REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1931.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plants; reproduction; evolution; ovules; flowers
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:55:44 CET)
Land plants have undergone their great diversification and evolution in the past 400 million years. Although appearing complex and hard to grasp, the evolution of plants centers around an invariable core development process, SRC (Sexual Reproductive Cycle). Various modifications have been added sequentially to this core process, and thus creating various novel organs and distinguishing their bearers one from another. Reproductive organs of all land plants, including sporangium, megasporangium, metamegasporangium (= ovule), and various metamegasporangium complexes, are derived from terminal sporangia in the earliest land plants. Throughout the million-year-long evolution, plants sequentially recruit associating accessories to protect their vulnerable core parts (spore and gamete). The occurrence of every single of these novelties is a stair marking land plant reproduction evolution and leads to enhanced offspring development conditioning (ODC).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Biodiversity; Fruits; Flowers; Metagenomics; Soil; Vegetables
Online: 5 November 2021 (09:55:23 CET)
Soil is a treasure trove of microbial variety, and bio-inoculants have the potential to improve the performance of horticultural crops under biotic and abiotic stress by boosting soil microbial diversity. Bio-inoculants are being developed to increase the diversity of soil microbes. The combined effects of bio-inoculants, on the other hand, result in the expansion of vegetation in the surrounding environment. Previous study on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus has shown the existence of agronomic and biochemical characteristics in horticultural crop species (AMF). Through the development of enhanced technologies for the analysis of RNA or DNA from soil, we may acquire a deeper knowledge of the microbiological diversity and functions of the planet, which are difficult to find using traditional societal approaches. It is not possible to uncover a full database of purposeful genetics, which includes both soil microorganisms and deliberate genetics. This is true for almost every soil type or circumstance. As a result of this review, this study offers suggestions for the use of bio-inoculants, the benefits of doing so, regular research strategies, and long-term research directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0521.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: economic impact; ornamental horticulture; fruits and nuts; vegetables; flowers
Online: 19 November 2020 (20:47:53 CET)
This paper summarizes opinions on the economic impacts of horticulture research and extension at MSU Coastal Research and Extension Center. More than 8,400 horticulture producers, master gardeners, research and extension staff, and non-profit organizations participated in horticulture events during the last five years. Qualitative assessments of horticulture research and extension performed by the faculty and staff were solicited during voluntary surveys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0486.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic impact; ornamental horticulture; fruits and nuts; vegetables; flowers; horticulture research; extension
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:14:25 CEST)
This paper summarizes the estimates of the total changes in sales, expenses, and income of participants of the horticulture research and extension programs at the Mississippi State University - Coastal Research and Extension Center for the past five years. Major items outline the estimation procedures for the past five years. The average annual values were used in estimating the total economic impacts of added gross sales, expenses, and incomes of participants in horticulture events. The cumulative total impacts reach $8.7 million in sales, 76 jobs, $1.4 million in labor income, $2.4 million in value-added, and $0.4 million in local, state, and federal taxes. In addition, the total willingness to pay for the horticulture program by the adult participants reached $1.8 million. In comparison, the annual public spending on the horticulture program averaged $1.4 million, creating additional substantial economic impacts to the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1838.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: CBD; CBDA; cannabis sativa; hemp oil, hemp flowers, hemp stalks, rheology; protein dough.
Online: 27 September 2023 (06:03:43 CEST)
(1) Background: In recent years, the increasing demand for alternative food shifted research toward new types of food sources. It is well known that many diseases are caused by oxidative stress, then supplementation of antioxidants can be proposed to reduce it. Cannabis Sativa (CS) is an interesting alternative source of antioxidant species. The use of CS for the extraction of these molecules could be optimized to maximize the antioxidant yield extracts. (2) Methods: This work aimed to investigate extraction methods of CBD oil from CS inflorescences and stalks to obtain antioxidant-enriched compounds for use in food by mixing with a carrier oil like hemp seed oil. Soxhlet (SE), dynamic maceration (DME) and supercritical fluid (SFE) extraction techniques were performed, using CS inflorescences and stalks; by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis the antioxidants were individuated and quantified; moreover, the antioxidant power was investigated by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays and finally doughs enriched with hemp oil were studied by rheological measurements (3) Results: The best results in terms of CBD yield were obtained by dynamic maceration from only flowers and it also shows a good antioxidant power. (4) Conclusions: Formulation of protein bars with hemp oil enriched in CBD could be an excellent means for the consumption of products enriched with antioxidants because it preserves the CBD anti-inflammatory activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: agroecosystem; urban ecology; perennial and annual flowers; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant properties; biological activity
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:14:24 CEST)
Flowers have always accompanied people thanks to their manifold aesthetic properties. Some species have also become a component of human diet. Recent years have seen an increased interest in edible flowers and, consequently, research has been undertaken to determine their chemical composition. Dyes abundantly contained in flowers, whose role is to attract pollinating animals, are recognized substances with health promoting properties. Anthocyanins are a group of dyes that is very common in petals and other parts of flowers. Studies carried out in the twentieth and twenty-first century have found very strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of anthocyanins. Therefore, flowers used by humans for centuries to decorate their surroundings may become an easily available source of nutrients and health-promoting substances. This paper discusses the health-promoting properties of anthocyanins and collects literature on anthocyanin content in edible flowers commonly grown on balconies, terraces and roofs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0730.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: TSS; fruit quality; firmness; ammonium thiosulphate; skin colour; tree vigour; thinning of flowers
Online: 31 July 2020 (04:54:38 CEST)
The study’s objective was to evaluate the influence of thinning on the quality and regularity of yield of 'Regina' cherries grown on a dwarf Gisela 5 rootstock. The experiments were conducted in the years 2009-2012 in Western Poland. Trees were thinned using a chemical agent, ammonium thiosulphate (ATS) at doses of 20g ATS × L-1, 30g ATS × L-1 and 40g ATS × L-1, and by hand, and the results of chemical and hand thinning were compared with those obtained for unthinned trees. The course of weather conditions in winter and during flowering had a significant impact on yield. Chemical thinning is known to be an effective method to regulate fruiting of pome trees, but it can also be successful if applied to cherry trees, as reflected by the alternate bearing index, which was the lowest after applying ATS at a dose of 40g. ATS treatment improved fruit quality in full crop years. Thinning resulted in, among other things, larger and darker fruit and higher content of total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Treatment with 40g ATS × L-1 significantly stimulated the vegetative growth of trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0318.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: anti-inflammatory plant flowers; rapeseed honey; multi-floral honey; antioxidant activity; total phenols; flavonoids
Online: 6 December 2023 (05:26:08 CET)
Is it possible that the addition of wild-growing flowers with anti-inflammatory applications can improve the antioxidant properties of rapeseed and multifloral honey? The study objective was a comparative analysis of two honey varieties enriched by flowers of six plant species, based on the content of the antioxidant capacity as well as total flavonoids and phenolic content. Experiments demonstrated that at each level of enrichment there was an improvement in antioxidant properties compared to honey of both varieties without additives, especially in the case of dried flowers. Primula veris L. and Pulmonaria officinalis L. improved the antioxidant properties and phenolic content most effectively in honey at all levels of enrichment. Rapeseed-type honey produces a better matrix for the incorporation of natural plant metabolites into honey. The content of biologically active substances in honey enriched with flowers gives hope for new applications of health-promoting substances contained in wild plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0426.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Rubus; cultural practice; leaf removal; flowers; fruit; floricane; trellis; cane training; pruning; management strategy
Online: 18 September 2020 (10:02:57 CEST)
Primocane-fruiting (PF) blackberries are adaptable to different production systems. To increase yields in PF blackberries, their primocanes are typically tipped or topped in summer to encourage branch formation from axillary buds below the cut. In this study, we determined in PF ‘Prime-Ark Traveler’ whether early emerging primocanes were more productive than those that emerged later in the season and the effect of primocane bending and defoliation on flowering. The primocanes that emerged in April produced 64% more flower shoots than those that emerged after May. Also, these findings indicate the alternative primocane management practices of selecting the early emerging primocanes and bending to orient primocanes horizontally and leaf removal increase budbreak and flower shoot emergence. The present work contributes toward a better understanding of primocane emergence time and orientation-flowering relations and how they mediate crop performance in PF blackberry.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: tree peony flowers; sugars and organic acids; amino acids; polyphenols; GC-MS; LC-MS
Online: 20 March 2019 (15:09:50 CET)
Tree peony flowers are traditional ornamental and medicinal materials in China. In this study, 23 tree peony flowers at a broad color spectrum were analyzed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) revealed that tree peony flowers are rich in sugars and organic acids. Up to 18 amino acids were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), including all essential amino acids, except for methionine. The majority of amino acids were significant positively correlated with each other and were significant negatively correlated with glucose, fructose and galactose. A total of 11 polyphenols were identified in these tree fresh peony flowers by LC-MS. There was a high consistency in grouping peony flowers by using sugars and organic acids and amino acids, which differed from that based on color components and polyphenols. Tree peony flowers are also rich in K, Ca, Mg and Fe. In together, peony flowers can be a good resource of health-promoting compounds.