ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: flexible tower; nacelle attitude feedback (NAF); dynamic response; aerodynamic load
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:45:31 CEST)
Based on the two-node Euler-Bernoulli beam, the tower system is discretized by finite element method, and the cubic Hermite polynomial is taken as the shape function of the beam element, and the structural characteristic matrix of the tower system is calculated, and the wind turbine-nacelle-tower multi-degree of freedom is established Finite element numerical model. The aerodynamic load calculation formula for any nacelle attitude angle is deduced. The influence of the vibration feedback of the flexible tower on the aerodynamic load of the wind turbine is studied. The results show that when the rigidity of the tower is large, the impact of tower vibration feedback on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine is small. For a tower system with greater flexibility, the time-varying feedback of wind-induced vibration will cause greater aeroelastic load changes, especially the overturning moment of the tower top, which will cause a greater impact on the dynamic behavior of the tower in the downwind and crosswind directions. As the flexibility of the tower system increases, the interaction between tower vibration and aerodynamic load is gradually increasing. Taking the impact of the flexible tower on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine into account, on the one hand, helps to predict the wind more accurately. The aerodynamic load of the wind turbine improves the efficiency of wind energy utilization. On the other hand, it can more accurately analyze the dynamic behavior of the flexible structure of the wind turbine, which is extremely beneficial to the structural optimization design of the wind turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0019.v1
Online: 4 April 2017 (09:44:42 CEST)
Thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn Oxide (IGZO) as active layer and the gate insulator was treated with NH3 plasma and N2O plasma, respectively, which is fabricated on flexible PI substrate in this work. The performance of IGZO TFTs with different plasma species and treatment time are investigated and compared. The experiment results show that the plasma species and treatment time play an important role in the threshold voltage, field-effect mobility, Ion/Ioff ratio, sub-threshold swing (SS) and bias stress stability of the devices. The TFT with a 10 seconds NH3 plasma treatment shows the best performance; specifically, threshold voltage of 0.34 V, field-effect mobility of 15.97 cm2/Vs, Ion/Ioff ratio of 6.33×107, and sub-threshold swing of 0.36 V/dec. The proposed flexible IGZO-TFTs in this paper can be used as driving devices in the next-generation flexible displays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: textile wearable technologies; flexible electronics; mHealth
Online: 23 September 2016 (04:02:38 CEST)
In this article we present the design and development of T-Shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. Prototypes with diverse approaches of integration are presented. The performance of the wearable systems is addressed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artifacts, through laboratorial tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in Hospital environment using a T-Shirt prototype connected to a commercial 3-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial 6-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The main aspects of the system´s design leading to major improvements and failure factors are discussed. Pathways and methods for the overall system´s optimization are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Flexible Manipulator; Mechanics; Vibration control; Inverse system
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:58:03 CET)
This paper describes the development of a controller that enables trajectory control and vibration control. The controller performance was verified the using a 3D 2-link, flexible manipulator. On trajectory control using inverse kinematics, it was confirmed that the deflection due to its own weight deteriorated the track following performance. The vibration component of the resonance frequency of the flexible manipulator was generated, and the tip position accuracy is deteriorated. Using the results of control experiments based on the inverse kinematics, the system is identified and then created an inverse system for simultaneous control of trajectory control and vibration control. The target trajectories were the three joint angles. Finally, it was demonstrated through experiments on actual manipulator, that the system could sufficiently follow the ideal trajectory and suppress link vibrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: flexible abrasive tools; finishing; rounding edge; superalloys
Online: 3 December 2018 (08:57:22 CET)
Many manufacturing sectors require high surface finishing. After machining operations such as milling or drilling, undesirable burrs or insufficient edge finishing may be generated. For decades, many finishing processes have been handmade-basis; this fact is accentuated when dealing with complex geometries especially for high value-added parts. In recent years, it’s a tendency of trying to automate as far as possible this kind of processes, repeatability and time/money savings are main purposes. Based on that idea, the aim of this work is to check new tools and strategies for finishing aeronautical parts, especially critical engine parts made on Inconel 718, a very ductile nickel alloy. Automating edge finishing of chamfered holes is a complicated but really important goal. In this paper, flexible abrasive tools were used for this purpose. A complete study of different abrasive possibilities was carried out, mainly focusing on roughness analysis and final edge results obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0229.v1
Online: 13 September 2018 (05:11:48 CEST)
Researches on flexible thermoelectric (TE) materials usually focus on conducting polymers (CPs) and CP-based composites; however, it is a great challenge to obtain high TE properties comparable to inorganic counterparts. Here, we report an n-type Ag2Se film on flexible nylon membrane with an ultrahigh power factor ~987.4 ± 104.1 μWm−1K−2 at 300 K and an excellent flexibility (93% of the original electrical conductivity retention after 1000 bending cycles around a 8-mm diameter rod). The flexibility is attributed to a synergetic effect of the nylon membrane and the Ag2Se film intertwined with numerous high-aspect-ratio Ag2Se grains. A TE prototype composed of 4-leg of the hybrid film generates a voltage and a maximum power of 19 mV and 460 nW, respectively, at a temperature difference of 30 K. This work opens opportunities of searching for high performance TE film for flexible TE devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PVDF; piezoelectric polymer; wearable device; flexible sensor; electromechanical
Online: 9 November 2020 (08:31:08 CET)
The technological development of piezoelectric materials is crucial for developing wearable and flexible electromechanical devices. There are many inorganic materials with piezoelectric effects, such as piezoelectric ceramics, aluminum nitride, and zinc oxide. They all have very high piezoelectric coefficients and large piezoelectric response ranges. The characteristics of high hardness and low tenacity make inorganic piezoelectric materials unsuitable for flexible devices that require frequent bending. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its derivatives are the most popular materials used in flexible electromechanical devices in recent years and have high flexibility, high sensitivity, high ductility, and a certain piezoelectric coefficient. Owing to increasing the piezoelectric coefficient of PVDF, researchers are committed to optimizing PVDF materials and enhancing their polarity by a series of means to further improve their mechanical–electrical conversion efficiency. This paper reviews the latest PVDF-related optimization materials, related processing and polarization methods, and the applications of these materials such as those in wearable functional devices, chemical sensors, biosensors, and flexible actuator devices for flexible micro-electromechanical devices. We also discuss the challenges of wearable devices based on flexible piezoelectric polymer, consider where further practical applications could be.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0333.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: polypyrrole; diazonium salts; flexible ITO; adhesion; redox properties
Online: 21 June 2018 (06:00:43 CEST)
Adhesion of polymers to surfaces is of upmost importance in timely applications such as protective coatings, biomaterials, sensors, new power sources and soft electronics. In this context, this work examines the role of molecular interactions in the adhesion of polypyrrole thin films to flexible Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes grafted with aryl layers from various diazonium salts, namely 4-carboxybenzenediazonium (ITO-CO2H), 4-sulfonicbenzenediazonium (ITO-SO3H), 4-N,N dimethylbenzenediazonium (ITO-N(CH3)2), 4-aminobenzenediazonium (ITO-NH2), 4-cyanobenzenediazonium (ITO-CN) and 4-N-phenylbenzenediazonium (ITO-NHPh). It was demonstrated that PPy thin layers were adherent to these surfaces, whereas adhesion failure was noted on bare ITO, following simple solvent washing or sonication. Adhesion of the polypyrrole was investigated in terms of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic character of the underlying aryl layer as probed by contact angle measurements. It was found that sulfonic acid doped polypyrrole (PPy-BSA) thin films were preferably deposited on the most hydrophobic surfaces. More importantly, the redox properties and electrochemical impedance of PPy were closely related to the hydrophobic character of the aryl layers. This work demonstrates that diazonium compounds are unique molecular glues for conductive polymers, and permit to tune their interfacial properties. With diazonium-based robust, architectured interfaces, one can design high performance materials for e.g.sensors, printed soft electronics and flexible thermoelectrics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0382.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: flexible fibre; flow medium; aerodynamic shape; drag; scaling laws
Online: 27 May 2022 (10:46:59 CEST)
The study of a flexible body immersed in a flowing medium is one of best way to find its aerodynamic shape. This Letter revisited the problem first studied by Alben, Shelley and Zhang (Nature 420, 479-481, 2002). The aerodynamic shape of the fibre is found by simpler approach and universal drag scaling laws of the flexible fibre in flowing medium are proposed by using dimensional analysis. The Alben scaling laws is being generalized and confirmed to be universal. Our study show that the Alben number is a measurement of maximum curvature of the fibre forced by dynamic pressure. A complete Maple code is provided for finding aerodynamic shape of the fibre in the flowing medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: flexible rotating machinery; balancing method; speed-variant; acoustic feedback
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:18:55 CEST)
As rotary machines have become more complicated, balancing processes have been classified as a vital step in condition monitoring to ensure machines operate both reliably and safely. This is especially important for flexible machines which normally work at rotations speeds above critical limits. Imbalance is a common problem in flexible rotating machinery that can lead to extreme vibration and noise levels. This is one of the major reasons for studying various balancing methods applied to the vibration response of rotating machines. Recently, the relation between acoustic and vibration response during a rotary machine balancing process based on the Four-Run method has been presented for constant speed machines. This method cannot be applied to machines in start-up or shut-off. Hence, by considering the acoustic and vibration responses of a machine between its critical speeds, this research presents a new innovative speed-variant balancing method based on the original Four-Run method, named as "Peak to Peak for Critical Speeds (PPCS)". The proposed method consists of two major types of application: the first is in the Run-up of the machine and the second is in Shut-down. Experimental laboratory results show that the PPCS method can be implemented for speed-variant and flexible rotary machines during run-up or shut-down transient processes based on acoustic and vibration measurements. As a phase-less and a contactless method, the PPCS can be employed as an innovative and readily available method for condition monitoring in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: sign language; flexible resistance; arab deaf; gloves sensors; accelerometer
Online: 21 June 2019 (09:43:53 CEST)
The deaf impairment is among the most substantial health problem worldwide, that can lead to various personal, economical, and social crisis. Therefore, it is critical for developing an efficient way to facilitate communication between deaf-dumb impaired and normal people. Herein, we have rationally designed a new digitally computerized and mobile smart system as an efficient communication tool between deaf impaired and normal Arabian people. This is based on two main steps, including creating a digital output for the hand gestures using gloves flex sensors equipped with a three-axis accelerometer that is controlled using a microcontroller. The digital results are compared to that in a words-based “database”, where Arabs use expressions not alphabet in their communication. The second step is translation or conversion the outputs of the first stage into written texts and voices. The newly developed system allows Arabian deaf to translate words of ordinary people into gestures using a speech recognition system with an impressive accuracy over 90 % without the needing for a webcam, colored gloves, and/or online translator. The presented system can be used on any android or windows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: model predictive control; HVAC; climate control; flexible control technologies
Online: 7 November 2018 (06:40:45 CET)
The following paper describes an economical, multiple model predictive control (EMMPC) for an air conditioning system of a confectionery manufacturer in Germany. The application consists of a packaging hall for chocolate bars, in which a new local conveyor belt air conditioning system is used and thus the temperature and humidity limits in the hall can be significantly extended. The EMMPC calculates the optimum energy or cost humidity and temperature set points in the hall. For this purpose, time-discrete state space models and an economic objective function with which it is possible to react to flexible electricity prices in a cost-optimised manner are created. A possible future electricity price model for Germany with a flexible EEG levy was used as a flexible electricity price. The flexibility potential is determined by variable temperature and humidity limits in the hall, which are oriented towards the comfort field for easily working persons, and the building mass. The building mass of the created room model is used as a thermal energy store. Considering electricity price and weather forecasts as well as internal, production plan-dependent load forecasts, the model predictive controller directly controls the heating and cooling register and the humidifier of the air conditioning system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0728.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Eye-hand coordination; Race model; Flexible behavior; Reaction time variability
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:50:47 CEST)
Significant progress has been made in understanding the computational and neural architecture that mediates eye and hand movements made in isolation. However, less is known about the mechanisms that control these movements when they are coordinated. Here, we outline our computational approaches using accumulation-to-threshold and race-to-threshold models to elucidate the mechanisms that initiate and inhibit these movements. We suggest that, depending on the behavioral context, the initiation and inhibition of coordinated eye-hand movements can operate in two modes- coupled and decoupled. The coupled-mode operates when the task context requires a tight coupling between the effectors; a common command initiates both effectors, and a unitary inhibitory process is responsible for stopping them. Conversely, the decoupled mode operates when the task context demands weaker coupling between the effectors; separate commands initiate the eye and hand, and separate inhibitory processes are responsible for stopping them. We hypothesize that higher-order control processes assess the behavioral context and choose the most appropriate mode. This computational architecture can explain heterogeneous results observed across many studies that have investigated the control of coordinated eye-hand movements and may also serve as a general framework to understand the control of complex multi-effector movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: flexible antenna; wireless communication systems; OLED; transparent conductive fabric; VeilShield
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:40:09 CET)
In this work, a new flexible antenna integrated with OLED light sources is presented for WiMAX wireless communication systems. The proposed antenna was placed on a 100% polyester base with a thickness of 1.5 mm and achieved a high gain. We evaluated and tested its performance, including reflection coefficient, radiation pattern and gain. The flexible and simple patch antenna has been designed to operate at 3.5 GHz for WiMAX wireless communication systems with a gain value of 5.38 dB. This article proves the applicability of the proposed material for the integration of flexible antennas in OLEDs while maintaining gain performance similar to conventional flat antennas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: flexible electronics; nano-fabrication; top-down approaches; bottom-up approaches
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:51:13 CEST)
Recent progress in the fabricating flexible electronics has been developed significantly due to the increased interest of the flexible electronics which can be applied to enormous fields not only to conventional electronic devices but to bio/eco electronic devices. Flexible electronics can be applied to wide range of fields such as flexible display, flexible power storage, flexible solar cells, wearable electronics and healthcare monitoring devices. Recently, flexible electronics are being attached on the skin and even implanted into human body to monitor the bio-signals and for treatment purpose. To improve the electrical characteristic and the mechanical properties of flexible electronics, nanoscale fabrications using novel nano-materials are required. Advanced in nanoscale fabrication methods allow construction of the active materials that can combine with the ultra-thin soft substrate to form flexible electronics with high performances and reliability. In this review, wide range of nanoscale fabrication methods for flexible electronics classified in either top-down or bottom-up approaches such as conventional photolithography, soft lithography, nanoimprint lithography, growth, assembly and chemical vapor deposition(CVD) will be reported with specific fabrication processes and results. Here, our aim is to introduce various fabrication methods that can be used to fabricate the flexible electronics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Flexible sensors; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; self-healing; nanocomposites; advanced manufacturing
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:30:46 CEST)
The use of flexible sensors has tripled over the last decade due to the increased demand in various fields including health monitoring, food packaging, electronic skins and soft robotics. Flexible sensors have the ability to be bent and stretched during use and can still maintain their electrical and mechanical properties. This gives them an advantage over rigid sensors that lose their sensitivity when subject to bending. Advancements in 3D printing have enabled the development of tailored flexible sensors. Various additive manufacturing methods are being used to develop these sensors including inkjet printing, aerosol jet printing, fused deposition modelling, direct ink writing, selective laser melting and others. Hydrogels have gained much attention in the literature due to their self-healing and shape transforming. Self-healing enables the sensor to recover from damages such as cracks and cuts incurred during use and this enables the sensor to have a longer operating life and stability. Various polymers are used as substrates on which the sensing conductive material is placed. Polymers including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and Kapton are extensively used in flexible sensors. The most widely used nanomaterials in flexible sensors are carbon and silver, however, other nanomaterials such as iron, copper, manganese dioxide and gold are also used to provide controlled levels of conductivity or other functional properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0332.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: flexible count models; balanced gamma distribution; Jensen–Shannon divergence; latent equidispersion
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:23:53 CET)
Most existing flexible count regression models allow only approximate inference. This work proposes a new framework to provide an exact and flexible alternative for modeling and simulating count data with various types of dispersion (equi-, under- and overdispersion). The new method, referred as “balanced discretization”, consists in discretizing continuous probability distributions while preserving expectations. It is easy to generate pseudo random variates from the resulting balanced discrete distribution since it has a simple stochastic representation in terms of the continuous distribution. For illustrative purposes, we have developed the family of balanced discrete gamma distributions which can model equi-, under- and overdispersed count data. This family of count distributions is appropriate for building flexible count regressionmodels because the expectation of the distribution has a simple expression in terms of the parameters of the distribution. Using the Jensen–Shannon divergence measure, we have shown that under equidispersion restriction, the family of balanced discrete gamma distributions is similar to the Poisson distribution. Based on this, we conjecture that while covering all types of dispersion, a count regression model based on the balanced discrete gamma distribution will allow recovering a near Poisson distribution model fit when the data is Poisson distributed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Contact force control; Three-dimensional; Flexible Manipulator; Strain feedback; Force feedback
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:41:50 CET)
This paper proposes a contact force controller for a constrained flexible manipulator in three-dimensional motion. This controller used the conversion formula obtained empirically and experimental results showed the effectiveness of the proposed contact force controller. First, the manipulator was operated with the tip of the second link restrained, then, time response of the root strain, joint angles and contact force were used to derive the relational between the three quantities. The effectiveness of the relational expression was verified by conducting a target contact force tracking experiment by inputting the angle from the relational expression. The contact force control using the strain feedback method was proposed with the strain amount estimated from the target contact force as the target value, and its effectiveness was verified by experiments. From the results obtained, controller using the strain feedback method was designed for the purpose of controlling the contact force at the tip of a flexible manipulator with two links and three degrees of freedom that performs three-dimensional spatial motion, and its effectiveness was shown by comparison with the contact force feedback method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0018.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic; EV; PHV; standardization; car-roof; flexible PV; performance modeling; rating
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:19:23 CET)
The energy yield of the Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic (VIPV) differs from that of the standard photovoltaics (PV). It is mainly by the difference of the solar irradiance onto the car-roof and car-bodies as well as its curved-shape. Both meaningful and practical modeling and measurement of the solar irradiance for VIPV are needed to be newly established, not the extension of the current technologies. The solar irradiance was modeled by a random distribution of the shading objects and car-orientation with the correction of the curved surface of the PV modules. The measurement of the solar irradiance onto the car-roof and car-body was done using five pyranometers in five local axes on the car for one year. The measured dynamic solar irradiance onto the car-body and car-roof was used for validation of the solar irradiance model in the car.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: P3HT; PEDOT:PSS; flexible sensor; strain sensor; photoactive self-sensing thin films
Online: 10 September 2018 (07:53:44 CEST)
In this study, a flexible strain sensor is devised using corrugated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin film. In the previous studies, the P3HT-based photoactive thin film was shown to generate direct current (DC) under broadband light, and the generated DC voltage varied with applied tensile strain. Yet, the mechanical resiliency and strain sensing range of the P3HT-based thin film strain sensor were limited due to relatively more brittle thin film constituent—poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene(sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive thin film as a bottom electrode. To address this issue, it is aimed to design mechanically resilient strain sensor using corrugated thin film constituents. Buckling is induced to form corrugation in the thin films by applying pre-strain to the substrate, where the thin films are deposited, and releasing the pre-strain afterwards. It is known that corrugated thin film constituents exhibit different optical and electronic properties from non-corrugated ones. Therefore, to optimize design of the flexible strain sensor, it was studied to understand how the applied pre-strain and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS thin film affect the optical and electrical properties. Also, pre-strain effect on light absorptivity of the corrugated P3HT-based thin films was studied. In addition, strain effect was investigated on the optical and electrical properties of the corrugated thin film constituents. Finally, flexible strain sensors are fabricated by following the design guideline, which is suggested from the studies on the corrugated thin film constituents, and DC voltage strain sensing capability was validated. As a result, flexible strain sensor exhibited tensile strain sensing range up to 5% at frequency up to 15 Hz with maximum gage factor ~7.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic; standardization; EV; PHV; car-roof; flexible PV; performance modeling; rating
Online: 15 May 2018 (13:20:26 CEST)
A car-roof photovoltaic has an enormous potential to change our society. With this technology, 70% of the personal car can run by the solar energy collected by the solar panel on its car-roof. Unfortunately, it is not a simple extension of the conventional photovoltaic technology. This paper list what we need to do for realizing the future that majority of the personal cars run by renewable solar energy, after clarification of the difference from the conventional photovoltaic technology. In addition to the technological development, the standardization of this innovative technology will be important, and the list was made highlighting the standardization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: financial performance; flexible employment; labour productivity; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:00:05 CET)
There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between various employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Home-based working-teleworking, flexible timing and compressed hours are the main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in years 2004 and 2011. The workplace performance is measured by two outcomes- the financial performance and labour productivity. First, the determinants of those flexible employment types are explored. Second, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method is followed. Third, an instrumental variable (IV) approach is applied to account for plausible endogeneity and to estimate the causal effects. The findings reveal a significant and positive relationship between these types of flexible employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Education, age, wage, quality of relations between managers-employees, years of experience, the area of the market the workplace is operated and the competition are significant factors and are positively associated with the propensity of the flexible employment arrangements implementation. This can have various profound policy implications for employees, employers and the society overall, including family-work balance, coping with family demands, improving the firm performance, reducing traffic congestion and stress among others. It is the first study that explores the relationship between flexible employment types and workplace performance using an IV approach. This allows us to estimate the causal effects of flexible employment types and the possible associated social implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0502.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: working memory; STDP; short-term plasticity; spiking neural network; flexible cluster formation
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:32:08 CET)
Working memory (WM) is a brain system for short-term storage and manipulation of information and plays an important role in complex cognitive tasks. In the synaptic theory of WM memorized elements are stored in the form of short-term potentiated connections in a sample population of neurons. In this paper, we show that such populations can be formed due to the mechanisms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) – the phase dependence associated with the ratio of the pulse times of the interacting neurons. We propose a WM model considering two types of plasticity: short-term plasticity and STDP. We have shown formation of neuronal clusters encoding items in the WM model, that can be formed by external stimulation of a group of neurons due to the mechanisms of STDP and hold and reactivated by short-term plasticity mechanisms. The dynamic formation of neuronal clusters instead of pre-formed clusters gives additional flexibility to the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0525.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: flexible functional device; thin film coating; slot-die; surface tension; coating gap
Online: 20 November 2020 (07:08:12 CET)
Slot-die coatings are advantageous when used for coating large-area flexible devices; in particular, the coating width can be controlled, and simultaneous multi-layer coatings can be processed. Till date, the effects of ink widening and coating gap on the coating thickness have only been considered in a few studies. To this end, we developed two mathematical models to accurately estimate the coating width and thickness considering these two effects. We used root mean square deviation (RMSD) to experimentally verify the developed method. The coating width was seen to increase and the coating thickness was seen to decrease when the coating gap was increased. Experimental results showed that the estimation performances of the coating width and thickness models were as high as 98.46 % and 95.8 %, respectively. We believe that the developed models can be useful for determining the coating conditions according to the ink properties to coat a functional layer with user-defined widths and thicknesses in both lab- and industrial-scale roll-to-roll slot-die coating processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Aordable Care Act, Flexible Spending Accounts, Insurance Coverage, Multiple Service Plans
Online: 29 June 2018 (16:10:38 CEST)
Motivated by the theoretical model of health insurance choice with Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs) presented in Cardon 2012, this study investigates the determinants of optional coverage (SSP) and flexible spending accounts (FSA) enrollment, among the privately insured in post-affordable-care-act (ACA) USA. To this end, we rely on semi-parametric bi-variate probit methods, along with a pooled cross-section of the 2015-2016 National Health Interview Surveys. As predicted by the theoretical model, we find that SSP and FSA are complement health solutions with a positive correlation. Our results emphasize that the most important trigger factors influencing the joint probability of SSP and FSA adoption include not only insurance premium cost, but also age, education, marital status, number of work hours, region of residency, citizenship status, and annual health expenditure level. We find that controlling for these latter factors, health status is not significant especially for FSA adoption. In addition, despite the fact that the relative frequency of individuals with FSA rises with increasing levels of medical expenditure, ACA restrictions on FSA tax exclusion to an annual adjusted maximum of $2600 (in 2017 $s) seems to adversely burden individuals with greater medical expenditure, thereby reducing their likelihood of FSA enrollment in post-ACA USA. Understanding these factors is very crucial to US health care market's stakeholders, including insurance companies, firms looking to design their health insurance offerings, but also policy-makers interested in providing new tailored health solutions for reducing health risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0190.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: mesoscopic theory; internal variables; liquid crystals; damage parameter; dipolar media; flexible fibers
Online: 27 December 2017 (08:00:59 CET)
Internal and mesoscopic variables differ from each other fundamentally: both are state space variables, but mesoscopic variables are additional equipped with a distribution function introducing a statistical item into consideration which is missing in connection with internal variables. Thus, the alignment tensor of liquid crystal theory can be introduced as an internal variable or as one generated by a mesoscopic background using the microscopic director as mesoscopic variable. Because the mesoscopic variable is part of the state space, the corresponding balance equations change into mesoscopic balances, and additionally an evolution equation of the mesoscopic distribution function appears. The flexibility of the mesoscopic concept is not only demonstrated for liquid crystals, but is also discussed for dipolar media and flexible fibers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: energy-efficiency scheduling; flexible flow shop; estimation of distribution algorithm; turning processing
Online: 8 August 2016 (08:49:49 CEST)
With the increasing concern of environment, the energy-efficiency scheduling of manufacturing industry is becoming urgent and popular. In turning processes, both spindle speed and processing time can affect the final energy consumption and thus the spindle speed and scheduling scheme need to be optimized simultaneously. Since the turning workshop can be regarded as the flexible flow shop, this paper formulates a mixed integer linear programming model for energy-efficient scheduling of flexible flow shop. Accordingly, a new decoding method is developed by considering of the optimization of spindle speed and scheduling scheme simultaneously, and an estimation of distribution algorithm adopting the new decoding method is proposed to solve large-size problems. The parameters of this algorithm are determined by statistical technique with a simplified practical case. In order to validate the proposed method, a case from practical factories is studied, in which the makespan can be shortened by 25.22%, and the consumed energy can be saved by 5.48%. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed mathematical model and algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0262.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Dandelion; pappus; flexible filament; wind-dispersal; aerodynamic shape; drag; Reynolds number; scaling laws
Online: 20 June 2022 (09:41:58 CEST)
The common dandelion uses a bundle of drag-enhancing bristles (the pappus) that enables seed dispersal over formidable distances; however, the scaling laws of pneumatic/aerodynamic drag underpinning pappus-mediated flight remains unresolved. In this paper, we will study the pneumatic/aerodynamic shape of dandelion and the scaling law of resistance, and find that the drag resistance coefficient is proportional to the -2/3 power of the dandelion pappus Reynolds number. As a by-product, the terminal velocity analytical expression of the dandelion seed is also obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: diamond like carbon; DLC; Tribology; rubber; flexible; nature inspired; coating; friction; sealing; delamination
Online: 23 March 2022 (04:32:51 CET)
Even though hard, low friction coatings such as diamond like carbon (DLC) would be beneficial for the per-formance and longevity of rubber seals, a crucial challenge – as graphically illustrated in Figure 1.a – remains. The elastic mismatch of rubber substrate and DLC coating prevents a fracture free coating application. In this work a nature inspired approach (Figure 1.b) is applied to render the stiff coating flexible and resilient to delamination at the same time by direct patterning. Rubber substrates were laser structured with tile patterns and subsequently DLC-coated. Tensile and tribology tests were performed on structured and unstructured samples. Unstructured DLC-coatings showed a crack pattern induced by the coating process, which was further fragmented by tensile stress. Coatings with tile patterns did not experience a further fragmentation under load. During continuous tribological loading, less heterogenous damage is produced for tile structured samples. The findings are ascribed to the relief of induced coating stress by the tile structure, meaning a more resilient coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: robotics; monitoring; repair; replace; infrastructure; space robotics; flexible; structural-controls interaction; trajectory shaping
Online: 28 January 2022 (12:12:26 CET)
Infrastructure monitoring, inspection, repair, and replacement in space is crucial for continued usage and safety, yet it is expensive, time-consuming, and technical very challenging. New robotics technologies and artificial intelligence algorithms are potentially novel approaches that may alleviate such demanding operations using existing or novel sensing technologies. Space structures must necessarily be very light weight due to high costs of placing robots in space. Several methods are proposed and compared to control highly flexible space robotics, where a key challenge is the presence of flexible resonant modes at frequencies so low as to reside inside typical feedback controller bandwidths. Such conditions imply the very action of sending control signals to the ultra-light weight robotics will cause structural resonance. Implementations of incrementally increasing order are offered, achieving over ninety percent performance improvement in trajectory tracking errors, while improvement using unshaped methods merely achieve twenty-four percent improvement in direct comparison (where the only modification is the proposed control methodology). Based on superior performance, single-sinusoidal trajectory shaping is recommended with a corollary benefit of preparing future research into applying deterministic artificial intelligence whose current instantiation relies on single-sinusoidal, autonomous trajectory generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0592.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Flexible count regression; balanced discrete gamma distribution; deviance statistic; latent equidispersion; likelihood ratio
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:55:29 CEST)
Most existing flexible count regression models allow only approximate inference. Balanced discretization is a simple method to produce a mean-parametrizable flexible count distribution starting from a continuous probability distribution. This makes easy the definition of flexible count regression models allowing exact inference under various types of dispersion (equi-, under- and overdispersion). This study describes maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and inference in count regression based on balanced discrete gamma (BDG) distribution and introduces a likelihood ratio based latent equidispersion (LE) test to identify the parsimonious dispersion model for a particular dataset. A series of Monte Carlo experiments were carried out to assess the performance of ML estimates and the LE test in the BDG regression model, as compared to the popular Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model (CMP). The results show that the two evaluated models recover population effects even under misspecification of dispersion related covariates, with coverage rates of asymptotic 95% confidence interval approaching the nominal level as the sample size increases. The BDG regression approach, nevertheless, outperforms CMP regression in very small samples (n = 15 − 30), mostly in overdispersed data. The LE test proves appropriate to detect latent equidispersion, with rejection rates converging to the nominal level as the sample size increases. Two applications on real data are given to illustrate the use of the proposed approach to count regression analysis.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Resistive sensor array; measurement error; zero potential methods; liquid metal; flexible electrical skin
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:49:03 CET)
Liquid metal alloy, incorporated with microfluidic manipulation, has become a promising candidate for flexible resistive sensor array (RSA) that can imitate the functions of human skin. One advantage of RSA with shared rows and shared columns is to reduce the number of wires from M × N to M + N (rows: M and columns: N) and hence to greatly lessen the complexity and burden on the electrical system. The associated drawback is the crosstalk effect between adjacent elements during measurement. Although many literatures have reported several methods to resolve this limitation, almost all of them focus only on the high resistance value (≥100 Ω) RSA. There is a lack of detailed experimental data that addresses low resistance RSA with sensing elements below 100 Ω. Here, we aim to fill the gap of this field. We established two common RSA readout systems, i.e. zero potential methods (ZPM) (setting non-scanned-sampling-electrode zero potential (S-NSSE-ZP) and setting non-scanned-sampling-electrode zero potential with amplifier (S-NSSE-ZP-A)) and to compare their performances in low resistance value (≤100 Ω) RSA. For ideal resistor RSA, the measurement results show that S-NSSE-ZP has at least one time higher error than S-NSSE-ZP-A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0074.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: flexible polyurethane foam, flame retardant, bridged–DOPO compounds, microscale combustion analysis, thermal analysis
Online: 4 September 2018 (16:41:44 CEST)
In this work we have investigated the role of various additives (emulsifier, anti-dripping agent) and formulation procedure (pre- dispersion of solid additives in polyol via milling) which influence the flame retardancy of 6,6′-[ethan-1,2-diylbis(azandiyl)]bis(6H-dibenzo[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphin-6-oxid) (EDA-DOPO) containing flexible polyurethane foams. For comparison, the flame retardancy of two additional structurally analogues bridged 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) based compounds i.e. ethanolamine-DOPO (ETA-DOPO) and ethylene glycol-DOPO (EG-DOPO) were also evaluated together with EDA-DOPO in flexible PU foams of various formulations. The flame retardancy of three bridged-DOPO compounds depends on the type of PU formulation. For certain PU formulation containing EDA-DOPO, lower fire performance was observed. Addition of emulsifier and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to these PU formulations influenced positively the flame retardancy of EDA-DOPO/PU foams. In addition, dispersion of EDA-DOPO and PTFE via milling in polyol improved the flame retardancy of the PU foams. Mechanistic studies performed using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) and its coupling to FTIR showed no difference in the combustion efficiency of the bridged-DOPO compounds in PU foams. From these PCFC experiments we can conclude that these bridged-DOPO compounds and their decomposition products may work primarily in the gas phase as flame inhibitors. Physiochemical behavior of additives in PU formulation responsible for the improvement in the flame retardancy of PU foams was further investigated by studying the dripping behavior of the PU foams in UL 94 HB test. A high-speed camera was used to study the dripping behavior in the UL 94 HB test and results indicate a considerable reduction of a total number of melt drips and flaming drips for the flame retardant formulations. This reduction in melt drips and flaming drips during the UL 94 HB tests help PU foams achieve higher fire classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0605.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: arrayed flexible chloride sensor; wireless sensing system; hysteresis voltage; selectivity coefficient; dynamic microfluidic
Online: 31 July 2018 (05:16:24 CEST)
Water quality monitoring was an important objective in the surroundings. In this study, we investigated the sensing characteristics of the arrayed flexible chloride sensor with XBee wireless sensing system. The sensitivity and linearity of the wireless chloride sensing devices were 91.6 mV/pCl and 0.988, respectively. The hysteresis voltages were 50.14 mV and 36.71 mV during the cycles of 1 M → 10−1 M → 1 M → 10−3 M → 1 M and 1 M → 10−3 M → 1 M → 10−1 M → 1 M, respectively. The selectivity coefficients of the ClO− ion, ClO4− ion, NO3− ion and I− ion for Cl− ion were 5.0 × 10−2, 1.0 × 10−1, 5.9 × 10−3 and 5.6×10−1, respectively. The sensing characteristics of real time measurement were investigated for dynamic microfluidic. The arrayed flexible chloride sensor was integrated with the microfluidic device, syringe pump and wireless sensing system. The sensitivity and linearity were 273.1 mV/pCl and 0.978 at 35 μL/min, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0292.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: statistical methods; flexible treatments; the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; precipitation forecast
Online: 16 December 2022 (03:05:45 CET)
The multiple regression method is still an important tool for establishing precipitation forecast models with a lead time of one season. This study developed a flexible statistical forecast model for July precipitation over the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) based on the prophase winter sea surface temperature (SST). According to the characteristics of observed samples and related theoretical knowledge, some special treatments (i.e., more flexible and better–targeted methods) were introduced in the forecast model. These special treatments include a flexible MLYR domain definition, the extraction of indicative signals from the SST field, artificial samples, and the amplification of abnormal precipitation. Rolling forecast experiments show that the linear correlation between prediction and observation is around 0.5, more than half of the abnormal precipitation years can be successfully predicted, and there is no contradictory prediction of the abnormal years. These results indicate that the flexible statistical forecast model is valuable in real-life applications. Furthermore, sensitivity experiments show that forecast skills without these special treatments are obviously decreased. This suggests that forecast models can benefit from using statistical methods in a more flexible and better-targeted way.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0294.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Flexible materials; diazonium salts; surface modification; biocompatible polymers; adhesive; adhesion; eukaryotic cells; muscle fibers
Online: 16 November 2021 (14:36:25 CET)
Transparent, flexible, biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets were modified by bioactive polymer-fibronectin top layers for the attachment of cells and growth of muscle fibers. Towards this end, PET sheets were grafted with 4-(dimethylamino)phenyl (DMA) groups from the in situ generated corresponding diazonium compound. The arylated sheets served as macro-hydrogen donors for benzophenone and the growth of poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) top layer by surface-confined free radical photopolymerization. The PET-PHEMA sheets were further grafted with fibronectin (FBN) through the 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole coupling procedures. The bioactive PET-PHEMA-I-FBN was then employed as a platform for the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of eukaryotic cells which after a few days gave remarkable muscle fibers, of ~120 µm length and ~45 µm thickness. We demonstrate that PET-PHEMA yields a fast growth of cells followed by muscle fibers of excellent levels of differentiation compared to pristine PET or standard microscope glass slides. The positive effect is exacerbated by crosslinking PHEMA chains with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate at initial HEMA/EGDMA concentration ratio = 9/1. This works conclusively shows that in situ generated diazonium salts provide aryl layers for the efficient UV-induced grafting of biocompatible coating that beneficially serve as platform for cell attachment and growth of muscle fibers. Beyond this work, diazonium coupling agents constitute the corner stone of next generation processes for building flexible platforms for cell adhesion and uses thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0313.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: New Ways of Working, Flexible Work Arrangements, Activity-Based Offices, Flexitime, Telework, Knowledge Workers
Online: 12 February 2021 (16:29:21 CET)
A new research stream emerged in the 2000s dedicated to flexible work arrangements in public and private organizations, called “new ways of working” (NWW). This article aims to examine NWW from both a theoretical and empirical perspective, focusing on outcomes of this new concept and the debate between “mutual gains” vs. “conflicting outcomes.” Through a literature review, it examines this research field’s innovation and its rather vague theoretical foundations. Findings demonstrate that NWW definitions are diverse and somewhat imprecise, leading to fragmented research designs and findings; the research stream’s theoretical foundations should be better addressed. Findings also highlight the current lack of empirical data, which therefore does not allow any real conclusions on NWW’s effects on employees’ and organizations’ well-being and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0107.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: RF MEMS; pressure sensor; MEMS resonators; implantable BioMEMS; flexible electronics; touch mode capacitive sensor
Online: 6 July 2018 (07:42:03 CEST)
This paper reports the novel design of a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) system with a wireless approach for a full-range continuous monitoring of ventricular pressure. The system consists of two modules: an implantable set and an external reading device. The implantable set, restricted to a 2x2 cm2 area, consists of a TMCPS array connected with a dual-layer coil, for making a reliable resonant circuit for communication with the external device. The capacitive array is modelled considering the small deflection regime for achieving a dynamic and full 5-300 mmHg pressure range. In this design, the two inductive-coupled modules are calculated considering proper electromagnetic alignment, based on two planar coils and considering the following: 13.56 MHz frequency to avoid tissue damage and three types of biological tissue as core (skin, fat and muscle). The system was validated with the Comsol Multiphysics and CoventorWare softwares; showing a 90% power transmission efficiency at a 3.5 cm distance between coils. The implantable module includes aluminum- and polyimide-based devices, which allows ergonomic, robust, reproducible, and technologically feasible integrated sensors. In addition, the module shows a simplified and low cost design approach based on PolyMEMS INAOE® technology, featured by low-temperature processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: experimental identification; multi-poles placement control; smart flexible manipulator; active vibration control; non-collocation
Online: 9 January 2017 (04:56:13 CET)
This paper presents experimental identification and vibration suppression of a flexible manipulator with non-collocated piezoelectric actuators and strain sensors using optimal multi-poles placement control. To precisely identify the system model, a reduced order transfer function with relocated zeros is proposed, and a first-order inertia element is added to the model to compensate the non-collocation. Comparisons show the identified model match closely with the experimental results both in the time and frequency domains, and a fit of 97.2% is achieved. Based on the identified model, a full-state multi-poles placement controller is designed, and the optimal locations of the closed loop poles are determined. The feasibility of the proposed controller is validated by simulations. Moreover, the controller is tested for different locations of the closed loop poles, and an excellent performance of the optimal locations of the closed loop poles is shown. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by experiments. Results show that the vibrations of the expected modes are significantly diminished. Besides, vibrations of the higher modes are also slightly suppressed. Accordingly, multi-mode vibrations of the manipulator are well attenuated, and the tip displacement converges quickly with the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: context sensitivity; cyber physical systems; flexible manufacturing system; process optimization; self-learning systems; SOA
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:13:22 CET)
Highly flexible manufacturing systems require continuous run-time (self-) optimization of processes with respect to various parameters, e.g. efficiency, availability, energy consumption etc. A promising approach for achieving (self-) optimization in manufacturing systems is the usage of the context sensitivity approach. Thereby the Cyber-Physical Systems play an important role as sources of information to achieve context sensitivity. In this paper it is demonstrated how context sensitivity can be used to realize a holistic solution for (self-) optimization of discrete flexible manufacturing systems, by making use of Cyber-Physical System integrated in manufacturing systems/processes. A generic approach for context sensitivity, based on self-learning algorithms, is proposed aiming at a various manufacturing systems. The new solution is propos encompassing run-time context extractor and optimizer. Based on the self-learning module both context extraction and optimizer are continuously learning and improving their performance. The solution is following Service Oriented Architecture principles. The generic solution is developed and then applied to two very different manufacturing processes. This paper proposes a holistic solution to achieve context sensitivity for Flexible Manufacturing Systems, whereby the knowledge created by applying the context sensitivity approach can be used for (self-) optimization of manufacturing processes.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: flexible robot arm; robust-adaptive control, sliding mode variable structure control; actuator dynamics; zero dynamics
Online: 15 September 2021 (10:22:41 CEST)
Modelling errors, robust stabilization/tracking problems under parameter and model uncertainties complicate the control of the flexible underactuated systems. Chattering-free sliding-mode based input-output control law realizes robustness against the structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system dynamics and avoids excitation of unmodeled dynamics. The main purpose is to propose a robust adaptive solution for stabilizing and tracking direct-drive (DD) flexible robot arms under parameter and model uncertainties, as well as external disturbances. A lightweight robot arm subject to external and internal dynamic effects was taken into consideration. The challenges are compensating actuator dynamics with the inverter switching effects and torque ripples, stabilizing the zero dynamics under parameter/model uncertainties and disturbances while precisely track the predefined reference position. The precise control of this kind of system demands an accurate system model and knowledge of all sources that excite unmodeled dynamics. For this purpose, equations of motion for a flexible robot arm were derived and formulated for the large motion via Lagrange’s method. The goals were determined to achieve high-speed, precise position control, and satisfied accuracy by compensating the unwanted torque ripple and friction that degrades performance through an adaptive robust control approach. The actuator dynamics and their effect on the torque output were investigated due to the transmitted torque to the load side. The high-performance goals, precision&robustness issues, and stability concerns were satisfied by using robust-adaptive input-output linearization-based control law combining chattering-free sliding mode control (SMC) while avoiding the excitation of unmodeled dynamics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: water supply; crisis situation; safety of water supply; flood; water decontamination; water filtration; flexible tanks
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:56:01 CET)
Various methods of water purification, the aim of which is to obtain such a purity class that makes it suitable for consumption are presented in the article. It is a review of solutions, ranging from methods known and used for over 100 years, through research and experiments underway, to those that are only a concept. Some of the solutions are so effective that they should also be combined with the possibility of safe storage of purified water. Flexible tanks are used for this, which significantly improve logistics and provide a supply of water in all places where it is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0411.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; structural number prediction; Gaussian process regression; m5p model tree; random forest
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:35:32 CEST)
The most common index for representing structural condition of the pavement is the structural number. The current procedure for determining structural numbers involves utilizing falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar tests, recording pavement surface deflections, and analyzing recorded deflections by back-calculation manners. This procedure has two drawbacks: 1. falling weight deflectometer and ground-penetrating radar are expensive tests, 2. back-calculation ways has some inherent shortcomings compared to exact methods as they adopt a trial and error approach. In this study, three machine learning methods entitled Gaussian process regression, m5p model tree, and random forest used for the prediction of structural numbers in flexible pavements. Dataset of this paper is related to 759 flexible pavement sections at Semnan and Khuzestan provinces in Iran and includes “structural number” as output and “surface deflections and surface temperature” as inputs. The accuracy of results was examined based on three criteria of R, MAE, and RMSE. Among the methods employed in this paper, random forest is the most accurate as it yields the best values for above criteria (R=0.841, MAE=0.592, and RMSE=0.760). The proposed method does not require to use ground penetrating radar test, which in turn reduce costs and work difficulty. Using machine learning methods instead of back-calculation improves the calculation process quality and accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0192.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Land surface temperature; the Flexible Spatiotemporal Data Fusion method; Landsat-like; Building density; urban expansion
Online: 11 September 2018 (11:17:43 CEST)
Satellite-based remote sensing technologies are utilized extensively to investigate urban thermal environments under rapid urban expansion. Current MODIS data is, however, unable to adequately represent the spatially detailed information because of its relatively coarser spatial resolution, while Landsat data can’t explore temporally the refined analysis due to the low temporal resolution. In order to resolve this situation, we used MODIS and Landsat data to generate “Landsat-like” data by using the flexible spatiotemporal data fusion method (FSDAF), and then studied spatiotemporal variation of land surface temperature (LST) and its driving factors. The results showed that 1) The estimated “Landsat-like” data have high precision; 2) By comparing 2013 and 2016 datasets, LST increases ranging from 1.8°C to 4°C were measurable in areas where the impervious surface area (ISA) increased, while LST decreases ranging from -3.52°C to -0.70°C were detected in areas where ISA decreased; 3) LST has a strongly negative relationship with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and a strongly positive relationship with Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI) in summer; and 4) LST is well correlated with Building density (BD), in a complex conic mode, and LST may increase by 0.460°C to 0.786°C when BD increases by 0.1. Our findings can provide information useful for mitigating undesirable thermal conditions and for long-term urban thermal environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0003.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: derivatives of N-phenylanthranilic acids; anti-inflammatory activity; flexible molecular docking; microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1
Online: 1 March 2018 (04:58:58 CET)
The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of suppression of the prostaglandin synthesis by new derivatives of N-phenylanthranilic acids; they inhibit the activity of the microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) enzyme using the method of a flexible molecular docking. For the docking studies the crystallographic structural models with high resolution from Protein Data Bank were used: mPGES-1 in the complex with glutathione (pdb code 4AL0). A flexible molecular docking was carried out using the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software package. According to the results of the docking studies four scoring functions were calculated (Affinity dG Scoring, Alpha HB Scoring, London dG Scoring, GBVI/WSA dG Scoring). The values of the scoring functions calculated indicate the thermodynamic probability and energy favorability of forming complexes between molecules of the substances under research and the specified receptor, in which arrangement of ligands in the active site of the receptor and residues of amino acids of side chains are of similar geometry and types of binding of the known inhibitors of mPGES-1 determined on the basis of the crystallographic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0256.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Home energy management system, Flexible demand-response, optimal load-scheduling, Mixed Integer Programming, Predictive control, demand-side-management
Online: 27 February 2019 (12:10:32 CET)
In this work, an algorithm for the scheduling of household appliances to reduce the energy cost and the peak-power consumption is proposed. The system architecture of a home energy management system (HEMS) is presented to operate the appliances. The dynamics of thermal and non-thermal appliances is represented into state-space model to formulate the scheduling task into a mixed-integer-linear-programming (MILP) optimization problem. Model predictive control (MPC) strategy is used to operate the appliances in real-time. The HEMS schedules the appliances in a dynamic manner without any a priori knowledge of the load-consumption pattern. At the same time, HEMS responds to the real-time electricity market and the external environmental conditions (solar radiation, ambient temperature etc). Simulation results exhibit the benefits of proposed HEMS by showing the reduction of up to 47% in electricity cost and up to 48% in peak power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0179.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: acetylated nanofibrillated cellulose; acrylic resins ABPE-10; composite films; flexible organic light-emitting device substrate; interpenetrating polymer network
Online: 10 July 2018 (12:38:16 CEST)
The ANFC/ABPE-10 composite film was prepared by ABPE-10 impregnating into ANFC films under negative pressure. And the composite film had meted high performance FOLED substrate requirement even when ANFC dosage was high for approximately 70%, which was consistent with for low cost efficiency, recyclability, and environmentally friendly. The enhanced properties of ANFC films were mainly because of the nature of ABPE-10 itself and the IPN structure formed between ABPE-10 and ANFC film. The transparency of composite films with different ANFC dosage was significantly increased from 67% to 88% by UV-Vis analysis. The composite film inherited the properties of AFNC, obtaining low CTE characteristics and ductile compact structure. The contact angles of ANFC films increased by 102% from 49.2° to 102.9°after dipping ABPE-10. Additionally, the composite films had outstanding mechanical properties such as tensile strength 173.72 MPa, Young’s modulus 4.06 GPa, and elongation at break 5.81%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: tandem cylinders; flexible beams; fluid-structure interaction; whisker sensing; cross-correlation; coherent vortices; convection velocity; optical fiber sensors; pinniped head
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:49:12 CET)
(1) Background: Sensing of critical events or flow signatures in nature often presents itself as a coupled interaction between a fluid and arrays of slender flexible beams, such a wind-hairs or whiskers. It is hypothesized that important information is gained in highly noisy environments by the inter-correlation within the array. (2) Methods: The present study uses a model sea lion head with artificial whiskers in the form of slender beams (optical fibres), which are subjected to a mean flow with overlaid turbulent structures generated in the wake of a cylinder. Motion tracking of the array of fibres is used to analyse the correlation of the bending deformations of pairs of fibres. (3) Results: Cross-correlation of the bending signal from tandem pairs of whiskers proves that the detection of vortices and their passage along the animals head is possible even in noisy environments. The underlying pattern, during passage of a vortex core, is a jerk-like response of the whiskers, which can be found at later arrival-times in similar form in the downstream whisker's response. (4) Conclusion: Coherent vortical structures can be detected from cross-correlation of pairs of cantilever-beam like sensors even in highly turbulent flows. Such vortices carry important information within the environment, e.g. the underlying convection velocity. More importantly in nature, these vortices are characteristic elementary signals left by prey and predators. The present work can help to further develop flow, or critical event, sensory systems which can overcome high noise levels due to the proposed correlation principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation engineering; flexible pavement; pavement condition index prediction; falling weight deflectometer; mlp neural network; rbf neural network; intelligent machine system committee
Online: 12 October 2019 (06:08:32 CEST)
The conventional method used for calculating pavement condition index (PCI) has two major drawbacks: safety problems during pavement inspection, and human error. This paper proposes a method for removing these problems. The proposed method uses surface deflection data in falling weight Deflectometer test to estimate PCI. The data used in this study were derived from 236 pavement segments taken from Tehran-Qom freeway in Iran. The data set was analyzed using multi layers perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. These neural networks were optimized by levenberg-marquardt (MLP-LM), scaled conjugate gradient (MLP-SCG), imperialist competitive (RBF-ICA), and genetic (RBF-GA) algorithms. After initial modeling with four neural networks mentioned, the committee machine intelligent systems (CMIS) method was adopted to combine the results and improve the accuracy of the modeling. The results of analysis have been verified by the four criteria of average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SD). The best reported results belonged to CMIS, including APRE=2.3303, AAPRE=11.6768, RMSE=12.0056, and SD=0.0210.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Mobility; infrastructure; flexible pavement; pavement condition index (PCI); international roughness index (IRI); artificial intelligence (AI); predictive models; ensemble learning; structural health monitoring; machine learning
Online: 3 April 2020 (09:35:44 CEST)
The construction of different roads, such as freeways, highways, major roads or minor roads must be accompanied by constant monitoring and evaluation of service delivery. Pavements are generally assessed by engineers in terms of the smoothness, surface condition, structural condition and surface safety. Pavement assessment is often conducted using the qualitative indices such as international roughness index (IRI), pavement condition index (PCI), structural condition index (SCI) and skid resistance value (SRV), which are used for smoothness assessment, surface condition assessment, structural condition assessment, and surface safety assessment, respectively. In this paper, Tehran-Qom Freeway in Iran has been selected as the case study and its smoothness and pavement surface conditions are assessed. At 2-km intervals, a 100-meter sample unit is selected in the slow-speed lane (totally, 118 sample units). In these sample units, the PCI is calculated after a visual inspection of the pavement and the recording of distresses. Then, in each sample unit, the average IRI is computed. The purpose of this study is to provide a method for estimating PCI based on IRI. The proposed theory was developed by Random Forest (RF), and Random Forest optimized by Genetic Algorithm (RF-GA) methods and these methods were validated using correlation coefficient (CC), scattered index (SI), and Willmott’s index of agreement (WI) criteria. The proposed method reduces costs, saves time and eliminates the safety risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Airspace Reconfiguration; irregular boundary smoothing; dynamic Monte Carlo method by changing location of flexible vertices; Monte Carlo method by radius changing; Voronoi diagram; graph cutting; multi-objective optimization
Online: 25 July 2019 (10:22:38 CEST)
With the growth of air traffic demand in busy airspace, there is an urgent need for airspace sectorization to increase air traffic throughput and ease the pressure on controllers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method framework that can perform airspace sectorization automatically, reasonably, which can be used as an advisory tool for controllers as an automatic system, especially for eliminating irregular sector shapes generated by simulated annealing algorithm (SAA) based on region growth method. Two graph cutting method, dynamic Monte Carlo method by changing location of flexible vertices (MC-CLFV) and Monte Carlo method by radius changing (MC-RC) were developed to eliminating irregular sector shapes generated by SAA in post-processing. The experimental results show that the proposed method framework of AS can automatically and reasonably generate sector design schemes that meet the design criteria. Our methodology framework and software can provide assistant design and analysis tools for airspace planners to design airspace, improve the reliability and efficiency of airspace design, and reduce the burden of airspace planners. In addition, this lays the foundation for reconstructing airspace with more intelligent method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0238.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: hybrid machine learning model; transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; remaining service life prediction; pavement condition index; support vector regression; fruit fly optimization algorithm (foa); gene expression programming (gep); svr-foa
Online: 20 October 2019 (17:11:10 CEST)
Remaining service life (RSL) of pavement, as a sign of future pavement performance, has always received growing attention from pavement engineers. The RSL describes the time from the moment of pavement inspection until such a time when a major repair or reconstruction is required. The conventional approach to determining RSL involves using non-destructive tests. These tests, in addition to being costly, interfere with traffic flow and compromise users' safety. In this paper, surface distresses of pavement have been used to estimate the pavement’s RSL in order to eliminate the aforementioned problems and challenges. To implement the proposed theory, 105 flexible pavement segments were taken from Shahrood-Damghan Highway (Highway 44) in Iran. For each pavement segment, the type, severity, and extent of surface damage and pavement condition index (PCI) were determined. The pavement RSL was then estimated using non-destructive tests include Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). After completing the dataset, the modeling was conducted to predict RSL using three techniques include Support Vector Regression (SVR), Support Vector Regression Optimized by Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm (SVR-FOA), and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). All three techniques estimated the RSL of the pavement by selecting the PCI as input. The Correlation Coefficient (CC), Nash-Sutcliffe efﬁciency (NSE), Scattered Index (SI), and Willmott’s Index of agreement (WI) criteria were used to examine the performance of the three techniques adopted in this study. In the end, it was found that GEP with values of 0.874, 0.598, 0.601, and 0.807 for CC, SI, NSE, and WI criteria, respectively, had the highest accuracy in predicting the RSL of pavement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0026.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: semi-flexible polymers; hard sphere; athermal chain; Monte Carlo; molecular simulation; crystallization; packing; phase transition; order parameter; liquid crystal; nematic order; oblate mesogen; prolate mesogen; face centered cubic; hexagonal close packed; bending angle; freely-jointed model
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:30:22 CET)
The local and global order in dense packings of linear, semi-flexible polymers of tangent hard spheres are studied by employing extensive Monte Carlo simulations at increasing volume fractions. Chain stiffness is controlled by a tunable harmonic potential for the bending angle whose intensity dictates the rigidity of the polymer backbone as a function of the bending constant and equilibrium angle. The studied angles range from acute to obtuse ones, reaching the limit of rod-like polymers. We analyze how packing density and chain stiffness affect the ability of chains to self-organize at the local and global levels. The former corresponds to crystallinity as quantified by the Characteristic Crystallographic Element (CCE) norm descriptor, while the latter is computed through the scalar orientational order parameter. In all cases, we identify the critical volume fraction for the phase transition and gauge the established crystal morphologies, developing a complete phase diagram as a function of packing density and equilibrium bending angle. A plethora of structures is obtained, ranging from random hexagonal closed packed morphologies of mixed character and almost perfect face centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystals at the level of monomers, to nematic mesophases, with prolate and oblate mesogens at the level of chains. For rod-like chains, hysteresis is observed between the establishment of long-range nematic order and crystallization, while for right-angle chains both transitions are synchronized. A comparison is also provided against the analogous packings of monomeric and fully flexible chains of hard spheres.