilling fluid is a water-clay chemical mixture. Produced water is a water-sand chemical mixture. Land farming is a common disposal technique of drilling fluid and produced water. In the land farming process, amendments of fluid are repeatedly applied to the soil surface. Plant growth and soil chemical properties may be altered by additions of drilling fluid, because of alkalinity, salinity, trace elements, and petroleum residue contained in waste. The objective of this study was to determine the change in soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen and carbon, and extractable nutrient levels following the land application of drilling fluid and produced water. The study was a comparison of three plots with similar soil properties and conditions. The three study plots had various levels of drilling fluid and produced water applications. The data show a major difference from field-to-field for EC, Na, and Cl levels. The EC and salt levels increased with additional applications of drilling fluid and produced water. The percent total nitrogen values and plant available P levels were very low in all fields. High EC and salt values, coupled with low N and P levels, would be detrimental to plant growth and development. To successfully vegetate this land-farm site, application of N and P fertilizer would be required. This study will help to give a better understanding of practical ways to land-farm drilling fluid and produced water in a fashion that both minimizes environmental issues and is economically feasible. Salinity changes to soil were expected to be high; there are excessive amounts of sodium and chloride in spent drilling fluid and produced water.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Enzymes, Peptide Hydrolases, Metalloproteases, Biomarkers, Gingival Crevicular Fluid, Atopic Dermatitis
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:55:12 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a protease-modulated chronic disorder with heterogenous clinical manifestations which may lead to an imprecise diagnosis. So far, there are no diagnostic protease tests for AD. We explored the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) protease profile of periodontally-healthy individuals with moderate/severe AD compared to healthy controls. An exploratory case-control study was conducted. Matching AD patients (n=6) and controls (n=6) were enrolled at the International Center for Clinical Studies, Santiago, Chile. Complete dermatological and periodontal evaluations (involving the collection of GCF samples) were made. The levels of 35 proteases were analyzed using a human protease antibody array. The GCF levels of zinc-binding ADAM8, ADAM9, MMP8 and Neprilysin/CD10, aspartyl-binding Cathepsin E, and serin-binding Protein convertase9 and uPA/Urokinase proteases were lower in moderate/severe AD patients compared to controls (p<0.05). No inter-group differences in the levels of the other 28 proteases were found. MMP8, Cathepsin E and ADAM9 were the biomarkers with the highest sensitivity and specificity regarding the detection of AD (p < 0.05). The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for MMP-8+ADAMP-9 was 0.90. In conclusion, differences in the protease profile between AD and control patients associated with MMP8, Cathepsin E and ADAM9. MMP8, ADAM9 and Cathepsin E may be useful as combined diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of moderate/severe AD.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; ARDS; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)
Online: 9 June 2020 (03:30:05 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly affects the respiratory system with some patients rapidly progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common symptoms of the patients are fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia, and fatigue. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the most commonly used methods to diagnose COVID-19. Herein, we investigate and discuss a young case of COVID-19, without any pre-existing medical conditions, whose both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests of SARS-CoV-2 were negative in the prodromal phase. However, after three days, with severe dyspnea and rapidly progressed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the case was identified as infected by COVID-19 by testing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The patient was intubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) but expired on the fourth day. This case shows the importance of active and accurate monitoring of the patients showing COVID-19 symptoms. Although the BALF test has a higher exposure risk, it is considered more accurate and recommended if performed by an expert operator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: diesel engines; numerical simulation; pollutant emissions prediction; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 16 December 2019 (05:09:55 CET)
In this paper an integrated methodology for the coupling between 1D- and 3D-CFD simulation codes is presented, which has been developed to support the design and calibration of new diesel engines. The aim of the proposed methodology is to couple 1D engine models, which may be available in the early-stage engine development phases, with 3D predictive combustion simulations, in order to obtain reliable estimates of engine performance and emissions for newly designed automotive diesel engines. The coupling procedure features simulations performed in 1D-CFD by means of GT-SUITE and in 3D-CFD by means of Converge, executed within a specifically designed calculation methodology. An assessment of the coupling procedure has been performed by comparing its results with experimental data acquired on an automotive Diesel engine, considering different working points including both part load and full load conditions. Different multiple injection schedules have been evaluated for part-load operation, including pre and post injections. The proposed methodology, featuring detailed 3D chemistry modeling, was proven to be capable to properly assess pollutant formation, specifically to estimate NOx concentrations. Soot formation trend was also well-matched for most of the explored working points. The proposed procedure can therefore be considered as a suitable methodology to support the design and calibration of new Diesel engines, thanks to its ability to provide reliable engine performance and emissions estimations from the early-stage of a new engine development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; complexity; machine learning; deep learning; fluid dynamics; turbulence; chaos
Online: 27 September 2019 (07:24:43 CEST)
Cancers remain the lead cause of disease-related, pediatric death in North America. The emerging field of complex systems has redefined cancer networks as a computational system with intractable algorithmic complexity. Herein, a tumor and its heterogeneous phenotypes are discussed as dynamical systems having multiple, strange attractors. Machine learning, network science and algorithmic information dynamics are discussed as current tools for cancer network reconstruction. Deep Learning architectures and computational fluid models are proposed for better forecasting gene expression patterns in cancer ecosystems. Cancer cell decision-making is investigated within the framework of complex systems and complexity theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: reduced-order model; fluid dynamics; neural network; multistep method; optimization
Online: 17 June 2019 (05:46:09 CEST)
In this effort we propose a data-driven learning framework for reduced order modeling of fluid dynamics. Designing accurate and efficient reduced order models for nonlinear fluid dynamic problems is challenging for many practical engineering applications. Classical projection-based model reduction methods generate reduced systems by projecting full-order differential operators into low-dimensional subspaces. However, these techniques usually lead to severe instabilities in the presence of highly nonlinear dynamics, which dramatically deteriorates the accuracy of the reduced-order models. In contrast, our new framework exploits linear multistep networks, based on implicit Adams-Moulton schemes, to construct the reduced system. The advantage is that the method optimally approximates the full order model in the low-dimensional space with a given supervised learning task. Moreover, our approach is non-intrusive, such that it can be applied to other complex nonlinear dynamical systems with sophisticated legacy codes. We demonstrate the performance of our method through the numerical simulation of a two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder with Reynolds number Re = 100. The results reveal that the new data-driven model is significantly more accurate than standard projection-based approaches
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; Turbulence; Navier-Stokes; Chaos; Complexity; Fractals; Fluid Dynamics; Reprogramming
Online: 14 February 2019 (14:04:51 CET)
Cancers are complex, adaptive ecosystems. They remain the leading cause of disease-related death among children in North America. As we approach computational oncology and Deep Learning Healthcare, our mathematical models of cancer dynamics must be revised. Recent findings support the perspective that cancer-microenvironment interactions consist of turbulent flows. As such, cancer pattern formation, protein-folding and metastatic invasion are discussed herein as processes driven by chemical turbulence within the framework of complex systems theory. Current state-of-the-art quantitative approaches used in reconstructing cancer stem cell networks are reviewed. To conclude, cancer stem cells are presented as strange attractors of the Waddington landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0569.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: centrifugal fan; unsteady flow; vibroacoustics; fluid-structure-acoustic coupling; optimization
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:14:57 CEST)
Concerning fan systems with an air pipe connecting air intake and a closed outlet, aerodynamic noise cannot be directly transmitted from the fan inlet and outlet to the outside. At this moment, the volute vibrational radiation noise induced casing surface vibration is the major noise component. The main factors affecting the fan vibrational noise are analyzed through theoretical derivation, then a vibrational noise optimization control method for the volute casing is proposed that considered the influence of vibro-acoustic coupling, taking the panel thickness of the volute (front-panel thickness [FT], side-panel thickness [ST], and back-panel thickness [BT]) as design variables, and the acoustical power of the volute surface and the total mass of the volute as the optimal target function. The optimization method is mainly divided into three main parts: the first was based on the simulation of unsteady flow of the fan to obtain the vibrational noise source; the second, using the design of experimental (DOE) method and the proposed numerical simulation of fluid-structure-acoustic coupling method to obtain the designing space, then the radical-based function (RBF) method is used to construct the approximate surrogate model instead of the simulation model previously mentioned, which was used to provide the basic mathematical model for the optimization of the next part; the third part, implementing the low vibrational noise optimization for the fan volute, applied the single-target (taking volute radiated acoustical power as the target function) and the multi-target (taking the volute radiated acoustical power and volute total mass as the target function) methods. In addition, the fan aerodynamic performance, volute casing surface fluctuations, and vibration response were validated by experiments, showing good agreement. It is of utmost importance that the dynamic pressure measurements and vibrational tests on the volute casing verify the accuracy of the numerical calculation. The optimization results showed that the vibrational noise optimization method proposed in this study can effectively reduce the vibration noise of the fan, obtaining a maximum value of noise reduction of 7.3 dB. The optimization identified in this paper provides a significant reference for the design of a low-vibrational-noise volute.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: pressure drop; CFD; Casson fluid; blood; hematocrit; small-vessel; microfluidics
Online: 3 September 2018 (10:58:39 CEST)
The aim of this study is to provide the scientists with a straightforward correlation that can be applied for predicting the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during blood flow in small caliber vessels. Due to the small diameter of the conduit, the Reynolds numbers are low and thus the flow is laminar. The study has been conducted using CFD simulations validated with relevant experimental data acquired using an appropriate experimental set-up. The experiments concern pressure drop measurement during the flow of a blood analogue that follows the Casson model, i.e. an aqueous glycerol solution that contains a small amount of xanthan gum and exhibits similar behavior to blood, in a smooth, stainless steel microtube (L=5.6cm and D=400 μm). The interpretation of the resulting numerical data led to the proposal of a simplified model that incorporates the effect of the flow rate, the hematocrit value (35-55%) and the vessel diameter (300-1800 μm) and predicts with better than ±10% the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during laminar blood flow in small caliber vessels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: traumatic brain injury; fluid percussion injury; neurodegeneration; apoptosis; sensorimotor deficit
Online: 28 December 2017 (08:58:32 CET)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and PARP and annexin V western blotting. We correlated the neurodegeneration with sensorimotor deficits by conducting the animal behavioral tests including grid walk, balance beam, inverted screen test, and climb test. Our study demonstrated that the excess cell death or neurodegeneration correlated with the neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor impairments associated with TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: packed-bed reactor; computational fluid dynamics; FlexPDE; COMSOL Multiphysics; Fischer-Tropsch
Online: 6 June 2022 (04:06:12 CEST)
The present study shows a methodology for analyzing and designing a cylindrical packed-bed reactor considering stationary and dynamic models. The design comprises the reactor's stationary and dynamic governing differential equations for mass and heat transfer under multi-dimensional approaches. The results included simulation of concentration, temperature, and reaction rate profiles via the 1-D and 2-D differential equations solution with FlexPDE software. The analysis was complemented with a scaled 3-D dynamic model implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. Both FlexPDE and COMSOL Multiphysics relied on the finite element technique to solve the governing differential equations. The simulated concentration and temperature profiles from both FlexPDE and COMSOL models were compared to experimental data gathered from literature (specifically from a Fischer-Tropsch process to produce low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in a configuration of cylindrical packed-bed reactors). Simulated concentration and temperature profiles from the 2-dimensional dynamic model and the COMSOL model were in good agreement with the trend observed in experimental data. Finally, the predicted reaction rate profiles from the COMSOL model and the 2-dimensional dynamic model followed the temperature trend, thus reflecting the temperature dependence of the reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: tank transfer function; neural networks; machine learning; OpenFOAM; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:17:20 CEST)
Experimental test facilities are generally characterised using linear transfer functions to relate the wavemaker forcing amplitude to wave elevation at a probe located in the wavetank. Second and third order correction methods are becoming available but are limited to certain ranges of waves in their applicability. Artificial intelligence has been shown to be a suitable tool to find even highly nonlinear functional relationships. This paper reports on a numerical wavetank implemented using the OpenFOAM software package which is characterised using artificial intelligence. The aim of the research is to train neural networks to represent non-linear transfer functions mapping a desired surface-elevation time-trace at a probe to the wavemaker input required to create it. These first results already demonstrate the viability of the approach and the suitability of a single setup to find solutions over a wide range of sea states and wave characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0234.v1
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:39:40 CEST)
Heart attacks and strokes are one of the leading causes of death in the world today, and heart attacks caused by clogged arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle are a significant part of these strokes. These are caused by the accumulation of fat particles in the walls of the arteries and the reduction of blood flow through it over a long process. The process of fat penetration in the underlying layers of the Artery wall has been the focus of many researchers, and various researches and Simulations have been done on it, in each of them, the effect of specific parameters has been considered. In the present study, the effect of blood flow rate on the flow pattern in a bifurcate artery with two ducts has been investigated using FLUENT software with Computation fluid dynamic Method. The effect of the angle between the two ducts of the Artery on the flow pattern has been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; Total protein; Reference interval; Older population; Japanese healthy volunteer
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:38:05 CEST)
The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) is important for the diagnosis of neurological emergencies. Recently, some Western studies have shown that the current upper reference limit of CSF-TP is quite low for older patients. However, little is reported about the concentration of CSF-TP in older Asian population. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the CSF-TP concentrations in Japanese healthy older volunteers. CSF samples in 69 healthy Japanese volunteers (age range: 55–73 years) were collected by lumbar puncture, and the data of CSF were retrospectively analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) CSF-TP was 41.7 (12.3) mg/dL. The older group (≥ 65 years old) had higher CSF-TP concentration than the younger group (55–64 years old). The 2.5th percentile and 97.5th percentile of CSF-TP were estimated as 22.5 and 73.2 mg/dL, respectively, which were higher than the current reference range in Japan (10–40 mg/dL).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: recompression Brayton cycle; supercritical carbon dioxide; fluid mixture; solar thermal plant.
Online: 2 April 2021 (13:54:40 CEST)
In this work, an evaluation and quantification of the impact of using mixtures based on Supercritical Carbon Dioxide "s-CO2" (s-CO2/COS, s-CO2/H2S, s-CO2/NH3, s-CO2/SO2) are made as a working fluid in simple and complex recompression Brayton s-CO2 power cycles configurations that have pressure drops in their components. These cycles are coupled to a solar thermal plant with parabolic-trough collector (PTC) technology. The methodology used in the calculation performance is to establish values of the heat recuperator total conductance (UAtotal) between 5 and 25 MW/K. The main conclusion of this work is that the cycle's efficiency has improved due to s-CO2 mixtures as working fluid; this is significant compared to that obtained using the standard fluid (pure s-CO2). Furthermore, a techno-economic analysis is carried out that compares each configuration's costs using pure s-CO2 and a mixture of s-CO2/COS with a molar fraction (70/30) respectively as working fluid where relevant results are obtained. These results show that the best configuration in terms of thermal efficiency and cost is the RCC-RH for pure sCO2 with values of 41.25% and 2811 $/kWe, while for the mixture sCO2/COS, the RCC-2RH configuration with values of 45, 05% and 2621 $/kWe is optimal. Using the mixture costs 6.75% less than if it is used the standard fluid (s-CO2).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microneedle; microneedle array, interstitial fluid; bio sensing, wearable system; ISF sampling
Online: 30 March 2021 (09:55:02 CEST)
Dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) is a novel source of biomarkers that can be considered as an alternative to blood sampling for disease diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, in vivo extraction and analysis of ISF are challenging. On the other hand, microneedle (MN) technology can address most of the challenges associated with dermal ISF extraction and is well-suited for long-term, continuous ISF monitoring as well as in situ detection. In this review, we first briefly summarise the different dermal ISF collection methods and compare them with MN methods. Next, we elaborate on the design considerations and biocompatibility of MNs. Subsequently, the fabrication technologies of various MNs used for dermal ISF extraction, including solid MNs, hollow MNs, porous MNs and hydrogel MNs, are thoroughly explained. In addition, different sensing mechanisms of ISF detection will be discussed in detail. Subsequently, we identify the challenges and propose the possible solutions associated with ISF extraction. A detailed investigation is provided for the transport and sampling mechanism of ISF in vivo. Also, the current in vitro skin model integrated with the MN arrays will be discussed. Finally, future directions to develop a point-of-care (POC) device to sample ISF are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0775.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Modified Gravity; Fluid mechanics; Quintessence model; cosmological inflation; Viscosity; Gravitational physics.
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:15:43 CET)
In this paper we have defined the effect of bulk viscosity on Quintessence model and scaler field potential as well as on classical field. We have shown the same effect for modified gravity with f(R,T)= R+f(T). In the derivation we have predicted the possibility of time dependent evolution of gravitational constant G and anisotropy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wells turbine; oscillating water column; wave energy converter; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 2 October 2020 (14:03:41 CEST)
The current need to develop sustainable power sources has led to the development of ocean-based conversion systems. Wells turbine is a widely used converter in such systems which suffers from a lack of operational range and power production capacity under operational conditions. The profile named IFS which is concave in the post-mid-chord region, can produce significantly larger lift forces and show better separation behavior than the NACA profiles. In the present study, we tested this profile for the first time in a Wells turbine. The performance of six different blade designs with IFS and NACA profiles were evaluated and compared using a validated computational fluid dynamic model. Although the substitution of the NACA profile with the IFS profile in all cases increased the torque generated, the most efficient power generation and the largest efficient range were achieved in the design with varying thickness from the hub with a 0.15 thickness ratio reaching to the ratio of 0.2 at the tip. The operational span of this design with the IFS profile was 24.1% greater and the maximum torque generation was 71% higher than the case with the NACA profile. Therefore, the use of the IFS profile is suggested for further study and practical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0135.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Pannonian Basin; fractured reservoir; well-log; DFN modelling; fluid inclusion chemostratigraphy
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:31:16 CEST)
Numerous fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs exist in the metamorphic basement of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary. Many decades of experience in production have proven that these reservoirs are highly compartmentalised, resulting in a complex mosaic of permeable and impermeable domains situated next to each other. Consequently, in most fields, only a small amount of the total hydrocarbon reserve can be extracted. This paper aims to locate the potential migration pathways inside the most productive basement reservoir of the Pannonian Basin, using a multiscale approach. To achieve this, evaluation well-log data, DFN modelling and a composition analysis of fluid trapped in a vein-filling zeolite phase are combined. Data on a single well are presented as an example. The results of the three approaches indicate the presence of two highly fractured intervals separated by a barely fractured amphibolite. The two zones are probably part of the communicating fracture system inside the single metamorphic mass. The gas analysis further specifies the migrated fluids and indicates hydrocarbons of a composition similar to that of the recently produced oil. Consequently, we conclude that the two zones do not only form an ancient migration pathway but are also members of a more recent hydrocarbon system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0338.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: aluminum alloys; artificial aging; drilling; surface quality; cutting fluid; burr formation
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:54:29 CET)
This article discuss the effects of heat treatment and lubrication modes on the machinability of an A356 alloy (Al-Si-Mg); the alloy is studied as-received, with solution heat-treated alloy (SHT) as well as with an alloy that is solution heat-treated and then aged at 155, 180 and 220 °C. In the course of machinability evaluation, several criteria including cutting force, surface roughness, tool wears and burr analysis (chip) were studied. The results and analysis in this work indicated that the selected machinability criteria are important and necessary to effectively evaluate the machinability of A356 alloys. The machinability of both materials and tools were estimated in terms of cutting force, chip thickness ratio and burr formation, flank wear and roughness. The effects of different cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) and lubrication modes (dry, mist and wet) on the machinability of the A356 cast alloy were also examined. The influence of heat treatments on the burr formation and surface quality was clearly revealed by the experimental results. Experimental work revealed that cutting forces were influenced significantly by aging and cutting speed. However, the different aging at 155, 180, and 220 °C and the cutting speed significantly affected the machinability of the A356 cast alloy. The results obtained show that a better drilling performance in terms of surface quality occurs at a high feed rate, with dry drilling and artificial aging at T6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adaptive lens; piezoelectric devices; fluid-structure interaction; moving mesh; thermal expansion.
Online: 21 October 2019 (13:02:57 CEST)
In this paper, we present a finite element simulation of an adaptive piezoelectric fluid-membrane lens modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation couples the piezoelectric effect with the fluid dynamics to model the interaction between piezoelectric forces and fluid forces. Also, the simulation is extended to model the thermal expansion of the fluid. Finally, we compare the simulation and experimental results of the adaptive lens refractive power at different actuation levels and temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: C-H-O isotopes; fluid inclusion; Koka deposit; orogenic gold deposit
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:57:18 CET)
The Koka gold deposit is located in the Elababu shear zone between the Nakfa terrane and the Adobha Abiy terrane, NW Eritrea. Based on the paragenetic study two main stages of gold mineralization were identified in the Koka gold deposit: 1) an early stage of pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-galena-gold-quartz vein; and 2) a second stage of pyrite-quartz veins. NaCl-aqueous inclusions, CO2-rich inclusions, and three-phase CO2-H2O inclusions occur in the quartz veins at Koka. The ore-bearing quartz veins formed at 268℃, from NaCl-CO2-H2O(-CH4) fluids averaging 5 wt% NaCl eq. The ore-forming mechanisms include fluid immiscibility during stage I, and mixing with meteoric water during stage II. Oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotopes suggest that the ore-forming fluids originated as mixtures of metamorphic water, meteoric water and magmatic water, whereas sulfur isotope suggest an igneous origin. Features of geology and ore-forming fluid at Koka deposit are similar to those of orogenic gold deposits, suggesting the Koka deposit might be an orogenic gold deposit related to granite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Droplet Impact, Viscoelastic, Two-phase Flow, Volume of Fluid method (VOF)
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:12:38 CEST)
In this paper, a numerical modeling of the impact, spreading, and eventually rebound of a viscoelastic droplet is reported. The numerical model is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with the FENE-CR constitutive equations, and accounts for both the surface tension and the substrate wettability. The FENE-CR constitutive equations are used to model the polymer solution, while taking advantage of its rheological characterization. The comparison is performed between droplets of Newtonian solvent and a monodisperse polymer solution. The droplet impact on both hydrophilic and superhydrophobic substrate is analyzed through a detailed analysis of the spreading diameter evolution. It is found that while the droplet kinematic phase seems independent of the substrate and fluids properties, the recoiling phase is highly related to all of them. In addition, the model infers a critical polymer concentration above which the droplet rebound from a superhydrophobic substrate is suppressed. The simulation is of particular interest to ink-jet processing, and demonstrates the capability of the model to handle complex non-Newtonian droplet dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: horizontal axis tidal turbine; Computational Fluid Dynamics; mesh independency; NACA 0018
Online: 2 August 2016 (04:45:13 CEST)
This paper numerically investigates a 3D mesh independency study of a straight blade horizontal axis tidal turbine modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The solution was produced by employing two turbulence models, the standard k-ε model and Shear Stress Transport (SST) in ANSYS CFX. Three parameters were investigated: mesh resolution, turbulence model, and power coefficient in the initial CFD, analysis. It was found that the mesh resolution and the turbulence model affect the power coefficient results. The power coefficients obtained from the standard k-ε model are 15% to 20% lower than the accuracy of the SST model. It can also be demonstrated that the torque coefficient increases with the increasing Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), but drops drastically after TSR = 5 and k-ε model failing to capture the non-linearity in the torque coefficient with the increasing TSR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: horizontal gas well; liquid-carrying model; tubing depth; gas drainage; fluid energy
Online: 28 December 2022 (10:01:08 CET)
As the structure of horizontal gas wells is more complicated than that of vertical wells, the form of the liquid-carrying in different sections does not well agree. This makes it problematic to apply the widely used liquid-carrying theory of vertical gas wells in horizontal gas wells. Since the theory focused on the critical gas flow rate, it cannot quantify how much liquid it can remove. Simultaneously, it ignores the fact that the liquid-carrying ability of gas flow is limited and the producing liquid has a certain amount of flowing energy. In this study, the gas-liquid flow law of horizontal gas wells and wellhead drainage stability in different tubing depths were firstly studied. Then, the stability of gas drainage for different tubing depths was analyzed and confirmed. Given the disadvantages of the typical theory of critical gas flow, the mathematical model of different tubing depths for gas drainage is established for horizontal gas wells. The innovative model could take the energy of gas flow and liquid flow into account, and quantify the liquid volume which was removed. By verifying the model with the experiments, the result showed that the relative error of the model is generally less than 10%. It shows the research could provide a scientific basis for the analysis and liquid-carrying capacity for horizontal gas wells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0221.v9
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: general relativity; cosmology; continuum mechanics; fluid dynamics; field theory; electrodynamics; Hamiltonian mechanics
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:59:30 CET)
The article proposes an amendment to the relativistic continuum mechanics which introduces the relationship between density tensors and the curvature of spacetime. The resulting formulation of a symmetric stress-energy tensor for a system with an electromagnetic field, leads to the solution of Einstein Field Equations indicating a relationship between the electromagnetic field tensor and the metric tensor. In this EFE solution, the cosmological constant is related to the invariant of the electromagnetic field tensor, and additional pulls appear, dependent on the vacuum energy contained in the system. In flat Minkowski spacetime, the vanishing four-divergence of the proposed stress-energy tensor expresses relativistic Cauchy's momentum equation, leading to the emergence of force densities which can be developed and parameterized to obtain known interactions. Transformation equations were also obtained between spacetime with fields and forces, and a curved spacetime reproducing the motion resulting from the fields under consideration, which allows for the extension of the solution with new fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Circular Waterways; Outdoor recreation facilities; fluid landscape paradise; Blue-Green Infra-structure
Online: 8 September 2022 (05:44:43 CEST)
Rajshahi, blessed by the geographical advantage provided by the river Padma, is a beautiful and one of the cleanest cities in Bangladesh. It presents a spectacular image and stunning sight to its residents. But Rapid urbanization created immense pressure on the infrastructures and cityscape by rescinding most of the natural assets and scenic beauty it possessed historically. The growing pressure of population influx accompanied by unplanned urbanization threatens the survival of its waterbodies, wetlands, and greeneries, which many other contemporary cities strive to achieve with hard-hearted planning measures. Moreover, the city suffers from inadequate provision of quality outdoor recreational facilities. Yet because of the verdant resources, it still can set an example of becoming green and fluid landscape. There are scopes to connect the city people to the urban landscape and blue-green infrastructures by applying proper planning and urban design techniques. For example, it can explore the potential and scope of a water-based transportation system to create outdoor recreation space for city dwellers as well as a transport mode in the city. This SECTION discusses the prospects and potential of enhancing recreational aspects of Circular Inland Waterways. It also analyzes the benefits of a network of waterways well-connected and integrated with the existing conventional transportation system to reduce pressure on land transport and promote a sustainable system. This research was conducted in two phases each involving a distinct approach. The first one was a macroscopic approach to probe the potential of the water transport system in Rajshahi city. The required data on traffic volume, traffic growth rate, roads and existing waterbodies were collected, and GIS and Remote Sensing tools were used to find the scope of waterway transport around Rajshahi City. In the second approach, a detailed design was proposed for a potential circular waterway network in the city. Results indicate that there is a huge prospect for introducing a circular waterway transport system around Rajshahi city to create a place of fluid landscape and minimize the pressure on the existing land transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Savonius wind turbine; Porous deflector; Porosity; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Self-starting
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:54:51 CEST)
The present study explores the effect of using two porous deflectors on the performance of the Savonius wind turbine compared to only one porous deflector. The numerical simulation is performed to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the SST k-
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD; PIV; experimental fluid mechanics; pressure calculation; SIMPLE; Reynolds Stresses; measurement integration)
Online: 30 March 2022 (04:40:11 CEST)
Calculation of the pressure field on and around solid bodies exposed to external flow is of paramount importance to a number of engineering applications. However, conventional pressure measurement techniques are inherently linked to problems principally caused by their point-wise and/or intrusive nature. In the present paper, we attempt to calculate the time-averaged two-dimensional pressure field by integrating PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) velocity measurements into a CFD code and modifying them by the respective correction step of the SIMPLE algorithm. Boundary conditions are applied from the PIV data as a three-layer area of constant velocities, adjacent to the boundaries. A novel characteristic of the approach is the straightforward inclusion of the Reynolds Stresses into the source terms of the momentum equations, calculated directly from the PIV statistics. The methodology is applied to three regions of the symmetry plane parallel to the main boundary layer flow past a surface mounted cube. In spite of findings of deviations from the planar 2D flow assumption, the derived pressure fields and the adjusted velocity fields are found to be reliable, while the intrinsic turbulent nature of the flow is considered without modelling of the Reynolds stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0015.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Heat transfer; Williamson fluid; Homotopy analysis method; exponential stretching; MHD; suction/injection
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:19:59 CEST)
This article investigates the features of heat and mass transfer for the steady two-dimensional Williamson nanofluid flow across an exponentially stretched surface depending on suction/injection. The boundary conditions incorporate the impacts of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis boundary. The analysis of heat transfer is carried out for the two cases of prescribed exponential order surface temperature (PEST) and prescribed exponential order heat flux (PEHF). The ongoing flow problem is mathematically modeled under the basic laws of motion and heat transfer. The similarity variables are allowed to transmute the governing equations of the problem into a similarity ordinary differential equation (ODEs). The solution of this reduced non-linear system of ODEs is supported by the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The combination of HAM arrangements is acquired by plotting the h-curve. In order to evaluate the influence of several emergent parameters, the outcomes are presented numerically and are plotted diagrammatically as a consequence of velocity, temperature and concentration proles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0565.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Anode Baking Furnaces; κ −turbulence flow model; mesh generation; Computational Fluid Dynamics
Online: 25 February 2021 (07:41:46 CET)
Turbulent flow is the first and fundamental physical phenomena to evaluate when optimising cost and reducing emissions from an Anode Baking Furnace (ABF). Gas flow patterns, velocity field, pressure drop, shear stress, and turbulent dissipation rate variables are the main operational parameters to be optimised, considering a specific geometry. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows simulating physical phenomena using numerical methods with computer resources. In particular, the finite element method is one of the most used methods to solve the flow equations. This method requires a discretisation of the geometry of the ABF, called mesh. Hence, mesh is the main input to the finite element method. A suitable mesh for applying a discretisation method determines whether the problem can be simulated or not. Generating an appropriate mesh remains a challenge to perform accurate simulations. In this work, a comparison between meshes generated using two mesh generation tools is presented. Results of different study cases are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0042.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: inhalation exposure assessment; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); biocides; spray model; unsteady RANS
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:17:30 CET)
Consumer products contain the chemical substances that threaten human health. The modeling methods and experimental methods have been used to estimate the inhalation exposure concentration by the consumer products. The model and measurement methods have the spatial property problem and time/cost consuming problem, respectively. For solving the problems due to the conventional methodology, this study performed the feasibility of applying CFD for evaluation of inhalation exposure by comparing the experiment results and the zero-dimensional results with CFD results. To calculate the aerosol concentration, the CFD was performed by combined the 3D Reynolds averaged Navier Stoke’s equation and discrete phased model using ANSYS FLUENT. As a result of comparing the three methodologies performed under the same simulation/experimental conditions, we found the zero-dimensional spray model shows approximately 5 times underestimated inhalation exposure concentration when compared with the CFD results and measurement results in near field. Also, the results of the measured concentration of aerosols at five locations and the CFD results at the same location were compared to show the possibility of evaluating inhalation exposure at various locations using CFD instead of experimental method. The CFD results according to measurement positions can predict rationally the measurement results with low error. In conclusion, in the field of exposure science, a guideline for exposure evaluation using CFD was found that complements the shortcomings of the conventional methodology, the zero-dimensional spray model and measurement method.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0148.v1
Subject: Keywords: Music-making; Cerebrospinal fluid; Myodural bridge; Somatic rhythmic motion; CSF-static compartment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:34:58 CET)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons (CSF-N) located in the surface of both brain ventricles and the central canal (cc) in the spinal cord. The cc and CSF maintain a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells and play a vital role in development of the brain. The CSF circulates in the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces with the CSF rhythmic flow: cardiac pulsation and respiratory fluctuation. A new concept of CSF motion may be contrary to the classical one that the direction of CSF motion may vary in direction and may be dynamic in its location. The CSF pressure may also depend on the body position. Moderate music-making has been considered a potential approach for rehabilitative and restorative therapy of brain dysfunctions. Recently, we find that the CSF-Ns are present in both the interior CFS in the cc and also exterior CSF around the surface of the spinal cord. We hypothesize that CSF-N as mechanical sensors in the spinal cord could sense motion of the spinal cord. The myodural bridge is a ligament connecting a pair of deep, upper-neck muscles to the dura mater, which envelops the arachnoid mater and contains the CSF surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. We figure out the term “CSF-static compartment” and classify CSF storage location as rostral pool and caudal pool to demonstrate our hypothesis. We presume that the somatic body movement with music-making and rehabilitation-based interventions would orchestrate the CSF motion with head movement, myodural bridge stretching and puling as well as spinal bending.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cyclone separator; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Machine learning; Unsteady RANS; Critical Diameter
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:11:58 CET)
This paper deals with the characteristics of the cyclone separator from the Lagrangian perspective to design important dependent variables, develops a neural network model for predicting the separation performance parameter, and compares the predictive performance between the traditional surrogate model and the neural network model. In order to design the important parameters of the cyclone separator based on the particle separation theory, the force acting until the particles are separated was calculated using the Lagrangian-based CFD methodology. As a result, it was proved that the centrifugal force and drag acting on the critical diameter having a separation efficiency of 50% were similar, and the particle separation phenomenon in the cyclone occurred from the critical diameter, and it was set as an important dependent variable. For developing a critical diameter prediction model based on machine learning and multiple regression methods, Unsteady-RANS analyzes according to shape dimensions were performed. The input design variables for predicting the critical diameter were selected as four geometry parameters that affect the turbulent flow inside the cyclone. As a result of comparing the model prediction performances, the ML model showed the 32.5 % of improvement rate of R2 compared to the traditional MLR considering the nonlinear relationship between the cyclone design variable and the critical diameter. The proposed techniques have proven to be fast and practical tools for cyclone design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: optimization; particle swarm; response surface; extended surface; fired heaters; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:32:35 CEST)
This paper proposes the use of non-uniform extended surfaces installed externally to the tubes of the radiation section of fired heaters, in order to obtain a better heat flux distribution to the coils. To this end, the heat transfer mechanisms present in such equipment were studied through computational fluid dynamics (CFD), using simplified geometries that represent typical sizes of fired heaters. Also, a simplified model for the combustion was considered. Although this model oversimplifies the physics of the problem, it was able to give satisfactory results for the parameters being optimized, considering the main objective of this paper, that is to minimize the non-uniformity of heat flux in the tubes of the radiant section of fired heaters. It was possible to obtain optimized geometric parameters for different types of extended surfaces evaluated, coupling the results of these models with the Particle Swarm optimization method through the use of a response surface technique,. The results indicate a significant improvement in the uniformity of the heat flux distribution to the tubes through the use of the proposed extended surfaces. Thus, this solution reveals to be an interesting alternative to reduce the risks of fluid degradation and coking formation. Future studies must investigate the non-uniformity of the heat flux due to the presence of the flame and consider the interaction between the reactive flow and the participating medium. Nevertheless, this paper presents some results that justify the optimization of such extended surfaces taking into consideration thermal radiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0426.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: solitons; electrostatic solitary waves; pickup ions; perpendicular shock waves; multi-fluid plasma
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:53:25 CEST)
The need to understand the process by which particles, including solar wind and coronal ions as well as pickup ions, are accelerated to high energies (ultimately to become anomalous cosmic rays) motivate a multi-fluid shock wave model which includes kinetic effects (e.g. ion acceleration) in an electromagnetically self-consistent framework. Particle reflection at the cross-shock potential leads to ion acceleration in the motional electric field and thus anisotropic heating and pressure in the shock layer, with important consequences for the multi-fluid dynamics. This motivates development of a multi-fluid model of solar wind electrons and ions treated as fluid, coupled self-consistently with a small population of kinetically treated ions (e.g. pickup ions.) Consideration of both the time dependent and steady state regimes, indicate that such a multi-fluid approach is necessary for resolving the, Debye scale, particle reflecting cross-shock potential and subsequent dynamics. To study charge separation effects in narrow, supersonic wave layers we consider a reduction of the system to the steady state for cold ions and hot electrons and find two types of solitary waves inherent to the reduced two-fluid system in this limiting case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0093.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: spent coffee grounds; polyphenols; extraction; subcritical fluid; activated carbon; methylene blue; adsorption.
Online: 20 September 2019 (10:23:51 CEST)
A valorization process of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Thus, a two-stage process, a stage of extraction of the polyphenols and a stage of obtaining activated carbon (AC) by a carbonization process, was performed. The extraction was carried out with a hydro-alcoholic solution in a pressure reactor, modifying time and temperature. To optimize the extraction of polyphenols, a two-level factorial design with three replications at the central values was used. The best results were obtained by performing the extraction at 80 °C during 30 min, using a mixture of EtOH:H2O 1:1 (v/v) as extraction solution. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds in the analyzed extracts, ranging from 0.09 to 4.8 mg∙g-1 and 0.06 to 9.7 mg∙g-1, respectively. The precursor obtained in the extraction stage were transformed into AC. An experimental design was realized in order to analyze the influence of different variables in the AC obtained process (reaction time and amount of potassium hydroxide used). Actived carbons with BET specific surface (SBET) comprised between 1600 m2∙g-1 and 2330 m2∙g-1 had a microporous surface. Under the optimum conditions, the obtained AC presented a maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue (qm) between 411 mg∙g-1 and 813 mg∙g-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0185.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: anxiety; cognition; colour of drink; dehydration; electrolytes; fluid intake; mood; placebo; rehydration
Online: 17 August 2019 (15:53:08 CEST)
Traditionally it has been thought necessary to lose 2% of body mass due to dehydration, before functioning is disrupted, although recently adverse effects have been reported with a loss of 0.5-0.7%. It is, however, unclear whether the response to small decreases in mass reflects dehydration, mechanisms that help to adapt to a loss of bodily fluid, or a placebo effect. Individuals were therefore subject to a temperature of 30°C for three hours, and mood and cognition monitored. To explore the possibility of a placebo response, the consumption of plain or coloured water was compared. To consider changes in hydration status, drinks known to differ in their ability to rehydrate were contrasted. Not drinking was disruptive, although a combination of plain water and electrolyte’s most effectively prevented a decline in functioning, indicating a role for rehydration after a loss of 0.52% body mass. There was, however, also evidence of a placebo response: a combination of plain water and electrolytes was better able to prevent a decline in functioning than coloured plain water and electrolytes. As increased anxiety was a robust response, it was discussed whether the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system might be part of the mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0025.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: bubble column reactor; ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO); flow pattern; machine learning; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); big data
Online: 11 January 2020 (12:47:48 CET)
In order to perceive the behavior presented by the multiphase chemical reactors, the ant colony optimization algorithm was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. This intelligent algorithm creates a probabilistic technique for computing flow and it can predict various levels of three-dimensional bubble column reactor (BCR). This artificial ant algorithm is mimicking real ant behavior. This method can anticipate the flow characteristics in the reactor using almost 30 % of the whole data in the domain. Following discovering the suitable parameters, the method is used for predicting the points not being simulated with CFD, which represent mesh refinement of Ant colony method. In addition, it is possible to anticipate the bubble-column reactors in the absence of numerical results or training of exact values of evaluated data. The major benefits include reduced computational costs and time savings. The results show a great agreement between ant colony prediction and CFD outputs in different sections of the BCR. The combination of ant colony system and neural network framework can provide the smart structure to estimate biological and nature physics base phenomena. The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) framework based on ant behavior can solve all local mathematical answers throughout 3D bubble column reactor. The integration of all local answers can provide the overall solution in the reactor for different characteristics. This new overview of modelling can illustrate new sight into biological behavior in nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Terrain‐induced severe wind event; Stratified flows; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); LES
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:39:54 CEST)
In this research, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) approach that has been used in wind power generation field was applied for the solution of the problems of local strong wind areas in railway fields, and the mechanism of wind generation was discussed. At the same time, the affectivity of the application of computational fluid dynamic approach to railway field was discussed. The problem of local wind that occurs on the railway line in winter was taken up in this research. A computational simulation for the prediction of wind conditions by LES was implemented and it was clarified that the local strong wind area is mainly caused by separated flows originating from the small‐scale terrain positioned at its upstream (at approximately 180.0 m above sea level). Meanwhile, the effects of the size of calculation area and spatial grid resolution on the result of calculation and the effect of atmospheric stability were also discussed. It was clarified that when the air flow characteristic of the separated flow originating from the small‐scale terrain (at altitude of approximately 180.0 m) targeted in this research is reproduced at high accuracy by computational simulation of wind conditions, approximately 10.0 m of spatial resolution of computational grid in horizontal direction is required. As a result of the computational simulation of wind conditions of stably stratified flow (Fr = 1.0), lee waves were excited at the downstream of the terrain over time. As a result, the reverse‐flow region lying behind the terrain that had been observed at a neutral time was inhibited. Consequently, local strong wind area was generated at the downstream of the terrain and the strong wind area passing through the observation mast was observed. By investigating the speed increasing rate of local strong wind area induced at the time of stable stratification, it was found that the wind was approximately 1.2 times stronger than what was generated at a neutral time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: fluid overload; resistance; reactance; bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy; malnutrition
Online: 7 March 2019 (06:52:39 CET)
Although the need to assess hydration is well recognized, laboratory tests and clinical impressions are impractical and lack sensitivity to be clinically meaningful. Different approaches use bioelectrical impedance measurements to overcome some of these limitations and aid in classification of hydration status. One indirect approach utilizes single or multiple frequency bioimpedance in regression equations and theoretical models, respectively, with anthropometric measurements to predict fluid volumes (bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy; BIS) and estimate fluid overload based on deviation of calculated to reference extracellular fluid volume. Alternatively, bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) uses direct phase-sensitive measurements of resistance and reactance, measured at 50 kHz, normalized for height, then plotted on a bivariate graph, resulting in a vector with length related to fluid content normalized by standing height, and direction with phase angle that indexes hydration status. Comparison with healthy population norms enables BIVA to classify (normal, under- and over-) and rank (change relative to pre-treatment) hydration independent of body weight. Each approach has wide-ranging uses in evaluation and management of clinical groups with overhydration with an evolving emphasis on prognosis. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of BIS and BIVA for hydration assessment with comments on future applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wastewater treatment; computational fluid dynamics; hydrodynamic performance; specific power dissipation; anoxic zone
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:23:28 CET)
This study aims to determine the optimal configuration (position and operation duration) for wall mounted mechanical mixers based on the comparison of three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling results and physical data collected from the treatment plant. A three-dimensional model of anoxic zone 1, 2 and 3 of Northern Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) located at Cairns Regional Council, Cairns, Queensland, Australia was developed and validated. The model was used to simulate the flow pattern of the WWTP and the simulation results are in good agreement with the physical data varying between 0% to 15% in key locations. The anoxic zones were subject to velocities less than the desired 0.3 metres per second however results for suspended solids concentration indicate that good mixing is being achieved. Results for suspended solids concentrations suggest that the anoxic zones are towards the upper limits recommended by literature for specific power dissipation. The duration for operation of mechanical mixers was investigated and identified that the duration could be reduced from 900 seconds down to 150 seconds. Alternative mixer positioning was also investigated and identified positioning which would increase the average flow velocity with decreased duration (150 seconds). The study identified that Council may achieve savings of $24,000 per year through optimisation of the mechanical mixers.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0292.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; glass fiber reinforced composites; heavy crude oil; pressure waves
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:58:29 CEST)
Filament wound composite pipes are frequently used in the field were transmission of high pressured chemical fluids, disposal of industrial wastes, oil and natural gas transmission takes place. In oil and gas industry, the pipelines transporting heavy crude oil are subjected to variable pressure waves causing fluctuating stress levels in the pipes. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis was performed using Ansys 15.0 Fluent software to study the effects of these pressure waves on some specified joints in the pipes. Depending on the type of heavy crude oil being used, the flow behavior indicated a considerable degree of stress levels in certain connecting joints, causing the joints to become weak over a prolonged period of use. In this research comparison of various pipe joints was done by using different material and the output result of the stress levels of the pipe joints were checked so that the life of the pipe joints can be optimized by the change of material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0268.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Turner’s syndrome; chromosomal aneuploidy; amniotic fluid; cell-free RNA; ingenuity pathway analysis
Online: 12 October 2018 (12:07:26 CEST)
Genetic disorders are quite a major topic of discussion and debate in the recent world of biological sciences. Turner’s syndrome is one such disorder caused by a chromosome aneuploidy and it has characteristic symptoms in the patient or the affected individual. The amniotic fluid is a complex biological material found in the amniotic sac of pregnant women and they can provide valuable knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis of this particular chromosomal abnormality. In this study, global gene expression analysis of cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant was used to detect genes/organ systems which may be significant in the pathophysiology of Turner’s syndrome. The cell-free RNA from the amniotic fluid of five mid-trimester Turner’s syndrome fetuses and five euploid female fetuses matched for age of gestation were extracted, amplified and hybridized onto Affymetrix U33 Plus 2.0. array. The paired t-test was used to identify the significantly differentially regulated genes. Biological interpretation was conducted using ingenuity pathway analysis and BioGPS gene expression atlas. Of the genes, XIST was especially downregulated and SHOX was not expressed differentially. One of the most highly represented organ systems was the hematologic/immune system, differentiating the transcriptome of Turner’s syndrome from other chromosomal aneuploidies that are discussed in this area of science. The differences in the transcriptome of the Turner’s syndrome are due to genome-wide dysregulation. The hematologic/immune system differences are significant in early-onset autoimmune dysfunction. There are other genes which have been identified that are associated with the cardiovascular and the skeletal system, as these are often seen to be affected in the female patients with turner’s syndrome. Hopefully, such knowledge gained from this study will help us to understand the deeper mechanisms of this disorder and the possible treatments of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0008.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: murine herpesvirus-68; MHV-68; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; BAL; proteomics; oxidative stress
Online: 3 September 2018 (04:47:19 CEST)
Murine herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) productively infects the mouse lungs, exhibiting a complex pathology characteristic of both acute viral infections and chronic respiratory diseases. We sought to discover proteins differentially expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from mice infected with MHV-68. Mice were infected intranasally with MHV-68. After 9 days, as the lytic phase of infection resolved, differential BAL proteins were identified by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of 23 unique proteins, acute phase proteins, vitamin A transport, and oxidative stress response factors Pdx6 and EC-SOD (Sod3) were enriched. Correspondingly, iNOS2 was induced in lung tissue by 7 days post infection. Oxidative stress was partly a direct result of MHV-68 infection, as reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in cultured murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts and human lung A549 cells infected with MHV-68. Finally, mice were infected with a recombinant MHV-68 co-expressing inflammatory cytokine murine interleukin 6 (IL6) showed exacerbated oxidative stress and soluble type I collagen characteristic of tissue recovery. Thus, oxidative stress appears to be a salient feature of MHV-68 pathogenesis, in part caused by lytic replication of virus and IL6. Proteins and small molecules in lung oxidative stress networks therefore may provide new therapeutic targets to ameliorate respiratory virus infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0116.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: fluid dynamics; two phase flow; level set function; cylindrical coordinates; continuity equation
Online: 17 April 2018 (11:46:39 CEST)
A new formulation for a proposed solution to the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations in cylindrical co-ordinates coupled to the continuity and level set convection equation is presented in terms of an additive solution of the three principle directions in the radial, azimuthal and z directions of flow and a connection between the level set function and composite velocity vector for the additive solution is shown. For the case of a vertical tube configuration with small inclination angle, results are obtained for the level set function defining the interface in both the radial and azimuthal directions. It is found that the curvature dependent part of the problem alone induces sinusoidal azimuthal interfacial waves wheras when the curvature together with the equation for the composite velocity is considered oscillating radial interfacial waves occur. The implications of two extremes indicate the importance of looking at the full equations including curvature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pore-scale model; non-Newtonian fluid; Finite Volume Method; Digital Rock Physics
Online: 15 September 2017 (10:09:40 CEST)
Most of the pore-scale imaging and simulations of non-Newtonian fluid are based on the simplifying geometry of network modeling and overlook the fluid rheology and heat transfer. In the present paper, we developed a non-isothermal and non-Newtonian numerical model of the flow properties at pore-scale by direct simulation of the 3D micro-CT images using a Finite Volume Method (FVM). The numerical model is based on the resolution of the momentum and energy conservation equations. Owing to an adaptive meshing technique and appropriate boundary conditions, rock permeability and mobility are accurately computed. A temperature and concentration-dependent power-law viscosity model in line with the experimental measurement of the fluid rheology is adopted. The model is first applied at isothermal condition to 2 benchmark samples, namely Fontainebleau sandstone and Grosmont carbonate, and is found to be in good agreement with the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Finally, at non-isothermal conditions, an effective mobility is introduced that enables to perform a numerical sensitivity study to fluid rheology, heat transfer, and operating conditions. While the mobility seems to evolve linearly with polymer concentration, the effect of the temperature seems negligible by comparison. However, a sharp contrast is found between carbonate and sandstone under the effect of a constant temperature gradient. Besides concerning the flow index and consistency factor, a good master curve is derived when normalizing the mobility for both the carbonate and the sandstone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air shock wave; rock-fall; two-phase model; computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Online: 23 January 2017 (09:15:34 CET)
In this paper, a two-phase model of air shock wave induced by rock-fall was described. The model was made up of the uniform motion phase (velocity was close to 0 m·s-1) and the acceleration movement phase. The uniform motion phase was determined by experience, meanwhile the acceleration movement phase was derived by the theoretical analysis. A series of experiments were performed to verify the two-phase model and obtained the law of the uniform motion phase. The acceleration movement phase was taking a larger portion when height of rock-fall was higher with the observations. Experimental results of different falling heights showed good agreements with theoretical analysis values. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation had been carried out to study the variation velocity with different falling height. As a result of this, the two-phase model could accurately and convenient estimating the velocity of air shock wave induced by rock-fall. The two-phase model could provide a reference and basis for estimating the air shock waves' velocity and designing the protective measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0052.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: wire coating; elastico-viscous fluid; MHD flow; heat transfer; ADM and OHAM
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:33:57 CET)
The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Nylon, Polysulfone and Low-high density polyethylene (LDPE / HDPE). In this article,the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The effect of different emerging parameters such as non-Newtonian parameters α and β, magnetic parameter M and the Brinkman number Br on solutions (velocity and temperature profiles) are discussed through several graphs. Additionally, the current result also compares with the published work already available in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: oscillating heat pipe; fluid flow motion; flow pattern; thermal performance; inner diameter
Online: 26 October 2016 (09:30:16 CEST)
The oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is a new member in the family of heat pipes, and it has great potential applications in energy conservation. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer in the OHP as well as the fundamental effects of inner diameter on them have not been fully understood, which are essential to the design and optimization of the OHP in real applications. Therefore, by combining the high-speed visualization method and infrared thermal imaging technique, the fluid flow and thermal performance in the OHPs with inner diameters of 1, 2 and 3 mm are presented and analyzed. The results indicate that three fluid flow motions, including small oscillation, bulk oscillation and circulation, coexist or, respectively, exist alone with the increasing heating load under different inner diameters, with three flow patterns occurring in the OHPs, viz. bubbly flow, slug flow and annular flow. These fluid flow motions are closely correlated with the heat and mass transfer performance in the OHPs, which can be reflected by the characteristics of infrared thermal images of condensers. The decrease in the inner diameter increases the frictional flow resistance and capillary instability while restricting the nucleate boiling in OHPs, which leads to a smaller proportion of bubbly flow, a larger proportion of short slug flow, a poorer thermal performance, and easier dry-out of working fluid. In addition, when compared with the 2 mm OHP, the increasing role of gravity induces the thermosyphon effect and weakens the 'bubble pumping' action, which results in a little smaller and bigger thermal resistances of 3 mm OHP under small and bulk oscillation of working fluid, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Magnetorheological Fluids; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Discrete Element Method; Immersed Boundary Method; OpenFOAM; LIGGGHTS
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:34:36 CET)
Magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) are smart materials consisting of micro-scale magnetizable particles suspended in a carrier fluid. The rheological properties of a MRF can be changed from a fluid-state to a solid-state upon the application of an external magnetic field. This study reports the development of a particle-level simulation code for magnetic solid spheres moving through an incompressible Newtonian carrier fluid. The numerical algorithm is implemented within an open-source finite-volume solver coupled with an immersed boundary method (FVM-IBM) to perform fully-resolved simulations. The particulate phase of the MRF is modeled using the discrete element method (DEM). The resultant force acting on the particles due to the external magnetic field (i.e., magnetostatic polarization force) is computed based on the Clausius-Mossotti relationship. The fixed and mutual dipole magnetic models are then used to account for the magnetic (MAG) interactions between particles. Several benchmark flows were simulated using the newly-developed FVM-IBM-DEM-MAG algorithm to assess the accuracy and robustness of the calculations. First, the sedimentation of two spheres in a rectangular duct containing a Newtonian fluid is computed without the presence of an external magnetic field, mimicking the so-called drafting-kissing-tumbling (DKT) phenomenon. The numerical results obtained for the DKT case study are verified against published data from the scientific literature. Second, we activate both the magnetostatic polarization and the dipole-dipole forces and resultant torques between the spheres for the DKT case study. Next, we study the robustness of the FVM-IBM-DEM-MAG solver by computing multi-particle chaining (i.e., particle assembly) in a two-dimensional (2D) domain for area volume fractions of 20% (260 particles) and 30% (390 particles) under vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. Finally, the fourth computational experiment describes the multi-particle chaining in a three-dimensional (3D) domain allowing to study fully-resolved MRF simulations of 580 magnetic particles under vertical and horizontal magnetic fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0038.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: fluid dynamics; turbulent flow; stationary flow; SO(3) local gauge; quasiparticle; non-linearity
Online: 12 October 2022 (12:23:21 CEST)
The problem of fluid dynamics can be greatly simplified if, for every point in space, the strain-rate tensor is diagonalized. This tensor is introduced into the Navier-Stokes equations via material law and divergence of the stress tensor. This article shows that local SO(3)xU(1) gauge fields can be used to locally diagonalize the diffusion components of the strain-rate tensor. The gauge fields resulting from the connection can be interpreted as convection components of the flow, they show properties of quasiparticles and can be interpreted as elementary vortices. Thus, the proposed approach not only offers new insights for the solution and situative simplification of the Navier-Stokes equations, it also uncovers hidden symmetries within the flow convection, allowing - depending on boundary conditions - further interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0318.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV; cryptococcal meningitis; HIV-1 viral load; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape; Botswana
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:20:08 CEST)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape has been poorly described among people with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. We determined the prevalence of CSF viral escape and HIV-1 viral load (VL) trajectories in individuals treated for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using paired CSF and plasma collected prior to and during the antifungal treatment of 83 participants recruited at the Botswana site of the phase-3 AMBITION-cm trial (2018-2021). HIV-1 RNA levels were quantified then CSF viral escape (CSF HIV-1 RNA ≥ 0.5 log10 higher than plasma) and HIV-1 VL trajectories were assessed. CSF viral escape occurred in 20/62 (32.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.9%-44.6%), 13/52 (25.0%; 95% CI: 15.2%-38.2%) and 1/33 (3.0%; 95% CI: 0.16%-15.3%) participants at days 1, 7 and 14 respectively. CSF viral escape was significantly lower on day 14 compared to days 1 and 7, p=0.003 and p=0.02, respectively. HIV-1 VL de-creased significantly from day 1 to day 14 post antifungal therapy in the CSF but not in the plasma (OR, 0.56; 95% CI: 0.41-0.77; p<0.001). CSF viral escape is high among individuals presenting with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis; however, antifungal therapy may reverse this, highlighting the importance of rapid initiation of antifungal therapy in these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0312.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: monolithic variational scheme; cosserat fluids; fluid structure interaction; finite elements; Eulerian formulation; FreeFEM++
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:48:26 CET)
In this paper a new monolithic Eulerian formulation in the framework of non-classical continuum is presented for the analysis of fluid-strucutre interaction problems. In this respect, Cosserat continuum theory taking into account the micro-rotational degrees of freedom of the particles is considered. Continuum description of the model and variational formulation of the governing flow dynamics for non-classical -fluid-structure interaction nCFSI is presented. The model is analyzed by computing a well known benchmark problem by Hecht and Pironneau . The algorithmic description is presented and implemented using FreeFEM++. Code is validated with the benchmark solution of Turek and Hron  in case of flow around a flag attached with cylinder. New microstructral behavior of the solution is studied and numerical simulations and results are shown in the form of figures. Some interesting feature of the flow is observed and microstructural characteristics are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst; waste slag; leaching; lanthanum oxide; rare earths recovery
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:04:43 CET)
An laboratory procedure has been developed to obtain lanthanum oxide from spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst, commonly used in the cracking the heavy crude oil process. Two different spent fluid catalytic cracking catalysts, which are mainly formed by silica and alumina, and a certain amount of rare earths were leached under several conditions to recover the rare earth from the solids waste. Subsequently, liquid phases were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction process, and lanthanum was quantitatively stripped using oxalic acid to obtain the corresponding lanthanum oxalates. After the corresponding thermal treatment, these solids were transformed into lanthanum oxide. Both, lanthanum oxalates and oxides solids have been characterized by wide techniques in order to investigate the purity of the phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Buoyant convection; Porous medium; Oldroyd–B viscoelastic fluid; Linear stability analysis; Open boundary
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:44:07 CEST)
The Oldroyd–B model for a linear viscoelastic fluid is employed to investigate the buoyant flow in a vertical porous layer with permeable boundaries kept at different uniform temperatures. Seepage flow in the viscoelastic fluid saturated porous layer is modelled through an extended version of Darcy’s law taking into account the Oldroyd–B rheology. The basic stationary flow is parallel to the vertical axis and describes a single–cell vertical pattern where the cell has an infinite vertical height. A linear stability analysis of such a basic flow is carried out to determine the onset conditions for a multicellular pattern. The neutral stability curves and the values of the critical Rayleigh number are evaluated numerically for different retardation time and relaxation time characteristics of the fluid.