REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0035.v3
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:04:57 CEST)
EuAP2 genes are famous for their role in flower development. A legacy of the founding member of this subfamily of transcription factor, whose mutants lacked petals in Arabidopsis. However, studies of other euAP2 genes in several species have accumulated evidence highlighting the diverse roles of euAP2 genes in other aspects of plant development. Here, we emphasize other developmental roles of euAP2 genes in various species and suggest a shift from regarding euAP2 genes as just flowering genes to consider the global role they may be playing in plant development. We hypothesize that their almost universal expression profile and pleiotropic effects of their mutation suggest their involvement in fundamental plant development processes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0298.v1
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:29:21 CEST)
To clarify whether cryptochrome contributes to stem elongation and flowering promoted by blue lights associated with low phytochrome activity, wild-type Arabidopsis was compared with its cryptochrome-deficient mutants and cryptochrome-overexpressing transgenic plants. Results indicated that the promotion effects were mainly related to low CRY1 activity, despite partial involvement of high-activity CRY2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0191.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: hybrid vigor; flowering plants; apomixis; CRISPR/Cas9
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:30:45 CET)
The hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities, including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, have been cultivated from decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seed, it does not hold ability to produce plants with same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis exist naturally an asexual mode of reproduction in flowering plants via avoiding meiosis and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis possess potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations for economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production is unclear and need much more efforts to find its genetic architecture. To fix hybrid vigor synthetic apomixis has been suggested an alternative. The development of MiMe (Mitosis instead of Meiosis) genotypes are utilized further for clonal gametes production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are less known and need further understanding. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs) like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (cas9) a reverse genetics tool has paved way to utilize emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. From the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made the functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. The disruption of expression of genes specific to egg cell MATRILINEAL (MTL) or BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) through CRISPR/Cas genome editing system can promote haploid plants. The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering MiMe genotype by genome editing BBM1 expression or disruption of MTL leads toward clonal seed production. In present review, we discussed the current development in plants by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its possibility of promoting apomixis in crops to preserve hybrid vigour. In addition to this, genetics, evolution, epigenetic modifications and strategy for MiMe genotype development has been discussed in detail.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0178.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: ornamental flowering plants; constructed wetlands; wastewater; pollutants
Online: 9 October 2018 (06:22:39 CEST)
The vegetation in constructed wetlands (CWs) plays an important role in wastewater treatment. Popularly, the common emergent plants in CWs have been vegetation of natural wetlands. However, there are ornamental flowering plants that have some physiological characteristics similar to the plants of natural wetlands that can stimulate the removal of pollutants in wastewater treatments; such importance in CWs is described here. A literature survey of 87 CWs from 21 countries showed that the four most commonly used flowering ornamental vegetation genera were Canna, Iris, Heliconia and Zantedeschia. In terms of geographical location, Canna spp. is commonly found in Asia, Zantedeschia spp. is frequent in Mexico (a country in North America), Iris is most commonly used in Asia, Europe and North America, and species of the Heliconia genus are commonly used in Asia and parts of the Americas (Mexico, Central and South America). This review also compares the use of ornamental plants versus natural wetland plants and systems without plants for removing pollutants (COD, BOD, nitrogen and phosphorous compounds). The removal efficiency was similar between flowering ornamental and natural wetland plants. However, pollutant removal was better when using ornamental plants than in unplanted CWs. The use of ornamental flowering plants in CWs is an excellent option, and efforts should be made to increase the adoption of these system types and use them in domiciliary, rural and urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0015.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: gibberellin; photoperiod; mutant; floral induction; flowering time
Online: 2 June 2017 (07:45:32 CEST)
Flower bud formation and flowering in chrysanthemum occur under short day conditions (SD), but the molecular basis for the switch to reproductive growth is less well understood than in model plants. Here, a spontaneous mutant able to flower under long days is described. In an attempt to reveal the pathway(s) involved in the formation of flower buds under contrasting daylengths, transcriptome sequencing was carried out in plants grown both under SD and under long day conditions (LD). A number of differentially transcribed genes involved in the various known flowering pathways were identified. Both circadian clock genes and CmFTL3 were up-regulated under SD, thereby inducing floral bud formation and flowering. The gibberellin (GA) signalling pathway-related genes GA20ox and GID1 were up-regulated in the mutant under LD, while the catabolic gene GA2ox and GAI was down-regulated, thereby inducing the transcription of CmFTL1, SOC1 and LFY. The GA content of the leaf was higher in the mutant than in the wild type under LD. When treated with GA, the mutant flowered earlier under both SD and LD, but there was no other detectable phenotype difference between the two lines. The indication was that the photoperiod pathway majorly regulates flower bud formation and flowering time in chrysanthemum under SD. GA signalling pathway only plays a subsidiary role for flowering. However, the GA signalling pathway predominated for flowering under LD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0193.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Flowering; Gene expression; Pod elongation; Soybean; Water deficit
Online: 10 November 2022 (08:34:45 CET)
Drought stress on soybean is a research-demanding matter for negative influence that agricultural drought brings about. This study was designated to evaluate the effect of drought stress on some gene expression in flowering and pod elongation stages in soybean. This experiment was carried out in split-plot format with RCBD design with four replicates. Drought stress as the main factor included three levels (irrigation after 50, 100, and 150 millimeters evaporation from the A-class evaporation pot) of which 50 millimeters evaporation is considered as control. The sub-factor included a factorial combination of 3 varieties (DPX, Sari and WE6) and two sampling stages (flowering and pod elongation). The gene expression analysis was carried out by using the QRT-PCR technique. According to our results, all genes have shown overexpression in drought stress despite this result was not the same for all genotypes and stress levels. Some genes have up-regulated in mediate stress (treatment 100) level (like as Gmdreb 2, Gmdreb 5, GmRD20A, GmaxACD2) and other genes up-regulated in serve stress (treatment 150) level. Between genotypes, DPX cultivar and WE6 line were better than of the sari cultivar for all genes up-regulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0112.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: durum wheat; flowering time; Pheno-environments; GWAS; QTL
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:22:28 CEST)
Flowering time is a critical stage for crop development as it regulates the ability of plants to adapt to an environment. To understand the genetic control of flowering time, a genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to identify the genomic regions associated with the control of this trait in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). A total of 96 landraces and 288 modern lines were evaluated for days to heading, growing degree days, and accumulated day length at flowering across 13 environments spread across Morocco, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Senegal. These environments were grouped into four pheno-environments based on temperatures, day length and other climatic variables. Genotyping with 35K Axiom array generated 7,652 polymorphic SNPs in addition to 3 KASP markers associated to known flowering genes. In total, 34 significant QTLs were identified in both landraces and modern lines. Some QTLs had strong association with already known regulatory photoperiod genes, Ppd-A and Ppd-B and vernalization genes Vrn-A1, and Vrn3. However, these loci explained only 5 to 20% of variance for days to heading. Seven QTLs overlapped between the two germplasm groups in which Q.ICD.Eps-03 and Q.ICD.Vrn-17 consistently affected flowering time in all the pheno-environments, while Q.ICD.Eps-11 and Q.ICD.Ppd-12 were significant only in two pheno-environments and the combined analysis across all environments. These results help clarify the genetic mechanism controlling flowering time in durum wheat and show some clear distinctions to what is known for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0211.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Olea europaea L.; flowering data; partial least squares regression; Dynamic model; chill requirements; climate change; Mediterranean fruit tree; adapted cultivars.
Online: 29 November 2022 (01:05:59 CET)
Delineating chilling and forcing periods is one of the challenging topics in understanding how temperatures drive the timing of budburst and bloom in fruit tree species. Here, we investigated this question on olive trees, using flowering data collected over six years on 331 cultivars in the worldwide collection of Marrakech, Morocco. Using a Partial Least Squares approach on a long-term phenology (29 years) of ‘Picholine Marocaine’ cultivar, we showed that the relevance of delineating the chilling and forcing periods depends more on the variability of inter-annual temperatures than on the long-term datasets. In fact, chilling and forcing periods are similar between those delineated by using datasets of 29 years and those of only 6 years (2014–2019). We demonstrated that the variability of inter-annual temperatures is the main factor explaining this pattern. We then used the datasets of six years to assess the chill and heat requirements of 285 cultivars. We classified Mediterranean olive cultivars into four groups according to their chill requirements. Our results, using the Kriging interpolation method, indicated that flowering dates of most of these cultivars (92%) were governed by both chilling and forcing temperatures. Our investigations provided first insights to select adapted cultivars to global warming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0305.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: ammonium transport; flowering Chinese cabbage; NH4+; NO3-; ion influx; overexpression
Online: 16 November 2022 (10:20:07 CET)
Nitrogen (N) is a major limiting factor for plant growth and vegetable production. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of N uptake, transport, and assimilation is key to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play an important role in plant N metabolism. In this study, we isolated an important AMT1 subfamily member (BcAMT1;5) with a highly conserved signatural AMT1 subfamily motif from flowering Chinese cabbage. Based on functional complementation in yeast mutant 31019b and overexpression of BcAMT1;5 in Arabidopsis, BcAMT1;5 is a functional ammonium transporter. Tissue expression analysis showed that BcAMT1;5 was mainly expressed in roots and showed multiple N regime transcript patterns to respond to varying nutritional conditions. This was up-regulated by N-deficiency and down-regulated by supplying NH4+. The glucuronidase (GUS) activities of BcAMT1;5pro::GUS showed a similar change in response to different N conditions. Overexpression of BcAMT1;5 accelerated the growth of transgenic seedlings, increased NH4+ net influxes, and enhanced the content and accumulation of NH4+ and NO3- at low N concentrations. Additionally, it increased the transcript levels of N assimilation-related genes in shoots. These results indicate that the transcriptional regulation of BcAMT1;5 in flowering Chinese cabbage may participate in N uptake and assimilation under various N conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0272.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Apiaceae plant; Traditional use; Phytochemistry; Bolting and flowering; Controlling approach; Lignification
Online: 15 December 2022 (07:18:54 CET)
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Apiaceae plants have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of removing dampness to relieve pain, relaxing tendons, and activating blood, as well as relieving superficies and dispelling cold. Aim of the review: This review aims to summarize the traditional use, phytochemistry, and modern pharmacological use of Apiaceae medicinal plants (AMPs), highlight the effect of bolting and flowering (BF) on yield and quality, and provide a basis for controlling the BF. Materials and methods: All literatures involved in AMPs were searched using various online databases (e.g., PubMed, Web of science, Google Scholar, Springer, and CNKI). Additional information was collected from ethnobotanical literature focusing on herbs from Flora of China and local herbal classic literature. Result: A total of 228 AMPs have been recorded to be used as TCMs, with 6 medicinal parts (i.e., the whole plants, rhizomes and/or roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds) categorized, 72 traditional uses (e.g., relieving pain, dispelling wind, and eliminating dampness) enriched, 62 modern pharmacological uses (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antitumor activities) enriched, and 5 main kinds of metabolites (i.e., polysaccharides, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) categorized. Based on the influence level of BF on the yield and quality, 38 rhizomatous AMPs are categorized into 3 classes including: significantly affected, differently affected to some extent, and no significantly affected. Although the mechanism of BF inducing the rhizome lignification has been revealed to some extent, and several attempts have been made to control the BF, especially in Angelica sinensis, the problem of BF has not been solved in the practical production. Conclusions: So far, the traditional use of the 228 AMPs has been recorded, while the phytochemistry and modern pharmacological researches are still limited, thus, it is a treasure to find out new therapeutic agents. Since the BF regulated by internal factors and external factors have been demonstrated, and several key genes involved in BF have been identified, thus, it is available to control the BF by planting with standard techniques and innovating new cultivars using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. This review will provide useful references for the exploration and utilization, as well as the improvement of yield and quality of AMPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0198.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: flowering time; genotype × environment interaction; grain yield; sorghum; tillering capacity; water stress
Online: 18 September 2019 (05:23:50 CEST)
Sorghum in Australia is grown in water-limited environments of varying extent, generating substantial genotype × environment interaction (GEI). Much of the yield variation and GEI results from variations in flowering time and tillering through their effects on canopy development. The confounding effects of flowering and tillering complicate the interpretation of breeding trials. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of both flowering time (DTF) and tillering capacity (FTN) on yield of 1741 unique test hybrids derived from three common female testers in 21 yield testing trials (48 tester/trial combinations) across the major sorghum production regions in Australia in three seasons. Contributions of DTF and FTN to genetic variation in grain yield were significant in 14 and 12 tester/trial combinations, respectively. The proportion of genetic variance in grain yield explained by DTF and FTN ranged from 0.2% to 61.0% and from 1.4% to 56.9%, respectively, depending on trials and genetic background of female testers. The relationship of DTF or FTN with grain yield of hybrids was frequently positive, but varied across the genetic background of testers. Accounting for the effects of DTF and FTN using linear models did not substantially increase the between trial genetic correlations for grain yield. The results suggested that other factors affecting canopy development dynamics and grain yield might contribute GEI and/or the linear approach to account for DTF and FTN on grain yield did not capture the complex non-linear interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0642.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: gene ontology; molecular function; cellular localization; biological function; circadian clock; flowering time; flower development; floral scent
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:42:40 CEST)
GIGANTEA (GI) is a gene involved in multiple biological functions, which were analysed and are partially conserved in a series of mono- and dicotyledonous plant species. The identified biological functions include control over the circadian rhythm, light signalling, cold tolerance, hormone signalling and photoperiodic flowering. The latter function is a central role of GI, as it involves a multitude of pathways, both dependent and independent of the gene CONSTANS(CO) as well as on the basis of interaction with miRNA. The complexity of gene function of GI increases due to the existence of paralogs showing changes in genome structure as well as incidences of sub- and neofunctionalization. We present an updated report of the biological function of GI, integrating late insights into its role in floral initiation, flower development and flower volatile production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Central Europe; climate warming; flowering; frost damage; genetic variability; historical roses; climber roses; seasonality; spring phenology; winter hardiness
Online: 20 December 2021 (12:38:55 CET)
The genetic pool of valuable old ornamental cultivars and their in situ maintenance may be threated by climate change. Meanwhile, the ornamental plants like roses make up an important share of both gardens and urban green spaces, where they are particularly vulnerable to multistress growth conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of changing climatic conditions on growth and flowering of 11 historic climber roses through long-term studies (2000-2017) conducted in Central Europe. The evaluation of plants consisted of assessment of frost damage and the timing of early phenological stages (starting of bud break, leaf unfolding) as well as gathering data on beginning, fullness and end of flowering and its abundance. Frost damage was not recorded in any year only in ‘Mme Plantier’, and did not occur for any cultivar after the winter in the years 2007, 2008, and 2014. Only a little damage to one-year shoots was recorded after the winter in the years 2015-2017. Frost damage to ‘Alberic Barbier’, ‘Albertine’, ‘Chaplin's Pink Climber’, ‘Orange Triumph clg’ and ‘Venusta Pendula’ led to pruning to ground level in every year excluding those listed above. Frost damage of once blooming roses limited their flowering; however, the many-year data-sets showed a trend for decreased frost damage and improved abundance of flowering, and these results can be interpreted as a response to the increase of average air temperature. The timing of bud breaking and leaf development in all climber roses was strictly correlated with average air temperature in the dormancy period. The reactions of climber roses to weather conditions confirmed the influence of climatic changes on ornamental crop plants in Central Europe, introducing the potential possibility for the wider application of climber roses, but without certainty of flowering every year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0625.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.: Lythraceae); Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (Acanthococcus lager-stroemiae (Kuwana, 1907)); flowering tree; pest; producer survey; relative importance index
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:55:08 CEST)
Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.: Lythraceae) is the most popular summer flowering tree in the U.S. Its total value sold has almost doubled since 1998. Consumers prize crapemyrtles for their beauty and pest resistance. However, current crapemyrtle production and use is being threatened by crapemyrtle bark scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana, 1907)) (CMBS), which has been confirmed in 12 U.S. states after its first sighting in Texas in 2004. Our survey results indicate that producers anticipate a significant decrease in the value of crapemyrtle due to CMBS, in the magnitude of 29.93% and 33.79%, in our 2018 and 2019 surveys respectively. Our findings indicate industry demand for CMBS control. We used a non-parametric test to compare the producers’ responses to several questions regarding CMBS-control, among the different producer categories included in our sample. Incorporated businesses showed the most support, followed by part-nerships, and family/individual operations were the least supportive of science-based CMBS control research. Large businesses predicted a more serious decrease in crapemyrtles’ value as compared to smaller businesses. More businesses with high volume of crapemyrtle-related business considered the benefits of CMBS-control to be higher than its cost, as compared to other businesses. We also used a relative importance index to illustrate the ranking of different attrib-utes of crapemyrtles that producers consider while making decisions about growing/purchasing the plants. Flower color was found to be the most important attribute, followed by disease re-sistance. If the issue of CMBS gets out of control, the industry might need to find potential re-placements to crapemyrtle. The most popular landscape plants that can potentially replace crapemyrtle, in the opinion of producers we surveyed, are vitex (Texas lilac) and magnolia.