ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0365.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: flower bud development; flower number; flower quality; Gerbera jamesonii; growth; DLI
Online: 17 August 2020 (12:01:34 CEST)
To investigate the influence of supplemental lighting intensity on the production of cut gerbera during Canada’s supplemental lighting season (November to March), trials were carried out at a research greenhouse. Five supplemental LED light intensity (LI) treatments provided canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) ranging from 41 to 180 µmol·m-2·s-1. With a 12-h photoperiod, the treatments provided 1.76 to 7.72 mol·m-2·d-1 of supplemental light. Two cultivars of cut gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook.f) were used to evaluate vegetative growth and flower production. Plugs of ‘Ultima’ were assessed for vegetative growth and rate of flower development. There were minor LI treatment effects on number of leaves and chlorophyll content index and flowers from plants under the highest vs. lowest LI matured 10% faster. Reproductively mature ‘Panama’ plants were assessed for flower yield and quality. ‘Panama’ flowers from the highest LI treatment had shorter stems than the three lowest LI treatments, flowers from the middle LI treatment had larger diameter than the other treatments. Flowers from the lowest LI treatment had lower fresh mass than the three highest LI treatments. There were linear relationships between LI and numbers of flowers harvested, with the highest LI treatment producing 10.3 and 7.0 more total and marketable flowers per plant than the lowest LI treatment. In general, increasing levels of supplemental light had only minor effects on vegetative growth (young plants) and size and quality of harvested flowers (mature plants) but flowers from plants grown under higher LIs were more numerous and matured faster.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: flower development; epigenetics; RNA biology; Genomics; single cell biology
Online: 10 November 2021 (11:00:03 CET)
The rise of data science in biology stimulates interdisciplinary collaborations to address fundamental questions. Here, we report the outcome of the first SINFONIA symposium focused on revealing the mechanisms governing plant reproductive development across biological scales. The intricate and dynamic target networks of known regulators of flower development remain poorly understood. To analyze development from the genome to the final floral organ morphology, high-resolution data that capture spatiotemporal regulatory activities are necessary and require advanced computational methods for analysis and modeling. Moreover, frameworks to share data, practices and approaches that facilitate the combination of varied expertise to advance the field are called for. Training young researchers in interdisciplinary approaches and science communication offers the opportunity to establish a collaborative mindset to shape future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: gene ontology; molecular function; cellular localization; biological function; circadian clock; flowering time; flower development; floral scent
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:42:40 CEST)
GIGANTEA (GI) is a gene involved in multiple biological functions, which were analysed and are partially conserved in a series of mono- and dicotyledonous plant species. The identified biological functions include control over the circadian rhythm, light signalling, cold tolerance, hormone signalling and photoperiodic flowering. The latter function is a central role of GI, as it involves a multitude of pathways, both dependent and independent of the gene CONSTANS(CO) as well as on the basis of interaction with miRNA. The complexity of gene function of GI increases due to the existence of paralogs showing changes in genome structure as well as incidences of sub- and neofunctionalization. We present an updated report of the biological function of GI, integrating late insights into its role in floral initiation, flower development and flower volatile production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0477.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: High Throughput Plant Phenotyping; Deep Neural Network; Flower Detection; Temporal Phenotypes; Benchmark Dataset; Flower Status Report
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:00:24 CET)
A phenotype is the composite of an observable expression of a genome for traits in a given environment. The trajectories of phenotypes computed from an image sequence and timing of important events in a plant’s life cycle can be viewed as temporal phenotypes and indicative of the plant’s growth pattern and vigor. In this paper, we introduce a novel method called FlowerPhenoNet which uses deep neural networks for detecting flowers from multiview image sequences for high throughput temporal plant phenotyping analysis. Following flower detection, a set of novel flower-based phenotypes are computed, e.g., the day of emergence of the first flower in a plant’s life cycle, the total number of flowers present in the plant at a given time, the highest number of flowers bloomed in the plant, growth trajectory of a flower and the blooming trajectory of a plant. To develop a new algorithm and facilitate performance evaluation based on experimental analysis, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we introduce a benchmark dataset called FlowerPheno which comprises image sequences of three flowering plant species, e.g., sunflower, coleus, and canna, captured by a visible light camera in a high throughput plant phenotyping platform from multiple view angles. The experimental analyses on the FlowerPheno dataset demonstrate the efficacy of the FlowerPhenoNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0318.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Flower Region of Interest (FRoI); Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA); retrieval of flower videos; Multiclass Support Vector Machine
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:29:59 CET)
Searching, recognizing and retrieving a video of interest from a large collection of a video data is an instantaneous requirement. This requirement has been recognized as an active area of research in computer vision, machine learning and pattern recognition. Flower video recognition and retrieval is vital in the field of floriculture and horticulture. In this paper we propose a model for the retrieval of videos of flowers. Initially, videos are represented with keyframes and flowers in keyframes are segmented from their background. Then, the model is analysed by features extracted from flower regions of the keyframe. A Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is adapted for the extraction of discriminating features. Multiclass Support Vector Machine (MSVM) classifier is applied to identify the class of the query video. Experiments have been conducted on relatively large dataset of our own, consisting of 7788 videos of 30 different species of flowers captured from three different devices. Generally, retrieval of flower videos is addressed by the use of a query video consisting of a flower of a single species. In this work we made an attempt to develop a system consisting of retrieval of similar videos for a query video consisting of flowers of different species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1401.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: broadband enhancement; photovoltaic; flower-like silver particles
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:12:47 CEST)
Recent researches indicated that metal nanoparticles which have the unique optical properties can be used to enhance the spectral response of the photovoltaic modules. Since most of the nanoparticles have enhancement effects in a specific wavelength range, improving the spectral response of the photovoltaic modules in a broadband range is crucial for their applications in imaging, energy harvesting, and optical communication. In this study, flower-like silver particles are applied to achieve the enhancement effects in a broadband range. The optical absorption of photovoltaic modules is improved in a broad wavelength range of 400~2000 nm by immobilizing flower-like silver particles onto an amorphous Si p-i-n structure, and the peak responsivity of the spectral response is enhanced by about 10 times. Theoretical investigation further elaborates that the enhancement originates from the near-field effects of silver particles due to the interaction of different parts of the flower-like silver particles. Through these studies, we demonstrate that, utilizing the subwavelength silver particles with roughness surface can achieve the spectral response of the photovoltaic modules enhanced in broadband range, which can improve the utilization efficiency of optical energy for the applications of sensing, imaging, optical communication, and energy harvesting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0218.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: cut flower; holding solution; pretreatment; transport; sucrose
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:39:57 CEST)
Vase life is one of the most important factors that determine the marketability of cut flowers and is greatly affected by the water balance. In recent years, cut hydrangea flowers are increasingly consumed as decorations for various events. However, the vase life of cut hydrangea flowers varies greatly depending on the postharvest solution management. Therefore, this study investigated the vase life, solution uptake, water balance, and relative fresh weight of freshly harvested hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Verena’) according to the three types of holding solutions (tap water, 1% chrysal professional Ⅲ (CPⅢ), 2% sucrose + 250 mg/L 8-hydroxquinoline + 100 mg/L citric acid (SHQC)) and the combination solutions (pretreatment; tap water, 0.1% chrysal RVB (RVB), floralife quickdip (FQ), transport; tap water, CPⅢ, floralife clear (FC), preservatives; CPⅢ, FC) for each distribution stage (pretreatment-transport-consumer). In the preservative comparison experiment, compared with the control, CPⅢ treatment and SHQC treatment significantly increased the vase life in 2019 (0.7 days, 3.4 days) and 2020 (1.4 days, 3.1 days), respectively. In the comparative experiment by solution combination, the group (RVB, FQ) using the pretreatment significantly extended the vase life by 4.6 days and 5.9 days compared to the tap water treatment. It was also determined that the same treatment increased overall solution uptake, maintained water balance longer, and increased relative fresh weight. These results confirm the importance of holding solutions and pretreatments, suggesting that appropriate pretreatments and preservatives should be used to improve the marketability of cut hydrangea flowers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: pepper; low night temperature; flower; fruit; yield
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:07:02 CEST)
Pepper plants experience complex environmental factors including abiotic and biotic stresses in field and the importance of climate changes including low and high temperatures has been emerged. Low temperature stress in the growth and development is one of the most critical issues, which directly impact on the crop yield and productivity of pepper plants. It is essential to select and breed low temperature-(LT) tolerant pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. The research was performed to assess the agronomical traits of 39 pepper accessions belonging to chili and bell fruit types which cultivated two different night temperature set-points at 15°C for suboptimal temperature (CT) and at 10°C for low temperature (LT), respectively. Plant heights (PH) of most pepper accessions in LT were significantly decreased compared to those in CT. The stem diameter (SD) and the length of main axis (LMA) were various depending on the genotypes under LT. Moreover, the number of flowers (NFL), the total number of fruits (NFR), fruit yield (FY), fruit fresh weight (FFW), fruit length (FL), fruit diameter (FD), and the number of seeds in a fruit (NSF) were notably declined in LT compared to CT. The evaluated agronomical traits between LT and CT were further applied for the correlation analysis, the principal component analysis (PCA), and the hierarchical cluster analysis. Notably, FY trait was correlated with other reproductive traits including NFR, FFW, FD, and FL on positive directions and LT treated-39 pepper accessions were clustered into seven groups by the clustering analysis. The selected accessions were primarily involved with the positive trends with the reproductive index including NFR, FL, FD, and FW traits and would be used for pepper breeding programs on developing LT-tolerant cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: cannabis; dark period; flower initiation; photoperiod; tissue culture
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:29:39 CEST)
Most commercial Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) genotypes are short-day plants and cultivators typically use a 12.0 h uninterrupted dark period to induce flowering; however, scientific information is lacking to prove this is the optimal dark period for all genotypes, and cultivar specific photoperiods may increase productivity. Tissue culture can be used for research requiring multiple treatments, proper replication, and in a controlled environment on a smaller scale compared to greenhouse and indoor facilities. To determine whether cannabis explants can flower under varied photoperiods in vitro, explants were grown under one of six photoperiod treatments: 12.0, 13.2, 13.8, 14.4, 15.0, and 16.0 h for four weeks. The percentage of flowering explants was highest under 12.0 and 13.2 h treatments. There were no treatment effects on the fresh weight, final height, or growth index of the explants. The results suggest an uninterrupted dark period of at least 10.8 h (i.e. 13.2 h photoperiod) is needed to induce the flowering of this genotype. In vitro flowering could provide a unique and high throughput approach to study floral/seed development and secondary metabolism in cannabis under highly controlled conditions. Further research should determine if this response is the same on a whole plant level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0183.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Black anther disease; Orchid cut flower; Silver nanoparticles
Online: 17 December 2018 (09:45:17 CET)
Metal nanoparticle has been reported to have a high antimicrobial activity against fungi, bacteria, and yeasts. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a chemical reduction method, at 90 oC, and used as an antifungal coating in paper packaging, to control the growth of C. gloeosporioides in cut orchid flowers during shipping. AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results indicated that the shape of AgNPs was spherical and homogenous with an average size of 47 nm. Twenty and 50 particles per million (ppm) concentration of AgNPs, mixed with starch, were prepared as the coating solution. The paper coated with 50 ppm AgNPs exhibited a significant antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides compared to 20 ppm AgNPs coating. The AgNPs coated paper had a better water resistance and mechanical properties compared to paper without coating. We observed a significant reduction in the number of anthers, of orchid inflorescences, infected by C. gloeosporioides, when stored in the coated boxes. The current study demonstrates that paper boxes coated with AgNPs are a potential solution to control the infection of C. gloeosporioides in the storage of cut orchid flowers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0036.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: photocatalyst; flower-like SnS2; nanocomposites; visible light; methylene blue
Online: 3 April 2018 (10:53:52 CEST)
Semiconductor materials have been shown to have better photocatalytic behavior and can be utilized for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this work, three-dimensional flower-like SnS2 were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Core-shell structured SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were then deposited on the top of the SnS2 flowers. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic behavior of the SnS2-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites was observed by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show an effective enhancement of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB especially for the 15 wt. % SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites on SnS2 flowers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1670.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Brassica napus; Determinate and capitulum-like inflorescence; terminal flower; BncAP1; BncTFL1
Online: 25 July 2023 (08:57:43 CEST)
Brassica napus is an important vegetable and oil crop worldwide. The research is meaningful for yield and plant architecture in B. napus. In this study, one natural mutant (MT) line with determinate and capitulum-like inflorescence was chosen for further study. The paraffin sectioning detected that the inflorescence apex began to split and developed into one terminal flower, starting from five-leaf stage. Genetic analysis indicated that the segregation patterns of inflorescences in the F2 populations supported a digenic inheritance model, which was further approved by BSA-Seq technique. The BSA-Seq method detected two QTL region on C02 (14.27-18.41 Mb) and C06 (32.98-33.68 Mb) for the genetic control of determinate inflorescences in MT plants. In addition, the expression profile in MT compared with WT was analysized, and a total of 133 candidate genes for regulating the flower development (75 genes, 56.4%), shoot meristem development (29 genes, 21.8%) and inflorescence meristem development (13 genes, 9.8%) were identified. Then one joint analysis combing BSA-Seq and RNA-Seq identified two candidate gene of BncTFL1 and BncAP1 for regulating the MT phenotype. Besides, the potential utilization of the MT plants was also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0851.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Prunus mume, low-temperature, flower period regulation, dormancy release, flowering characteristics
Online: 11 May 2023 (12:19:19 CEST)
Low-temperature accumulation is one of the essential stages in the growth process of woody ornamental plants. In this study, two different low-temperature treatments, 6℃ and 10℃, were used to analyze the effects of different low-temperature treatments on dormancy release and flowering of the 'Gulihong' plant using artificial low temperatures. Based on the experimental results, four typical early-blooming Prunus mume cultivars widely planted in Yangling area of Henan Province, China, including 'Zaoyudie', 'Zaohualve', 'Nanjing gongfen', and 'Gulihong', were selected as the experimental materials. The effects of low-temperature accumulation on the flowering characteristics of different cultivars were analyzed using a 6℃ artificial low-temperature treatment. The suitable cultivation temperature for early-blooming P. mume cultivars was screened to provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of P. mume bonsai cultivation techniques. The results showed that the flowering rate, flower diameter, flowering quantity, flowering uniformity, and bud development in the 6℃ treatment were significantly better than those in the 10℃ treatment. The flowering rate and quality of different cultivars gradually increased with the accumulation of low-temperature. Therefore, chill accumulation plays a significant role in promoting flowering quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum; flavonoid biosynthesis; anthocyanins; flower coloring; metabolomic; transcriptomic.
Online: 18 April 2023 (02:28:00 CEST)
The Loropetalum chinense and Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum are typical and traditional ornamental and Chinese herbal medicine in Asia. However, more information is needed on the mechanisms underlying its flower coloring. Here, we profiled the flavonoid metabolome, full-length sequencing, and transcriptome analysis to investigate the flavonoid biosynthesis and global transcriptome changes among different petal coloring cultivars of L. chinense and L. chinense var. rubrum. The total anthocyanins and phenotypic of the petal were highly consistent with the petal color. Moreover, a total of 207 flavonoid components were identified. Of these, 12 flavonoid components were considered significantly different expression compounds among the four samples. Meanwhile, the first reference full-length transcriptome of L. chinense var. rubrum was being built, which had 171,783 high-quality non-redundant transcripts with correcting with next-generation sequencing (NGS). Among them, 52,851 transcripts were annotated in the seven database of NR, KOG, GO, NT, Pfam, Swiss-Port and KEGG. Combined with NGS analysis, the DETs involved in flavonoids and anthocyanins contributed greatest to the flower-coloring. Additionally, the different expressed of eight LcDFRs and four LcANS genes were positively correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis, and the four LcBZ1 and one Lc3Mat1 were positively correlated with the content of seven anthocyanins revealed by coupling with metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis. Together these results were used to mine candidate genes by analyzing flower coloring changes in a comprehensive metabolic and transcriptomic level in L. chinense and L. chinense var. rubrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Faba bean; ornamental; flower; finite inflorescence; dual purpose as ornament and food
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:45:05 CEST)
Cross-field innovation in faba bean breeding has added significant value to the traditional faba bean planting industry by allowing for the selection of faba bean varieties with a dual purpose as ornaments and food. In order to improve the selection efficiency, we determined 17 phenotypes related to ‘dual purpose’ faba beans and evaluated 37 new breeding lines, which were bred for 10 years by our team, and two traditional faba bean varieties by means of an Analytic Hierarchy Process. The lines and varieties were evaluated and sorted into five grades, from which two breeding lines with excellent comprehensive phenotypes and dual ornamental and food functions were selected. The new line GS5 passed the identification of Crop Identification Committee of Chongqing Seed Industry Association on November 25, 2021 and was renamed "Doumei 1 hao" with the identification number of " 202111". The results confirmed that the comprehensive evaluation system constructed in this study can be used for the effective selection of dual-purpose faba bean lines, providing an empirical approach for strategic decision-making by breeders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: tomato; low night temperature; flower; fruit; chlorophyll content, electrolyte conductivity; proline; photosynthesis
Online: 15 June 2021 (09:22:19 CEST)
Low night temperature (LNT) can be a practical and economical target in tomato breeding programs in terms of energy saving in greenhouses. This study was conducted to investigate the physiological responses to LNT using four tomato accessions of cherry and large fruit types with LNT tolerance and sensitivity grown in two greenhouses with night temperature set-points of 10 and 15°C for heating. LNT significantly reduced plant height regardless of fruit types and LNT tolerance. The number of flowers were significantly reduced in 10°C in cherry but not in large fruit types. Fruit set in 10°C was significantly lower in LNT sensitive accessions than tolerant ones regardless of fruit types, which was due to abnormal flower morphology in 10°C. Proline accumulation patterns between 10 and 15°C significantly differed between fruit types as well as between LNT tolerant and sensitive accessions. Chlorophyll content in 10 °C was significantly higher at later growth stages in LNT tolerant accessions than sensitive ones in both fruit types. No clear difference in photosynthetic parameters was observed between fruit types or tolerance and sensitive accessions except for photosynthetic rate, which was significantly lower in tolerant than sensitive accessions during early growing period. These results suggest that different tomato fruit types may have different mechanisms for LNT tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0389.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: cyanidin 3-O-glucoside; flower senescence; isosalipurposide; Oenothera; petal color change; quercitrin
Online: 28 May 2018 (08:49:47 CEST)
Oenothera flower petals change color during senescence. When in full bloom, the flowers of O. tetraptera are white and those of O. laciniata and O. stricta are yellow; however, the colors change to pink and orange, respectively, when the petals fade. We analyzed the flavonoid components in these petals as a function of senescence using HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. In all three species, cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy3G) was found in faded petals, and the content of Cy3G increased in senescence. In full bloom (0 h), no Cy3G was detected in any of the petals, but after 12 h, the content of Cy3G in O. tetraptera was 0.97 μmol/gFW and that in O. laciniata was 1.82 μmol/gFW. Together with anthocyanins, major flavonoid components in petals were identified. Quercitrin was detected in the petals of O. tetraptera, and isosalipurposide was found in the petals of O. laciniata and O. stricta. The content of quercitrin did not change during senescence, but that of isosalipurposide in O. laciniata increased from 3.4 μmol/gFW at 0 h to 4.8 μmol/gFW at 12 h. The color change in all the three Oenothera flowers was confirmed to be due to the de novo biosynthesis of Cy3G.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0916.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Prunus mume; regulation of flowering period; heat requirements; dormancy release; flower bud germination
Online: 12 May 2023 (09:49:55 CEST)
Heat requirements play an important role in plant flowering, and control the flowering period of woody ornamental plants to a certain extent. In this study, the perennial potted seedlings of four typical Prunus mume cultivars 'Xiaolve', 'Baixuzhusha', 'Fenghou' and 'Danfenghou' were used as materials. The way of regulating the cultivation temperature is adopted to achieve the purpose of relieving the natural dormancy and forcing the blooming of P. mume. Its content includes the research on the heat requirements of P. mume cultivars widely planted in Beijing, and the analysis of the influence of different facility cultivation temperatures on the flowering characteristics of P. mume, providing a theoretical basis for further exploring the cultivation techniques of P. mume bonsai flowering regulation. The results showed that, according to the Growing degree-hour model, the HR of 'Xiaolve', 'Baixuzhusha', 'Fenghou' and 'Danfenghou' flower buds were 3583.70 GDH℃, 3217.30 GDH ℃, 3996.50 GDH ℃, 4732.20 GDH ℃, respectively. According to the effective accumulated temperature model, the HRs of above cultivars were 350.65 ℃, 319.30 ℃, 510.30 ℃, 558.50 ℃, respectively. In addition, the temperature of different cultivation facilities did not significantly change the flowering quality such as flower diameter and fragrance. Temperature also affects the growth and development speed, affecting the flowering time. Under the facility environment with higher temperatures, the flowering process is faster and the flowering period is shorter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: dioecious; DNA quality; flower type; sample preservation method; sex genotype; sex phenotype; visual assay
Online: 14 February 2020 (04:22:20 CET)
Methods for high-quality DNA extraction and knowledge of sex expression and flowering time are essential for applying genomic-assisted breeding and improve the success with hybridization in Guinea yam. A dioecious or monoecious pattern of flowering and sometimes non-flowering is a common phenomenon within and between the Dioscorea species. The flowering in yam plants raised from botanical seeds often takes an extended period, mostly till the first clonal generation after propagation from the tubers. The prolonged process of testing required to identify plant sex and flowering intensity in yam breeding often poses a challenge to realize reduced breeding cycle and apply genomic selection. This study assessed sample preservation methods for DNA quality during extraction and potential of DNA marker to diagnose plant sex at the early seedling stage in white Guinea yam. The predicted sex at the seedling stage was further validated with the visual score for the sex phenotype at the flowering stage. DNA extracted from leaf samples preserved in liquid nitrogen, silica gel, dry ice, and oven drying methods was similar in quality with a high molecular weight than samples stored in ethanol solution. Yam plant sex diagnosis with the DNA marker (sp16) identified a higher proportion of ZW genotypes (female or monoecious phenotypes) than the ZZ genotypes (male phenotype) in the studied materials with 74% prediction accuracy. The results from this study provided valuable insights on suitable sample preservation methods for quality DNA extraction and the potential of DNA marker sp16 to predict sex in white Guinea yam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0255.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: arabidopsis thaliana; floral development; flower morphology; ds transposon; classical/sequencing-based mapping; LEAFY; DNA-binding
Online: 22 November 2019 (06:39:06 CET)
The transition to reproduction is a crucial step in the life cycle of any organism. In Arabidopsis thaliana the establishment of reproductive growth can be divided into two phases: Firstly, cauline leaves with axillary meristems are formed and internode elongation begins. Secondly, lateral meristems develop into flowers with defined organs. Floral shoots are usually determinate and suppress the development of lateral shoots. Here, we describe a transposon insertion mutant in the Nossen accession with defects in floral development and growth. Most strikingly is the outgrowth of stems from the axillary bracts of the primary flower carrying secondary flowers. Therefore, we named this mutant flower-in-flower (fif). However, the transposon insertion in the annotated gene is not the cause for the fif phenotype. By means of classical and genome sequencing-based mapping, the mutation responsible for the fif phenotype was found to be in the LEAFY gene. The mutation, a G-to-A exchange in the second exon of LEAFY, creates a novel lfy allele and results in a cysteine-to-tyrosine exchange in the α1-helix of LEAFY´s DNA-binding domain. This exchange abolishes target DNA-binding, whereas subcellular localization and homomerization are not affected. To explain the strong fif phenotype against this molecular findings, several hypotheses are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0207.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: flower-like micelle; triblock copolymer; amphiphilic copolymer; single-electron transfer-living radical polymerization; poly(ethylene oxide)
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:05:19 CET)
Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have protein-antifouling properties and blood compatibility. ABA triblock copolymers (PMEAn-PEO11340-PMEAn (MEOMn)) were prepared using single-electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) using a bi-functional PEO macroinitiator. Two types of MEOMn composed of PMEA blocks with a degree of polymerization (DP = n) of 85 and 777 were prepared using the same PEO macroinitiator. MEOMn formed flower micelles with a hydrophobic PMEA (A) core and hydrophilic PEO (B) loop shells in diluted water with a similar appearance to petals. The hydrodynamic radii of MEOM85 and MEOM777 were 151 and 108 nm, respectively. The PMEA block with a large DP formed a tightly packed core. The aggregation number (Nagg) of the PMEA block in a single flower micelle for MEOM85 and MEOM777 was 156 and 164, respectively, which were estimated using a light scat-tering technique. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) for MEOM85 and MEOM777 were 0.01 and 0.002 g/L, respectively, as determined by the light scattering intensity and fluorescence probe techniques. The size, Nagg, and CMC for MEOM85 and MEOM777 were almost the same inde-pendent of hydrophobic DP of the PMEA block.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: feature selection; hybrid optimization; Whale Optimization Algorithm; Flower Pollination Algorithm; classification; Opposition Based Learning; Email Spam Detection
Online: 26 January 2020 (07:07:23 CET)
Feature Selection (FS) in data mining is one of the most challenging and most important activities in pattern recognition. The problem of choosing a feature is to find the most important subset of the main attributes in a specific domain, and its main purpose is removing additional or unrelated features, and ultimately improving the accuracy of the classification algorithms. As a result, the problem of FS can be considered as an optimization problem, and use metaheuristic algorithms to solve it. In this paper, a new hybrid model combining whale optimization algorithm (WOA) and flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is presented for the problem of FS based on the concept of Opposition based Learning (OBL) which name is HWOAFPA. In our proposed method, using natural processes of WOA and FPA, we tried to solve the problem of optimization of FS; and on the other hand, we used an OBL method to ensure the convergence rate and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. In fact, in the proposed method, WOA create solutions in their search space using the prey siege and encircling process, bubble invasion and search for prey methods, and try to improve the solutions for the FS problem; along with this algorithm, FPA improves the solution of the FS problem with two global and local search processes in an opposite space with the solutions of the WOA. In fact, we used all of the possible solutions to the FS problem from both the solution search space and the opposite of solution search space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, experiments were carried out in two steps. In the first stage, the experiments were performed on 10 FS datasets from the UCI data repository. In the second step, we tried to test the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of spam e-mails detection. The results obtained from the first step showed that the proposed algorithm, performed on 10 UCI datasets, was more successful in terms of the average size of selection and classification accuracy than other basic metaheuristic algorithms. Also, the results from the second step showed that the proposed algorithm which was run on the spam e-mail dataset, performed much more accurately than other similar algorithms in terms of accuracy of detecting spam e-mails.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ethylene biosynthesis and regulation; cell division and elongation; flower and fruit development; chloroplast development; photosynthesis; senescence and abscission
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:29:08 CEST)
Ethylene, a gaseous phytohormone, is emerging as a central player in the intricate web of plant developmental processes from germination to senescence under optimal and stressed conditions. It is present in different plant parts, encompassing the stems, leaves, flowers, roots, seeds, and fruits. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of ethylene's fascinating roles in shaping various plant growth and adaptation aspects. It intricately examines the multifaceted impact of ethylene on pivotal aspects of plant development, including but not limited to cell division and elongation, senescence, abscission, fruit and flower development, root hair formation, chloroplast maturation, and photosynthesis. This comprehensive assessment encompasses the intricate pathways of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, providing a snapshot of the regulatory mechanisms governing ethylene production. Understanding ethylene's multifaceted functions has significant implications for agriculture, biotechnology, and our fundamental comprehension of plant biology. This review underscores the need for continued investigation into ethylene's intricate mechanisms and its potential to revolutionize plant development and crop management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1539.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Transformation Flower Approach; Transformative Governance; Co-evolutionary Governance; Power; Values; Multiple Value Creation; Institutional Change; Stakeholder Analysis; Power Mapping; Leverage points; Justice; Equity; Sustainability; IPBES Transformative Change Assessment; Natural Social Contract, Eco-Social Contract; Food System Transitions
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:25:18 CET)
We introduce the Transformation Flower Approach (TFA), a Theory of Change that attends to multiple value creation and institutional change as a dual design challenge. We highlight how the TFA integrates social scientific theories and models relevant for transformative change (in particular focusing on pathways, leverage points, governance, power, and values) and demonstrate its practical value by an application to the ongoing transformation of the Dutch food system. By providing a holistic, transdisciplinary and practically relevant approach that aims to support new social contract formation, the TFA goes beyond other transformative change approaches. Based on the notion of pathways, it offers a toolbox that aids in working towards desired futures, involving both incumbents and challengers in an effort to harness untapped yet proximal potentials in a forward-looking way. By embracing an innovation approach, it not only promises to circumvent resistance to change, but also serves as a step-by-step approach to identify options for multiple value creation and effective cooperation. We demonstrate the analytical and practical value of the TFA by discussing action perspectives at various levels and scales in the context of the Dutch food system transition, including (1) area-oriented approaches, (2) acceleration agendas for specific transformation pathways, and (3) actor-specific transformation flowers. In developing these, we emphasize the importance of interdependencies between leverage points. Our approach helps to identify opportunities to link transformative options (the what), actors (the who) and levers (the how) in dynamic interaction to embark on transformative pathways.